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Comparing Media Systems
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  • 3 b/w illus. 18 tables
  • Page extent: 360 pages
  • Size: 228 x 152 mm
  • Weight: 0.53 kg
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 (ISBN-13: 9780521543088 | ISBN-10: 0521543088)

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Index




ABC   104–5, 141

access to official information   44, 58, 59, 122, 160, 190

advertising   277, 291

   regulation of   163

advertising industry, and commercialization of broadcasting   275

   development in United States and Europe contrasted   48

   effect on political parallelism   219–20

affiliational voting   133

Aftonbladet   146, 149, 154

Agence France Presse   120

AGI (Agenzia Giornalistica Italia)   120

Agnelli, Giovanni   114

Aktuelt   179

Albert, Pierre   98

Alexander, Jeffrey   4–5, 14, 78–9, 82, 287, 288, 292–3

Alsop, Joseph and Stuart   27–9

American Federation of Television and Radio Artists   223

Americanization   254, 261, 277, 303

American Society of Newspaper Editors   218, 255

Amsterdam, as printing center   147

Anglo-American model of journalism   11, 38, 69, 198, 246–8

   influence on other systems   92, 99, 105, 156, 170

An Phoblacht/Republican News   205

Anshelm, M.   178

Antena 3   105, 137

Appeal to Reason   205

Arbeiter-Illustrierte Zeitung   155

Arbeiter Zeitung   156

aristocracy, role in media history   91

Artingstall, Nigel   234

Asensio, Antonio   137

Austria   75

   democratic corporatism   185

   development of liberal institutions   146

   literacy   149

   party press   156

   press council   173

   Presseclub Concordia   172

   press freedom   147

   public broadcasting   164, 168–9

Avanti   94

Avvenire   95

Aznar, José María   105, 138


Baker, C. Edwin   219–20

Balzac, Honoré de   91

Barnhurst, Kevin   257

Barrera, Carlos   115, 137

Barzini, Luigi   110

Bastiansen, Henrik   164

Beaverbrook, Lord   204

Bechelloni, Giovanni   112, 134

Beck, Ulrich   267

Belgium   70, 153, 181

   literacy   149

   as mixed case   145, 169

   political control of public broadcasting   169

   press freedom   147

Bellah, Robert   138

Bendix, Reinhard   3, 302

Benson, Rod   142, 245

Berlusconi, Silvio   93, 101–2, 109, 114, 125, 137, 138, 253, 264, 278

Bild   159, 176, 181, 211

Black, Conrad   85, 221–2

Blair, Tony   253

Blanchard, Margaret   13, 255–6

Blumler, Jay G.   2, 15, 21, 259, 283, 284

Börjesson, Britt   172

Bourdieu, Pierre   9, 38, 81–2, 288, 291

bourgeoisie   91, 128, 133, 186, 243

   influence on contemporary press   292

   see also liberal institutions, development of

Brants, Kees   152, 158, 281

Brisson, Pierre   116

Britain   11, 12, 69

   broadcast regulation   215–16, 242

   coverage of Parliament   281

   election coverage and strength of party system   215–16, 284

   ideological polarization   240

   influence on colonies   73, 201

   interest groups   241

   Official Secrets Act   10, 50–1, 231

   political parallelism   210, 292

   Press Complaints Commission   224, 231

   press history   199

   professionalization of journalism   223

   public confidence in media   247

   public service broadcasting   230, 231–2

   radical or working class press   201, 204

   role of the state   230, 234

   Westminster System   50–1, 52, 242, 283

British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC)   31, 33, 166, 231, 232, 241–2, 247, 281

   political autonomy   235–6, 237, 246

   world service   259

broadcasting professionals, autonomy of   31, 32, 34, 165, 235–6

broadcast regulation30, 33, 44, 50–1, 56, 237; see also public broadcasting, models of; savage deregulation

Bücher, Karl   195

Bundespressekonferenz   172, 192

Burgelman, Jean-Claude   169

business press, globalization of   259


Camus, Albert   95

Canada, broadcasting   52, 232, 236

   ideological polarization   240

   instrumentalization   221

   national identity and media policy   198, 232, 267

   political parallelism   209

   press councils   224

   press history   202, 203–4

   role of the state   232

Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC)   31, 232

Canalejas, José   93

Canal Plus (Spain)   105

Canard Enchaîné, Le   123

Canel, María José   104–5, 106, 118

Cánovas del Castillo, Antonio   93

Can West   222

Carr, Raymond,   128

case studies, use in comparative analysis   16

Catalonia   71, 112

causality in relation of media to political system   4–5, 8–9, 47, 267–8, 283, 296–7

