Cambridge Catalog  
  • Your account
  • View basket
  • Help
Home > Catalog > The Decline of Life
The Decline of Life
Google Book Search

Search this book

AddThis

Details

  • 21 tables
  • Page extent: 340 pages
  • Size: 228 x 152 mm
  • Weight: 0.67 kg

Library of Congress

  • Dewey number: 305.26/0944
  • Dewey version: 21
  • LC Classification: HQ1064.G7 O88 2004
  • LC Subject headings:
    • Older people--England--Social conditions--18th century
    • Old age--England--History--18th century
    • Aging--England--History--18th century

Library of Congress Record

Add to basket

Hardback

 (ISBN-13: 9780521815802 | ISBN-10: 0521815800)

Manufactured on demand: supplied direct from the printer

$124.00 (C)

Index




References to tables and figures are in italics

Achenbaum, W.A. 277

Adair, Richard 186

Adams, Elizabeth 119

Affpuddle, Dorset 52

age awareness 7, 12–13, 64, 82, 112

age discrimination, see ageism

‘age heaping’ 45, 46, 51

age structure of population, see population, age structure

ageism 65, 66, 82, 105

‘ages of man’, see life stages

aging process 64, 67, 69, 98–101, 178–180, 203, 241–245, Chapter Two, passim

Alderley 127, 151, 158

almshouses 120–121, 206, 212–215

amenorrhea 38

America 152, 163, 164

Amussen, Susan 141

Anderson, Michael 23, 131

Andrew, Donna 71

Andrews, Thomas 270

Anglo-Saxons 136

Ardleigh, Essex 45, 46, 127, 130, 151, 158, 170, 236, 241

Ariès, Philippe 277

army pensions 79

Ashby de la Zouch, Leicestershire 265

Ashworth, Cornelius 217

Atherton, Joseph 231, 253

Austen, Jane 56

  Sense and Sensibility 16

Austen, Katharine 47

authority, age structure of 66, 103, 104, 100–108, 112, 113–115, 282–283

  political authority of old people 100–105, 108

Bacon, Francis 25

Bagnell, Prisca von 33

ballads 32, 33, 34, 69

Banford, Samuel 271

Banner, Lois 37

Barker-Read, Mary 5, 21, 212, 240, 240–241, 242, 248, 264, 271, 272

Barrell, Francis 50, 54

Bath 161

Bedfordshire 219

begging 68, 96, 269

Berg, Maxine 46, 188

Berkshire 262, 266

Bettey, J.H. 134

Bever, Edward 40

birthdays 17, 47–48, 279

Bishops Castle, Shropshire 265

Blandford Forum, Dorsetshire 94, 216, 270, 272

Body, George 207

Bolingbroke, Henry St. John, Viscount 55

Bonfield, Lloyd 44

Botelho, Lynn 21, 35, 36, 40, 42, 180

Boulton, Jeremy 177, 183, 231

Bourdelais, Patrice 51

Boyer, George 207

Braddick, Michael 283

Braddon, Laurence 72

Braintree, Essex 127, 151, 158, 255

Bristol 178, 182, 254, 268, 272, 273

Brodum, William 25

Brown, Arthur 73, 221

Browne, Sir Thomas 23

Buchan, William 36

Bulder, Elles 19

bureaucratization 51, 52–53, 82, 246, 279

Burn, Richard 122, 131, 158–159, 267

Burroughes, Randall 87, 92

Burrow, J.A. 19

Burton Bradstock, Dorset 175

Calverley-cum-Farsley, West Yorkshire 169, 198, 203, 205, 233

Canterbury 271

carers, aging people as 94–95, 97, 205–206, 233–234

Carter, Paul 182

Cary, John 268, 273

Celsus, Cornelius 25

Census, see household listings

Charitable Uses Acts (1601) 211

charity 2, 58–59, 72, 96–97, 176, 179, 211–216, 236, 237, 267

Charmouth, Dorset 154, 159, 182

Chelsea Hospital Pensioners 79

Cheyne, George 25, 27–28

Chiddingly 127, 151, 158

childcare by older people 95

children 17, 67, 95, 141, 249–250, 258–259, 265, 267, 268, 274, 277, 283

