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Shakespeare on Silent Film
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  • Page extent: 340 pages
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 (ISBN-13: 9780521871990)

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  • Published May 2009

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Shakespeare on Silent Film
Cambridge University Press
9780521871990 - Shakespeare on Silent Film - an Excellent Dumb Discourse - By Judith Buchanan
Index

Index

Bold type indicates a central-case reference; bold italics indicates reference to a figure; the suffix n indicates reference to a note.

Abel, Richard 40n, 82n

Achterberg, Fritz, German film actor 231

acting editions 47, 86, 156, 159, 161

acting manuals 46, 174–75, 176, 177

acting styles, in transition 174

considered characteristic of particular nations 174, 178, 187–89

facial expressivity 139–41, 144, 231–32, 241, 249–50

histrionic or excessive xxii, 62, 63, 64, 166, 167, 172–74, 178–80, 181, 183–85, 229, 230, 240, 241, 242, 246

‘mugging’ (the mouthing of inaudible words for the camera) 63, 171, 172, 198–99

naturalistic/verisimilar/minimalist 164, 170, 174, 181, 183, 228–32, 242, 249–51

pantomimic codes 19, 46, 49, 173–78, 176, 177, 181

advertising

See marketing strategies

Ambrosio-Film, Italian film production company

company and its distribution 126, 186

Otello/Othello (Frusta, 1914) 21, 90–91, 94, 248

American film industry – institutional structures, exhibition conventions and national self-consciousness 105–09, 112–15, 190–96, 217

satirised 192–98, 212–13

See also individual American production companies AMBC Edison Essanay Fox Kalem Lubin Metro Rex Sam Taylor Selig Shakespeare Film Company Thanhouser Triangle-Reliance Vitagraph

American Mutoscope and Biograph Company (AMBC), film production company, also known as Biograph

company attributes and exhibition conventions 57n, 105, 106, 107, 109

company logo 116

the ‘Biograph Girl’, Florence Lawrence 3, 143

The Kissing Scene Between Trilby and Little Billee (1896) 61

duel scene from Macbeth (Bitzer, 1905) 74–75n

Americanism, of production company, films and approach to Shakespeare 112–18

anachronisms 193, 197, 237

androgyny 20–21, 224–26, 226, 227

Angeli, Diego, Italian translator of Shakespeare 70n

Angiers, battle of, tableau interpolated in Tree’s stage King John (1899) 64, 70n

Angus, Ian xixn

Anthony, Barry 58n, 59n, 62n, 64–65n, 67n, 68n, 69n, 70n

Antony and Cleopatra, Shakespeare play

Antoine et Cléopatre, ballet (1761) 49n

Antony and Cleopatra, Vitagraph film (Kent, 1908) 75, 108, 119n, 130

Anzi, Anna Cavallone 164n, 166n, 178n

Archer, William, ‘pamphleteer’ 175n, 178n

archives and libraries

American Film Institute (AFI) 203n

BFI National Archive (formerly the National Film and Television Archive): 79n, 80n, 106n, 149–50n, 187, 217n, 246n

British Library (BL), London 43n, 45n

Bodleian, The, Oxford 160n, 175–76n

Cinématèque de Toulouse: 150n

Cineteca di Bologna: 150n

Il Centro Sperimentale di Cinematographia, Rome (CSC): 80n

Deutsches Institut für Film, Frankfurt: 217n

Folger Shakespeare Library, Washington DC (Folger): 33, 80n, 106n, 198n, 201n, 217n

George Eastman House, Rochester, New York (GEH) 31, 33n

MOMA, New York 185–86n

Motion Picture and Recorded Sound Division, Library of Congress, Washington DC (LOC) 52n, 77n, 80n, 91n, 97, 128, 170n, 198n, 202n, 203, 221n, 222

National Archives 64n

Nederlands Filmmuseum 72n

New York Public Library (NYPL) 193n

Palace Theatre Archive 66n

Russian State Film Archive 91n

Theatre Museum, Covent Garden, London 60n, 70n, 152n

University of Bristol Theatre Collection 70n

archives/archiving priorities xxii, 2n, 29n, 31, 40, 64n, 66n, 70n, 71n, 252

artistic representations, of Shakespearean scenes xxn, 146, 156–57n

Shakespearean paintings used in lantern sequences 35–38

art works appearing in, or animated by, films 121–24, 141, 146, 156–57, 248

See also ‘Death of Caesar’ ‘King Lear in the Storm’ and entries under Ophelia Hamlet Othello and Romeo and Juliet

Art-Film, Asta Nielsen’s German film production company

Hamlet, Drama of Vengeance (Gade, 1920) 5, 7, 135, 185–86n, 217–40

As You Like It, Shakespeare play

E.W.Godwin’s open-air production (1885) 50–51

lantern slide sequences 30, 31, 74n

Seven Ages of Man, Edison film (director unknown, 1905) 74n

As You Like It, Kalem film (Buel, 1908) 75

As You Like It, Vitagraph 3-reel film (Blackton and Kent, 1912) 108, 130, 133

As You Like It, Inter-Allied film (Czinner, 1936) 217

Aubert, Charles 175, 177, 178

Aumont, Jacques 163

Baines, Richard Manwaring, lanternist and slide collector 27n

Ball, Robert Hamilton xviiin, 2n, 4, 6, 15n, 52n, 61, 69, 70–72, 74–75n, 77–78, 90n, 94n, 119n, 126n, 127n, 130n, 131n, 132n, 148n, 149n, 186n, 187, 191, 198n, 199n, 201n, 203n, 205, 206n, 210n, 211n, 217n, 220, 221n

ballet 9, 46, 49, 56

‘ballet of action’, speechless stage production with recitative 43–45

Bancroft, Squire, theatre manager 53

Bandmann-Palmer, Millicent, stage actress (as Hamlet) 220

Bangs, John Kendrick 192

‘banners’

See ‘scrolls’

Bara, Theda, screen actress (as Juliet) 2, 4, 20, 203–12, 204, 209, 251

Barber, Xenophon Theodore 26n

Bardèche, Maurice 229

Barker, Harley Granville, British actor and theatre director 136

Barker, William G, film director and producer 2, 72, 149, 184

Barker Motion Photography, British film production company

Hamlet (Barker, 1910) 149

King Henry VIII (Barker, 1911) 2, 72, 184, 197

Barleon, Amelia, American screen actress 128

Barnes, J.H., stage and screen actor 156

Barrie, James (J.M.), writer/director of The Real Thing at Last (Bushey Heath co., 1916) 2–3, 19–20, 77, 190–98, 202, 212, 213

scenarist for As You Like It (1936) 217

Barry, Iris xviin, 229n

Bartalotta, Gianfranco 168n

Bate, Jonathan 53

Battle Hymn of the Republic, The, non-Shakespearean film

See Vitagraph

Bayne, Beverly, screen actress 20, 202, 205–11, 208, 215–16

Becker, Carl Ludwig Friedrich, artist 37, 38n

Benjamin, Walter 20n

Benson, Frank, British stage and screen actor (as Richard III) 4, 77

Berg, Irene and Samuel, arrangers of musical scores 211n, 216

Bernhardt, Sarah, French stage and screen actress 3, 15n, 41, 72, 74n, 77, 148, 220, 221, 223

Bertini, Francesca, Italian screen actress 3, 90, 125

biblical subjects, in lantern slides 27, 28

in films 17, 108, 170n

Biograph, shortened form of The American Mutoscope and Biograph Company (AMBC) q.v., and of its daughter company, The British Mutoscope and Biograph Company (BMBC), q.v.

Birtwhistle, Richard, collector 113n

Black Castle, The, play in unpatented theatre 45

Black Diamond Express, The, early Edison film 145–46

blacking-up 241, 243–46, 244, 245

Blackton, J. Stuart, Vitagraph director/production manager 113, 115, 130, 146–47

Blaisdell, George 9n, 203n, 207n


Blood-Red Knight, The, play in unpatented theatre 45

Bogart, Humphrey 223

‘boomer’, category of lecturer, q.v.

Boose, Lynda E. 219n

Booth, Michael 50n, 52n

Bordwell, David 2n, 7n, 20n, 156n, 250n

Borton, Terry, American lanternist and lantern historian 26n, 36

Bourchier, Arthur, English stage and screen actor 184, 197, 250

Bowser, Eileen 18n

Bragaglia, Leonardo 164n

Brandt, Mathilde, German film actress (as Gertrude) 229

Brasillach, Robert 229

Brecht, Berthold 20n

Brewster, Ben 24n

Bristol, Michael 114

British Actors’ Film Company 192n, 196

British film industry 57, 79

acting compared with continental styles 187–89

output morally condemned 57–60

preference for word-driven film-making, in comparison with Hollywood 199

satirised, in comparison with American film industry 190–98

its Shakespeare films critically preferred to Italian ones 185–87

stops making Shakespeare feature films 217

See also individual British production companies Barker, British Mutoscope and Biography Company, Broadwest, Bushey Heath, Clarendon, Co-operative Cinematograph Company, Gaumont, Inter-Allied, Masters, Piccadilly, Walderdaw, and individual British films, in partic. King John(1899), The Tempest(1908), Richard III(1911), Hamlet(1913), The Real Thing at Last(1916)

