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The Cambridge Introduction to Literature and the Environment
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The Cambridge Introduction to Literature and the Environment
Cambridge University Press
9780521896351 - The Cambridge Introduction to Literature and the Environment - By Timothy Clark
Index

Index

Abbey, Edward 25, 27, 28, 29–30, 33, 69, 94

Abbot, Philip 31

Aboriginal Australia 155, 220

Abram, David 48–54, 66, 210

Ackerman, Diane 195

Adams, Carol 180

Adorno, Theodor W. 36, 208

aesthetic, the aesthetic 33, 41, 79, 80–2, 108, 217

See also consumerism

Africa 120

African-American writing 90

agency, question of non-human 43–4, 117, 161–2, 164, 188, 191, 192, 194, 195, 198

Albanese, Catherine L. 104

Alderman, Harold 207

Altmann, Jeanne 159–60

Amazon region 121

America

See United States. American studies

animals, non-human 42–4, 49, 50, 51, 53, 61, 66, 70, 79, 83, 103, 139, 166, 179, 206

Animal as uncanny 185

‘animal hermeneutics’ 195–8

See under language: representing non-human animals

animal holocaust (in US) 26

animal names as insults 184–5

animal rights 8, 180, 186–7, 188, 203, 233

animal suffering 179

in children's books 186

‘mecanomorphic’ understanding of 44

television documentaries on 185

See also personhood: non-human animals as persons

animism 49, 50–1, 52

Ankersen, Thomas T. 219

Annan, Kofi 10

anthropocentrism 2, 3, 21, 28, 32, 34, 42, 46, 50, 54, 56, 57, 58, 80, 94, 105, 116, 122, 153, 164, 190, 191, 192, 195, 197, 229

anthropomorphism 21, 51, 54, 79, 158, 162, 179, 192–201

See also personhood: non-human animals as persons

Argentina 130

Aristotle 56

Armbruster, Karla 88, 215

Arndt, Ernst Moritz 26

artificial intelligence 63

artificial life 63

Association for the Study of Literature and the Environment (ASLE) 4, 35, 38

Austin, Mary 25, 27

Australia, Australian sense of environments 26, 28, 71, 91, 92, 107, 130, 131, 154–5, 220, 234

See also Bush, the

Australopithecus africanus 173, 174, 175

Australopithecus robustus 174

Babe 230

baboons 159–60

Baer, Karl Ernst von 172

Baker, John A. 195

Bakhtin, Mikhail 218, 240

Ballard, J. G. 128

Bangladesh 126, 127

Bass, Rick 210

Bate, Jonathan 13, 15–17, 19, 21–3, 49, 59, 69, 98, 222

Bateson, Gregory 64–5

Batwa, the 121

Bazerman, Charles 176

Beck, Ulrich 1, 87, 106, 131–2

and risk society 237–8

Bedichek, Roy 27

beetle, water 44

Bennett, Jane 30, 31, 143, 207

Bennett, Michael 90

Berg, Peter 131

Berman, Art 224

Berry, Wendell 25, 27, 38, 47, 139, 210

Berthold-Bond, Daniel 132

Bible 1

Biehl, Janet 118

BINGOs 121

biocentrism 2, 3, 23, 28, 77, 78, 103

bioregionalism 125, 130–6, 138, 139, 220

biosemiotics 230

biotechnology 64, 66, 67, 68

‘bio-translation’ 195

Blackwood, Algernon 185

Blair, Sara 221

Bloom, Lynn 37

body, the 18, 48–9, 51, 52, 82, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 118, 140, 184