  co-residents 116, 123–125, 142–170, 171, 174–176

  see also co-residence; filial responsibility; work

Chilvers Coton 127, 151, 158

Christianity, old age and death and 46, 112–114, 145

churchwardens 105–108, 191, 252, 273

Cicero 83

  De Senectute 65

Clapp, Brian 51

Clark, Peter 76

clergy 85, 113

  see also Cole, Reverend William; Wilson, Thomas; Woodforde, Reverend James

Clerkenwell Friends Workhouse 114, 273–274

‘close’ parishes 190, 193

clothing 31, 42, 232, 257, 258, 269

Cole, Reverend William 47, 48, 70, 83, 84, 85, 161, 163

Cole, Thomas 20

Colyton, Devonshire 212

community assistance to elderly 8, 9–12, 81, 88, 173–220, 221–246, 247, 248, 269, 274, 281, 282

  see also Poor Law

community, older people’s relations with 2, 66, 88, 98–115, 168, 179, 219, 274, 275, 283

conduct literature, see didactic literature

consumer revolution 208

Cooke, Sir Richard 177

co-residence 11, 116–140, 209–211

  with children 127, 150–171, 151, encouraged or enforced by Poor Law 121–122, 154, 158, 266–270

  with kin 158, 167–168, 162

  with non-relatives 95, 170–171

  wills concerned with 133–135, 168–170

Corfe Castle, Dorset 127, 130, 151, 154, 158, 161, 162, 170, 231, 237

courts, manorial 136–137, 198

cousins 166–167

  see also kinship

Cowgill, D.O. 44

Cowper, Lady Sarah 99, 145, 159

Crabbe, George 247

Crawford, John 29

Crawford, Patricia 39, 43

Cressy, David 164, 169, 171

Cumberland 188

customary rights 109–112, 136–137, 208

daughters 97, 142–145, 149, 170

  caring for aged parents 97, 157, 230

  unmarried 154

  see also carers; co-residence; family relationships; family support; households

Davenant, Charles 72, 176, 267

Davies, Reverend David 71, 80, 111, 178, 196, 253, 257–258, 259

Dawnay, Reverend Doctor of Puddletown 106, 192, 210, 214

Dawson, John 79, 86, 143

Defoe, Daniel 71, 107, 124, 192

  Moll Flanders 56

Delany, Mary 119

demographic transition, see population, change in

Demos, John 63

dependency, concept of 109

diaries as evidence for old age 118, 166–167

Dibben, Sarah 2–4, 143, 153

didactic literature 28, 32, 56, 73, 112, 145

diet, in old age 28–29, 271–272

  in workhouse 257, 263–264, 271–272, 275

  regional variation in 216

Digby, Anne 248

Dighton, Alice 142

disengagement 98–102, 108, 115

  see also community, older people’s relations with

dissent, see Nonconformists

domestic service 90

Dorset 208

  see also Blandford Forum; Corfe Castle; Puddletown; Tolpuddle

Dove, Mary 33, 100

dower 136–137

Drinker, Elizabeth 164

Dyer, George 270

Earle, Peter 94

Eastwood, David 177, 195

Eden, Sir Frederick Morton 20, 111, 273, 274

  The State of the Poor 87, 185, 187, 184–189, 199, 216–217, 264, 265–266

Ellesmere, Shropshire 270

Empingham, Rutland 269

Enlightenment 24–25, 53, 81, 280

Erickson, Amy 118

Essex 164, 169, 221, 266

  see also Ardleigh; Braintree; Terling

executors 135, 149, 168–170

Exeter 273

eyesight 27, 33, 206

family reconstitution 191, 254

  see also record linkage

family relationships 2, 67, 116–140, 141–172, 275

family structure 116–140, 151, 141–172, 158, 168, 209–211, 279–280

family support for and by old people 7–8, 11, 81, 116, 123–125, 134, 135, 141–172, 254, 270, 275, 279–280