British Film Institute (BFI), London

DVD Silent Shakespeare 4, 62, 71n, 77n, 79n, 91n, 106n, 198n, 260

BFI National Archive 79n, 80n, 106n, 150n, 155n, 187, 214n, 217n

British Mutoscope and Biograph Company (BMBC), also known as ‘Biograph’

company attributes and exhibition conventions 62n, 105, 106, 107, 109

King John (Dickson and Dando, 1899) 23, 40, 61–72, 65, 74, 77

Studio Troubles/Wicked Willie (1898/9) 57–60

Broadwest, British film production company

Merchant of Venice (Walter West, 1916) 77, 201

Brothers Karamazov, The (Buchowetzki, 1921) non-Shakespearean film 240

Brown, Richard 58n, 59n, 62n, 64–66n, 68n, 69n, 70n

Browne, Gordon, artist 156–57n

Brownlow, Kevin 22n, 75n

Brutus, Cines film (1910)

See Julius Caesar

Buchanan, Judith xxii, 2–3, 29n, 35n, 38n, 60n, 62, 127n, 137n, 149n, 152n, 201n

Büchner, Georg, German playwight 240

Buchowetzki, Dimitri, Russian film director in German film industry 21, 217, 240–49

Bunyan, John 28

Burbage, Richard 166–67

Burrows, Jon xviiin, 72n, 160n, 161n, 175n, 189n, 201n

Burt, Richard 219n

Bush, W. Stephen, moving picture lecturer and writer for MPW xxi, 10–11, 15, 42, 121n, 206n

Bushey Heath Co, British film production company

The Real Thing at Last, lampooning comparative productions of Macbeth (Barrie and MacBean, 1916) 2–3, 19–20, 77, 190–201, 202, 212–13

Bushman, Francis X., American screen actor 4, 20, 202, 207, 208, 209, 215–16

Caesar and Cleopatra, play by Bernard Shaw 155

Calvert, Louis, actor 64

Capelli, Dante, actor 3, 80, 198n

‘Carados’

See H. Chance Newton

Cardinal Wolsey, Vitagraph film from Henry VIII (Trimble, 1912) 108

Cardullo, Bert 111n

Carmen, two non-Shakespearean films, subject of rival releases 203n

Caserini, Mario, Italian film director 80n, 198n

casting 79, 85, 86n, 110, 133, 135, 137, 138–39, 144, 152, 190, 192–94, 198, 202–04, 207, 234, 240, 242, 250–51

Cavell, Stanley 223–24

censors 3, 57, 59–60, 108n, 124n, 197

Chanan, Michael 23n

Christie, Anna, film actress 223–24

Christie, Ian 118n

cinematograph xxi, 20, 23, 40, 42, 66, 146

‘Cinematographe’ 106

cinematography 76, 82, 96, 99, 137, 141, 151, 164, 166, 188, 201, 229, 232, 234–35, 246, 247

Cines, Rome-based film production company 5, 77, 186

Otello/Othello (Caserini and Velle, 1907) 75

Amleto/Hamlet (Caserini 1908, reissued 1910) 75, 80, 149

Giulietta e Romeo/Romeo and Juliet (Caserini, 1908) 75–76

Macbett/Macbeth (Caserini, 1909) 4, 80, 170n, 198n

Brutus, film offshoot of Julius Caesar (Guazzoni, 1910) 19, 105, 106, 125–26n

Gajus Julius Caesar/ Julius Caesar (Guazzoni, 1914) 105, 106n, 115, 116, 123, 126

Clarendon, British film production company

The Tempest (Stow, 1908) 18, 74–88, 94–95, 103–04

Coghlan, Rose, American film actress 133

Collick, John 23n, 60n, 71n

Colman, George, theatre manager 16

colour, hand-colouring, stencilling, tinting (slides and films) xxii, 26, 29n, 30, 31, 33, 36, 91n

comedy, comic effects and comedians (deliberate and inadvertent) 13, 20, 27, 28, 66, 75, 102–03, 106, 111, 121–30, 173–74n, 192–97, 200–01, 214, 227, 229, 231–32, 240, 242, 243, 246, 259

Comedy of Errors, The, Shakespeare play

Two Little Dromios, Thanhouser film (1914) 127n

The Wrong Flat; or A Comedy of Errors, non-Shakespearean Vitagraph film (1907) 108

Cook, Olive 27

Cookson, S.A., British stage and screen actor 62, 64, 65

Cooper, Gladys, British stage and screen actress 193, 200n

Co-operative Cinematograph Company 77

Macbeth (director unknown, 1911) 197–98

Richard III (Benson, 1911) 197, 198n

Corbin, John 181

Coriolanus, Shakespeare play, of which no silent film made 252n

Cornely, Edouard 156–57n

Cosandey, R 104n

Costello, Maurice, American screen actor 3, 130, 144, 145

costume

historical accuracy on stage 50

of Shakespearean characters in lantern slides 33–34

King John (1899) 62n, 64n

Tree’s and Stow’s Calibans 85

Vitagraph’s lavish and historical costumes 110, 112

Julius Caesar (Vitagraph, 1908); 116

A Winter’s Tale (Thanhouser, 1910) 127

A Midsummer Night’s Dream (Vitagraph, 1909) 132

Penelope (q.v.) in A Midsummer Night’s Dream (Vitagraph, 1909) 133, 134

Florence Turner (q.v.) (as Viola/Cesario for Vitagraph) 142, 142

Julia Swayne Gordon (as Olivia for Vitagraph) 139, 140, 142

Caesar in Brutus (Cines, 1910) 126

Ophelia in Hamlet (1913) 156, 157

Edmund Gwenn in The Real Thing at Last (1916) 195

Francis X. Bushman’s ‘scanted garb’ in Romeo and Juliet (Metro, 1916) 207

in Romeo and Juliet (Metro, 1916) 211n

in unidentified film of Hamlet 222

in Hamlet (1920) 227, 230, 234, 236–37, 237

in Othello (1922) 242, 244, 245, 249

Countryman and the Cinematograph, The, non-Shakespearean film (Paul, 1901) 129n

Cran, Mrs George 64n, 85n

Crocombe, Leonard 143n

Crompton, Dennis 29n

cross-dressing/cross-casting/transgendering (travestie roles)

Hamlet 20–21, 219–23, 224–26, 226

Oberon 135n

Lady Macbeth 194

crowd scenes 115, 207, 210, 211, 246–47

Cushman, Charlotte, American stage actress (as Hamlet) 220, 221

Cymbeline, Shakespeare play

Briggs’ lantern slide sequence (early 1890s) 31

Cymbeline, Thanhouser film (Sullivan, 1913) 127n

Daggerwood, Sylvester, character in 18th-century drama 16

Dali, Salvador 20n

Dallas, E.S. 22n

Daly, Augustin 135

D’Ambra, Lucio, Italian scenarist/screenwriter 221n

Dando, Walter Pfeffer, film-maker 57, 62

Danes, Claire, American screen actress 216n

Danish film industry 149, 218

See also Nordisk Svend Gade Asta Nielsen

Dante, in Pathé advertising poster 89

Danton, played by Jannings 240

Darley, Felix Octavius Carr, ink-wash drawing ‘King Lear in the Storm’ 37

The Darley Gallery of Shakespearean Illustrations 38n


de Cordova, Rudolph, film scenarist/screenwriter 203

de Klerk, Nico 91n

de Putti, Lya, film actress and dancer (Emilia in Othello) 251

‘Death of Caesar’, painting by Gérôme q.v., ‘quoted’ in Vitagraph’s Julius Caesar (1908) 121–24, 146

See also artistic representations

Death of Othello, film from Verdi’s opera

See Othello

Defoe, Daniel 28

Dehn Paul xviin

Dench, Ernest A. 172

Dent, Alan 152

Desdemona, offshoot films by Messter and Nordisk 77

Desprès, Suzanne, actress (as Hamlet) 220

di Caprio, Leonardo, screen actor 216n

Dickens, Charles 17, 26n, 28

in Pathé advertising poster 89

Dickson, William Kennedy-Laurie, film-maker 23, 25, 56, 57, 62, 68, 69

Dion, Hector, film actor 201

distribution

distributors’ aspiration in relation to Shakespeare films 214

films advertised by distributors 90, 151

films branded by production company in distribution 105, 106–07

film exchanges (federated film markets) 106n

distribution handled by separate company 74, 220n

international distribution 68, 89, 90, 101–02, 135, 143, 154, 185, 186, 205, 206–07

international distribution withheld 197

production companies’ and distributors’ monopolising engagements with exhibitors 106, 206

typical speed of film through production and distribution cycle 132

Dondini, Cesare, Italian stage and screen actor (Iago in 1909 Othello) 91–92, 92, 93

Donohue, Joseph 43n, 50n, 174

Doppelgänger themes 234

Dougall, Richardson 113n

Duey, Helen 63n

Dumas, Alexander, in Pathé advertising poster 89

Duse, Eleonora, Italian stage actress 223

Dyer, Anson, cartoonist, illustrator, director 21, 149, 217n, 246

Dyer, Richard 225n

Dyer, T.F.T. 50–51

eagle, Vitagraph company logo 113–23, 117, 120, 122, 145

Éclair, French film production company

The Tempest (1912) 52, 80

Macbeth (director unknown, 1916) 198n

Edison, Thomas, early film pioneer 25, 62

Edison Manufacturing Company, American film production company 107, 109, 141, 143, 145