Cavour, Camillo Di   93

censorship   119–20, 232–3, 234–5

Central America, coverage of   226, 234

Chalaby, Jean C.   14, 131, 171, 207–8, 222

Channel 4   231

Chicago Defender   206

Christian Democratic Party (Italy)   108, 125, 264

Christian Science Monitor   205

chronicle or pastone   101

churches, as media owners   95, 113, 117, 205

Cipolla, Carlo   63

civil society, see organized social groups

Clear Channel Communications   217

clientelism   58–9, 62, 63, 119, 132, 135–8

   weakness in democratic corporatist countries   193

Clinton, Bill   259

CNN   259, 260, 286

Cobbett’s Political Register   201

Cold War   10, 13, 256

Collins, Randall   35

Columbia Journalism Review   227

commentary-oriented journalism   29, 61, 98–100, 104–5, 106, 131, 158, 159, 188

commentator role, separation from reporting and editing   180

commercialization   14, 23, 37, 76, 273–82

   and alienation of public   281–2

   and differentiation   82

   of European broadcasting   252, 274–6

   and flow of political information   279

   and press pluralism   176, 203

   relation with political parallelism   26–7, 101–2, 159, 213–14, 219, 247, 286–7

   and status of journalists   273

   see also concentration of media ownership

Commission de la Carte   112

Communist Party of Italy (PCI)   94, 264, 266

concentration of capital   48

concentration of media ownership   276, 286, 289

   effect on press pluralism   161, 179, 274

   regulation of   44, 122, 216, 229

conscience clause   43, 116

Conseil Supérieur de l’Audiovisuel   94–106, 107, 109, 119, 127

consensus politics   32, 49–50, 53, 186

convergence or homogenization of media systems   76, 181, 251, 282–7, 301

COPE   104–5

Corriere della Sera, Il   102, 110, 114, 280

Cotta, Johan Friedrich   148, 158

Counter-Reformation63, 91; see also Greek Orthodox Church

critical professionalism   119, 124, 162–3, 176–7, 271–3, 279, 290, 294

Croix, La   95, 98

cultural imperialism   254

Curran, James   140, 189–90

Curry, Jane Leftwich   39


Dagbladet (Norway)   159

Dagens Nyheter   149

Dagnaud, Monique   104, 107, 126

Daily Herald   205, 280

Daily Mail   202, 212

Daily Mirror   97, 211, 215, 231, 280

Daily News (New York)   206

Daily Telegraph   212, 222

Daily Worker   205

De Gaulle, Charles   104–6, 120

democratic corporatism   50–2, 53–4, 144, 160–1, 163, 165, 183–97

   peak associations in   172, 187

Denmark, four-party paper system   27, 154, 159

   political parallelism   179

   press council   173

   press freedom   147

   press subsidies   161

   public broadcasting   164, 170

   rational-legal authority   193

   welfare state   190

De Valera, Eamon   210

Diario 16   96, 104, 124

differentiation theory   26–38, 76, 85–6, 203, 253–4, 262, 285, 287, 301–2

Djerf-Pierre, Monika   169, 180, 271

D-Notice system   231, 234

Donsbach, Wolfgang   35, 174, 180, 181, 208, 223, 227, 293, 294

Durkheim, Emile   4, 76


EFE (Spanish news agency)   120

Eisenstein, Elizabeth   150–1, 259–60

Ekecrantz, Jan   292

election campaigns, regulation of   44, 49–50, 53, 122, 163, 216, 229, 283

electronic media, importance relative to print media   24, 97

Ersson, Svante O.   240

Escarpit, Robert   132

Espresso   114

Esser, Frank   174

