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Political Ideology in the Arab World
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Political Ideology in the Arab World
Cambridge University Press
9780521765329 - Political Ideology in the Arab World - Accommodation and Transformation - By Michaelle L. Browers
Index

Index

20th March Movement for Change 113

Abaza, Mona 23–24

‘Abd al-Fatah, Alaa Sayf al-Islam 128

‘Abd al-Fattah, ‘Ali 129–30

‘Abd al-Jabbar, Muhammad 78

‘Abd al-Karim, Salah 68

‘Abd al-Nasir, Gamal 2, 83, 118

‘Abd al-Nur, Munir 15

‘Abd al-Quddus, Muhammad 113, 116

‘Abd al-Raziq, ‘Ali 41

Abdel-Malek, Anwar 20, 29

Abduh, Muhammad 23

Abu al-‘Ala Mawdudi, Sayyid 56

Abu al-Futuh, ‘Abd al-Mun’im 113, 118, 121, 132

Abu al-Majd, Kamal 48, 49, 64, 66

Dialogue, Not Confrontation 52

Abu Lughod, Ibrahim 19

Abu Zahra, Muhammad 56

Abu Zayd, Nasr Hamid 5, 92

‘Aflaq, Michel 1

ahl al-dhimma (“protected peoples”) 64–66, 68

Ahmad, Muhammad Sayyid 34

al-Ahmar, ‘Abdullah Bin Husayn 81, 143, 147–48, 148, 156, 166–67

al-Ahsan, Abdullah 50

Ajlan, Muhammad ‘Ali 167

‘Akif, Muhammad Mahdi 118, 122, 123, 124

Amin, Qasim 98

Amman Message 75

al-Anisi, ‘Abd al-Wahhab 148, 156, 160–61, 167

Anwar Al Sadat, Muhammad 3

assassination of 48

Arab Islamic Democratic Movement (al-Du’a) 4

Arab nationalism

affinities with Islamism 1

impact of 1967 Arab-Israeli war 20–23

retreat from Secularism 19–20

Arab Nationalism (Tibi) 4–5

Arab Nationalism and Islam conference 80

Arab nationalists

and socialism 2, 23

cooperation with Islamists 3–4

hostility to Islamism 2

Arab socialists, retreat from Secularism 19–20

Arab Society for Sociology 80

“Arab-Islamic Civilizational Circle” 34, 83

Arab-Israeli war (1967), impact on Arab Nationalist thought 20–23

Arab-Israeli war (1973) 19

al-‘Ariyan, ‘Issam 80, 103, 113, 115, 121, 123–24

Artists for Change 113

asala (authenticity) 29–33

al-Ashal, ‘Abdullah 115

al-Ashmawi, Muhammad Sa’id 40

al-Atassi, Jamal 87

al-‘Attas, Haydar Abu Bakr 141

authenticity (asala).

See asala (authenticity)

Averroes (Ibn Rushd) 32

al-‘Awa, Muhammad Salim 19–20, 48, 66–7, 67, 115

‘Awida, Muhammad 98, 100

‘Ayyad, Rinad al-Khatib 93

al-Azab, Fathi 166

al-‘Azm, Sadiq Jalal 22, 42

‘azma (sense of crisis) 30–31

al-Azmeh, Aziz 31

Badran, Margot 98, 99

Baffoun, Alya 98

Baker, Raymond William 12–13, 51, 110

al-Bakri, Mustafa 115

al-Banna, Hasan 1, 57, 70


cross-ideological forums 77–78, 80–81

See also National-Islamic Conferences

CSID (Center for the Study of Islam and Democracy) 78

al-Da’wa (The Call; magazine) 110

al-Dajani, Ahmad Sidqi 20, 33–35, 83, 86

Dar al-Fikr (publishing house) 77

al-Dawla, Aida Sayf 111

al-Daylami, ‘Abd al-Wahhab 145–46

democracy

Islah party 155

National-Islamic Conferences 87–88

opposition to 55–56

Qaradawi on 57–58

Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine 3

Democratic Revolutionary Party 150

Dhaw, Antoine 89–90

Dialog, Not Confrontation (Abu al-Majd) 52

“Dialogues for a New Century” series 77

Document of Pledge and Accord for the Basis of Building a Modern Yemeni State 144, 158

Dresch, Paul 155

al-Du’a (Arab Islamic Democratic Movement) 4

Duri, ‘Abd al-‘Aziz 20–21

al-Durra, Muhammad 111

Egyptian Communist Party 3

Egyptian Economy from Independence to Dependency 1974–1979 (‘Adil Husayn) 25

Egyptian National Movement for Change (Kifaya!)

