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The Cambridge Introduction to Modernist Poetry
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  • 2 b/w illus.
  • Page extent: 276 pages
  • Size: 228 x 152 mm
  • Weight: 0.61 kg

Library of Congress

  • Dewey number: 821/.91209112
  • Dewey version: 23
  • LC Classification: PN1271 .H69 2012
  • LC Subject headings:
    • Poetry, Modern--20th century--History and criticism
    • Modernism (Literature)

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The Cambridge Introduction to
Cambridge University Press
9780521764476 - The Cambridge Introduction to - Modernist Poetry - By Peter Howarth
Index

Index

Adams, John

in Canto LXXI 44

in Canto LXXXIV 35

in The Cantos 51

Adorno, Theodor 14, 180–182

and Weber 180

advertising 5, 7, 22–23

influence of 11

Aldington, Richard

and H. D. 159

Some Imagist Poets 126

Allen, Donald 214

Altieri, Charles 139

An “Objectivists” Anthology 203

Anderson, Margaret 186

anthology 36, 46

and publicity 45

as compilation 41

as education 45

as means of selection 36

Anthology of Revolutionary Poetry, The 198

Des Imagistes 12

Georgian Poetry 1918--1919 1

Palgrave's Golden Treasury 46

Apollinaire, Guillaume 4

and advertising 22

and Simultaneism 141

and Stein 155

Arensburg, Walter 114

Armory Show 106

Arnold, Matthew 14

art's relation to society 13, 187–188, 197–207

Arts and Crafts movement 14

Ashbery, John 218

Athenaeum, The 63

Auden, W. H.