  economic change and 169–170, 245

  poor law officials’ expectation of 174–176, 178, 233–234

  regional variation 151, 158, 169–170, 209–211

  see also co-residence; households; kinship

Farnham, Surrey 271

Fielding, Henry 40

filial responsibility 116, 123–125, 142–170, 171, 174–176, 254, 280

Fissell, Mary 178, 182, 234, 254

Flandrin, J.L. 157

Fletcher, Anthony 141

fostercare, see childcare

Fowler, David 55

Fowler, Lois 55

Fox, Caroline 41

France, old age in 39, 73, 109, 120, 156, 157

Freke, Elizabeth 49, 90–92, 131, 145, 147, 158, 159, 163, 166

Fretwell, James 49, 83, 90, 110, 132, 142, 145, 146, 153, 154, 157, 166, 167

friendly societies 12, 13–14, 50, 52, 58, 75–76, 79, 109, 180, 181

Gawthern, Abigail 47, 48, 49, 83, 84, 142, 143

gender differences

  aging process 40, 42, 43

  community roles 98–101, 114

  households 116, 127, 130, 126–131, 141, 151, 152, 158, 210–211

  poor relief 180, 198–202, 228–229, 236–237, 238, 239, 241, 250, 260, 260, 268

  work 67, 68–89

  see also men; women

generalized inverse projection (GIP) 202, 222, 225

George III 47

Germany, old age in 1, 123, 283

Gilbert, Creighton 20

Gilbert, Thomas (Gilbert’s Act of 1782) 57, 80, 251

Gillingham, Dorset 122

Gillingwater, Edmund 272

Godfrey, Walter 120

Goldsmith, Oliver 28, 50

Gough, Richard 74

Graham, Dr. James 25

grandchildren 91, 95, 162, 155–165, 175, 280

grandparents 110, 155–165, 175, 280

Grassby, Richard 156

Gray, Louise 1

Great Chart, Kent 265

Great Leighs, Essex 175, 267, 272

Great Tey, Essex 133, 164

‘green’ old age 30, 59, 69, 75–76, 99, 241

Greer, Germaine 37

Groppi, Angela 1

Gunnlaugson, Gisli Agust 63

Guttormsson, Luftur 63

Halifax, West Yorkshire 192–194, 195, 216, 259

  see also Ovenden

Hallas, C.S. 218

Hardwick, Julie 157

Hardy, Mary 48, 83, 86, 113, 120

Hareven, Tamara 16, 63

Harris, C.C. 18

healers 97

  see also carers; midwives

health care, see medical care

health in old age 2, 26–30, 36–38, 71, 76, 95, 98, 101, 179, 234–235, 241

Henry Smith’s Charity 72, 213

Hill, Thomas 31

Hind, Penelope 70, 92, 115

Hindle, Steve 181

Hippocrates 25

Hitchcock, T. 248, 253

Hobson, John 23

Holmes, L.D. 44

Hopkinson, Mary 163

hospitals 78, 79, 254, 267, 268, 272

Houlbrooke, Ralph 131, 135, 156, 165, 169

household listings 83, 117, 126–131, 150–171, 192, 210, 211

households 11, 127, 130, 116–140, 151, 158, 209–211, 280

  ‘empty nest’ 130

  heads of household 128, 125–131, 140

  see also co-residence; family relationships; family support

housing 121–122, 131, 227, 233, 254–255, 256, 262–263, 271, 272

Houston, Rab 61

Howard, John 268

Hudson, Pat 46, 193, 217

Hufton, Olwen 88

husbands, see spouses

Hume, David 32

humoralism 27–28

Hunt, E.H. 177

Hussey, Steven 247

Hutton, Richard, see Clerkenwell Friends Workhouse

independence in old age 1, 4, 8–9, 12, 66

  economic self-sufficiency 67, 75, 77, 81, 82, 83–86, 90–92, 94, 114–115, 116–140, 181