ethnocentrism in media studies   2, 3–4

European Court of Justice   276

European Journal of Communication   15

European Journalism Training Association   258

European Monetary Union   267

European Union   258, 284

Evelina   260

Express   225


fact-centered discourse   207

Fairness Doctrine   216, 217, 230

Featherling, Douglas   203

Federal Communications Commission (FCC)   229, 230, 231, 237, 245–6

Ferruzi, Raul   114

Figaro, Le   98, 99, 115, 116–17, 141

Financial Times   258

Finland, party press   154, 252

   press history   150, 153, 159

   professionalization of journalism   171, 172, 173

First Amendment   44, 50–1, 201–2, 229, 283

Fisher, Harold   13, 21

Forcella, Enzo   96, 101

Four Theories of the Press   1, 6, 7–10, 13, 14, 72, 257, 302, 305

   social responsibility theory in   36, 217–18, 221

Fox News   217, 286

France   11, 63, 70, 81, 129

   broadcast regulation   126–7

   conflicts over journalistic autonomy   116–17, 290

   dirigiste tradition   127

   early press history   92–3

   as exception   69, 74, 89, 90, 91–2, 136

   ideal of politically engaged press   131

   influence on Southern Europe   73, 90

   instrumentalization of press   115

   language regulations   50–1, 127

   majoritarianism   52

   party press   94–5

   polarized pluralism   60, 130, 285

   political control of broadcasting   10, 30, 103–6, 107, 109

   political positions of newspapers   98–100

   press subsidies   121

   rational-legal authority   136

   state control of press   120, 234

France Soir   97, 98, 115

Franco dictatorship   95, 120, 121, 126, 167

Frankfurter Algemeine   27

Frankfurter Rundschau   156

Franklin, Bob   281

Frappat, Bruno   100

French-Algerian war   120

Frenkel, Erwin   40–1, 226


game frame   125

Gazeta Wyborcza   39

gender differences in newspaper circulation   23, 96

General Agreement on Trade in Services   276

Germany   11, 63, 70, 71, 189

   broadcast regulation   32, 50–1, 166–8, 175

   democratic corporatism   75, 144, 161, 185

   development of liberal institutions   146

   Federal Constitutional Court   167, 168, 194

   influences on U.S. journalism   255

   instrumentalization of press   176

   journalistic autonomy   174–5

   journalists’ union   172

   literacy   149

   party press   154–6, 158

   political parallelism   27, 180–1

   press council   173

   press freedom   147

   press history   148, 158

   professionalization of journalism   34, 35, 171, 194–5

   proporz principle   31, 168

   rational-legal authority   192–3

   Weimar Republic   60, 155

Giddens, Anthony   262

Giornale, Il   101, 114, 285

Giorno, Il   114

globalization   256, 267, 280

Godkin, E. L.   227

Golding, Peter   260, 280

González, Felipe   104

Gramsci, Antonio   82, 94–109

Greece, autonomy of journalists   118

   broadcast deregulation   125

   development of liberal institutions   128

   instrumentalization of press   114, 285

   majoritarianism   52

   political control of broadcasting   30, 104, 107

   political positions of newspapers   98

   press history   93–4, 95, 109

   prestige of journalists   273

   role of state   133, 134, 135

   scandals   279

Greek Orthodox Church   128

Guardian   212–13, 215, 223

Gunther, Richard   104, 107, 108