Shakespearean films

Burlesque on Romeo and Juliet (1902) 74n

Seven Ages of Man (1905) 74n

single scene from Julius Caesar (1913) 15n

non-Shakespearean films

The Black Diamond Express (1896) 145–46

of assassination of President McKinley (1901) 118

Uncle Josh at the Moving Picture Show (Porter, 1902) 131n

The Dream of a Rarebit Fiend (McCutcheon and Porter, 1906) 170n

Edmonds, Jill 219n, 220n

Edwards, J. Gordon, film director for Fox q.v. 203n, 205

Eisner, Lotte. H. 236

Elizabeth I, portrait of in a slide 32

played by Florence Turner 143

Elliott, Gertrude, British stage and screen actress (Ophelia in 1913 Hamlet) 152, 156, 158, 160, 172, 182, 183

Ellison, James 61n, 67n, 70n

Elliston, Robert William 43–44

Elsaesser, Thomas xxiin, 11n, 75n, 163n

Elsinore, setting of Hamlet, directly used by Nordisk (1910) 149

imitated by Hepworth (1913) 153, 163

location intended for a film not made 220

dramatised by Art-Film (1920) 233, 238, 247

Embankment, London, scene of BMBC’s open-air studio 61, 70

Emerson, John, film director 198–99

Esenwein, J. Berg 158

Essanay, American film production company 107

Euripides, Greek tragedian 6

exhibition conventions in silent cinema

lecturers in early cinema 10–13, 15, 28, 102–03, 145, 195

musical accompaniment xviin, xxii, 28, 66, 125, 195, 211, 216

speakers behind the screen 13n

published programmes 13n, 52n, 66n, 67, 68–69, 107n, 115–16, 123

variety programming 40, 66, 67, 68–69, 75, 103, 106–07, 111, 220

feature-film programming 202, 206, 215

venues (music halls, penny-gaffs, shop-front theatres, vaudeville theatres, nickelodeons, picture palaces) 10, 13, 41, 57, 62, 66–69, 102–03, 106–07, 107n, 112, 145, 160, 195, 203n, 206, 213–14

Fairbanks, Douglas, screen actor 217n

Falena, Ugo, Italian screen actor and director 91–92, 92, 93

Famous Players-Lasky, American film production company, Carmen (1915) 203n

Farrar, Geraldine, screen actress 203n

Faust, Martin, screen actor 128

Felton, Cornelius 26n

Film d’Arte Italiana (FAI), Italian film production company 5, 77, 88–90, 186

films of Verdi operas, Il Trovatore (1909) and Aida (1911) 89

Otello/Othello (Lo Savio, 1909) 4, 18, 74, 77, 88–104, 92, 93, 97

Re Lear/King Lear (Lo Savio, 1910) 90, 91, 105, 106, 125

Il Mercante di Venezia /The Merchant of Venice (Lo Savio, 1910) 90, 91

Giulietta e Romeo/ Romeo and Juliet (Geralmo and Lo Savio, 1911) 90, 91

Film Industrie Gesellschaft, German film production company, Macbeth (Bourchier, 1913) 184, 197

film industry development stages 16–20, 18n

pioneering era (c.1895–1906) 17, 57–73, 74, 74–75n, 145–46

transitional era (c.1907–1913) 18–19, 75–104, 105–46

early cinema, incorporating both pioneering and transitional phases (1895–1913) 19, 105

feature-film era (1913–1927) 147–251

sound era (post-1927) 213, 216n, 217n

Findon, B.W. 152

First World War, effects on international film distribution 186, 206

Fitzgerald, Percy H. 43n, 46, 47, 54, 181, 183

Fitzsimmons, Linda 71n, 158n

focal lengths

close-up 76, 162, 163, 169, 170, 173, 179, 229, 230, 231, 235, 243, 247, 248

mid-shot 76, 139, 231

long-shot 98, 99, 162, 169, 231

use of depth-of-field 141–42, 211

See also cinematography

Fool, The, character in King Lear xix, 127, 201

interpolated character in Thanhouser’s A Winter’s Tale (1910) 127–29, 128

Forbes, Norman, British stage and screen actor 194

Forbes-Robertson, Johnston, British stage and screen actor xvii, 4, 5, 19, 77, 190

screen Hamlet xvii, 5, 19, 147, 149–64, 153, 154, 169–72, 179–89, 182, 199, 218

stage Hamlet 150, 151–52, 156, 160–61, 179n, 180

non-Shakespearean films 184

Forestier, A., illustrator 174n

Forrest, Edwin, American stage actor 210

Forsyth, Neil 77n

Foulkes, Richard 71n

Fox Film Corporation (Fox), American film production company

Romeo and Juliet (Edwards, 1916) 2, 8–9, 20, 190, 191, 201–16, 204, 209

continuity script (‘Fox continuity script’) 203, 204n, 206n, 207n, 211–12

courted competition with simultaneous Metro release 203–16

non-Shakespearean Fox films starring Bara, Carmen (Walsh, 1915) 203n, 205

Siren of Hell (Walsh, 1915) 205

A Fool There Was (Powell, 1915) 205

Sin (Brenon, 1915) 205

The Devil’s Daughter (Powell, 1915) 205

See also Bara

Francis, David 3n

Freddy Versus Hamlet, skittish appropriation

See Vitagraph

French film industry

See individual film production companies Éclair, Gaumont, Méliès, Pathé

Frölich, Carl, German film director 240

Fuller Company, film distributors 220n

Fullerton, John 28n

Fuseli, Henry, artist 30

See also artistic representations

Gade, Svend (also Sven), Danish film director working in German film industry 186n, 217, 218–20, 232–33, 237

Gallone, Carmino, Italian film director 221n

Gallone, Suave, Italian film actress 221

Garavaglia, Ferruccio, Italian film actor 91, 94n, 95–96, 100

Garbo, Greta, Swedish film actress 223–24

Garcia, Gustave 174–76, 176, 178

Gardner, Helen, American film actress 220, 221n

Gardner, Viv 219n

Garrett, John xviin


Gasperini, Maria Caserini, Italian film actress 80, 198n

Gates, Harvey H. 144n

Gaudreault, André 13n, 103n

Gaumont, French film production company which spawned a British division 109, 126

Romeo and Juliet (unknown, 1908) 75–76

Le Roi Lear au Village/ A Village King Lear (Feuillade, 1911) 77

Hamlet (Plumb, 1913) 19, 149–65, 184–89, 199

Othello (Anson Dyer, 1920) burlesque animation 21, 217n, 246

Oh’Phelia (Anson Dyer, 1919) burlesque animation 149, 217n

Gepard, Erwin, scenarist/screenwriter 219

German expressionism 219, 233, 246

German film industry 2, 20, 217–49

Doppelgänger German films 234n

See also individual film production companies Art-Film Film Industrie Gesellschaft Messter Neumann-Filmproduktion Peter Paul Felner-Film Wörner-Filmgesellschaft

Gérôme, Jean-Léon, painter of ‘The Death of Caesar’ q.v.

ghosts, in Hamlet 236

in lantern slide sequences (including Hamlet’s ghost) 28, 29, 33

Hamlet’s ghost on film 80, 149, 157, 167–70

and absent from film 238

Banquo’s ghost on film 132

non-Shakespearean film ghosts 170n

‘giddy’, animated picture with risqué subject, Studio Troubles 57–60

Gielgud, John 152

Glover, Julia, stage actress (as Hamlet) 220

Glulick, J., artist 152, 153

Godwin, E.W., theatre producer 50–51

Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von, in Pathé advertising poster 89

Goetz, Wolfgang, biographer of Krauss 242n

Goldie, Albert 181n

Gollancz, Israel 190n

Gordon, Julia Swayne, American screen actress for Vitagraph 3, 124, 130, 139, 142

Gorky, Maxim 20n

Gottesman, Ronald 110n

Gounod, Charles, composer 211

Graham, Arthur 49n

Graham, Charles 163

Gramsci, Antonio, Italian political theorist and cultural critic 166, 185

Grau, Robert 12n

Graves, George W. 205n

Gress, Elsa 225n

Griffith, D.W., American film director 163, 198

Grillo, Ernesto 164n, 179n

Guazzoni, Enrico 125

Guneratne, Anthony xviiin

Gunning, Tom 17, 18n, 68n, 74, 76n, 103n

Gwenn, Edmund, British stage and screen actor 194–95

Hamilton, Clayton xxi

Hamlet, Shakespeare play

ballet 49n

lantern slide sequences 29, 31, 32–39, 37, 38

stage productions, Burbage 165–66

Tree (1895) 168n

Forbes-Robertson (1897) 19, 152

Forbes-Robertson (1913) 150, 151–52, 156, 160–61, 179n, 180

various 150, 155

Ruggeri (1915 in Italy) 164, 166, 168n

Ruggeri (1926 European tour) 165–66

Synetic’s wordless production (2002 with revivals) 253–59

novelisation of 1913 film (Shakespeare’s Hamlet, The Story of the Play concisely told) 160–62, 183

variant texts, Q1 and Q2 161

overview of Hamlet films 147–51

Le Duel d’Hamlet / The Duel Scene from Hamlet, Phono-Cinéma-Théâtre film (Maurice 1900) 15n, 41, 72, 74n, 220

Hamlet, Méliès film (Méliès 1907) 75

Amleto/Hamlet, Cines film (Caserini 1908, reissued 1910) 75, 80n, 149

Hamlet, Barker film (Barker 1910) 149

Hamlet, Gaumont-Hepworth film (Plumb 1913) xvii, 5, 19, 147, 149–64, 153, 154, 169–72, 179–89, 182, 199, 218

Amleto/Hamlet, Rodolfi film (Rodolfi 1917) 5, 19, 149–50, 164–70, 172–79, 181, 185–89, 229, 230