  parish relief as violation of 219, 258, 259

  residential independence 128, 116–140, 265, 275

  see also households, heads of; family relationships; family support; work

India, old age in 277

individualism 119, 141, 280–281

  see also independence

industrialization 6, 46, 77, 188, 189, 209, 217, 218

‘industrious revolution’ 66

inflation 227, 232, 245–246

informal giving, see charity

Inkborough, Worcestershire 273

in-laws 143, 147, 163, 168, 175

Innes, Joanna 213

insanity 252

institutional care, see almshouses; workhouses

inter-generational relationships 2–4, 7–8, 142–170, 280

inventories, pauper 121, 250, 254–255

  workhouse 256, 262–263

isolation, see co-residence; family; kinship

Italy, old age in 1, 234, 283

Jessop, Arthur 29, 166

Johnson, Paul 42, 68, 115, 156, 279

Johnson, Samuel 32, 55

Johnsson, S. Ryan 22

Johnston, J.A. 133, 134, 148

Josselin, Ralph 62, 143, 156

Kay, Richard 48, 84, 120, 146, 159, 167

Kent, county of 21

  see also West Kent

Kerr, Barbara 208

Kertzer, David 129, 156

King, Peter 121, 180, 255

King, Steve 9, 169, 198, 203, 205, 218, 233

kinship 141, 155, 157, 158, 168, 165–170, 254, 279–280

  regional variation in 168, 169–170, 210

  see also co-residence; family relationships; family support; households

Kittredge, Katharine 42

Kohli, Martin 56, 63

Kugler, Anne 42, 145, 159, 162

Laborers, see work

Lancashire 167

Landau, Norma 189

Landin, Lois 55

Laslett, Peter 67, 69, 117, 119, 130, 152, 156, 277

Laurence, Anne 23

Lawrence, Susan 109–110

Leeds 274

Levine, David 133, 190, 191

Lichfield 127, 151, 158

life expectancy 21–26, 61, 258

life stages 17, 21–26, 55, 63–64, 69, 98, 99, 243, 241–245, 279, 280

  ancient conceptions of 27, 55, 62

  cross-cultural studies of 19, 24, 42, 69

  medieval conceptions of 19, 24, 34

  Renaissance conceptions of 20, 55

Lincolnshire 133

literacy 18, 53–54, 109–110

literature and old age 20, 33, 55–56, 109, 132

Liverpool 123

Lloyd, Reverend Philip 195

Loane, Margaret 147

lodgers 126, 170, 230

London 88, 94, 114, 167, 176, 177, 178, 180, 207, 231, 253, 267, 274

longevity 21–26

  superlongevity 23–24, 46

Ludlow 86, 132

Macfarlane, Alan 156, 158

Malthus, Thomas 270

Manchester 181, 212, 265, 271

Mandeville, Bernard 71, 73

manufacturing 46, 186, 188, 192, 218

Marlborough, Sarah, Duchess of 124, 159–160, 163, 170

marriage 40, 131–132, 165, 237–238, 280

  remarriage 132, 133–135

Marshall, Dorothy 174

Martin, E.W. 247

Masaoka, Kanji 16

Mawhood, William 143

medical care 234–235, 252, 253, 264

medieval period, old age in 19–20, 51, 55, 67, 84, 92, 112, 119, 176, 177, 277, 278