Böhme, Gernot 80–2

Bookchin, Murray 2, 89, 152, 215

Boone, Daniel 80

Boone and Crocket Club 27

Botkin, Daniel 153, 224

Botswana 125

Bowerbank, Sylvia 18, 204

Brain, C. K. 173, 175

Brand, Peter 204

Brin, David 52, 137

Britain 15, 21, 99–101, 107, 200

See under Lake District, Scotland

Britton, Celia 135

Brockman, John 144

Brown, Wendy 105

Brulle, Robert J. 2

Bryson, J. Scott 139, 206, 219

Buell, Frederick 213

Buell, Lawrence 27–8, 30, 32, 47–8, 49, 100, 235

Burns, Robert 19

Burroughs, John 39

Burton, Richard D. E. 222

Bush, the (‘Outback’) 25–6

Calarco, Matthew 212, 228

Callicott, J. Baird 77, 80, 181

Cameron, Sharon 32

Canada 26, 130

canon, the 27, 35, 186, 187

Cantrell, Carol H. 210

capitalism, capital 2, 24, 65, 84, 107, 109, 120, 121, 123, 130, 132, 158, 201, 218

carbon emissions 86, 128, 150

offset schemes 2

Caribbean, the 130, 133–6

Carr, Glynis 111

Carr, Mike 131

Carroll, Joseph 167, 169–70

Carson, Rachel 77, 82, 84, 146, 210

Carter, Alan 110

Cesaire, Aimé 134

CFCs 107

Chaucer, Geoffrey 190–1

Cheney, Jim 20, 49, 192, 221

Chen Hong 228

Chen Yu-feng 85

Chernobyl 68

chimpanzees 150, 160, 172

China 125, 128

cinema 197

Clare, John 16, 21–3, 30, 48, 49, 93, 108, 164, 217

Clark, Stephen 187

Claus, Carl H. 208

clearances, the 92

climate change 10–11, 74–5, 110, 113–14, 136–7, 139, 149, 203, 222, 232

cloning 63

Cocker, Mark 44–5

Cohen, Michael P. 8

Colebrook, Claire 230

Coleridge, S. T. 70

colonialism 120–7, 130, 220

as ‘conquest of nature’ 124

conservation refugees 8

constructivism, ‘construct’ 70, 141, 162, 163–4, 166, 167, 175, 190–1, 238

See under nature as a ‘construct’

consumerism 2, 23, 30, 34, 39–41, 58, 65, 70, 86, 112, 134, 136, 185

Cooper, Diana Starr 228

Corner, Krista 220

cosmopolitanism, environmental 137

Costa Rica 88

‘coyote’ 161, 164, 192, 202

Cribb, Robert 123

Crist, Eileen 42–4, 164, 193–4, 209

Critchley, Simon 148

criticism, mainstream 4, 15, 89, 105

Culturalist paradigm in 93–5

liberal assumptions of 105–6

resistance to environmental issues 4–5, 93

and the SSSM 166

See also constructivism

Crosby, Alfred 207, 221

Curtin, Deane 206

Curtis, Ron 144–5

cybernetics 65

cyberpunk 213

cyborg 66, 161, 239

Dainotto, Roberto Maria 221

Dart, Raymond 173, 174, 175

Darwin, Charles 147, 165, 169, 194

Darwinism 100, 165, 227

social Darwinism 166

Dasmann, Raymond 131

Davenport, Kiana 39, 124–5

Davies, Paul 144

Davis, Holly 216

Dawkins, Richard 144, 157–8, 161

The Day after Tomorrow 107, 137

De Lillo, Don 67

Deakin, Roger 9–10, 107

deconstruction 46, 209

deep ecology, deep ecologists 2, 23–4, 70, 78, 85, 152, 233–4, 237, 238

Deitering, Cynthia 67

Deleuze, Gilles 197–8

DeLoughrey, Elizabeth 221

Demeritt, David 224

democracy 73, 84, 107, 237

‘ecological democracy’ 104

liberal democracy 104

Derrida, Jacques 46, 53, 54, 63, 186, 209

Dickens, Charles (David Copperfield) 4, 189

Dillard, Annie 25, 27, 28, 38, 145, 146–8, 209

disciplines, division of 8, 142, 150, 157, 161, 162, 164, 165, 166–7, 171, 202, 203