and modernism 189, 191

on difficulty 171

The Orators 189

autonomy (of poem) 7–8

avant-garde 95, 163, 164

against compromise 144

against fascism 187

against genre 142

and art--life division 142, 144

and audience relations 145

and black culture 193

and consumerism 145

and feminism 143

and ‘Language’ writing 219

and mainstream 142, 145–146

and manifestos 142–145

and modernism 186

and organic form 188

and performance 142

and ‘post-avant’ poetry 221

and Puritans 176

and sexuality 163

and transnationalism 142

anti-personal composition 142

as postmodernism 214

Blaise Cendrars and 141

characteristics of 141–142

experiments with layout 14

hybrid works 141

influence of 145

Kurt Schwitters and 141

left-wing origins 142

military origins 144

rivalries of 144

sound poetry 4, 141

theorists of 145

use of chance 14

Baker, Houston A. 21, 186

balance (in art) 13

Ball, Hugo 141

banks 10

creation of consumer mentality 11

Baraka, Amiri 218

Barker, George 191

Baudelaire, Charles

as flâneur 22

as reactionary 74

in The Waste Land 70

on crowds 12, 22

on modernity and time 25

on the dandy 59

Bauhaus, The 14, 143

Baxter, Richard 127

Beard, George 22

Beat poetry

and Mina Loy 216

and orality 25

and Pound 55

Beeching, John 198

Benjamin, Walter 13

Bergson, Henri 26–27

Black Mountain College 215

and Pound 55

Blackmur, R. P. 122

Blake, William 58

and difficulty 182

Blast

and popularity 143

and posters 22

and T. S. Eliot 63

as vortex 45

on individualism 15

Bogan, Louise 191

Brathwaite, Kamau 81

Breton, André

and avant-garde 144

and left-wing alliances 197

British Poetry Revival 219

broadcasting 24

Brook, Peter 209

and postmodernism 214

Brooks, Gwendolyn 193

Brown, Bob 221

Brown, Sterling 192

Browning, Robert 41

Eliot on 74

Bunting, Basil 211–213

against hierarchy 213

and British Poetry Revival 219

and difficulty 169

and Objectivism 203

and orality 25

and performance 219

and Pound 211

and Quakers 213

and regionalism 212

as late modernist 219

Briggflatts 211–213

on poetry as craft 211

‘On the Fly-Leaf of Pound's Cantos’ 191

‘The Well of Lycopolis’ 211

bureaucracy 10, 11

Bürger, Peter 145

Burnshaw, Stanley 137

Bynner, Witter 185

Cabaret Voltaire 141

Cage, John 214

Camera Work 106

Carpenter, Edward 163

Catholic Anthology 36

Catullus 52

Cavalcanti, Guido 43

Cendrars, Blaise 4, 145

‘Contraste’ 18

Prose du Transsibérien 14, 141, 188

Césaire, Aimé 200

Chaplin, Charlie 75

cinema 25

cities 4, 21–22

and blasé attitude 22

and nerves 22

and unconscious 20

in Eliot 61

Close Up 163

Coffey, Brian 219

Coleridge, Samuel Taylor

in Eliot 74

on art and society 14

on free verse 24

collective consciousness 8

and ritual 29

and séances 19–20

in Eliot 63

concrete poetry 188

confessional poetry 214

Constructivism 141, 143

Crane, Hart 107–110

and Black Mountain poetics 216

and homosexuality 108

and The Waste Land 108

‘Atlantis’ 109

‘Garden Abstract’ 107

on Eliot's ‘Rhapsody’ 108

The Bridge 109

‘The Tunnel’ 108–109

Whitman's influence on 107

Creeley, Robert 215

impact on ‘Language’ writers 219

Criterion, The 63

Ezra Pound in 41

Cullen, Countee 192

Cummings, E. E. 199

and typography 188

compared to Olson 216

Cummins, Geraldine (medium) 20

Cunard, Nancy 193

Dadaism

and Cabaret Voltaire 141

and popular culture 17

and Pound 50

and primitivism 188

Manifesto (1918) 17

mixing high and low art 143

on artist and audience 8

on journalism 22

on spontaneity 143

sound-poetry 147

spontaneous composition 14

dandyism 59

and Stevens 139

Daniel, Arnaut 35

Dante (Alighieri)

in The Waste Land 63, 68

La Vita Nuova 90

Purgatorio 34

Davies, Hugh Sykes 15

de Duve, Thierry 174

Delaunay, Sonia 141

Demuth, Charles 114

Dial, The

and Eliot 63

and Marianne Moore 126

Diepeveen, Leonard 169

difficulty 3, 5

Adorno's arguments for 180–182

against domination 172

against expertise 174

and America 105

and anti-didacticism 123

and artistic elitism 16

and citizen reform 173–176

and cultural omnivorousness 183

and diversity 182–184

and elitism 176–180

and exclusion 166, 169

and fan clubs 179

and immersion 166

and mainstream 182

and marketing 182

and meaning as property 168

and ordinary life 170–171

and professionalisation 177

and reader participation 175–176

and Schiller 171

and T. S. Eliot 170

and the University 176–180

as anti-narcotic 171

as artistic strategy 169, 171–173

as discipline 176

as ethical duty 181

as means to universality 174

as resistance to homogenisation 181

in older poets 167

Steiner's types of 167–168

disenchantment 28

documentary 199–201

Donne, John 60

difficulty of 175

Dorn, Ed 216

Douglas, Major C. H. 46–48

Duchamp, Marcel

and mass production 145

and Williams 114

Duncan, Robert 216

Durkheim, Émile

on re-enchantment 30

theories of 29

Eagleton, Terry 217

Eastman, Max 197–198

Edwardianism, collapse of 16

Egoist, The 22

and Eliot 63

and social reform 173

Eigner, Larry 219

electricity 23–25

Eliot, T. S.