See Kifaya! (Egyptian National Movement for Change)

Egyptian Popular Committee in Solidarity with the Palestinian Intifada (EPCSPI) 111

Egyptian presidential election 2005 116–117

El-Affendi, Abdelwahab 60

El-Ghobashy, Mona 121–22

El-Mahdi, Rabab 127

Elmessiri, Abdelwahab 20, 33, 113

Emancipation of Women: An Islamic Perspective (al-Turabi) 60–63

Enloe, Cynthia 99

EPCSPI (Egyptian Popular Committee in Solidarity with the Palestinian Intifada) 111

Ezzat, Heba Raouf 78, 127

al-Bastawisi, Hisham 117, 128

al-Baytar, Nadim 22

al-Bazri, Dalal 93

Bendjedid, Chadli 3

Between Islam and Arabism (al-Bishri) 38

al-Bidh, ‘Ali Salim 141, 142, 144

Bilqaziz, ‘Abd al-Ilah 89

bin Shamlan, Faysal 161–62

Binder, Leonard, Islamic Liberalism 5, 40–41

al-Bishri, Tariq 20, 35–40, 66–7, 69, 89, 113–14, 115, 128

Bitter Legacy: Ideology and Politics in the Arab World (Salem) 6–7

Burgat, François 6, 156

Burrowes, Robert 139

al-Buti, Muhammad Sa’id 77–78

Cairo Anti-War Conferences

cross-ideological alliances 3

formation of 78, 111–12

Cairo Conference Against U.S. Hegemony and War on Iraq and in Solidarity with Palestine 111

Cairo Conferences

See Cairo Anti-War Conferences

CAUS (Center for Arab Unity Studies; markaz dirasat al-wahda al-‘arabi) 78–79

Center for the Study of Islam and Democracy (CSID) 78

changes in thought and practice 8–11

Christians

incidents showing conflicts with Muslims in Egypt 131

Wasatiyya trend viewing Christians as members of the Islamic umma 67–69

See also Copts

civil society, Bishri on 38–39

Clark, Janine 8, 9, 179

Communists, under Gamal ‘Abd al-Nasir 2

comprehensive secularism 33

Contemporary Islamic Vision, A: Declaration of Principles (Abu al-Majd) 49

Copts

Muslim Brotherhood’s discourse on 131–32

crisis

See azma (sense of crisis)

Critique of Religious Thought (‘Azm) 22

cross-ideological coordination

character 175–76

origins 175

significance 176–79


Ibn Rushd (Averroes) 32

Ibn Zad al-Mahmud, ‘Abdullah 56

Ibrahim, Saad Eddin 127

Ibrahim, Sonallah 112

‘Id, ‘Abd al-Razzaq 78

al-‘Imara, Muhammad 19–20, 48, 63–64, 66, 80

Ishaq, George 15, 113, 127–28

Islah (Reform Gathering; al-tajammu’ al-yamani lil-islah) 138, 142–43, 143–49, 154–57