See also interdisciplinarity

disenchantment thesis 143–4

Dobie, J. Frank 27

Dobson, Andrew 84

Dos Passsos, John 137

Douglass, Frederick 90, 93

Dowie, Mark 121

Drayson, Nick 207

dualism 64, 104, 111, 117, 149

Dubrow, Heather 36

‘Earth’ (in Heidegger) 57–60

Earth First! 85

Eckersley, Robyn 104

ecocriticism (environmental criticism), antinomy of 94–5

as ‘American Studies’ 132

defined by challenges 4, 202

daunting scope of 5, 122

creative–critical distinction in 36

See also narrative scholarship

as consumerism 70

indistinguishable from mainstream criticism 4, 89

interdisciplinary nature of

See also interdisciplinarity

and non-human agency 191

and oppositional politics 74, 88–9, 102, 125

as romanticism 14

realist versus culturalist paradigm in 93–4

turn to environmental justice 88

use of ecology 153–4

eco-fascism 59, 60, 127, 181

See also Nationalist politics

ecofeminism 2, 18, 41, 74, 82, 111–19, 219, 238

ecojustice 102

post-colonial ecojustice 120–7, 221

See also environmental justice

ecological literacy 138

‘ecological’ poetic 139

ecology 13, 69, 71, 86, 100, 103, 133, 140, 152–4

As a strict empirical science 10, 16, 78, 80, 114, 151–4, 155

etymology of 118

conflict with individual animal interests 179, 180–1

queer ecology 169

urban ecology 233

See also deep ecology

See under romantic ecology, social ecology

eco-nationalism 71, 155

ecopoetry 139

eco-thrillers 107

Ehrlich, Gretel 10, 25, 41–2, 113–14, 176

Ehrlich, Paul R. 128

Ekeli, Kristian 110

Elder, John 140, 174

Eliot, George 97

Eliot, T. S. 11, 139

Emmerson, R. W. 32

enclosures, the 21

Engels, Friedrich 172

enlightenment 5, 22, 62, 64, 102–3, 172

environmental history 221

environmental justice 73–5, 87–94, 96, 97, 106, 122, 215

See also ecojustice

environmental non-fiction 27–30, 35, 37–8, 39, 47, 148, 202

Ethic of truthfulness in 37–8, 177

literariness in 38, 41

See under non-fiction, nature writing

environmentalism, as neocolonialism 120–2

motherhood environmentalism 118

original sense of 166

reform environmentalism 1–2, 23, 73, 77, 82, 85, 120, 136

radical environmentalism 2–3, 28, 73, 77, 141, 151, 152, 162

See also deep ecology, social ecology and ecofeminism

vagueness of 203

Esacamill, Edna 123

essay, the 36, 79, 174

ethnology 43–4

Evans, Dylan 166

Evelyn, John 10

Everden, Neil 114

evolution, Darwinian 80, 146–7, 158, 171, 176, 214, 227

evolution and theories of literature 165–70, 227

See also human evolution

fact–value distinction 49, 146, 147–9, 150, 151, 157, 159, 162, 163, 223

See also naturalistic fallacy, the

fairy-tale 40

Faulkner, William 132

feminine (as stereotype) 117

feminism 102, 105, 159, 161