Gurevitch, Michael   2, 15, 21, 259, 284

Gustafsson, Karl-Erik   146, 153, 161


Habermas, Jürgen   80–1, 91, 147–8, 288

Hadenius, Stig   146, 147, 149, 152–3, 157, 162, 177

Hallin, Daniel C.   13

Hansson, Per Albin   190

Hartz, Louis   238–9

Hasselbach, Suzanne   166

hate speech   43, 122, 163

Havas   120

Hearst, William Randolf   204

Hegel’s Philosophy of Right   192

Heinonen, Ari   172, 173

Herald (New York)   218

Herald-Tribune   258

Herman, Edward H.   293

Hersant, Robert   115, 116–17, 120

Hierta, Lars Johan   149

history in comparative analysis, see path dependence

Hoffmann-Riem, Wolfgang   166

  97 Hola!

Hollinger, Inc.   40

horizontal vs. vertical communication   22, 132–3

Høst, Sigurd   162

Høyer, Svennik   157, 170–1

Hugenberg, Alfred   155

Humanité   95, 98

Humphreys, Peter   50–2, 172, 173

Hutchins Commission   221


immigration, and political parties   267

   coverage of   100

Independent   212, 215

Independent Television (ITV)   231, 236, 280, 281

Indipendente   101–2

infotainment   278, 282, 287, 290–1

Inglehart, Ronald   266

Institut des Etudes Politiques   136

Institute of Journalists   223

instrumentalization   37, 56–7, 61, 113, 175–6, 219, 221–2, 225–6, 289

   and clientelism   58–9, 138

   and rational-legal authority   194, 245–6

interest groups, see organized social groups

Interviú   123

investigative reporting   233

Ireland   224

   clientelism   243

   moderate pluralism   240

   national identity and media policy   198, 232

   political parallelism   209–10

   press history   202

   public broadcasting   31, 52, 232, 236

   role of the state   232–3

Irish Independent   202, 210

Irish Press, The   210

Irish Times   210

Israel, journalistic professionalism in   40

Italy   11, 14, 70, 71

   broadcast deregulation   125, 274

   changes in political communication   278

   “civic culture” in   129

   conflicts over journalistic autonomy   117

   consensus system   52, 108

   early press history   96

   instrumentalization of media   114

   linguistic diversity   93

   lottizazione   31, 108–9, 114

   Order of Journalists   112, 121

   party press   94–5

   polarized pluralism   60, 130

   political control of broadcasting   31, 108, 119

   political role of press   93, 100, 102–3, 108, 113, 131, 281, 285

   politicization of society   135

   press subsidies   121

   professionalization of journalism   34, 35, 118

   role of clergy in press history   91

   role of the state   133, 134

   secularization   263–4

   volume of political coverage   140


Jacobson, Gary   284

Japan, press clubs in   172

Jerusalem Post   40–1, 218

journalism, codes of ethics in   112–13, 175

   political and literary roots of   90–1, 93, 110–11

journalism education   112, 136, 173–4, 218, 222

   and Americanization   257–8

   and technology   260–1

journalists, as political actors   98, 157, 180–1

   autonomy of   34–5, 41, 113–19, 174, 222–3, 225, 287, 289

   corruption of   92, 114, 218

   educational levels of   110, 272

   employment conditions of   112

   global interaction of   258–9

   prestige of   273

journalists’ unions and professional associations   55, 103, 111, 113, 171–2, 188, 192, 221, 223–4, 225