Islamic Action Front 3

Islamic Alliance (al-tahaluf al-islami) 119

Islamic Awakening, Between Rejection and Extremism (al-Qaradawi) 51–52

Islamic civilizational circle/Islamic circle 34, 83

Islamic Jihad 3, 142

Islamic Left (al-Yasar al-islami; journal) 27

Islamic Left, formation of 23–29

Islamic Liberalism (Binder) 5, 40–41

Islamism, affinities with Arab nationalism 1

Islamists

cooperation with Arab nationalists 3–4

denunciation of Arab nationalists 1–2

Isma’il, Farraj 164

Ismail, Salwa 26, 118, 177

‘Issa, Hussam 6

al-Jabri, Muhammad ‘Abid 20, 30–31, 31–33, 41–42

Jalabi, Khalis 78

al-Jawi, ‘Umar 142

Jerusalem, the al-Aqsa Intifada and the War of Globalization (al-Dajani) 35

al-Jifri, ‘Abd al-Rahman 145

jihad, Qaradawi on 56–57

Joint Meeting Parties

2003 elections 148–49

cross-ideological alliances 3–4

formation of 138–39, 146

historical context 140–49

on secularism 162–64

program 160–61

project for reform 161–62

women’s political participation 164–67

Judges Club 117

Karama Party 3

Kasper, Catherine 139

Kawtharani, Wajih 88–89

al-Khalil, Kamal 125

Fadlallah, Muhammad Husayn 84, 85

al-Fadli, Tariq 142

Failure of Political Islam (Roy) 7

Fatah 3

Fayyad, Suzanne 111

fiqh, Qaradawi on 54–55

Foda, Farag 92

Freeden, Michael 9

General People’s Conference (GPC; al-mu’tamar al-sha’bi al-‘am) 138, 141, 142–43, 161

General Union of Palestinian Women 99

al-Ghannushi, Rashid 48, 58–59, 64, 70, 80

al-Ghazzali, Muhammad 1, 2, 48, 56, 64, 80, 110

Gibb, Sir Hamilton 49

Gluck, Sherna Berger 99

GPC (General People’s Conference; al-mu’tamar al-sha’bi al-‘am) 138, 141, 142–43, 161

Habib, Muhammad 10, 69, 116

Habib, Rafiq 15, 48, 67–68, 131, 132

Haddad, Yvonne Yazbeck 99

Hafez, Mohammed 119

Hale, Sondra 100

Hamas 3

Hanafi, Hasan 20, 25, 27–29

Harb, Usama al-Ghazali 130

Hasib, Khayr al-Din 81, 86, 88, 96

Hassan, Muhammad 34

Hassan, Riaz 69

Hatem, Mervat 99–100

HCCO (Higher Coordination Council for the Opposition) 146

heritage (turath)

See turath (heritage)

Heritage and Renewal (Hanafi) 27

Higher Coordination Council for the Opposition (HCCO) 146

hisba (bringing to account) 92

Hourani, Albert 20

al-Hudaybi, Ma’mun 122, 123

Hudson, Michael 141, 145

Husayn bin Talal, King of Jordan 3

Husayn, ‘Adil 6, 20, 25–27

Husayn, Ahmad 25

al-Husri, Sati’ 2

al-Hut, Bayan Nuwayhid 93

al-Hut, Shafiq 89, 90

Huwaydi, Fahmi 48, 63, 64–65, 80, 153

I Love Cinema (film) 131

Ibn Battuta 72


khuruj 154

Kifaya! (Egyptian National Movement for Change)

anti-Mubarak protests 114–15

coordination with Muslim Brotherhood 114–16

cross-ideological alliances 3–4

cross-ideological political mobilization 15

emergence of 112–14

middle generation 112

overview 127–28

kifaya, use of slogan for multiple groups 113

Krämer, Gudrun 85, 91

Labor Islamic Alliance 4

Lahoud, Nelly 40

Lawyers’ Syndicate meeting (Cairo, June 8, 2006) 109–10

Lee, Robert D 30

Liberal Socialist Party (Egypt) 4

literature review 4–8

Madhi, Abu al-‘Ila 112, 118, 120, 127

al-maghrib 21

al-Majidi, Ahmad 166

Makki, Mahmud 117, 128

al-Manar al-jadid (journal) 20

al-Maqrami, Muhammad ‘Abd al-Rahman 154, 163

Who Killed Jarallah ‘Umar? 153

al-Mashad, ‘Adil 111

Mashhour, Mustafa 66, 69

al-mashriq 21

maslaha 59

al-Masri, Salman 95–96

Materialist Tendencies in Arab Islamic Philosophy (Muruwa) 31

al-Mawdudi, Abul A’la 56, 64

Meijer, Roel 41, 87

micromobilization 83

moderation

meaning of 49–50

See also Wasatiyya trend

modernity (al-mu’asira) 37

al-mu’asira (modernity) 37

Muqbil, ‘Ali Salih ‘Abbad 151–52

Muruwa, Husayn 31

Muslim Brotherhood (Egypt)