‘Feminist paganism’ 218

Ferry, Luc 188–9

Feynman, Richard P. 144

fiction 38–9, 44–5

‘fine writing’ 9, 41

fishing 90–2, 94, 186

Flint, Kate 114

folklore 36, 174, 175

forest 60–2

formalism 47

Forster, E. M. 42

Fortey, Richard 143

Foucault, Michel 166

France 134

Franklin, Adrian 26, 71, 154–5

Freud, Sigmund 172

Frey, Olivia 225

Frodeman, Robert 105

Fukuyama, Francis 212

future generations 110

Galápagos 145–8, 181

Gandhi, Indira 127

Garard, Philip 208

Garb, Yaakov 84

Garnett, David 183

Garrard, Greg 89, 205

genetic modification (GM) 7, 63, 66, 67

genome, human 63, 68, 212

genre 35, 42, 79, 162, 195, 209, 217

Germany 26, 96, 97, 98

Ghosh, Amitav 126–7

Gibson, William 39, 213

Giddens, Anthony 110, 136

Gifford, Terry 21, 94, 174

Gill, A. A. 163

Giono, Jean 210

Glissant, Édouard 48, 133–6

globalisation 131

globality 132

Goldman, Michael 149

Gottshall, Jonathan 166

Gould, Stephen Jay 144, 146, 157, 171–3, 176, 227, 235

Grahame, Kenneth 199, 200

‘Grand narrative’ 5

Graves, John 27

Greece, ancient 55–7

Greenpeace 87

Grewe-Volpp, Christa 162

Griffith, Jacqui 230

Grove, Richard H. 221

Groz, Elizabeth 113

Guattari, Felix 197–8

Gupal, Priyamvada 131

Haeckel, Ernst 152

Haraway, Donna 66, 100, 111–12, 128, 156, 158, 164, 186, 192, 198, 218, 239

Hardy, Thomas 98–101, 132, 177

Hardy's Dorset 97

Harjo, Joy 122

Harrison, Robert Pogue 60–2, 212, 217

Hawaii 39, 124–5

Hawking, Stephen 144

Hayles, N. Katherine 63, 225

Head, Bessie 125

Head, Dominic 117

Heaney, Seamus 139

Heidegger, Martin 14, 18, 55–62, 212

Heffernan, Teresa 64, 66, 67

Heise, Ursula K. 136, 138, 139, 213

Hemingway, Ernest 187–8

Henke, Holger 222

Heritage 99

Herodotus 35

Hess, Scott 108–9, 112, 140, 164, 217

Hill, Stuart 207

Hiltner, Ken 10

Hobbes, Thomas 103

Hochman, Jean 228

Hofstadter, Douglas R. 209

Hogan, Linda 123, 139

Hölderlin, Friedrich 58, 59, 60

Homo erectus 174

Homo habilis 174

Hopkins, Ronnie Zoe 115, 116

Hoving, Isabel 222

Huggan, Graham 219

Hughes, Ted 94, 139

human, self-understanding 2, 57, 60–2, 78, 183

See under anthropocentricism

See also post-humanism

human evolution 171–5

human nature, appeals to ‘facts’ of 158, 165, 168, 169, 194, 227

as an interspecies relation 186

romantic norm of ‘wholeness’ 16–17, 18, 20–1, 29, 66, 99, 116, 206

humanities, the 142, 144, 145, 151, 152, 163, 165, 168, 190

Humboldt, Alexander von 4

Hume, David 223

Hypki, Cinder 88

IMF 121

India 125, 126

Indians (American) 26, 133

(Amazon) 121

‘ecological Indian’, the 122

‘Indigenous Environmental Network’ 87

individualism 18, 29, 65, 104, 105, 107, 109, 110, 117, 123, 125, 143, 158, 160, 194, 239

