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Famine and Death in Occupied Greece, 1941–1944
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  • Page extent: 282 pages
  • Size: 229 x 152 mm
  • Weight: 0.38 kg
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 (ISBN-13: 9781107405431)

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  • Published July 2012

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Famine and Death in Occupied Greece, 1941–1944

Cambridge University Press
0521829321 - Famine and Death in Occupied Greece, 1941–1944 - by Violetta Hionidou
Frontmatter/Prelims


Famine and Death in Occupied Greece, 1941–1944

A pioneering study of the impact of the famine that occurred in Greece during its occupation by German, Italian and Bulgarian forces in 1941 and 1942. Violetta Hionidou examines the courses and politics of this food crisis, focusing on the demography of the famine and the effectiveness of the relief operations. Her interdisciplinary approach combines demographic, historical and anthropological methodologies to offer a comprehensive account of the famine. This book is the first to explore the International Red Cross Committee archives relating to this famine which offer new insights into the politics and practice of the relief operations. Dr Hionidou argues that food was used as a propaganda instrument by almost all of those involved, including the British and Greek governments as well as the occupying forces. This important study makes a major contribution to current debates about mortality and its causes during famines.

VIOLETTA HIONIDOU is Lecturer in Modern History at the University of Newcastle upon Tyne. She has taught at Southampton, Crete and the Ionian Universities. She has published widely on the demographic and social history of modern Greece.




Cambridge Studies in Population, Economy and Society in Past Time 42

Series Editors

RICHARD SMITH
Cambridge Group for the History of Population and Social Structure

JAN DE VRIES
University of California at Berkeley

PAUL JOHNSON
London School of Economics and Political Science

KEITH WRIGHTSON
Yale University

Recent work in social, economic and demographic history has revealed much that was previously obscure about societal stability and change in the past. It has also suggested that crossing the conventional boundaries between these branches of history can be very rewarding.

This series exemplifies the value of interdisciplinary work of this kind, and includes books on topics such as family, kinship and neighbourhood; welfare provision and social control; work and leisure; migration; urban growth; and legal structures and procedures, as well as more familiar matters. It demonstrates that, for example, anthropology and economics have become as close intellectual neighbours to history as have political philosophy or biography.

For a full list of titles in the series, please see end of book.




Famine and Death in Occupied Greece, 1941–1944

Violetta Hionidou
University of Newcastle upon Tyne


CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS
Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore, São Paulo

Cambridge University Press
The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2 2RU, UK

Published in the United States of America by Cambridge University Press,
New York

www.cambridge.org
Information on this title: www.cambridge.org/9780521829328

© Violetta Hionidou 2006

This book is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception
and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements,
no reproduction of any part may take place without
the written permission of Cambridge University Press.

First published 2006

Printed in the United Kingdom at the University Press, Cambridge

A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library

ISBN-13 978-0-521-82932-8 hardback

ISBN-10 0-521-82932-1 hardback

Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for
the persistence or accuracy of URLs for external or
third-party internet websites referred to in this book,
and does not guarantee that any content on such
websites is, or will remain, accurate or appropriate.



To my cheeky monkey Ilia and my little pumpkin Yuri




Contents

List of illustrationspage  viii
List of figuresix
List of tablesxi
Acknowledgementsxiii
List of abbreviationsxvi
Prologue1
1Contexts8
2The chronology and geography of the food crisis, 1941–194432
3Central government and administration49
4Requisitioning of foodstuffs57
5Agricultural production68
6Economy and markets in occupied Greece82
7Welfare and relief109
8Population movement during the occupation148
9Short-term effects on mortality and fertility158
10Causes of famine mortality190
11Death and survival by occupation220
Epilogue235
Bibliography240
Index257



Illustrations

1Soldier, dead from starvation. Reproduced by kind permission of the ICRCpage 12
2Malnourished child dressed in rags, 1941. Reproduced by kind permission of the Photographic Archive of Benaki Museum15
3Mass grave, winter 1941–1942. Reproduced by kind permission of the ICRC28
4Moving a dying person, winter 1941–1942. Reproduced by kind permission of the ICRC29
5Woman searching for food in the garbage. Reproduced by kind permission of the ICRC35
6Soup kitchen, 1940. Reproduced by kind permission of the Photographic Archive of Benaki Museum112
7Soup kitchen, 1943. Reproduced by kind permission of the Photographic Archive of Benaki Museum123
8Couple leaving the Red Cross premises to be hospitalised urgently. Reproduced by kind permission of the ICRC194
9Undernourished people, Hios hospital, Hios, 27 June 1942. Reproduced by kind permission of the ICRC195
10Children begging for food. Reproduced by kind permission of the ICRC195
11Famished woman, winter 1941–1942. Reproduced by kind permission of the ICRC197
12Mortuary, winter 1941–1942. Reproduced by kind permission of the ICRC198
13Corpses, winter 1941–1942. Reproduced by kind permission of the ICRC198
14People searching for food in the garbage. Reproduced by kind permission of the ICRC218



Figures

1.1 Map of Greecepage 22
2.1 Deaths and births in urban communities, 1940–194436
6.1 Indices of cost of living, currency circulation and price of sovereign, Athens 1941–194493
9.1aMonthly number of deaths on Syros, in the Hios towns and on Mykonos, 1939–1945161
9.1bMonthly number of deaths on Syros and in Thessalonike, Athens/Piraeus and 27 major towns, 1939–1945162
9.2 Monthly percentage of male deaths on Syros, in the Hios towns and on Mykonos167
9.3aRatio of male to female deaths by age group, Hios towns168
9.3bRatio of male to female deaths by age group, Syros168
9.3cRatio of male to female deaths by age group, Mykonos169
9.4aAge-specific ratio of annualised famine deaths (October 1941 to January 1943) to the average number of deaths in 1936–1939, Hios towns171
9.4bAge-specific ratio of annualised famine deaths (August 1941 to December 1942) to the average number of deaths in 1936–1939, Syros171
9.4cAge-specific ratio of annualised famine deaths (December 1941 to May 1942) to the average number of deaths in 1936–1939, Mykonos172
9.5aMonthly number of deaths and births in the two towns of Hios, 1939–1945180
9.5bMonthly number of deaths and births on Syros, 1939–1945180
9.5cMonthly number of deaths and births on Mykonos, 1939–1945181
9.5dMonthly number of deaths and births in Athens and Piraeus, 1940–1944181
9.5eMonthly number of deaths and births in Thessalonike, 1940–1944182
9.5fMonthly number of deaths and births in 27 major towns (excluding Athens/Piraeus and Thessalonike), 1940–1944182
9.6aMonthly number of deaths and two-month moving average of conceptions in two Towns of Hios, 1939–1945183
9.6bMonthly number of deaths and two-month moving average of conceptions on Syros, 1939–1945184
9.6cMonthly number of deaths and two-month moving average of conceptions on Mykonos, 1939–1945184
10.1A model of the interaction between famine and mortality increase191
10.2Key elements determining the course of a famine213
10.3A model of the interaction between food scarcity and epidemic outbreaks in historical and less developed populations216

© Cambridge University Press


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