al-Sha’b newspaper 26

anti Iraq war protests 123

backlash over Sadat’s assassination 26

bolstered by Sadat 3

call to void ballots in election 116

coordination with Kifaya 114–16

coordination with the Wafd 119

cross-ideological alliances 3, 4, 26

effect of emergence of Kifaya movement 15

female membership 95

middle generation 118

See also Wasat party

move to calls for political reforms 114–15

old guard 117–18

on democracy 87–88

political form of Islam 23

politicization 121–22, 123–24

shabab open letter on Palestine 122–23

See also Islamic Action Front

Muslim Brotherhood (Yemen) 142

Muslim Brotherhood, The: A Socialist View (Najib) 125–27

Mustafa, Nevine ‘Abd al-Khaliq 93

al-Mutawakkil, Intilaq Muhammad ‘Abd al-Malik 93, 94–95

al-Mutawakkil, Muhammad ‘Abd al-Malik 15, 35, 86–87, 95, 103, 157–60, 160, 165

Nafi, Basheer 80

Najib, Samir, The Muslim Brotherhood: A Socialist View 125–27

National and Islamic Forces 3

National Body for Pursuing the Matter of the Martyr Jarallah ‘Umar’s Assassination(al-hiya al-wataniyya li-mutaba’a qadhaiya igtiyal al-shahid jar allah ‘umar) 153

National-Islamic Conferences

avoidance of role of religion in political order 86–88

controversial nature 81–82

denial of difference on secularism 88–90

differences over non-Muslims, secularists and non-believers 91–92

multiple views rather than dialogue 82

on democracy 87–88

on women’s role and status 92–93, 95–101

organization of 78–81

overview 13–14, 82–83, 101–03

unity to confront the Western assault 83–86

women attending 93–95

NDF (National Democratic Front) 150–51


al-Qaradawi, Yusuf 1

association with Wasatiyya trend 48

Islamic Awakening, Between Rejection and Extremism 51–52

on position of women in Islamic society 63

politics 56–59

position of non-Muslims in the Muslim State 64, 65, 66

Priorities of the Islamic Movement in the Coming Phase 51–52, 52–53

al-Qubati, Muhamad Salih 167

al-Qubati, Yasin ‘Abd al-‘Aziz 142

Qutb, Sayyid 55

Ramadan, Sa’id 64

renewal 28–29

See also asala (authenticity)

Renewal of Political Thought in the Framework of Democracy and Human Rights: Islamic, Marxist and Nationalist Trends (al-Dajani et al.) 34

Revolutionary Socialists 125–27

Rida, Rashid 56

Rizq, Hani 78

rotation of power 87

Roy, Olivier, The Failure of Political Islam 7

al-Sabahi, Hamdin 109, 125

al-Sabri, Muhammad Yahya 167

al-Sa’dawi, Nawal 78, 94

Sa’id, Muhammad al-Sayyid 113, 128, 130

Salafiyya, Qaradawi on 54

Salah, Muhammad 122

Salem, Paul, Bitter Legacy 6–7

Salih, ‘Ali ‘Abdullah 3, 140, 141, 147, 148

Sayf al-Islam, Ahmed 128–29

al-Sayyid, Ridwan 41, 84–85, 90, 178

SCER (Supreme Commission for Elections and Referendums) 146

Schwedler, Jillian 8–9, 49, 139, 156, 179

Self-Criticism after the Defeat (‘Azm) 22

al-Sha’b (newspaper) 26

Shafiq, Munir 6, 20, 24–25, 103

Shahrur, Muhammad 40

Shallah, Ramadan ‘Abdallah 84

Shaltut, Mahmud 56

al-Shami, Ahmad 159

al-Shami, Zayd 163

Shamlan, Faysal bin 138

Sharaf, Layla 85, 86, 93

Sha’rani, Aman Kibbara 93, 96–97

Sha’rawi, Muhammad Mutawalli 26–27

NDI (National Democratic Institute) 160

“new Islamists” 48

al-Niyad, ‘Abd al-Qadir 98

non-Muslims

National-Islamic Conferences, differences over non-Muslims, secularists and non-believers 91–92

Wasatiyya trend non-Muslims in the Muslim State 64–67

See also Christians

Noonan, Rita 101

Normalization: The Zionist Plan for Economic Hegemony (‘Adil Husayn) 25

North Yemen

See YAR (Yemen Arab Republic; North Yemen)