‘inhumanism’ 235

interdisciplinarity 8, 36, 163, 171–6, 203

See also disciplines, division of

Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and the Environment 10, 35

Jackson, Tony 167–8

Jacobsen, Knut A. 206

James, Henry 88

James, M. R. 185

Jamieson, Dale 129

Janovy, John Jr 47

Jeffers, Robinson 139, 235

Jefferies, Richard 196–8

Jenkins, Alice 204

Johnson, Linck C. 31

Jolley, Alison 167

Jones, Gareth Lovett 199–201

Joyce, James 137

Jung, C. G. 20, 174

Jünger, Ernst 154

Jurassic Park 107

Katz, Eric 124

Kaur, Rajender 126, 127

Kerridge, Richard 98–101, 102, 107

Keulartz, Jozef 152–3, 215

Kidner, David 20

King, Ynestra 111

Kingsover, Barbara 210

Kipling, Rudyard 123–4

Kirkham, Robert 13, 224

Kiser, Lisa J. 190–1

Klein, Julie Thompson 171

Kroeber, Karl 205

Kull, Kalevi 195

Kürschner-Pelkman, Frank 216

Kuzniar, Alice 230

Lake District 17, 19, 23, 26, 99

land ethic (Leopold's) 78, 79, 83, 85, 181

language 46–54, 55, 61, 65, 135, 162, 210, 218, 229

In representing non-human animals 42–4, 192, 195–7, 230

See under animal hermeneutics

poetic and figurative language as restorative 20–1, 22

See under metaphor, romantic imagination

Latour, Bruno 8, 149, 150, 151, 162, 203, 226

Lawrence, Clare 210

Laycock, Stephen W. 196

Leavis, F. R. 154

Lechte, John 65

Le Guin, Ursula 39, 230

legitimation/delegitimation, crisis of 74–5, 87

Legler, Gretchen 218

Leopold, Aldo 27, 77–86, 94, 146, 181, 214

Levertov, Denise 139

Levin, Richard 167

Levine, George 149

Lévi-Strauss, Claude 166

Lewontin, Richard 153, 176, 235

liberalism, liberal tradition of politics 69, 74, 102–10, 114, 117, 118, 119, 128, 139, 160, 161, 239