Hamlet, Drama of Vengeance, Art-Film film (Gade, 1920) 5, 7, 185–86n, 217–40, 248–49

Hamlet, Nordisk film (Blom 1910) 149

Hamlet, Lux film (Bourgeois, 1909) 185–86n

offshoots

When Hungry Hamlet Fled, Thanhouser film (director unknown 1915) 148n, 149

Freddy versus Hamlet, Vitagraph film (Currier 1916) 107, 148n, 149, 200

Pimple as Hamlet, Piccadilly film (Evans 1916) 149, 200

To Be or Not To Be, Beauty film (Watt 1916) 149, 200

Hamlet Made Over, Lubin film (Metcalfe 1916) 149, 200

The Barnyard Hamlet, Powers film (Stark 1916) 149

Oh’Phelia, Hepworth animation film (Anson Dyer 1919) 149, 217n

Amleto e il suo Clown / On with the Motley, D’Ambra film (Gallone 1919) 221

Hammerton, J.A., biographer of Barrie 192, 195n, 196n

Hankin, John, satirist 48–49

Hanlon, Alfred, film actor 128

Hann, Walter (incorrectly given elsewhere as Hamm), designer of stage tableaux 69–70

Hapgood, Robert 6

Harrison, Louis Reeves 189n

Hastings, Chris 213n

Haviland, William, British stage actor 86

Hazlitt, William 175

Heard, Mervyn, lanternist and lantern historian 29n, 30n

Heard, Mo, lantern historian 35n

Helen Gardner Picture Players 220

Hendricks, Gordon 221n

Henry VIII, Shakespeare play

staging principles 51

Scenes from Shakespeare’s King Henry VIII, Barker offshoot film (Barker 1911) xvii, 2, 72, 77, 184, 197n

Henry, David 29n

Henson, Leslie 193n, 194

Hentschel, C., artist 156n

See also Ophelia and artistic representations

Hepworth, Cecil, British film director and producer 19, 149–64, 169–70, 188

Herbert, Stephen, lantern historian 25n, 29n, 35n, 116n

Hertogs, Daan 91n

Higson, Andrew 18n

Hill, Aaron 174

Hilliard, Harry, American screen actor 207, 209

History, Murders, Life and Death of Macbeth, The, stage-production

See Macbeth

Hoenselaars, A.J. 72n, 192n

Hoffman, H.F. 103

Hollows, Joanne 225n

Hosenrolle, ‘breeches roles’ 224

See also cross-dressing

House, M. 26n

Howard, Camille Cole 49n

Howard, Tony 220n, 226, 234

Howe, Julia Warde 109

Hughes, Arthur, artist, his painting ‘Ophelia’ used as a lantern slide (1890s) 35, 37–39, 156n

See also artistic representations

Hughes-Hallett, Lucy 205n

Hugo, Victor, in Pathé advertising poster 89

Hulette, Gladys, American child screen actress 131, 132

Hutchings, Peter 225n

Ibsen, Henrik, playwright 6, 218

Ihering, Herbert, biographer of Krauss 242n

Imrie, Thos. S. 207n

Indian Romeo and Juliet, An (Trimble 1912), Vitagraph offshoot

See Romeo and Juliet

intertitles (also known as title cards) 13, 15, 45, 55, 77n, 80n, 81, 95, 102, 103, 115, 116, 117, 135, 144, 150n, 157, 158–59, 162, 171, 173, 193–94, 207, 211, 230, 231, 235, 238–39

Irace, Kathleen O. 161n

Irving, Henry, actor-manager 48, 152, 156–57n, 175–78, 183n

Italian film industry 2

non-Shakespearean films made in the spectacular style, 186; performance styles (compared with British and American) 187–89

Ruggeri’s compared with Nielsen’s 229

See also individual film production companies Ambrosio Cines Film d’Arte Italiana Milano Rodolfi

Jackson, Russell xviiin, 53, 86n, 135n

Jacobs, Lea 24n

Jacobsson, Lilli, screen actress (plays Ophelia with Nielsen) 226, 229

Jancovich, Mark 225n

Jannings, Emil, stage and screen actor 4, 7–8, 20, 21, 77, 94, 217, 224, 240–51, 244, 245, 249

‘Jingle’, journalist for Pick-Me-Up 67n

Johnson, Adrian, scriptwriter 203n, 204

Johnson, Tefft, American screen actor 140

‘Jolo’, pseudonymous reviewer for Variety 9

Jorgens, Jack 6

Jud Süß (Veit Harlan 1940) 21

Judson, Hanford C. 155n, 164n, 170n, 171n, 211n

Julius Caesar, Shakespeare play 118

Le Rêve de Shakespeare/ La Mort de Jules César/ Shakespeare writing Julius Caesar, Georges Méliès offshoot film (Méliès 1907) 2, 75, 106, 119

Julius Caesar, Vitagraph film (Ranous and Blackton, 1908) 4, 16, 19, 105, 106, 108, 115–26, 117, 122, 132, 139, 146

Brutus, only partly Shakespearean Cines film (Guazzoni 1910) 19, 105–06, 125–26

Scene from Julius Caesar, Edison Kinetophone film (director unknown 1913) 15n

Gajus Julius Caesar/ Julius Caesar, Cines film (Guazzoni, 1914) 105, 115–16, 123, 126

Junckerman, Hans, German screen actor 229

Kachur, B.A. 70n

Kahn, Coppélia 113n, 190n

Kalem, American film production company 107

As You Like It (Buel 1908) 75

Romeo of the Coal Wagon, offshoot film (Beaudine 1916) 200

Kean, Charles, theatrical actor-manager 29, 47–48, 70n, 85

Kean, Edmund, theatrical actor-manager 28, 175, 178

Keil, Charlie 18n, 104

Kemble, Charles, actor-manager 50

Kennedy, Dennis 48n, 53n, 78n

Kent, Charles, stage and screen actor, film director for Vitagraph 4, 120, 130, 131, 138–41, 140

Keys, Nelson, British stage and screen actor 194

Keystone, American film production company

A Tugboat Romeo, Shakespeare offshoot film (Campbell 1916) 200

King, Norman 10n

King John, Shakespeare play

stage productions

Coburg Theatre, Magna Charta, or, The Eventful Reign of King John (1823) 70n

Kemble’s production at Covent Garden (1824) 50

Tree’s production at Her Majesty’s Theatre (1899) 17

films

King John, BMBC film from Tree’s stage production (Dickson and Dando 1899) 4, 23, 40, 41, 57–73, 65, 74n, 77

King Lear, Shakespeare play 99, 127, 143, 238

Orwell’s visual recollection of the play xix–xx, 238, 255

Edmund Kean’s stage production (1821) 28

lantern slide sequences 29, 31

‘King Lear in the Storm’, drawing by Darley, used as lantern slide 37, 38n

other artistic representations xxn

King Lear, Vitagraph film (Ranous 1909) 19, 105, 106, 108, 124, 125, 127, 131, 132, 139, 143

Re Lear/ King Lear, FAI film (1910) 90, 91, 105–06, 125

Le Roi Lear au Village/ A Village King Lear, Gaumont updated film (Feuillade 1911) 77

King Lear, Thanhouser film (Ernest Warde 1916) front cover 9, 13, 32–33, 77, 96–97, 127n, 201

Kino, DVD/video production company 4, 217n, 260–61

Kitchin, Laurence 6

Klauber, Adolph 155n

Kleine Optical Company, American film production company and distributor 107, 186

Kleine, George 27n

Kliman, Bernice W. 155n, 185n

Knight, Joseph 47n

Krauss, Werner, stage and screen actor (as Iago) 21, 217, 240–46, 248, 245

Kuleshov, Lev 7

Lady Godiva, non-Shakespearean film

See Vitagraph

Lake, Fred 79n

Lally, Gwendoline, British actress (as Hamlet) 220

Lamb, Charles and Mary 54–55, 56

Lang, Fritz, German film director 233, 241

Lang, Matheson, British actor 201

lantern

See magic lantern

Latham, Robert 26n

Launcelot and Elaine, non-Shakespearean film

See Vitagraph

Lawrence, Florence, American screen actress, ‘the Biograph Girl’ 3, 143, 144, 211n

Lawrence, Gerald, British stage and screen actor 64

leaders, alternative name for intertitles 158–59

See also intertitles

Le Diable et la Statue, offshoot film with loose connections to Romeo and Juliet (Méliès 1901) 74n

lecturers, live, for early moving pictures xviin, 10–13, 15, 28, 102–103, 145, 195

‘boomer’, category of lecturers 12–13

for lantern shows 29–30

See also exhibition conventions

Leeds, Arthur 158

Leisegang, Franz Paul 23n


Lepanto, Vittoria, Italian screen actress 91, 94n, 95, 97

Levenson, Michael 237

Levine, Lawrence W. 15, 114n, 210n

Licensing Act of 1737 43

repealed 1843 46

Lindsay, Vachel 6, 77, 232–33

Lippman, Max 12n

Lo Savio, Gerolamo, Italian film director 74, 88, 91, 92

logos, company logos exhibited within films 95, 96, 112–13, 116–18, 117, 120

See also eagle

Lonergan, Lloyd 127n

Longfellow, Henry, poet 28

Lowe, Robert, ‘pamphleteer’ 175n, 178n

Lowrey, Caroline 215n

Lubin, American film production company 107, 109

Julius Caesar (director unknown 1908) 75

Hamlet Made Over, offshoot (Metcalfe 1916) 149, 200

The Haunted House, non-Shakespearean film (1899) 170n

Luhrmann, Baz, film director 216n

Lumière brothers, film pioneers 23, 57

as slide manufacturers 28n, 56

Luzzi, Eusebio, eighteenth-century ballet producer 49n

MacBean, L.C., co-director with J.M.Barrie of The Real Thing at Last (1916) 191

Macbeth, Shakespeare play

ballet 49n

Elliston’s wordless ‘ballet of action’, The History, Murders, Life and Death of Macbeth (1809) 43–45