Members of Parliament 103, 104, 101–105, 112

memory, aged as keepers of 109–112

men 33–35, 60, 98–101

  aging process in

  family life 168

  households of 128, 126–131, 210–211, 280

  poor Relief 198–202, 205, 228–229, 236–237, 241, 250, 260, 261

  strength in old age 14, 33, 34

  work 68–89

Mendelson, Sara 39, 43

menopause 35–41

mental powers of old people 109–112

Methodists 113

  see also Wesley, John

microsimulation 152, 157

middle age 100, 102–104, 128

  see also life stages

middle classes 14, 74, 75, 77–79, 83–86, 88, 98–101, 114, 193

Middlesex 178, 274

midwives 38, 90

migration 188–189, 254, 261

militia lists 57, 58

miners 61, 96–97, 112

Minois, George 19

mortality rates, see life expectancy

Mortmain Bill (1736) 80

negative attitudes to old age, see ageism

neolocalism 67, 119, 154

Nonconformists 113, 167, 194, 208–209

Norfolk 176, 195, 269, 270, 271

Norwich, Norfolk 80, 158, 183

nurses, see carers

occupational pensions 51, 58, 75, 82, 85, 92–93

O’Day, Rosemary 156

Oeppen, J. 62, 152, 225

old age

  definition of 7, 12–13, 60, 64, 241–245, 269, 275, 279

  images of in art 42, 47, 109

  oral traditions 109–110, 112

  status of older people 98–109, 112, 115, 219, 270–272, 277

  see also ageism; stereotypes

  see also aging process; life stages

Ovenden, Halifax, West Yorkshire 10, 25, 97, 124, 125–126, 148–150, 164–165, 168–170, 188, 189–220, 258–259, 265–266, 271, 274, 281

overseers of the poor 182, 189, 195, 205, 219, 226, 232, 252, 257–258, 259, 273, 281

  see also Poor Law (Old)

Oxford 226, 249, 251, 269

Oxfordshire 94, 119, 133, 169, 266

Oxley, G.W. 173

parish, political culture of 181–182, 253, 282–283

  see also vestry

parish registers 49–50, 51, 52, 214, 223

Parr, Thomas 23

pauper badges 197

pauper letters 53, 72, 86, 94, 96, 178

pauper lists 52, 96–97, 210

Pearson, Jane 133, 164

Pelling, Margaret 18, 156

pensions 13, 51, 58–59, 72, 92, 198, 225, 228, 226–232, 242

  Civil Service pensions 75, 99–102

  military 58, 77–79

  see also occupational pensions; Poor Law

Piozzi, Hester Thrale 39, 99

Pitt, William 270

Poor Law (New) 20, 176, 177, 219, 275

Poor Law (Old) 2, 8, 9–12, 51, 71, 73, 86–87, 88, 121–122, 173–220, 221–246, 281

  age structure of poor relief 185, 187, 184–189, 199, 200, 199–203, 223, 223–226, 235, 240, 243, 239–245, 249, 250–251, 260, 259–261, 274, 281

  casual relief 206–207, 225, 226

  Elizabethan Poor Law Acts 173

  entitlement to poor relief 177–183, 245

  European comparisons 218

  and family responsibility 145, 158, 174–176, 197, 233–234

  indoor relief, see workhouses

  ‘liable relatives clause’ 145, 153, 174–176

  pensions 4, 10, 58–59, 72, 186, 187, 198, 199, 225, 228, 226–232, 244

  poor rates 180, 196–198, 209, 222–223, 236–237, 241, 251, 281

  reformers 266–270, 275

  regional variation 10, 11, 187, 204, 205, 183–220, 281

  relief in kind 227, 235, 232–237

  see also gender; pensions; settlement; workhouses

Pope, Alexander 32, 55

popular culture 109–112

population, age structure 21–26, 46, 184, 193, 250, 259, 261, 277

  change in 6, 61, 222

Porter, Agnes 49, 92–93

Porter, Dorothy 30

Porter, Roy 30

Post, J.B. 36

poverty in old age 11, 14, 70, 73, 75, 86–87, 114, 121–122, 142, 155, 172, 173–220, 221–246, 255

  working poor 71, 176

Preston, Lancashire 269

prolongation of life 24–25

property, transmission of 149–150

  see also wills

public service, old people in 103, 104, 98–115

Puddletown, Dorset 2–4, 10, 18, 51, 52, 88, 95, 97, 105–108, 111, 125–126, 148–150, 153, 164–165, 168–170, 189–220, 221–246, 281