liberal-humanist conception of identity 65, 169, 188, 212

neoliberalism 118

Life-world 48, 132–3

Light, Andrew 215

Lindoldt, Paul 220

Linkola, Penti 221, 237

Linnaean system 149

Lippit, Akira Mizuta 229

literacy (interdisciplinary, multiple) 159, 161, 162, 163, 203

literariness 38, 41

localism 133, 136

Locke, John 103, 105

London, Jack 186, 192–3

Lopez, Barry 36–8, 39–42, 43, 44, 107, 144, 195, 196

Love, Glen 165

Lovecraft, H. P. 185

Lovelock, James 10, 205

Lukacs, Georg 205

Luke, Timothy W. 6, 24

Lynas, Mark 205

Lyotard, Jean-François 46

Mabey, Richard 33, 195

Maclean, Norman 90–4

Macpherson, James 99

Major, William 207

Malamud, Randy 228

‘man the hunter’ 173, 175

‘manifest destiny’ 37

Maran, Timo 230

Marcuse, Herbert 206

market economy 2, 13, 16, 24, 85, 99

Marren, Peter 163

Marshall, Ian 151, 171, 173–6

Martinique 134–6

Marx, Karl 172, 238

Marx, Leo 32

Marxism 166, 172

masculinity, maculinist 26, 29, 106, 112, 117, 159, 164, 169

Matthiesson, Peter 78

McIlroy 223

McKay, Jenkins 213

McKibben, Bill 69, 107

McLeod, John 123–4

McLuhan, Marshall 50

McPhee, John 144

McWilliams, Carey 103

Melville, Elinor 207

Melville, Herman 153

Merleau-Ponty, Maurice 48–9, 210

Merwin, W. S. 139

metaphor 20, 41, 149, 161, 164, 189

See under poetic and figurative language as restorative, romantic imagination

Michael, Mark A. 127

Michiko, Ishumure 37, 123

‘middle ground’ 122, 123, 125, 220

Midgley, Mary 180, 187

Mitchell, Donald 209

Mithen, Stephen 194

Monsanto 66

Moore, G. E. 223

moralism, green 73, 86, 107

Mordesly, Jessica 227

Morris, William 18, 26

Morse, Kathryn 30

Morton, Timothy 14, 23, 39–41, 67, 69–70, 101, 169–70

Muir, John 6, 25, 27, 29, 210

Mulligan, Martin 207

multiculturalism 151, 220

Mumford, Lewis 18

Murphy, D. Patrick 38–9, 122–3, 218

mythology, myth 36–7, 53, 61

Naess, Arne 23–4, 78, 206

Nagel, Thomas 195

Nfah-Abbenyi, Juliana Makuchi 220

‘naïve’ 22

narrative 42–3, 61, 97, 144, 145, 160, 194, 198

‘narrative scholarship’ 36, 173–4, 176

nationalist politics (associations of environmentalism with) 30, 31, 96, 133

‘methodological nationalism’ 131–2

See also eco-fascism

natural, crisis of the 7–8, 63, 68, 69–71

natural history (as a genre) 42, 174

natural–artificial distinction 53

natural–mechanical distinction 161

naturalistic fallacy, the 145–6, 223

See also fact–value distinction

nature 6, 13–14, 15, 16, 26, 32, 33, 34, 50, 53, 59–60, 61, 62, 64, 66–7, 69–71, 93–5, 98, 108, 111, 112, 118, 124, 132, 139, 142, 143, 149, 152, 154, 161–3, 164, 167, 173, 202, 209, 210