Forrest’s and Macready’s rival stage productions (1849) 210

lantern slide-sequences 29, 30, 31

films, compared 197–200

duel scene from Macbeth, AMBC film (Bitzer, 1905) 74–75n

Macbeth, Vitagraph film (Ranous 1908) 19, 75, 105, 106, 108, 119–21, 120, 131–32, 139, 143, 170n, 197

Macbett/Macbeth, Cines film (Caserini 1909) 4, 80, 170n, 198n

Macbeth, Co-operative Cinematograph Company film (F.R.Benson 1911) 197–98

Macbeth, Film Industrie Gesellschaft film (Bourchier 1913) 184, 197

Macbeth, Éclair film (director unknown 1916) 198n

Macbeth, Triangle-Reliance film (Emerson 1916) 2, 20, 72–73, 77, 190, 191, 192n, 198–202, 213

The Real Thing at Last, Bushey Heath Company’s film lampooning comparative productions of Macbeth (Barrie and MacBean 1916) 2–3, 19–20, 77, 190–201, 202, 212–13

McCormick, Richard W. 227n

Mackail, Denis, biographer of Barrie 191, 194n

McKernan, Luke xviiin, 25n, 64n, 71, 79n, 81n, 82n, 116n, 187n, 192n, 201n, 213–14n

McKinley, American President 118

Macleod, Mary 54, 156–57n

McManus, John T. 193n

McQuade, James S. 126n

Macready, William Charles, actor-manager 47, 210

magic lantern 10, 23–42, 56, 74n, 146

lantern lectures and exhibition conventions 28–31, 41n, 42

lantern technology 26–27

slide manufacturing production companies

Alfred Pumphrey 30n

Bamforth 28n

Briggs and Company 28n, 30–39

Carpenter and Westley 28n

Eastman Kodak Company 28n

Keystone 28n

Lancaster 28n

Lumière brothers 28n, 56

Newton 28n

Riley brothers 28n

Theobald and Company 28n, 30

Unger und Hoffmann 28n

York and Sons 30n

non-Shakespearean subjects 27, 28

Shakespearean subjects (images of stage actors in role, satirical slides, exemplary slides, compressed plots (Hamlet case-study), painterly quotations, use of Shakespeare’s image) 28–42

Magic Lantern Society, The (MLS) 29n, 30n

Magna Carta, signing of, not in Shakespeare’s King John 69

interpolated tableau in Tree’s 1899 stage production 69–72

Magna Charta, Henry Milner’s play (1823) 70n

Magnier, Pierre, French stage and screen actor 220

Makart, Hans, artist of balcony scene from Romeo and Juliet 38

Makowska, Elena, Polish film actress (Ophelia in 1917 Hamlet) 173, 185, 251

Mannoni, Laurent 27n, 28n

Manvell, Roger 6, 71n

Manzini, Amerigo 164n, 165, 166


Marcus, Leah 233n

Marescalchi, Luigi, eighteenth-century ballet producer 49n

Marinetti, F.T. 25n

Marker, Frederick J. 48n

marketing strategies xviiin, 10, 19, 89, 226

advertisements 67, 89, 90, 107–08, 109, 110, 112, 131–32, 137–38, 149–50n, 154–55, 158n, 202, 207, 209, 242

authentic locations 90–91, 149

billboards 107

commercial tie-ins/analogue productions (novelisations, glossy programmes, published stories) 54–55, 115–16, 123, 160–62

company branding and logos 95, 105–13, 116–21

competition between rival releases 203n, 208–11, 213

film used to advertise stage production 68, 69

limited exhibition runs 2

mass markets 56, 160–62, 164, 187, 206, 213–14

minimising scurrility 57

Shakespeare used as improving influence, and to denote corporate quality 18n, 89, 108, 110, 138

stars

films showcasing stars 142–43, 143–45, 152, 183, 187, 198–99, 202, 203–05, 204, 206–12, 208, 209, 214, 216, 226, 251

in-person appearances 144–45, 215–16, 218

star cards 79n, 180, 182, 226

Marriott, Alice, British stage actress (as Hamlet) 220

Marshall, Frank A. 156–57n

Martineau, Jane xxn, 86n

Masters, British film production company

The Merchant of Venice, part of ‘Tense Moments from Great Plays’ one-reeler series (Sanderson 1922) 217n

Matthews, A.E., stage and screen actor 192, 193n, 194, 195n, 196n, 197n, 200n

Matthews, William 26n

Maurice, Clément, French film-maker 15n, 220

See also Hamlet duel scene (1900)

Méliès, Georges, French film pioneer

Hamlet (Méliès 1907) 75

Le Rêve de Shakespeare/ La Mort de Jules César/ Shakespeare writing Julius Caesar (Méliès 1907) 2, 105–06, 119

Le Diable et la Statue, offshoot of Romeo and Juliet (Méliès 1901) 74n

‘double exposure’ non-Shakespeare films 170n

Melzer, Annabelle Henkin 185–86n, 262

Merchant of Venice, The, Shakespeare play

nineteenth-century realist stage production 50

lantern slide sequence 31

Le miroir de Venise / Une Mésadventure de Shylock/ The Venetian Look-glass, offshoot film (Méliès, 1905) 75n

The Merchant of Venice, Vitagraph film (Blackton 1908) 75, 105–06, 108, 119–21, 139, 143

Il Mercante di Venezia / The Merchant of Venice, FAI film (Lo Savio 1910) 90, 91

The Merchant of Venice, Broadwest film (Walter West 1916) 77, 201

The Merchant of Venice, Thanhouser film (Henderson 1912) 127n

The Merchant of Venice, Masters film (Sanderson 1922) 217n

Der Kaufmann von Venedig/ The Jew of Mestri (Felner 1923) 242n

The Merchant of Venice, Spice Factory sound-era film (Radford 2004) 213

The Merchant of Venice, (as yet) unmade film to have starred Patrick Stewart 213

Merry Wives of Windsor, The, Shakespeare play, lantern slide sequence 31

Messter, German film production company

Death of Othello / Desdemona, Shakespearean offshoot (Porten, 1907) 74–75n

Metro, American film production company

Romeo and Juliet (Noble 1916) 7, 9, 20, 54–55, 190, 191, 201–16, 209

Midsummer Night’s Dream, A, Shakespeare play 15

ballet 49n

lantern slide sequence 31

trends in performance history 136–37

Daly’s stage production (1895) 135

Tree’s stage production (1900) 135

Tree’s revival production (1911) 137

Harley Granville Barker’s stage production (1914) 136

A Midsummer Night’s Dream, Vitagraph film (Kent and Blackton 1909) 19, 105, 106, 108, 130–37, 134, 139, 141, 143

Ein Sommernachtstraum / A Midsummer Night’s Dream, Neumann-Filmproduktion film (Neumann 1925) 135n, 242n

Midwinter Night’s Dream, A, or Little Joe’s Luck, non-Shakespearean film

See Vitagraph


Milano, Italian film production company

Hamlet (Comerio 1908) 75

Una tragedia alla Corte di Sicilia/ A Winter’s Tale (Negroni 1913) 32

Millais, John Everett, artist 156n

See also artistic representations

Mills, John A. 171n, 179n

Milner, Catherine 213n

Milner, Henry, nineteenth-century playwright 70n

Milton, John 28

Miroir de Venise, Le/ Une Mésadventure de Shylock (Méliès 1905), Shakespearean offshoot film

See The Merchant of Venice

Molière, playwright 6

Mollison, William, stage and screen actor 64

Moncrieff, William Thomas, nineteenth-century playwright 43n, 45

Montgomery, Robert, American screen actor 223–24

Moody, Jane 16n, 43n, 44, 45n, 175n, 178n

Morley, Sheridan 191n, 199n, 200n

Mortimer, John, artist xxn

Morton, Mr, manager of the Palace Theatre 67

See also Theatres

‘Mother Squeers’, fictional commentator on early film production companies 109–10, 112, 138, 145

Motion Picture and Recorded Sound Division, Library of Congress, Washington DC (LOC) 52n, 77n, 80n, 91n, 97, 128, 170n, 198n, 202n, 203, 221n, 222

Motion Picture Patents Company 107

Mounet-Sully, Jean, stage and screen actor 149

Much Ado About Nothing, Shakespeare play, stage production 48, 183n

‘mugging’, the mouthing of words on silent film

See acting styles

Mühr, Alfred 242n

Mullin, Eugene, script-editor for Vitagraph 131

Murnau, F.W., German film director 233

music halls 22, 46–47, 66, 67

production of Shakespeare 24

musical accompaniment to films xviin, 28, 66, 195, 211

to lantern shows 28, 31

to wordless stage productions 43

synchronised sound 15n, 74–75n, 220

Musketeers of Pig Alley, The, Biograph film (1912) 76n

Musser, Charles 10–11n, 13n

mutoscope cards 66n

Muybridge, Eadweard, film pioneer 56

National Association of the Motion Picture Industry 215

Nazimova, Alla, Russian stage actress 220

Neilson, Julia, stage and screen actress 64

Nepoti, Alberto, Italian film actor 91, 95

Neumann-Filmproduktion, German film production company

Ein Sommernachtstraum / A Midsummer Night’s Dream / Wood Love (Neumann, 1925) 135n, 242n