‘Ash-Wednesday’ 218

‘Bolo’ poems 73

‘Eeldrop and Appleplex’ 11, 191

‘Mr Eliot's Sunday Morning Service’ 4

After Strange Gods 76

against ‘inner voice’ 66

against amateurs 177

against Georgians 65

against Imagists 65

against liberalism 74, 77

and America 80

and anti-semitism 76–77

and automatism 61

and avant-garde 146

and banking 63, 71

and biography 72

and Blake 58

and Blitz 78

and canon 185

and Christianity 77–80

and classicism 50, 63, 67, 73–74

and David Jones 196

and definition of modernism 221

and difficulty 71, 167

and ‘dissociation of sensibility’ 170

and F. H. Bradley 63–65

and grail legends 68

and hysteria 60

and impersonality 215

and marketplace 187

and music hall 75

and Objectivism 203

and organicism 66

and post-colonialism 80

and postmodernism 218

and Q. D. Leavis 75

and ritual 75

and Schiller 74

and social reform 173

and tradition 105

and WWI poetry 195

and Zukofsky 202

Ash-Wednesday 77–78

‘Burbank with a Baedecker: Bleistein with a Cigar’ 76

Choruses from The Rock 76

contradictions of 57–58

critical reputation 3

cultural and political criticism 73–77

disliked by Olson 216

early criticism 65–67

Four Quartets 78–80

impersonality 66

in Catholic Anthology 36

individualism 63

influenced by Baudelaire 12

Inventions of the March Hare 62

Knowledge and Experience in the Work of F. H. Bradley 58

leaving America 105

marriage 63, 72–73, 77

Murder in the Cathedral 72

Notes towards the Definition of Culture 63

on ‘dissociation of sensibility’ 74

on ‘mythic method’ 30

on authorial ignorance 168

on dandyism 59

on democracy 74

on Durkheim 30

on free verse 59

on Imagism 42

on inarticulacy 178

on individual and collective 63–67

on intuition 180

on literary heritage 11

on Pater 60

on poem as medium 20

on poetic autonomy 73

on popular culture 75–76

on smells 62

‘Preludes’ 61–62

relation of form and history 187

‘Rhapsody on a Windy Night’ 62

romanticism of 186

The Criterion 63

The Family Reunion 70

‘The Love-Song of J. Alfred Prufrock’ 58–61, 80

‘The Metaphysical Poets’ 74, 170, 176

The Waste Land 4, 63, 68–73

as radio 24

difficulty of 172

quoted by Pound 35

simultaneous time 9

‘Tradition and the Individual Talent’ 65–67, 72, 80

use of quotation 8, 14, 15

Eliot, Vivien 63, 72, 77

Ellington, Duke 182

Ellis, Havelock 163

Emerson, Ralph Waldo 14

and cosmic individualism 191

empire 4, 7, 10, 11, 21, 43, 193–195

and America 124

ends vs. means in poetry 9–10, 13, 25

Exile, The 202

Fascism

and Eliot 75

and Pound 54–56

and Yeats 100

Fearing, Kenneth 198

Fenollosa, Ernest 42

Ficino, Marsilio 52

Fisher, Roy

A Furnace 3, 219

Flaubert, Gustave 14

Fletcher, John Gould 22

Formalism, Russian 174

Forster, E. M. 177

Foster, Roy 83, 100

found materials (as artistic method) 10

fragments 6–7

and difficulty 171

and H. D. 159

and Judaism 182, 202

and Oppen 209

and war 18

as connective nodes 17

in Dada 142

in The Waste Land 69–70, 71

opposition to ends--means 9

poetic significance of 9–10

Schiller's analysis of 12

Frazer, J. G. 27

free verse 7, 10, 12, 24

and America 104

and Black Mountain poetics 215

and elitism 186

and Imagism 37

and sex reform 173

in translation 42

relation of mind and body 14

T. S. Eliot on 59

Yeats's dislike of 91–93

Freud, Sigmund 27

and H. D. 162–163

and modernist self-justification 187

Anna O. and hysteria in 20

Frost, Robert 179

and modernism 185, 189–190

Funaroff, Sol 198

Futurism 2, 3, 4, 6, 141, 147–150

against the past 147

and art--life relation 148

and circuses 17, 143

and impersonality 148

and Loy 149

and speed 148

and violence 148

cookery 147

Marinetti on syntax 18

misogyny 149

rivalry with Pound 4

simultaneous time 9

Variety Theatre 147

‘Words-in-Freedom’ 147

Gaudier-Brzeska, Henri 38, 43

Georgian Poetry 1911–12 37

Georgian Poetry 1918–19 1

Gershwin, George 182

Ginsberg, Allen

and confession 183

and Whitman 107, 218

Gold, Mike 199

and Zukofsky 202

on ‘proletarian realism’ 198, 205

Golden Treasury of English Songs and Lyrics (Palgrave's anthology) 46

Graham, W. S. 219

gramophone 25

Graves, Robert

A Survey of Modernist Poetry 176

on modernism and democracy 31

on withdrawal of the will 14

Greek Anthology, The 41

Gris, Juan 117

Guest, Barbara 216

H. D. 4, 158–165

and Aldington 165

and art-life relation 163

and bisexuality 146, 162

and Borderline 163