Nu’man, Yasin Sa’id 154

Nur, Ayman 109, 128

Occidentalism 29

Organization of Revolutionary Socialists 3

orientalism in reverse 40–42

Our Beginning in Wisdom (al-Ghazzali) 110

Palestine, Qaradawi on 57

partial secularism 33

PDRY (People’s Democratic Republic of Yemen)

See South Yemen

People’s Campaign for Change (al-hamla al-shabiyya min ajl al-taghyir) 113

People’s Democratic Republic of Yemen (PDRY)

See South Yemen

Political Movement in Egypt 1945–52 (al-Bishri) 36

Popular Arab Jordanian Committee for Resisting Submission and Normalization 3

Popular Campaign for the Support of Resistance in Palestine and Iraq and Against Globalization 111

Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine 3

Popular Nasirist Unity Organization 138

Priorities of the Islamic Movement in the Coming Phase (al-Qaradawi) 51–52, 52–53

professors (ustaz) 156

“protected peoples” (ahl al-dhimma) 64–66, 68

Qaddura, Zahiya 93

Qahtan, Muhammad 15, 156, 157, 160–61, 165–66

Qandil, ‘Abd al-Halim 113


Shari’ati, ‘Ali 24

Shayfinkum (we see you) 113

Shukr, ‘Abd al-Ghaffar 109

Sidqi, Aziz 115

Sivan, Emmanuel 5

al-Siyadi, Mukhlis 97

Smith, Jane I 95, 99

Socialist Labor Party (Egypt) 4

Socialist People’s Party 3

South Yemen 140

Students for Change 113

Sulaiman, Sadek J 86

Sulayman, William 89

Supreme Commission for Elections and Referendums (SCER) 146

al-Tali’a (The Vanguard; review) 36

Talib, Saadaldeen Ali 150

Tarabishi, Georges 41–42, 42, 71

Taraki, Lisa 95

Tibi, Bassam, Arab Nationalism 4–5

Tizini, Tayyib 77–78

Toward a New Arab Thought: Nasirism, Development and Democracy (‘Adil Husayn) 25–26

al-Turabi, Hasan 49, 59–63

turath (heritage) 29–30

Bishri on 36–37

‘Umar, Amin Hassan 97

‘Umar, Jarallah 15, 143, 150–54, 160–61, 161, 162–64

umma (Islamic community)

as integral to Arab unity 33–34

idea introduced by Islam 21

meaning of 49–50, 50–51, 69

umma wasata 49–50

Union Nationale des Femmes de Tunisie 94

Union of Popular Forces (UPF) 138

United National Front for Change (al-jabha al-wataniyya al-muwwahida min ajl al-taghyir; UNFC) 116–17

University Professors for Change 113

UPF (Union of Popular Forces) 138

Waardenburg, Jaques 30

Wajih, Tamir 115

al-Wasat al-Misri (The Egyptian Middle) 121

Wasat party

association with Wasatiyya trend 49

cross-ideological alliances 3

cross-ideological political mobilization 15

formation of 119

policies 120–21

status as a legal political party 121

Wasatiyya trend

Christians as members of the Islamic umma 67–69

cross-ideological and cross-religious dialogs 69–71

ideology 53–55

overview 48–51

politics 55–59

position of non-Muslims in the Muslim State 64–67

position of women in Islamic society 59–64

West, The, views of 30

Who Killed Jarallah ‘Umar? (al-Maqalih) 153

Wickham, Carrie Rosefsky 121

Wiktorowicz, Quintan 119

women

attendance at National-Islamic Conferences 93–95

discussion of, at National-Islamic Conferences 92–93, 95–101

political participation in JMP 164–67

position in Islamic society 59

Wasat party 120

Workers for Change 113

al-Yadumi, Muhammad 15, 147, 155, 156–57, 164

YAR (Yemen Arab Republic; North Yemen) 140–49

al-Yasar al-islami (Islamic Left; journal) 27

Yazbeck, Haddad, Yvonne 95

Yemen, history 140–49

Youth for Change 113

YSP (Yemeni Socialist Party) 138, 141, 143–49

See also ‘Umar, Jarallah

Zahran, Farid 111

Zaydi Party (al-Haq) 138

al-Zayyat, Muntasir 109

Zindani, ‘Abd al-Majid 142, 143, 145, 148, 156

Zubaida, Sami 22–23, 24, 26, 41, 92




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