Neuss, Alwin, German stage and screen actor 149

Newton, H. Chance (‘Carados’) 61–62

Nichols, B. 171n

Nicholson, Watson 43n

nickelodeons 107n

See also exhibition conventions venues

Nielsen, Asta, Danish screen actress 4, 5, 7, 20, 77, 135, 185–86n, 217–40, 226, 237, 249, 251

personal life 225

in non-Shakespearean films 224–25, 233

Niver, Kemp R. 68n

Noble, John W., American film director 202

Nordisk, Danish film production company

Asta Nielsen’s early film career 218

Othello (unknown 1908) 75

Hamlet (Blom 1910) 149

Desdemona, offshoot from Othello (Blom 1911) 77

Norton, Freddie, composer 195

novelisation of film Hamlet (1913)

See Hamlet

Novelli, Amleto, Italian stage and screen actor 125

Novelli, Ermete, Italian stage and screen actor 3, 125, 164

Noverre, Jean-Georges, eighteenth-century French ballet choreographer 49n

Nuttall, A.D. 234n

Olivier, Laurence, actor 217n

O’Mahoney, Lt Col C.C.S., real name of actor Charles Sefton 71n

O’Neil, Barry, film director for Thanhouser 127n

Ophelia, character in Hamlet, subject of paintings, lantern slides and film interpretations xx, 33–39, 37, 38, 80n, 156–57n, 156–58, 160–61, 164, 168, 173, 174, 178, 179, 180, 185, 218–20, 226, 230, 235, 238, 239

optical toys 23, 24n, 57

O’Quinn, Daniel 16n

Orwell, George xix–xxi, 238, 255

Orwell, Sonia xixn

Othello, Shakespeare play

lantern slide sequences 37

Death of Othello/ Desdemona, Messter offshoot film from Verdi’s opera (Porten 1907) 75n

Othello, Vitagraph film (Ranous 1908) 75, 90, 105, 108, 119, 201

Otello/Othello, FAI film (Lo Savio 1909) 4, 18, 74, 77, 88–104, 92, 93, 97

Desdemona, Nordisk offshoot film (Blom 1911) 77

Othello, unidentified version exhibited in Berlin with live lecture (1912) 12, 104n

Otello/Othello, Ambrosio film (Frusta 1914) 21, 90–91, 94, 248

Othello, Wörner-Filmgesechellschaft film (Buchowetski 1922) 7–8, 20, 21, 77, 94, 217, 224, 240–51, 244, 245, 249

Othello, Castle Rock sound-era film (Parker 1995) 243n

Othello, Andrew Davies’ updated version for LWT (Geoffrey Sax 2001)

Pacino, Al, screen actor 213

paintings

See artistic representations

Paget, F.M., stage and screen actor 62n

Panofsky, Erwin 223

pantomime, established theatrical convention for wordless performance 43, 46, 49, 55

associated performance codes 19, 46, 49, 173–78, 176, 177, 181

Park, James 189n

Paster, Gail Kern 114n

patents, royal 42–43

Pathé, Charles 88

Pathé, French film production company 88, 91n, 107, 109

with rooster as logo 95, 96, 116

Othello (unknown 1908) 75

Roméo se fait bandit/ Romeo Turns Bandit, updated offshoot (Bosetti 1910) 197n

La Vie et la Passion de Jésus Christ, episodic Passion play (Nonguet and Zecca >1902 & 1904) 170n

Patterson, Richard S. 113n

Paul, Robert W., film pioneer 56, 57

director of non-Shakespearean The Countryman and the Cinematograph 129n

Pearson, Roberta, author 15n, 16n, 72n, 107n, 108n, 110, 115n, 121n, 124n, 137n, 174n, 181n, 192n, 212n, 213n

Pecor, Charles Joseph 26n

Penelope, interpolated character replacing Oberon in Vitagraph’s A Midsummer Night’s Dream 133–36, 134

Pepys, Samuel, diarist 26n

Pericles, Shakespeare play, of which no silent film made 252n

Peter Paul Felner-Film, German film production company

Der Kaufmann von Venedig/ The Jew of Mestri (Felner 1923) 242n

Petro, Patrice 227n, 236n

Pezzaglia, A, Italian film actor 94n

Piccadilly, British film production company

Pimple as Hamlet, Shakespeare offshoot film (Evans 1916) 149, 200

Pickford, Mary, film actress 217n

‘pictures’, held stage tableaux 53, 69–70

Pike, Benjamin Jr. 27n

pioneering era (1895–1906)

See film industry development stages

piracy, of film prints 116

See also logos

Planché, James Robinson, theatre designer 50

Platt, Agnes 172, 249–50

Plumb, Hay, British film director 19, 149–64, 169, 188

Plumpton, Alfred, orchestra manager at the Palace Theatre 66n

Poel, William, theatre director 78

Pollock, F. 47n

Porter Edwin S., American film director 129n, 143

Pound, Ezra 20n

Poussin, artist xxn

See also artistic representaitons

premières (opening of a run) 60, 66, 132, 149n, 150n, 160, 195, 200, 203, 216n, 218

President Lincoln portrayed on Vitagraph film 109

programmes from theatres xviiin, 13, 47–48, 54, 66n, 67n, 70, 152, 153

programmes for films 13n, 52n, 66n, 67, 68–69, 107n, 115–16, 123

programming of films

See exhibition conventions

Pudovkin, Vsevelod 20

Pushkin, Alexander 17

Q1, Q2 and Quarto

See Hamlet and King Lear

Queen Mary, at Royal Command Performance (1916) 200

Queen Victoria, on film 66

Racine 17

Radford, Michael, film director 213

Raengo 18n, 74n

Rainey, Lawrence 25n

Ranous, William (‘Billy’) V., film actor and director for Vitagraph 115, 120, 130

Raymond, Charles, screen actor 149


Raymond, George 43n

Real Thing, The, stage farce 192

Real Thing at Last, The (1916), spoof film of Macbeth

See Macbeth

Rees, Terence 28n

Reinhardt, Max, German theatre director and producer 20n, 250

religious imagery 35–36, 245, 247, 248

Rex, American film production company

A Seashore Romeo, Shakespearean offshoot (Wilson 1915) 197n

Richard III, Shakespeare play

in lantern slides 29

Richard III, Vitagraph film (Blackton and Ranous 1908) 75, 108, 115n

Richard III, Co-operative Cinematograph Company film (Benson, 1911) 197–98n

Richard III, Shakespeare Film Company film (Keane 1912) 4, 12–13, 14, 52, 77

Ringham, Walter, British stage and screen actor 156

Robeson, Paul, American stage and screen actor 223

Robinson, David 10n, 26n, 40n, 105n, 158n

Rock, William T. (‘Pop’), co-director of Vitagraph 113

Rodolfi, Eleuterio, Italian film director and founder of Rodofi-Film

Amleto/Hamlet, Rodolfi film (Rodolfi 1917) 5, 19, 149–50, 164–70, 172–79, 181, 185–89, 229, 230

Roi Lear au Village, Le, Shakespearean offshoot

See King Lear

Romeo and Juliet, Shakespeare play xx

in ballet 49n

lantern slide sequences 30, 31, 38

Romeo and Juliet, Gaumont film (director unknown 1908) 75–76

Romeo and Juliet, Vitagraph film (Blackton 1908) 75, 105, 106, 108, 120, 121, 139, 143, 144, 211n

Giulietta e Romeo/ Romeo and Juliet, Cines film (Caserini 1908) 75

Giulietta e Romeo/ Romeo and Juliet, FAI film (Falena and Lo Savio 1911) 90, 91

Romeo and Juliet, Thanhouser film (O’Neil 1911) 127n

Romeo and Juliet, Fox film (Edwards 1916) 2, 8–9, 20, 190, 191, 201–16, 204, 209

courted competition with simultaneous Metro release 203–16

Romeo and Juliet, Metro film (Noble 1916) 7, 9, 20, 54–55, 190, 191, 201–16, 209

William Shakespeare’s Romeo + Juliet, Bazmark film (Luhrmann 1996) 216n

Le Diable et la Statue, Méliès offshoot (Méliès 1901) 74n

Burlesque on Romeo and Juliet, Edison offshoot (director unknown, 1902) 74n

Roméo se fait bandit/ Romeo Turns Bandit, Pathé updated offshoot (Bosetti 1910) 197n

An Indian Romeo and Juliet, Vitagraph offshoot (Trimble 1912) 2, 77, 108, 144

A Seashore Romeo, Rex film (Wilson 1915) 197n

Romeo of the Coal Wagon, Kalem film (Beaudine 1916) 200

A Tugboat Romeo, Keystone film (Campbell 1916) 200

Rothwell, Kenneth xviiin, 13n, 78, 186n

Ruggeri, Ruggero, Italian stage and screen actor (in 1917 Hamlet) 5, 19, 149–50, 164–70, 165, 172–79, 181, 185–89, 229, 230

running speeds for silent film 75n, 79n

Rutherford, Susan 219n

Sadoul, Georges 88n

Sargent, Epes Winthrop 159

satire 48–49, 122–29, 129n, 192–98, 200–01

Saxo-Grammaticus 219, 238

scenery and set dressing 78, 115–16, 141, 142, 207, 232–33, 235–37, 237, 242, 243, 244, 245, 246–48