Jyllands Posten   183


Katzenstein, Peter   50–1, 53–4, 144,  160, 183–6, 191, 192, 196

Kavanaugh, Dennis   283

Kelly, Mary   32, 121, 167

Kernell, Samuel   218

Kindelmann, K.   181

Kirchheimer, Otto   272

Köcher, Renate   180

Kopper, Gerd   258


Labour Party (Britain)   240, 253, 259

Lægried, Per   193

Lane, Jan-Erik   240

Leurdijk, Ardra   278

libel   43, 120, 164, 225, 231

liberal institutions, and democratic corporatism   186

   development of   62–3, 89–90, 127–9, 146–8, 149, 187, 199, 237

   in rural areas   150, 186

Liberal Model, as norm in media studies   13

Libération   96, 98, 111, 117, 123

Licensing Act (1695)   200

Lijphart, Arend   6, 7, 49–50, 53, 151–3

Lipset, Seymour M.   263, 300

literacy rates   93, 96, 128, 150, 151, 199

   relation to newspaper circulation   12, 63, 148–9

literary public sphere   91

local patriotism   149–50, 154

Löffelholz, Martin   181

Loft Story   127

Lorentzen, Pål E.   157, 170–1

Lorwin, V.   152–3, 188

Luce, Henry   219

Luhmann, Niklas   77–8, 79, 82, 290

Lukacs, Georg   293

Luther, Martin   143

Luxembourg   6, 43, 275


MacDougall, A. Kent   225

majoritarianism   31, 49–50, 53, 79, 133, 242–3

Marx, Karl   155

mass circulation press, and liberal institutions   128

   development of   13, 21, 22–6, 62, 63, 91, 95–7, 148–59, 193, 202

   urban/rural differences   187

Matin, Le (France)   92, 255

Mattei, Enrico   114

Maupassant, Guy de   91

Maxwell, Robert   246

Mazzini, Giuseppe   93

Mazzoleni, Gianpietro   253, 290

McChesney, Robert   293

McCormick, Col. Robert   219

McLachlan, Shelly   280

McLuhan, Marshall   9, 259

McQuail, Denis   12, 152–3, 251, 257

media logic   253, 290

Merrill, John C.   13

Messaggero, Il   103–9, 114

Michnik, Adam   39

Microsoft   229

Midhordaland   175

Miliband, Ralph   84

Mill, J. S.   199

moderate pluralism   62, 79, 186, 211, 238

   and democratic corporatism   191

modernization theory   13, 76, 262

Monde, Le   98, 99–100, 111, 123, 141

   journalists’ governance of   117

Montero, José Ramón   104, 107, 108

Monty Python’s Flying Circus   272

most similar systems design   6–7

Mouzelis, Nicos   135

Mr. Smith Goes to Washington   217, 221

Mundo, El   104–5, 106, 124

Murdoch, Rupert   84, 205, 221

Mussolini, Benito   100


National News Council   224

National Post   206, 209, 221

National Union of Journalists (NUJ)   223–4

nation state, rooting of media institutions in   13, 147, 150

Near v. Minnesota   202

Negrine, Ralph   281

neoliberalism   126, 134, 158, 217, 255, 284, 291, 294

Nerone, John C.   10, 257

Netherlands, editorial statues   175

   journalism education   174

   journalists’ union   171

   political orientations of newspapers   27–9, 182–3

   press freedom   147

   welfare state   190

   see also pillarization

Neue Kronenzeitung   158, 159, 173

Neue Zürcher Zeitung   148

Neveu, Erik   91, 272, 273

news agencies   120, 259, 260

Newspaper Guild   221, 223

newspaper markets, linguistic division of   26

   national vs. local or regional   25

newsstand sales   96–8

Newton, Kenneth   234

New York Times, The   99, 141, 206, 208

normativity in media theory   13–15

Northern Ireland, conflict in   233, 234, 235

Norway, journalistic autonomy   175

   party press   154

   political involvement of journalists   157

   press council   173

   press freedom   147

   press subsidies   162, 175

   professionalization of journalism   171, 174

   public broadcasting   164

   rational-legal authority   193

Nossiter, T. J.   283

NRC-Handelsblad   183


objectivity   3, 26, 38, 41, 50–1, 61, 131, 210, 219, 244

   as constraint on journalistic autonomy   226

   and majoritarianism   243

   and moderate pluralism   240