Basic definitions of 6–7, 232

as a construct 163

feeling for nature 57

Haraway on nature 160, 161, 162, 163

See also coyote

Heidegger on nature 57–8, 59–60

‘natureculture’ 161–2

principle of homeostasis, harmony 14, 18–19, 31, 52, 65, 69, 89, 98, 152–3, 205

obverse of patriarchal civilisation 117

See also wild, the

Nature Conservancy 25

‘nature fakers’ controversy 39

‘nature writing’ 5, 8, 9, 36, 39, 40, 41, 79, 88

See also environmental non-fiction

Nazi party 59

Neanderthal 174, 175

neocolonialism 123

as ‘conquest of nature’ 124

Neufeldt, Leonard N. 32

new age 5, 117

New Critics 154

‘New Geography, the’ 132

new historicism 166

non-fiction 35–45

See also environmental non-fiction

non-realist technique 122

Nordlund, Marcus 167, 168

nostalgia 97, 100, 101

novel, characterisation in 115

novel, the realist 4–5, 115, 117

urban modernist 137, 139

Oakes, Timothy 216

objectivity, norm of, myth of 112, 113, 141, 148, 149, 157, 158

Omaha, the 51

Ong, Walter J. 50, 80

Opperman, Serpil 210

orality, oral culture 50–3, 66

orality/literacy school of thought 50

Orr, David W. 7, 203

Osborne, Richard 144

Ossian 99

Osundare, Niyi 120

overpopulation 74, 127–9, 203, 240

See also population

Ovid 61

palaeontology 174, 175

pastoral 17, 32, 47, 84

anti-pastoral 90

‘post-pastoral’ 21

patriarchy 70, 116, 118

Payne, Tonia L. 230

Peckham, Elizabeth and Peckham, George 42–3

Peiter, Anne D. 154

Perfetti, Lisa 219

personhood, conceptions of 1, 108, 111, 112, 114, 117, 158, 160, 161

non-human animals as persons 179–80

See also anthropomorphism

Philippon, Daniel J. 207

Phillips, Dana 39, 48, 198

physis 57, 202

picturesque, the 79, 80, 81

Pieto, Eric 222

Pinker, Stephen 168

Pister, Edwin E. 214

Planet Earth 9

plantations 133, 135

Plato 56

Plumwood, Val 142, 211, 216, 230

pollution 67, 84

Pomper, Philip 226

popular science 113, 143–5, 171, 176

See also science

population, human 24, 105, 221

See also overpopulation

‘population explosion’ 128

post-colonial criticism 74, 122, 131

post-colonial literature 5

post-humanism 14, 21, 63–71, 112, 117, 167, 187, 194, 212

post-modernism 46, 55, 100

post-structuralism 46, 169, 209

Pound, Ezra 139

Povinelli, Elizabeth A. 220

Preece, Rod 225

primates, primatology 158–61

Japanese primatologists 160

productionist metaphysics, productionist 56, 164

property, private 1, 17, 21, 30, 31, 32, 82–3, 85, 103, 104, 109, 220

psychoanalysis 166, 188

Raabe, Wilhelm 96–8, 101

Rachels, James 179

Raglon, Rebecca 48, 229

Ratcliffe, Derek 19

reader, readership, experience of reading 22–3, 30, 39, 47, 79, 99

realism, realist 47–8, 93, 94

See also non-realist technique

reason, instrumental 14, 139, 143

western rationality 56

Redford, Robert 91

Regan, Tom 180, 181

reinhabitation 125, 132–3

reproductive technologies 63, 66, 118

Ribben, Dennis 213

Rich, Adrienne 112–14, 118–19

rights 74, 87, 102–5, 106, 117, 118, 123, 129, 188, 212, 237

See under animal rights

Rilke, Rainer Maria 210

Robinson, Kim Stanley 205

rock, varying conceptions of 20–1, 49, 51, 57, 147, 163, 192

Rolston, Holmes 127, 223

Romanticism, romantic 5, 13–14, 22–3, 24, 25, 29, 30, 31, 48, 50, 52, 59, 61, 62, 66, 70, 71, 80, 89, 95, 98, 99, 100, 105, 112, 116, 118, 122, 139, 148, 154, 173, 198, 202, 205, 207

New world romanticism 26

Romantic consumerism 39

Romantic ecology 15–17, 19

Romantic ideal of the creative writer 147

Romantic imagination as counterweight to the rationalistic 19–21

See under poetic and figurative language as restorative

See also metaphor

Romantic modernism 154

See under human nature [romantic norm of ‘wholeness’]

Roorda, Randall 27, 30, 38, 43

Roosevelt, Theodore 27, 39

Root, Robert L. 35

Rosenberg, Charles 207

Rothenberg, David 208

Rousseau, Jean-Jacques 62

Rudy, Alan 215

Ruhl, Lealle 118

Ruskin, John 16, 17, 18, 26

Sagan, Carl 144

Sagoff, Mark 228

Sale, Kirkpatrick 131, 132

Salleh, Ariel 218

Sandilands, Catriona 117, 118

Sartre, Jean Paul 62

Sattelmeyer, Robert 31

scenery 79–80

scale 136–9

Schiller, Friedrich 22

Schneider, Joseph 162, 221

Scholtmeijer, Marian 48, 229

science, scientists 8, 36, 38, 52, 64, 71, 104, 107, 113, 125, 128, 141–55, 165, 168, 203