and broadcasting 25

and Close Up 163

and feminism 160

and film 163–164

and fragments 161

and Freud 162–163

and Greek Anthology 161

and Kenneth MacDonald 159

and Pound 146, 159

and pre-industrial culture 217

and ready-mades 165

and Sappho 161, 162

and séances 215

biography 159

erased from canon 4, 186

Euripides’ Ion 165

‘Eurydice’ 159

Helen in Egypt 20, 159

in Des Imagistes 36

leaving America 105

love-triangles 159

Notes on Thought and Vision 163

on fragments 105

post-WWII reputation 216

‘Sea-Rose’ 160–161

‘The Master’ 162, 164

Trilogy 20, 159–160, 161, 164–165

wealth of 178

Hamilton, Alexander 120

Hardy, Thomas 74, 179

Harlem Renaissance, the 187

and authenticity 193

formal poetry of 192

Harrison, Jane 8

and Durkheim 27

on Pandora 30

theories of religion 26

Harrisson, Tom 200

Hartley, Marsden 114

Harvey, David 218

Heap, Jane 186

Henderson, Alice Corbin 23

Hennings, Emmy 141

heteronomy (of poem) 7–8

Hirschfeld, Magnus 173

Holtby, Winifred 23

Homer 44

Horace

and difficulty 167

Hughes, Langston 192–193

‘America’ 192

and vernacular 192

‘The Negro Artist and the Racial Mountain’ 192

Hulme, T. E. 43

against automatism 11

and Imagism 12

‘Romanticism and Classicism’ 73

Hurston, Zora Neale 193

Huyssen, Andreas 146

on feminisation of popular culture 176

on postmodernism 214

Iamblichus 52

Imagism 4, 11, 185

and advertising 22

and anthologies 37

and D. H. Lawrence 190

and haiku 41

and Marianne Moore 126

in America 106

manifesto of 37

self-consciousness of 189

individualism 8, 11, 17, 22, 40, 185–188

and collective consciousness 8

and Social Credit 46

atomisation, and 11

in Williams 121

industrialism

effects on society 12

opposed to free verse 24

James, Henry

‘In the Cage’ 69

James, William 27, 105

Jameson, Fredric 219

Jarrell, Randall 214

jazz, analogy with modernism 4

Jefferson, Thomas 11

Jencks, Charles 218

Jolas, Eugene 15

Jones, David 11, 18, 195–197

Eliot on 180

In Parenthesis 18, 195–197

The Anathemata 197

Joyce, James

Finnegans Wake 190

in Des Imagistes 36

T. S. Eliot on 30

Jung, Carl 88

Kandinsky, Wassily 217

Kees, Weldon 191

Kenner, Hugh 186

Kermode, Frank 186

Khlebnikov, Velimir 147

Kreymborg, Alfred

and Mina Loy 150

edits Others 185

Laforgue, Jules 59, 176

‘Language’ writing 218

and ‘objective’ poetics 110

Larkin, Philip

and Adorno 180

on difficulty 179

Late modernism 219–221

and epic 219

problems of definition 220

Lawrence, D. H. 74, 173

and modernist poetics 190

‘Elemental’ 190

Le Bon, Gustave 21

Leavis, F. R. 177

and Eliot 178

and Schiller 14

Lenin, Vladimir Ilyich 205

Levertov, Denise 216

Lewis, Wyndham 22

T. S. Eliot on 30

Lindsay, Vachel 106

little magazines 16

and counter-public sphere 22

Little Review, The 22

anti-popular stance 220

Lloyd, David 96

Lloyd, Marie 75

Lowell, Amy 106

and cosmic poetry 191

Some Imagist Poets 126

Tendencies in Modern Poetry’ 191

Lowell, Robert 183

Loy, Mina

against newspapers 11

and avant-gardes 146

and broadcasting 25

and Christian Science 152

and Futurism 149–153

and sex-reform 173

and sexuality 146, 150

and tramps 152

and Williams 114

‘Aphorisms on Futurism’ 149

as ‘the modern woman’ 145

‘Brancusi's Golden Bird’ 152

erased from canon 4, 186

Feminist Manifesto 149

‘Gertrude Stein’ 152

in Others 106

‘Lion's Jaws’ 149

on avant-garde 145

on Gertrude Stein 153–155

on hybrid America 105

on journalism 23

on poetry and the market 17

on universal consciousness 15

‘Parturition’ 151

‘Psycho-democracy’ 151–152

‘Songs to Joannes’ 150–151

‘The Effectual Marriage’ 149

‘There is no Life or Death’ 152

Lukács, Georg 197

Mac Low, Jackson 218

MacDiarmid, Hugh 219

machines 10

Madge, Charles 200

Mailla, Joseph-Anne-Marie de Moyriac de 51

Mallarmé, Stéphane 12

manifesto

and avant-garde 142–145

Bob Brown on ‘the readies’ 221

Dada 1918 22

Imagist 37

Mann, Thomas 84

Marcuse, Herbert 14

Marinetti, Filippo 147–149

and Mussolini 149

and typography 188

metal book 145

Zang Tumb Tuumb 168

Marquis, Don 169

Mass Observation 200

Masses, The 197

Masters, Edgar Lee 106

Matisse, Henri 155

Maurras, Charles 74

McKay, Claude 192

Mead, G. R. S. 85

memory 6, 26

metre

and Harlem Renaissance 192

and war poetry 195

and Yeats 91–93

modernism's break with formal 9

Middleton Murry, John 66

Migrant 188

Miller, Cristanne 125

Milton, John 167

Mirrlees, Hope