   and political parallelism in Democratic Corporatist system   183

Olsen, Johan P.   193

Olsson, Tom   176

Onda Cero   105

organized social groups   31, 32, 38, 80, 152, 158, 159, 165–70, 204, 288, 293–4

   in democratic corporatism   187

   and individualized pluralism in Liberal system   241

   and majoritarianism   243

   and newspaper circulation   187

   in public broadcasting   188, 241

Osservatore Romano   95

Ouest France   97


Padioleau, Jean G.   111, 112, 132, 142, 271

País, El   96, 103, 105, 106, 111, 117, 141

Palme, Olof, assasination of   173

Pansa, Gianpaolo   113

Papathanassopoulos, Stylianos   115, 273, 281, 285

Paramount Decrees   229

Paraschos, Manny E.   98, 285

Parisien, Le   97

Parsons, Talcott   36, 76, 77, 262

Partido Popular   107

Partido Socialista Obrero de España (PSOE)   107, 126, 137

party press   15, 37, 94–5, 113, 228–9, 304

   absence in liberal systems   205

   decline of   177–83, 252, 273–4

   professionalization in   177, 289

party-press parallelism   27–8, 154, 208

Pasolini, Pier Paolo   110

path dependence   13, 300–1

Patterson, Thomas   35, 174, 181, 208, 293, 294

Penny press   202

Periódico de Catalunya, El   96

Petit Parisien, Le   92

Pfetsch, Barbara   180, 188, 281

Piattoni, Simona   59

Picard, Robert W.   31

Pilati, Antonio   48, 275

pillarization   31, 53, 54, 151–2, 157, 174

   decline of   263, 266, 269–70

   and public broadcasting   165–6, 187, 190, 270

   see also segmented pluralism

Piqué, Antoni M.   104–6, 107, 118

Pittsburgh Courier   206

pluralism, internal vs. external   14, 29–30, 50–1, 54, 93, 108, 166–9, 182

   print and broadcasting contrasted   72, 170, 216, 270

pluralism, organized vs. individualized   53

Polanco, Jesús de   137

Poland, journalistic professionalism in   39

polarized pluralism   59, 62, 89, 129–33, 155

political communication, changes in   252–3, 277, 281

political culture   9, 58, 59, 61, 80, 138, 200, 215–16, 264, 297, 298–9

   and democratic corporatism   161, 192

   and polarized pluralism   131

political field, relation of media to   76, 81, 90, 253–4, 277, 300

political parallelism   21, 41, 50–1, 54, 58, 63, 96–8, 156–60, 177–83, 207–17, 285

   and democratic corporatism   188–90

   and differentiation   79–80

   and media audiences   102, 104, 157–8, 212

   and moderate/polarized pluralism   61, 239–40

   and role of state   300

   see also party-press parallelism

political parties   137, 140–1, 168, 187–8, 200–1, 237

   catchall   50–1, 252, 265, 272

   decline of   264–8, 284–5

   power relative to social groups   53–4

   as social institutions   166

   see also organized social groups; party press; party-press parallelism

Politiken   183

Popolo, Il   94

Porter, Vincent   166

Portugal   70, 71, 96, 135

   broadcast deregulation   124

   conflicts over journalistic autonomy   117

   majoritarianism   52

   polarized pluralism   61

   political control of broadcasting   30, 104, 107

   political role of press   103

   press history   94, 95

   press subsidies   121

   weakness of welfare state   134

positivism   4

Post (New York)   206

postal system, as subsidy to press   228

postmaterialism   266, 272

power   82–5, 190, 254, 292–4

prensa del corazón   97

press councils   10, 37, 112, 163–4, 172–3, 190, 192, 224, 290

press freedom   92, 94, 145, 147, 160, 190, 230

   internal   175

   see also censorship; First Amendment; taxes on knowledge

press subsidies    10, 43, 56–7, 80, 82–5, 161–3

PRISA   103, 104, 137

privacy   43, 122, 229, 284

professional confidentiality   43, 113, 228–9

professionalization of journalism   4, 14, 21, 26, 33–41, 59, 62, 63, 76, 110–19, 170, 217–27, 273, 287, 293