Quadagno, Jill 67, 177

Quakers 113, 114, 273–274

Raphael, Mario 75

reciprocity, intergenerational 147–155

record linkage, nominal 62, 194, 199, 223, 224, 238, 250, 254

reformers, political 80–81, 82

  see also Poor Law (Old), reformers

regional economies 217

religion and old age 88, 112–114, 145

remarriage, see marriage, remarriage

retirement 13, 57, 66, 103, 104, 120, 245

  see also pensions

Richardson, Ruth 274

Riley, James C. 26, 109

Riley, Matilda White 4

Roberts, Marie Mulvey 24, 25

Robin, Jean 117

Roebuck, Janet 20

Rogers, Hester 113

Rolle, Samuel 191, 195

Rosenthal, Joel 20, 67, 112, 176

Rostherne 127, 151, 158

Ruggles, Steven 152

Ruggles, Thomas 72, 110, 173

Rule, John 109–110

Rushton, Peter 183, 213

Russell, Lady Rachel 99, 163

Salisbury 169

Savage, Sarah 92, 113, 162

Savile, Gertrude 32, 79, 144

savings 74, 81, 93, 181

‘scarcity value’ of old 21

Schofield, R.S. 21, 22, 184

Scientific Revolution 53

Secker, Archbishop 171

self help, see independence

self-sufficiency, see independence

‘separate spheres’ 97–98

sermons 112–114

servants 90, 92, 170–171

Settlement, Poor Relief, Act of (1662) 72, 188–189, 281

sexton 88

sexuality 31–32, 33, 41

Shahar, Shulamith 19–20, 62

Shakespeare 35, 55

  King Lear 124

Sharpe, Pamela 89, 180, 212

Shaw, James 174

Sheffield 271

Sheridan, Betsy 31, 42, 48, 50, 85, 90, 99, 142, 147, 153, 159

Sheridan, Richard B. 55

Shoemaker, Robert 98

Shrewsbury 227, 249, 253, 254

siblings 158–159, 165–166, 168

sickness, see health in old age

Slack, Paul 71, 173

Smail, John 193

Smith, Adam 31, 100

Smith, James E. 127, 132, 152

Smith, John 44

Smith, Richard M. 9, 18, 156, 177, 186, 241, 270

Smith, Steven R. 22

Smith, Thomas 49, 101, 132, 144, 146, 161, 166

Snell, Keith 189, 236

social class differences in aging 8, 13–14, 61–62

  and community roles 98–101, 114

  and family and households 116, 129, 130, 141, 142, 155, 172

  and work 67, 71, 73, 74, 75, 77–79, 83–86, 89, 97

societies

  trade clubs (‘box clubs’) 71, 74–75, 76

  see also friendly societies

Sokoll, Thomas 72, 129, 154, 158, 178, 210, 241

Solar, Peter 9, 10, 183

Sonenscher, Michael 46

Soper, Patricia Spencer 33

Speenhamland (system of poor relief) 12, 281

spinsters, see unmarried women

spouses 94, 95–96, 116, 127, 130, 131–132, 230, 237–238

  see also marriage; widows; wills

Stapleton, Barry 23

statutes of labor 57

Stearns, Peter 22, 40, 67, 277

Stedman-Jones, Gareth 69

Steele, Richard 32

stereotypes of old people 31, 32–33, 47, 65, 82

Stoke-on-Trent 127, 151, 158

Stout, William 113, 153

Strutt family of Terling 31, 124, 190, 195, 196, 215, 251

Suffolk, county of 35, 180

superannuation funds, see pensions

Swift, Jonathan 55, 56

Tague, Ingrid 92

Taylor, James S. 72, 248

Teedon, Samuel 166

Terling, Essex 10, 45, 88, 95, 122, 125–126, 148–150, 155, 164–165, 168–170, 175, 189–220, 221–246, 249–259, 265–266, 273, 274–275, 281