and city 21

and re-enchantment 29

and war 19

as commuter 23

as flâneuse 22

layout of Paris 14

modernist style 3

on Catholic ritual 30

on Freud 20

Paris: A Poem 4–10

and cinema 25

as broadcast 24

on Freud 20

suppresses Paris 4

modernism

American and European 105

definitions of 3–4

discontent with modernity 10–12

modernist poetry

against hierarchy 14

against mediation 31, 55, 101, 118

American and European 105

and advertising 22–23

and African-American poetry 187, 191–195

and America 104–110

and anthology 36–37

and anti-commercial publishing 220

and art--life relation 87, 114

and Beats 215

and Bergson 27

and broadcasting 215

and bureaucracy 180

and canon 185–187

and cinema 25

and cities 8, 16, 21–22

and collage 105

and context 26, 73

and continuous present 174

and counter-culture 214–216, 218

and crowds 21

and democracy 16, 29, 74, 110

and difficulty 166–184

and documentary 199–201

and electronica 221

and elitism 176–180

and experimental syntax 5–7

and feminist criticism 186

and formal pattern 91–93

and gramophone 25, 71

and heroic individualism 185–188

and homosexuality 107

and hysteria 20

and Judaism 182, 209

and ‘Language’ writing 218–219

and ‘late modernism’ 219–221

and left-wing poetry 187

and mediation 31

and mediums 66

and multiple perspectives 5

and newspapers 22–23

and noise music 221

and occult 95

and photography 25

and popular culture 17

and ‘post-avant’ 221

and postmodernism 221–222

and pragmatism 104

and primitivism 188

and professionalism 178

and quotation 124

and racism 186

and radio 51

and reader-relations 73, 93

and re-enchantment 28, 92–93

and ritual 77–80

and simultaneous time 21

and social reform 173–176

and social unity 15–16

and subject--object relations 86

and technology 8, 23–25

and telephones 105

and the internet 221

and the University 176–180, 186

and unconscious 20–21

and war 18–19, 195–197

as active and passive 24, 61, 92

as cultural omnivorousness 183

as immersion 5

as re-enchantment 26–30

criticised by Left 197–199

crossing borders of art and life 18

defence against society 16

definitions of 3–4

democratic form 13

discontent with modernity 10–12

distinguished from modern poetry 3

domination of reader 189

form and new media 221

Mass Observation as 200

opponents of 179

relation to society 187–188

‘subjective’ vs. ‘objective’ styles 110

unsuitable for marginalised 191

use of references 68–70

Moholy-Nagy, László 143

money 22

Monro, Harold 1

Monroe, Harriet 23, 106, 108

and Objectivism 202

editing modernism 186

Moody, A. David 56

Moore, Marianne 121–129

against consumerism 124

against prejudice 121

always re-editing 129

and difficulty 172

and ephemera 128

and Imagism 126

and Objectivism 203

and poem titles 188

and references 122

and reticence 126–127

and sexuality 126

animal poems 122

as dandy 126

‘Camellia Sabina’ 122

‘Efforts of Affection’ 122

‘Four Quartz Clocks’ 122

‘His Shield’ 129

in Others 106

‘Marriage’ 127

‘New Poetry since 1912’ 185

on difficulty 123

on humility 122

on Pound's difficulty 180

‘Pedantic Literalist’ 127

‘People's Surroundings’ 129

‘Poetry’ 129

process of composition 10

‘Silence’ 126

‘The Fish’ 127

‘The Jerboa’ 123–124

‘The Labors of Hercules’ 122

‘The Paper Nautilus’ 127

‘The Plumet Basilisk’ 122

‘The Steeplejack’ 122, 127

‘To a Snail’ 125

‘To a Steam-Roller’ 123

use of quotation 8, 14, 124–125

use of rhyme 128

use of syllabics 127

use of titles 15, 128

‘Voracities and Verities’ 122

Mussolini, Benito 11, 33, 53

admired by Yeats 100

Eliot on 75

Pound's attraction to 36

Myers, F. W. H. 20

Negro Anthology 193

Nelson, Cary 187

Neruda, Pablo 200

Nerval, Gerard de 69

New Age, The 86

and social reform 173

New American Poetry 1945–1960, The 214

New Criticism 186

and poetry syllabus 178

New Masses 198

New Statesman, The 63

newspapers 22–23

and Social Credit 47

as propaganda 11

Bunting on 213

Daily Express 6

Daily Mail 63

opposition to individuality 11

Yeats's contempt for 92

Niedecker, Lorine 209–211

and working-class 210

‘Fall’ 210

Homemade/Handmade Poems 210

on Zukofsky 206

revived interest in 216

North, Michael 193

O’Duffy, Eoin 100

O’Hara, Frank 218

Objectivism 4, 202–204

membership of 203

redefines modernist politics 209

relation to American modernism 109

occult, the

and broadcasting 215

and mediums 8