Green caricatures of science 141

and interdisciplinarity 171, 227

science as an ideology 141, 149–51, 176

scientific facts, establishment of 159–61

scientific illiteracy 176–7

scientific stance of neutral spectatorship 100

See also objectivity

See also popular science

science fiction 39, 52

science studies 156–63, 226

caricatures of 159

scientific revolutions 57

scientism 148

Scigaj, Leonard, M. 53, 209

Scott, Ridley 70

Scottish, Scottishness 91–2, 93

Segerstråle, Ullica 156, 157, 227

Self, Will 205

selfish gene 157–8, 161, 193

‘sentimental’ 22

Serventy, Vincent 28

Sessions, George 24

sex/gender 111

Shakespeare, William 168

Shaw, David Gary 226

Shearman, David 222

Shelley, Mary (Frankenstein) 66–9

Shelley, P. B. 24

Sherman, Rachel A. 149

Shires, Linda 100

Sierra Club 25, 27, 136

Silko, Leslie Marmon 48, 125, 220

Simons, John 187, 197, 200, 201

Singer, Peter 180, 185

situated science, situatedness (Haraway) 158, 160

Slaymaker, William 120

Slovic, Scott 174

Smith, A. D. 131

Smith, Craig 230

Smith, Joseph Wayne 222

Snyder, Gary 18, 33, 47, 52–4, 107, 138–9, 140

social ecology 2, 82, 89, 131, 152, 220, 238

sociobiology 151, 156, 158, 160, 163, 172, 176

Soper, Kate 184, 210

Sophocles

speciesism 185, 186, 187, 199, 201, 242

Stafford, Fiona J. 216

Standard Social Science Model (SSSM) 165–7, 170

state, the 54, 59, 104, 106, 130, 143

Stegner, Wallace 82, 84

Stein, Rachel 112–13

Sterling, Bruce 213

Stewart, Frank 209

Stiegler, Bernard 65

Sting 121

Storey, Robert 168

Sturgeon, Noël 217

Sullivan, Lucy G. 225

Sze, Arthur 139

Taiwan 85

Taylor, Bob Pepperman 73, 103

technology 64–5, 66

Tester, Keith 151

‘thinking like a mountain’ 77–8, 118

Thomas, Keith 183

Thomas, Michael J. 204

Thoreau, Henry D. 4, 6, 18, 25, 27–8, 29, 30–4, 35, 39, 41, 47, 62, 71, 93, 146, 217

Tiffin, Helen 126

tiger, Bengal 126, 127

Tinbergen, Nikolaus 44

Tolkien, J. R. R. 148

Tolstoy, Leo (War and Peace) 190

Tomlinson, Charles 139

Torop, Peeter 195

Toyosato, Mayumi 124–5

transcendentalism 32, 34, 146

‘transhumanism’ 63

trout 92

Tsing, Anna 228

Turney, Jon 212

Uexküll, Jacob Johann von 195

Uganda 121

United States 25–31, 37, 82–3, 91, 103, 104, 106, 124, 130, 131, 132, 208

See under the West

Updike, John 67

Van Dyke, John C. 27

Van de Pitte, Margaret 224

Vincent, Andrew 105

vitalism 154

Walcott, Derek 132–3, 134

Waldby, Catherine 63

Wallace, Kathleen R. 88, 215

Waller, L. Elizabeth 114–17

Wanning, Berbeli 97–8, 99

wasp (digger wasp) 42–3, 194, 209

water 97

Water World 107

Watkins, Paul 107

Weber, Max 143

Weiner, Jonathan 144

West, the 1, 54, 55–6, 60, 80, 89, 125, 127

West, the (American) 25–7, 30, 31, 58, 69, 220

Westling, Louise 117

Wheat, Jennifer C. 224

White, Gilbert 27

White, Lynn Jr 1

White, Richard 122, 125

wild, the 25, 29, 30, 31, 33–4, 42, 53, 54, 57, 61, 71, 80, 202

Wilde, Angela 204

wilderness 8, 25, 33, 40, 60, 69, 87, 90, 112, 123, 164, 235

tradition of writing 30, 58, 87, 93, 105, 173

See also environmental non-fiction

Wilderness Society 27

Williams, Raymond 4, 6, 216

Williams, Terry Tempest 36

Williamson, Henry 8–10, 40, 186

Wilson, David Sloan 226

Wilson, E. O. 156, 176, 217

Winterson, Jeanette 205

Wolf, Christa 68

wolf, wolves 36–7, 40–1, 43, 44, 78, 190, 208

Wolfe, Cary 53, 54, 185, 187–9, 195, 228

Wood, David 229

Woolf, Virginia 198, 210, 230

Wordsworth, Dorothy 108–9, 112, 164, 217

Wordsworth, William 15, 16–18, 19, 24, 26, 39, 62, 93, 99, 108–9, 112, 140, 164, 217, 222

work, nature of 17, 23, 31, 206, 220

World Bank 121

Worster, Donald 152, 207

Wright, Judith 18, 107

Wright, Ronald 205

writing 50–1, 52, 53, 64

Yamashita, Karen Tei 123

Yearly, Stephen 224

Yellowstone 25, 26, 40

Yosemite 25, 26

Zapf, Hubert 153–4, 224

Zimmerman, Michael E. 56, 104, 116

Žižek, Slavoj 63, 69




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