Thane, Pat 10, 21, 59, 73, 82, 115, 124, 156, 162, 219, 278

‘third age’ 69

  see also life stages

Thomas, E.G. 266

Thomas, Keith 1, 18, 22, 32, 44, 67, 100

Thompson, E.P. 71, 109, 111

Thomson, David 9, 69, 175, 177, 219, 245–246

Thrale, Hester, see Piozzi, Hester Thrale

time 46

Todd, Barbara 94, 119, 133

Tolpuddle, Dorset 217, 229

Tomkins, Alannah 121, 207, 212, 213, 249, 252, 254, 256

tontines 74

Townsend, Joseph 81, 178, 270

tradition, elderly as keepers of 109–112

transitions, life course 16, 63–64

  see also life stages; menopause

Troll, Lillian 42

Troyansky, David 24, 41, 65, 109

Trumbach, Randolph 165

Turner, Thomas 48, 131, 143

Ulrich, Laurel Thatcher 90

under-employment 11, 181, 229, 245–246

unemployment 11, 245–246

unmarried men 165–166, 168, 172, 237–238

unmarried women 41, 43, 168, 172, 237–238

Vancouver, John 80, 89, 115, 270

Vann, Richard 169

Vassberg, David 153

vestry 105–108, 175, 178, 182–183, 190, 193, 196–198, 229, 234, 236, 237, 249–259, 265, 270–271, 273, 275

Vickery, Amanda 31

wages 229–231

Wales, Tim 173, 207

Walker, Garthine 89

Wall, Richard 95, 117, 127, 130, 230, 237

Walpole, Robert, Earl of Orford 191, 195, 215

Walter, John 283

Walton-upon-Thames, Surrey 270

Ward, Ned 31, 79, 86

Ward, Ralph 146, 148, 166

Waterhouse charity 215

Weathersfield, Essex 232, 257–258

Webb, Sydney and Beatrice 248

welfare, see Poor Law

Wells, Roger 87, 213

Wembworthy 45, 127, 151, 158, 170

Wentworth, Lady Isabella 43, 120, 123

Wesley, John 33, 53–54, 113

West Kent 88, 212, 240, 240–241, 271, 272

Wetherby 127, 130, 151, 158, 170

Whickham, County Durham 96–97

Whittington 127, 151

widows 93, 118, 120, 124–126, 127, 132, 148, 164, 168

  as executors 135, 136

  as money lenders 93

  and poor relief 96, 179, 180, 237–238

  provisions for in wills 138, 139, 132–140

  societies for the benefit of 74–75

  see also marriage; spouses; women

Williams, Naomi 22, 61

Williams, Samantha 194, 226

wills 118, 124–126, 136, 138, 139, 148–150, 164–165, 168, 168–170

Wilson, Adrian 38

Wilson, Thomas 29, 72, 84, 85, 90, 131, 143, 145, 148

Wiltshire 164

Winwick 127, 130, 151, 158, 170

Wisbech, Cambridgeshire 182

Witham, Essex 212–213

Withers, Thomas 25

wives, see spouses

Wolniakowski, Elizabeth 6

women 14, 35–44, 77, 98–101

  and aging 35–44, 47, 60

  and fashion 31, 42

  households of 128, 126–131, 210–211

  longevity 22, 23

  and menopause 35–41

  and poor relief 198–202, 204, 228–229, 236–237, 239, 241, 250, 260, 261

  and work 89–98, 114, 232, 233–234

Wood, Andy 112

Woodforde, Reverend James 48, 50, 84, 85

Woods, Robert 22, 61

Wool, Dorset 182

Worcester, Worcestershire 268

work, labor practices and 46, 109–110, 207

work, old age and 8–9, 66–67, 180, 233–234

  for men 68–87, 89, 97, 146

  for poor 86–87

  unpaid domestic work 68, 89, 90, 94, 97

  for women 89–98, 114, 232, 233–234

  see also workhouses

work ethic 66–67, 70–73, 88, 97

workhouses 10–11, 12, 88, 122–123, 128, 155, 193, 203, 206, 215, 224, 227, 231, 251, 260, 247–276

  see also Poor Law

Wright, S.J. 86, 132

Wrightson, Keith 66, 133, 141, 190, 191

Wrigley, E.A. 21, 22, 184

Yonge, James 49, 50, 70, 107, 159

Yorkshire 149, 175, 218, 264

  see also Ovenden

Young, Arthur 119, 216

Young, Edward 31, 34, 142



printer iconPrinter friendly version AddThis