and new physics 25

séances and poetry 19–20

Okigbo, Christopher 195

Olson, Charles 169, 215–217

altering modernist canon 215

and ‘field theory’ 215

and Objectivism 215

and politics 217

and pre-industrial society 217

and Yeats 215

defining ‘postmodern’ 214

field theory 25

Maximus 216–217

‘Projective Verse’ 214, 217

Whitman's influence on 107

Oppen, George 207–209

and democracy 209

and difficulty 169

and Objectivism 203

and Pound 208–209

Discrete Series 207

dislikes avant-garde 209

Of Being Numerous 208

persecuted by FBI 208

Orage, Alfred 47

organic form

and Black Mountain poetics 215

and context 188

Others 104, 106, 185

OULIPO writing 218

Ovid

Owen, Alex 86

Owen, Wilfred

and modernism 195

‘Insensibility’ 195

Yeats on 89

Paris Commune 12

Partisan Review 198

and Williams 115

Pater, Walter 60

Pearse, Padraic 96, 97

Pervigilium Veneris 72

Petronius 68

Picasso, Pablo 155

Plotinus 45

Poe, Edgar Allan 12

and Hart Crane 108

Poetry 106

and Objectivism 36

Poetry Bookshop 1

Poggioli, Renato 147

postmodernism 221–222

and ‘late modernism’ 219–221

and ‘post-avant’ poetry 221

and universities 221

definitions of 214, 217

Pound, Dorothy 34, 43

Pound, Ezra

against business writing 35

against commodification of art 181

against democracy 16

against universities 178

and America 104

and anthologies 36–46

and avant-garde 144

and Black Mountain poetics 216

and canon 45, 185

and Dada 50

and difficulty 168

and elitism 167

and exile 44

and fascism 54–56

and folk revival 219

and fragments 161

and Georgians 39

and H. D. 158

and haiku 38

and ideograms 34

and Nietzsche 54

and Objectivism 203

and poetic influence 43

and postmodernism 218

and pre-industrial culture 217

and Quest Society 85

and Sigismundo Malatesta 52

and Social Credit 46–49

and subject-rhymes 53

and Thomas Jefferson 52

and translation 41–43

and troubadours 36, 48

and university 45

and WWI 43, 48

anti-semitism 41

as commuter 23

Cathay 42–43

Catholic Anthology 36

Confucius to Cummings 36

critical reputation 3

Des Imagistes 12, 36

economics and poetic form 48

editing The Waste Land 73

fascism 11

fusion of individual and cosmos 54

Gaudier-Brzeska 38

Guide to Kulchur 178

‘Histrion’ 43

‘Homage to Sextus Propertius’ 43

‘How to Read’ 45

Hugh Selwyn Mauberley 49–50

‘In a Station of the Metro’ 23, 38–40

in St Elizabeth's hospital 33

influence on younger poets 55

Jefferson and/or Mussolini 105

lack of metaphor 52

leaving America 105

Make It New 9

Marianne Moore on 180

on ‘ideogrammic method’ 174

on bankers 41

on beauty 168

on democracy 36

on difficulty 180

on electricity 24

on Eliot's sense of smell 62

on epic 51

on Felicia Hemans 46

on folk-song 17

on Georgian Poetry 37

on Homer 55

on ideograms 55

on Imagist technique 41

on impersonality 44

on individualism 40

on inspiration as electricity 24

on journalism 23

on leadership 31

on luminous details 24

on Maj. William Bullitt 33

on Milton 55

on multidirectional poetry 172

on Mussolini 53

on poet as medium 8

on rhythm 3, 38

on spiritual 53

on T. S. Eliot 35

on the primitive 55

on universality 15

on vortex 45

on William Collins 46

on William Cowper 46

on Winston Churchill 46

Pisan Cantos 53

poetry not vehicle of thought 15

politics of style 33–36

Profile 36

‘Radio Cantos’ 215

rivalry with Futurism 4

‘South-Folk in Cold Country’ 43

subject-rhymes 52

The Cantos 4, 50–54

and Olson 215

as anthology 41

as radio 51

Canto II 44

Canto LXXI 44

Canto LXXXIV 33

Canto V 51

Canto XLV 53

Canto XXII 46

difficulty of 172

length of 8

simultaneous time in 9, 27

‘The River-Merchant's Wife’ 42

‘The Serious Artist’ 40

use of quotation 8

usury 53

primitivism 187

professionalisation 4

Prynne, J. H. 220

and difficulty 167

‘L’Extase de M. Poher’ 220

‘Question for the Time Being’ 220

‘Refuse Collection’ 220

Rakosi, Carl 203

Ransom, John Crowe

and Eliot 178

and ‘postmodern’ 214

rationalism 10, 11

Read, Herbert 200

Reed, John 197

references

and quotations 8

in The Waste Land 68–70

religion

and irrational 26

and occult 95

anthropology of 27

festivals 8

Judaism and fragments 202

Judaism and modernism 182

modernist poetry as ritual 26–30

mysticism 12

primitive 4

Roman Catholicism 4

Reznikoff, Charles 199

and Objectivism 203

Richards, I. A. 178

and Schiller 14

Riding, Laura Jackson 191