Schall, Heinz, German film director 217

Schoch, Richard W. 183n

Schoenberg, Arnold 20n

Schumacher, Helen Gardner, granddaughter of Helen Gardner 221n

Scott-Gatty, Alexander, British stage and screen actor 156

‘scrolls’ (also known as ‘banners’), slogans carried on stage by actors 44–45, 55

Seaman, Julia, stage actress (as Hamlet) 220

Sefton, Charles (stage name of C.C.S.O’Mahoney) 71

Seidl, Monika 233n

Selig, American film production company 107

Sellmann, Professor Dr, German linguistician 12

Senior, Dora, stage and screen actress 62, 64

Seven Ages of Man, Edison film (1905) 74n

slide-sequences 30

See also As You Like It

Shakespeare, William, playwright

See also individual play titles Antony and Cleopatra As You Like It The Comedy of Errors Coriolanus Hamlet Henry VIII Julius Caesar King John King Lear Macbeth The Merchant of Venice The Merry Wives of Windsor A Midsummer Night’s Dream Much Ado About Nothing Othello Pericles Richard III Romeo and Juliet The Taming of the Shrew The Tempest Timon of Athen


Titus Andronicus Troilus and Cressida Twelfth Night The Winter’s Tale

represented in person on lantern slide 31–32

on nineteenth-century stage curtain 114

on Pathé advertising poster 89

on film, in Méliès Le Rêve de Shakespeare (1907), Milano’s Una tragedia alla Corte di Sicilia (1913), Bushey Heath’s The Real Thing at Last (1916)

See under Julius Caesar, The Winter’s Tale and Macbeth

his authorship examined on film

See Thanhouser Master Shakespeare Strolling Player(1916)

his works widely cited in nineteenth-century America 15–16

his mind known to Tree 51

and imagined by Albert E. Smith 130

his statue beflagged in New York 1916 190

Shakespeare Film Company, The, American production company

Richard III (Keane 1912) 4, 12–13, 14, 52, 77

‘Shakespeare Illustrated’, lantern slide series 30–39

Shakespeare Writing Julius Caesar, Méliès film (1907)

See Julius Caesar

Shapiro, James 118n

Shattuck, Charles H. 155n, 181n

Shaw, George Bernard 19, 78, 152, 155

Showalter, Elaine 35

Siddons, Sarah, British stage actress, on lantern slide 29

as Hamlet 220

Silent Shakespeare, BFI DVD 4, 62, 77n, 91n, 106n, 140n, 260

Sillars, Stuart xxn

Simoni, Renato 164, 165, 166

Sinobad, Zoran 221n

Slide, Anthony 107n, 143n, 144n

Smedley, William Thomas, chairman of BMBC 60

Smith, Albert E., Vitagraph chairman 107n, 111, 113, 130, 144n, 145–46

Smith, Emma xviiin, 158n, 160n

Smith, George Albert, film pioneer

The Haunted Castle (1897) 170n

Photographing a Ghost (1898) 170n

See also ghosts

Smith, Samuel, MP 59

Sothern E.H., stage and screen actor 110–11

Southern, Richard 53n

Spearing, James O. 228

speech ban at unpatented theatres

See wordless productions

Speht, Paul 25n

sport on film

Cambridge rowing ‘bumps’ 66

polo at Hurlingham 66

hurdle race at the Queen’s Club 66

Yale football team 68–69

Staiger, Janet 20n

Stam, Robert 18n, 74n

Stanton, Sarah 183n

Starks, Lisa xviiin, 234n

stars

See under marketing strategies

Steere, Janette, stage actress (as Hamlet) 220

Steida, Hans, German screen actor 230, 236–37, 237

Stewart, Patrick, stage and screen actor 213

Storey, G. 26n

Stow, Percy, film director 74, 78–79, 82, 85–87

See also The Tempest (1908)

Stratford-upon-Avon Shakespeare Festival 215

Street, Sarah 71n, 158n

Stuart, Violet, stage actress 14

Studio Troubles, also known as Wicked Willie, a BMBC short film (1899) 58–60

Summers, Rollin 174n

Sutcliffe, J.B. 215n

Swift, Jonathan 27, 28

synchronised sound 15n, 74–75n, 220

See also musical accompaniment

Synetic Theater Company 21, 253–59, 258

tableaux

See ‘pictures’

Talmadge, Norma, screen actress 144

Tales from Shakespeare, 54–55

Tamara, Russian dancer 135n

Taming of the Shrew, The, Shakespeare play

lantern slide sequences 31

The Taming of the Shrew, Biograph film (Griffith 1908) 75

The Taming of the Shrew, Sam Taylor film (Taylor 1929) 217n

Taranow, G. 220n

Taylor, Gary 1n

Tchaikovsky, composer 211

Tearle, Godfrey, British stage and screen actor 194

Tempest, The, Shakespeare play

Macready’s stage production (1838) 47

Charles Kean’s stage production (1857) 47–48

Tree’s stage production (1904) 54

and resulting storm scene on film (1905) 72, 74–75n, 85–88

satirical appropriation 48–49

in lantern slide sequences 31

The Tempest, Clarendon film (Stow 1908) 18, 74, 77–88, 94–95, 98, 103–04

The Tempest, Thanhouser film (Thanhouser 1911) 86n, 127n

The Tempest, Éclair film (Chautard [?], 1912) 52


Tennyson, Alfred Lord 28, 107

tercentenary year of Shakespeare’s death 1916, associated committees, cultural commemorations and satirical interventions 19, 77, 113n, 190–216, 217

Terris, Olwen 79n, 187n, 213–14n, 262

Thackeray, William 17

Thanhouser, Edwin, founder of film production company 127n

Thanhouser, Gertrude, Thanhouser 127n

Thanhouser, Ned, grandson of Edwin Thanhouser scenarist 127n

Thanhouser, American film production company 5, 77, 116, 127n, 148

DVD, Thanhouser presents Shakespeare 1910–1916 4, 106n, 201n, 261

A Winter’s Tale (O’Neil 1910) 19, 105, 106, 126–29, 128

The Tempest (Edwin Thanhouser 1911) 86n, 127n

Cymbeline (Sullivan 1913) 127n

King Lear (Ernest Warde 1916) front cover 9, 13, 33, 77, 96–97, 127n, 201

Romeo and Juliet (O’Neil 1911) 127n

The Merchant of Venice (Henderson 1912) 127n

Two Little Dromios [ie The Comedy of Errors] (director unknown 1914) 127n

Master Shakespeare, Strolling Player (Sullivan 1916) 127n

When Hungry Hamlet Fled, Shakespeare offshoot (director unknown 1915) 148n

Theatres, movie theatres and music halls

Academy Theater, The, New York 206

Alhambra, The, London 46

Broadway Theater, The, New York 203n, 215–16

Coburg Theatre, The, London 70n

Coliseum, The, London 195

Covent Garden, London 42, 50

Daly’s Theatre 135

Deutsches Theater, Berlin 250

Drury Lane, London 28, 42, 150, 152, 160, 180, 191n

Fifth Avenue Theater, Brooklyn 145

George Steiner’s Playhouse, New York 206

Globe Playhouse, The, London xxii

Haymarket Theatre, The 42, 53

Her Majesty’s Theatre, London 49, 60–62, 66–69, 70n, 71n, 135

becomes His Majesty’s Theatre after accession of Edward VII 85, 137

Kennedy Arts Center, Washington DC 22

London Coliseum 195

Lyceum, The, London 48, 156, 183n

National Film Theatre, The, London: 72n

The New Gallery Kinema, London: 149n, 160

Poli Wonderland Theater, The, New Haven 68

Prince Theater 13n

New Gallery Kinema, London 149n, 160, 162

Palace Theatre of Varieties, The, London xvii–xvii, 66–68

Princess’s Theatre, London 47

Royal Circus, The, London 43, 44

Royal Theatre of Copenhagen 217n

Sadler’s Wells, London 50

St Charles Theater, New Orleans 114, 119

Savoy Theatre, London 136

Strand Theatre, Sydney 207n

Teatro Lirico, Milan 150, 164

Teatro Vittioria, Turin 150n

Olympic Theatre, Broadway 13n, 52n

Tivoli Theatre, The, London 62n

See also exhibition conventions venues

Thompson, Ann 219n

Thompson, Kristin 20

Thorndike, Sybil, stage and screen actress 217n

Tillotson, K. 26n

Timon of Athens, Shakespeare play lantern slides 31

title cards

See intertitles

Titus Andronicus, Shakespeare play 1, 252

Toddle, Timothy, lanternist-showman 29–31

Tolstoy, Leo xixn, 238, 255

Tosi, Virgilio 23–24

trade papers, film periodicals, journals and newspapers (trades listed xviiin)

Art Journal, The 31n, 35

Athenaeum, The, journal 48n

Augusta Chronicle, American local newspaper 13

Avanti, Italian newspaper 166

Biograph, The, xviiin, 148, 201

Bioscope, The 11, 79n, 80n, 100–01, 116, 135, 147n, 150, 151, 152, 169n, 184n, 199, 212n