A Survey of Modernist Poetry 176

Rimbaud, Arthur 12

Romains, Jules 8

Rose, Jonathan 177

Rosenberg, Isaac 76

and modernist form 195

Ross, Ronald 37

Rothermere, Lady 63

Rukeyser, Muriel 200–201

and avant-garde 146

and photography 25

and readymades 188

‘The Book of the Dead’ 200–201

use of quotation 8

Russell, Bertrand 72

sales of poetry volumes 3

San Francisco Renaissance 215

Sandburg, Carl 106, 185

Sappho 41, 49

and H. D. 161

Sassoon, Siegfried 1–3

and modernist form 195

‘Repression of War Experience’ 195

Schiller, Friedrich

and American culture 106

and re-enchantment 29

influence on modernism 14–16

Letters on the Aesthetic Education of Man 12–14, 16

play in 13

Schlegel, Friedrich 17

Schoenberg, Arnold 182

Schwitters, Kurt 4, 141

Scrutiny 177

‘Seafarer, The’ (Anglo-Saxon Poem) 41

séances 19–20

Seven Arts 106

Severini, Gino 5–6

Shakespeare, William

and difficulty 167, 182

Antony and Cleopatra 69

Hamlet 90

King Lear 90

Romeo and Juliet 93

The Tempest 69

Sherry, Vincent 76

Shklovsky, Viktor 174

shopping 30

Sieffert, Marjorie A. 185

Simmel, Georg 27

on money 71

‘The Metropolis and Mental Life’ 21

Simultaneism 141

Situationism 145

Some Imagist Poets 191

Spicer, Jack 215

Squire, J. C. 169

Steiglitz, Alfred 114

Stein, Gertrude 153–158

‘A Waist’ 153

against description 154

against genteel art 105

against identity 156

against memory 156

and automatic writing 20

and Bergson 154

and Bernard Faÿ 158

and genius 155

and genre 153

and internal--external 157–158

and Loy 153–155

and Nazism 158

and Picabia 157

and Picasso 106, 158

and post-Impressionism 155

and simultaneousness 155

and telescoping 154

and unrecognisability 156

and William James 155

‘Asparagus’ 157

cinematic style 25

continuous present 9

lesbianism 146

on war and poetry 19

Tender Buttons 154, 157

wealth of 178

‘What Are Master-Pieces’ 156

Steiner, George

on difficulty 167

Stevens, Wallace 129–140

Adagia 135

against form--content split 134

and active--passive relations 135

and aestheticism 137

and avant-garde 146

and dandyism 139

and difficulty 172

and faith 130–131

and Kant 136

and Marxist critics 137–138

and Objectivism 203

and Olson 215

and pluralism 131

and politics 137–140

and sounds 133

and suburbia 140

and ‘supreme fiction’ 130

and unity of being 131

argument with Williams 115

as ‘subjective’ poet 110

‘Examination of the Hero’ 139

form and context in 188

Harmonium 137

Ideas of Order 137

in Others 106

‘Man and Bottle’ 132

‘Man Carrying Thing’ 132

‘Notes Toward a Supreme Fiction’ 138

‘Of Modern Poetry’ 139–140

on reality and imagination 135–138

on resisting explanation 172

Owl's Clover 138

relationship with reader 8

romanticism of 186

‘Solitaire under the Oaks’ 131–132

strained marriage 134

‘Sunday Morning’ 130

‘The Idea of Order at Key West’ 136–137

‘The Latest Freed Man’ 133

The Man with the Blue Guitar 138

‘The Plain Sense of Things’ 135

‘The Snow Man’ 135

Stirner, Max 40

Stravinsky, Igor 182

subject--object distinctions 6, 29

Surrealism 4, 141

and flux 27

and left-wing alliances 197

and Mass Observation 200

and Negro Anthology 193

attacked by Marxists 198

‘Exquisite Corpse’ 142

psychic automatism in 14

Symbolism

French 12

in America 110

Pound on 50

Symons, Arthur 59

Synge, J. M. 95

syntax (or lack of) 5

and effect on meaning 6

and feminism 146, 159

and Futurism 147

and immersion 166

and inclusivity 107

and non-modernism 191

and organic form 188

and Stein 157

and War Poetry 191

effect on time 8

in Loy 151

in Niedecker 210

in Pound 52

in Symbolism 12

Tate, Allen 109

and Eliot 178

Taüber, Sophie 141

technology 11

Teaching of English in England, The 177

Tennyson, Alfred Lord 42

Eliot on 74, 176

Maud 69

Thomas, Dylan 190

Thomas, Edward 189

time

and anthology 41

and modernist architecture 173

and Stein 155

and The Waste Land 68

Baudelaire on modernity 25

Bergson's theories of 26

elitism and 187

experimental use of 3

in The Cantos 44

in Yeats 95

simultaneous present 6

Times Literary Supplement, The

and Eliot 63

Tolson, Melvin B. 193–195

Libretto for the Republic of Liberia 193

Toomer, Jean 193

transition

on ‘the readies’ 221

on universalism 15

‘Proclamation’ 109

read by Dylan Thomas 190

Treaty of Versailles 8, 18

troubadours 36

and difficulty 167

and folk-song 219

Turnbull, Gael 188

Tzara, Tristan 142

on primitive 188

Unanimisme 8

unconscious, the 10, 20

and religion 28

underworld 4

and Métro 6

in The Waste Land 68

Upward, Allen 53

Verlaine, Paul 7, 12

Virgil 68

Vorticism 3, 141, 143

and anthologies 37

and creation myth 45

individualism 15

on machinery as art 143

Walcott, Derek 81

war 4, 18–19

and difficulties of modernism 195–197

indifference to individual 11

in The Waste Land 68

Ireland and WWI 95

Warhol, Andy 214, 217

Warren, Robert Penn 178

Weber, Max 27

and bureaucracy 31

on disenchantment 28

theories of religion 27–29

Weston, Jessie L. 68

Whitman, Walt 106–107

and cosmic individualism 192

and reader's effort 175

in The Waste Land 69

Leaves of Grass 104

on democracy 107

on free verse 104

‘Starting from Paumanok’ 107

Williams, William Carlos 10, 110–121

against finance capital 120

against judgement 111

and avant-garde 146

and avant-gardes 114

and Cubism 117

and democracy 116, 118–120

and found texts 114, 116

and Objectivism 203

and objects 110–113

and Olson 215

and Pound 120

and racism 115

and syntax 112

and ‘variable foot’ 119

argument with Wallace Stevens 115

‘Asphodel, That Greeny Flower’ 118

‘Brilliant Sad Sun’ 168

in Catholic Anthology 36

in Des Imagistes 36

in Negro Anthology 193

in Others 106

In the American Grain 119

on difficulty 170

on free verse 116

on Marianne Moore 117, 174

on personality 110

on the poet as social regenerator 15

on poetry as news 23

on Pound 181

Paterson 113, 120

‘field theory’ in 25

‘Paterson’ 110, 112

‘Portrait of a Woman In Bed’ 114–115

rivalry with T. S. Eliot 4, 119–120

Spring and All 116–120, 218

The Embodiment of Knowledge 119

‘The Red Wheelbarrow’ 116

‘The rose is obsolete’ 117–118

‘This Is Just to Say’ 114, 120–121

‘To a Poor Old Woman’ 111

‘To Close’ 114

‘To Elsie’ 120

use of interruptions 188

‘Young Woman at a Window’ 111–112

Winters, Yvor 109

Wolfe, Cary 55

Wonder, Stevie 182

Wordsworth, William 167

Yeats, George 85

Yeats, William Butler

‘A Dialogue of Self and Soul’ 86

A Vision 83

against Catholic nationalism 83, 95

against democracy 16

against materialism 97

against mediation 101

against modernity 11

‘An Irish Airman Foresees his Death’ 88

and Anima Mundi 94

and avant-garde 146

and Bolshevik Revolution 99

and Celtic Twilight 82

and Dante 90

and democracy 98, 99–103

and Easter Rising 95–97

and eugenics 100

and fascism 100

and folk 101

and folk tradition 92

and Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn 85

and Homer's Iliad 84

and Irish Ascendancy 83

and Irish Civil War 97–99

and Iseult Gonne 86, 100

and J. M. Synge 95

and joy of tragedy 102

and Maud Gonne 82–85, 86, 96

and metaphor 86

and Nietzsche 102

and Nobel Prize 99

and occultism 85–95

and Romeo and Juliet 93

and Seán MacBride 96

and simultaneity 27

and social reform 173

and violence 98–99, 102

‘Byzantium’ 101–102

dynamic union of opposites 87–91

early nationalism 82

‘Easter 1916’ 95–97

‘Ego Dominus Tuus’ 89–90

form and context in 188

‘General Introduction for my Work’ 92

in Catholic Anthology 36

‘In Memory of Major Robert Gregory’ 88

‘Lapis Lazuli’ 90–91

‘Leda and the Swan’ 98–99

meditation on symbols 14

nationalism 12

‘Nineteen Hundred and Nineteen’ 99

‘No Second Troy’ 83–84

on Byzantium 101–102

on folk-song 17

on free verse 91–93

on impersonality 92

on Italian fascism 54

on the joy of tragedy 91

on leadership 31

on Pound's Cantos 52

on public opinion 96

on Shakespeare 92

on the poet's power 91–95

on Wilfred Owen 89

‘Politics’ 84

romanticism of 186

‘Sailing to Byzantium’ 102

‘September 1913’ 96

T. S. Eliot on 30

‘The Cold Heaven’ 93–95

‘The Second Coming’ 98

‘The Symbolism of Poetry’ 98

‘Under Ben Bulben’ 100

use of traditional forms 8

Yehoash [Solomon Blumgarten] 202

Ziarek, Kryzstof 110

Zukofsky, Louis 201–207

“A”-1 203

“A”-7 205

“A”-8 205

“A”-9 206

“A”-14 205

“A”-15 206

‘“Mantis” An Interpretation’ 204

and anonymous artisans 207

and Marianne Moore 110

and music 205

and Objectivism 202–204

and Pound 202

and readymades 188

and sonnets 205, 206

and The Waste Land 202

and Wallace Stevens 110

Creeley's interest in 216

Objectivist issue of Poetry 36

on Judaism and fragments 202

‘Poem Beginning “The”’ 202

poem-in-process 206

process of composition 10

‘Sincerity and Objectification’ 203–204




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