Blackwood’s Magazine, journal 22n, 136n

Cinema News and Property Gazette, The (CNPG) xviiin, 8, 192, 193n, 196

Cine-Technician, The, journal 58

Craftsman, The, journal 111n

Daily Chronicle, The, newspaper 64

Daily Mail, The, newspaper 136

Daily News, The, newspaper 68

Eckart – Ein Deutsches Literaturblatt, journal 12

Era, The, xviiin, 152

Études Anglaises, journal 77n

Exceptional Photoplays 228–29, 232

Film Daily xviiin, 211n

Forum, journal 2n, 203n

Griffithiana 25n

Illustrated Films Monthly, The xviiin, 161

Illustrated London News, The (ILN), journal xviiin, 64, 152n, 155n

Kinematograph and Lantern Weekly, The (KLW) xviiin, 41, 52n, 91n, 170n, 185, 187, 188, 197n, 198n, 250n

Literature/


Film Quarterly xviiin, 233n

London Graffic, journal 155n

London News, journal 155n

Metro Picture News, production company publicity paper 202n, 205, 207n, 208n, 211n

Motion Picture Classic, The xviiin, 54, 55n, 203n

Motion Picture Magazine, The (MPM) xviiin, 204n, 207n

Motion Picture Story Magazine, The xviiin, 161

Motography (incorporating The Nickelodeon) xviiin, 109, 138n, 145n, 205

Moving Picture World, The (MPW) xviiin, xxi, 9, 11, 12, 41, 75n, 86n, 90, 101, 103, 108n, 109n, 110n, 115n, 126n, 127n, 138, 144, 145n, 154, 155n, 159n, 163n, 174, 188, 189n, 197n, 198n, 202n, 203n, 205n, 206n, 207n, 208, 209, 210n, 213n, 214n, 215, 216n, 220n, 223n

New York Dramatic Mirror, The 109n, 110n, 143, 181n

Nickelodeon, The

See Motography

Optical Lantern and Cinematic Journal, The xviiin

Optical Magic Lantern Journal, Almanac, 40

(re-launched as Kinematograph and Lantern Weekly (KLW))

Photographic News, The 68

Photoplay 207n

Picturegoer Weekly, The 203n

Pictures, The xviiin, 161–62

Pictures and the Picturegoer 72–73, 143n, 172n, 198

Play Pictorial, The 151n, 154, 155n

Saturday Review, The, journal 152n

Screen, journal 10n

Shakespeare, journal 192n

Shakespeare Bulletin (SB) 71n

Shakespeare Quarterly (SQ) 71n, 113n, 191n, 234n

Shakespeare Yearbooks 185–86n

Sight and Sound 163n, 225n

Skrien, Dutch journal 224n

Stage, The, journal 152, 155

Standard, The, journal 160

Southport Visiter, The 58

Telegraph, The, newspaper 213n

Times, The, newspaper 191, 200n

Variety, journal 205, 207n, 211, 212, 250n

Wide Angle 17n

Wid’s Film Daily 98n

transgendering

See cross-dressing

transitional era

See film industry development stages

Tree, Herbert Beerbohm, theatre actor-manager, film actor xvii, 2, 3, 4, 17, 20, 23, 41, 48–49, 51, 54, 58, 60–73, 74–75, 77, 78, 85–88, 135, 137, 163n, 168n, 190, 191, 192n, 197n, 198–202, 251

Tree, Mrs Herbert Beerbohm, stage actress 67

Tree, Viola, stage actress 85–86

Triangle-Reliance, American film production company

Macbeth (Emerson, 1916) 2, 20, 72–73, 77, 190, 191, 192n, 198–202, 213

Trilby, Tree’s stage production 60–61

Troilus and Cressida, Shakespeare play, of which no silent film made 252n

Turner, Florence, film actress (‘the Vitagraph Girl’) 3, 105, 130–31, 134, 139, 142–45, 142

Twelfth Night, Shakespeare play

lantern slide sequence 31

Twelfth Night, Vitagraph film (Kent 1910) 19, 105–06, 108, 131

Two Little Dromios

See The Comedy of Errors

Tyler Film Company, British film production and distribution company 52

Uncle Josh at the Moving Picture Show, Edison non-Shakespearean film (Porter 1901) 129n

Uricchio, William xviiin, 15n, 16n, 72n, 107n, 108n, 110, 115n, 121n, 124n, 137n, 192n, 212n, 213n

Urban-Eclipse, American film production company 109

Usai, Paulo Cherci 102n, 107n

van den Tempel, Mark 25n

Vanbrugh, Irene, stage and screen actress, sister of Violet Vanburgh 194, 195

Vanbrugh, Violet, stage and screen actress, wife of Arthur Bourchier 197

Vardac, A.Nicholas 24n, 50n, 56

Vaughan, Alden T. 85n, 114n

Vaughan, Virgina Mason 85n, 114

Verdi, composer of opera Othello 74–75n

source of FAI films 89

Vestris, Madame Eliza, stage actress 135

Vining, Edward P. 219

Vitagraph, American film production company 5, 18–19, 77, 105–46

eagle as company logo 113–23, 117, 120, 122, 145

the ‘Vitagraph Girl’, Florence Turner 3, 105, 130–31, 134, 139, 142–45, 142

publications, Vitagraph Pictures Annual Studio Yearbook 112

Vitagraph Bulletin 137n, 138

Vitagraph repertory company 138–39

Antony and Cleopatra (Kent 1908) 75, 108, 119n, 130

Julius Caesar (Ranous and Blackton, 1908) 4, 16, 19, 75, 105, 106, 108, 115–26, 117, 122, 123, 132, 139, 146

Macbeth (Ranous 1908) 19, 75, 105, 106, 108, 119–21, 120, 131–32, 139, 143, 170n, 197

The Merchant of Venice (Blackton 1908) 75, 105–06, 108, 119–21, 139, 143

Othello (Ranous 1908) 75, 90, 105, 108, 119, 139, 201

Richard III (Blackton and Ranous 1908) 75, 108, 115n

Romeo and Juliet (Blackton 1908) 75, 105, 106, 108, 120, 121, 139, 143, 144, 211n

King Lear (Ranous 1909) 19, 105, 106, 108, 124, 125, 127, 131, 132, 139, 143

A Midsummer Night’s Dream (Kent and Blackton 1909) 105, 106, 108, 130–37, 134, 139, 141, 143

Twelfth Night (Kent, 1910) 19, 105–07, 108, 131, 137–42, 140, 142, 146

As You Like It (Blackton and Kent 1912) 108, 130, 133

Hamlet (projected but never made) 149

Shakespeare offshoots

An Indian Romeo and Juliet (Trimble 1912) 2, 77, 108

Cardinal Wolsey, offshoot of Henry VIII (Trimble 1912) 108

A Midwinter Night’s Dream; or Little Joe’s Luck (unknown 1906) 108

The Wrong Flat; or A Comedy of Errors (unknown 1907) 108

Freddy Versus Hamlet (Currier 1916) 108, 149n, 200

non-Shakespeare films

Salome (Blackton, 1908) 108

Oliver Twist (Blackton, 1909) 108

A Tale of Two Cities (Humphrey, 1911) 108, 130

Launcelot and Elaine (Kent, 1909) 108, 139, 143

Vanity Fair (Kent, 1911) 108, 220

A Modern Oliver Twist (Blackton, 1906) 108

Elektra (Blackton, 1910) 108, 130

The Life of Moses (Blackton, 1909) 108

Jephthah’s Daughter, A Biblical Tragedy (unknown, 1909) 108

Saul and David (Blackton, 1909) 108

The Way of the Cross (Blackton, 1909) 108

funeral of King Edward VII (1910) 109

Illumination (Gaskill, 1912) 108

The Life of George Washington (unknown, 1909) 109, 113

The Battle Hymn of the Republic (Blackton, 1911) 109

Lady Godiva 112

Princess Nicotine or The Smoke Fairy 131

Kenilworth (unknown, 1909) 143

Jealousy (unknown, 1911) 144

The Haunted Hotel (Blackton, 1907) 170n

other non-Shakespearean films, listed by title 111, 113

‘Vitascope’ 106

von Alten, Ferdinand, German screen actor 242

von Lenkeffy, Ica, German screen actress 243–50, 244, 245

von Winterstein, Eduard, German screen actor 229

Walderdaw, British film production company 217n

Warde, Ernest, film actor and director, front cover 13, 201

Warde, Frederick, stage and screen film actor and lecturer 4, 9, 13, 14, 32–33, 52, 77, 96–97, 127n, 201

See also Richard III (1912) and King Lear (1916), front cover

Waterhouse, John William, artist of painting of Ophelia 157–58n

See also artistic representations

Weitzel, Edward 164

Wells, Stanley 1n, 182n

White, James Fisher (sometimes credited as James Fisher), stage and screen actor 62n, 64

Wicked Willie, alternative title of BMBC ‘giddy’ Studio Troubles q.v., 58

Wiene, Robert, German film director 233

Wiggins, Jack 58n

Wilkie, Edmund H 40

Wilson, Edwin 78n, 152n

Winter’s Tale, The, Shakespeare play

in lantern slides sequences 31

A Winter’s Tale, Thanhouser film (O’Neill 1910) 4, 19, 105–06, 126–29, 128

Una tragedia alla Corte di Sicilia / A Winter’s Tale, Milano film (Negroni 1913) 32

Wolf, Steffen 12n

Wood, Michael 237

Woods, Leigh 111n

Woolf, Virginia 20n

wordless stage productions 42–50, 55, 253–59

See also pantomime

Wörner-Filmgesellschaft, German film production company

Othello (Buchowetzki, 1922) 7–8, 20, 21, 77, 94, 217, 224, 240–51, 244, 245, 249

Wrong Flat, The, or A Comedy of Errors, non-Shakespearean film

See Vitagraph




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