   and clientelism   138

   coexistence with political parallelism   31

   and commercial press   110, 226–7, 288–91, 294

   decline of   227

   and democratic corporatism   192

   as differentiation   79, 262

   and newspaper circulation   22, 170–1, 300

   and polarized pluralism   131

   and public broadcasting   169, 289

   and majoritarianism   243

   and rational-legal authority   57–8, 194, 244–5

   state recognition of   112

Progressive Movement   244

Protestantism, see Reformation, Protestant

Pruszynski, Ksawery   39

public broadcasting   41–3, 114, 164, 276, 277, 286

   emphasis on public affairs   279–80

   journalistic autonomy in   119, 235–6

   models of   30–3, 50–1, 54, 56, 104–6, 107, 165–70, 193, 235–6, 242, 246

public interest, concept of   58, 59, 61, 133, 138, 192, 195

   and majoritarianism   242

publicist, journalist as   26–38, 155

Público   96

Pulitzer, Josef   202, 225, 255

Putnam, Robert   129, 130, 131, 187

Pye, Lucian W.   262


Quebec   71, 205, 209

   journalists’ union   224

   press council   224


Radio Capodistria   275

radio, community   54, 161, 242

   pirate   125, 274, 275, 276, 282

   political influence of   108

Radio Monte Carlo   275

radios périphériques   120, 127

Radiotelevisione Italiana (RAI)   31, 108–9, 114, 121, 125

Ramírez, Pedro J.   105

rational-legal authority   55, 62, 79, 136, 148, 163, 191, 243, 287

   and democratic corporatism   192–5

Real Lives affair   235

Reformation, Protestant 62, 148, 150–1, 199; see also Luther, Martin

Reith, John   231, 241–2

Reppublica, La   96, 101, 111, 114, 285

Reuters TV   259

Ricuperati, G.   91–2

right of reply   10, 43, 122, 163, 229

Rodríguez, Roberto   104–6, 107

Rokkan, Stein   263, 300

Romiti, Cesare   114

Rooney, Dick   280

Rosa, Alberto Asor   91

routines   226

RTL (Germany)   167

rule of three thirds   93–4, 109, 119


Salokangas, Raimo   150, 159

Sampedro, Victor   85, 141–2

Sánchez, José Javier   104–6

Sandford, J.   158

San Diego Union-Tribune, The   208

San Francisco Chronicle   209

Sartori, Giovanni   59–60, 61, 130

Sat-1   167

savage deregulation   44, 59, 124–7, 138

Scalfari, Eugenio   101–2

scandals   122–4, 278–9, 281

Schneider, Beate   180, 181

Schoenbach, Klaus   180, 181

Scholl, Armin   181

Schröeder, Gerhard   253

Schudson, Michael   220, 255

Schulz, Winfried   181

secularization   170, 178–9, 263–77

Sedition Act   201

segmented pluralism 53, 151–2, 158, 187, 284; see also pillarization

Semetko, Holli   215–16

separation of church and state in U.S. journalism   227, 289

September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks    4, 147, 234, 286

Seymour-Ure, Colin   27, 210

Shefter, Martin   55

Sinclair, Upton   220

Smothers Brothers Show   272

social institutions, media as   49–50, 53, 122, 160–1, 163, 164, 275, 290

social movements   141, 276

Society of Professional Journalists   223

sociology of consumption   48

Søllinge, Jette Drachmann   149, 154, 159

Southern Europe, as region   89–90

Spain   11, 14, 70, 71, 130, 133, 135

   autonomy of journalists   118

   broadcast deregulation   125–6

   business journalism   137

   development of liberal institutions   128, 129

   instrumentalization of press   115

   intervention of state in media system   50–1, 120, 121, 137, 267

   majoritarianism   52, 107

   polarized pluralism   61

   political control of broadcasting   30, 107–8, 119, 126

   political parallelism   103–6, 110, 285, 286

   press history   93, 95, 96, 108

   press subsidies   121

   professionalization of journalism   34

   role of banks in media system   48, 115

   transition to democracy   103–4

   weakness of welfare state   134

Sparks, Colin   258

Splichal, Slavko   258

sports press   97

Springer, Axel   85, 97, 176

Stampa, La   102, 114

state, as advertiser   43, 121

   as media owner   43, 120–1

   national security   233–4

   pressures on public broadcasting from   33

   as “primary definer”   44, 233–4, 292

   role in media system   21, 80, 119–20, 121, 127, 160–5, 228, 291–2

   role in society   49–50, 62, 133–5, 190–1, 284

Stern   175

structuralism vs. instrumentalism   84–5

Stuerzebecher, Dieter   180, 181

Süddeutsche Zeitung   27

Suez Crisis   234

Sun   205, 211, 280

survey research, limits of   303–4

Sweden   70

   broadcast regulation   52

   concept of folkhem   190, 192

   critical professionalism   271

   literacy   148

   party press   151–4, 157

   political parallelism   179–80, 181

   press accountability system   50–1, 172–3

   press concentration   274

   press freedom   147

   press history   150, 158

   press subsidies   162

   professionalization of journalism   173, 174, 192

   public broadcasting   165, 169

   Publicists’ Club   171

   relation of media to state   292

   shift to individualism   264

   welfare state   190

Switzerland   49–50, 53, 153

   press history   148

   public broadcasting   164

Syvertsen, Trine   164


tabloid or sensationalist press   158–9, 206–7, 211, 224, 278

   absence in Southern Europe   97

   contrasted to “quality” press   25

   ideology in   281, 286

taxes on knowledge   147, 200–1, 202

Taz   175

technology, and convergence of media systems   259–61

   and critical expertise in journalism   273

Tele5 (Spain)   105, 276

telecommunications industries   252, 257

Telefónica de España   105, 137

Telegraaf, Die   182

television, political satire on   272

   role in secularization   269–71

Television Without Frontiers Directive   276

Thatcher, Margaret   210, 235

That Was the Week That Was   272

Thirty Years War   150

Times, The   212, 223

Tocqueville, Alexis de   204, 237, 238

Trades Union Congress   205, 241

trade unions, see organized social groups

Traquina, Nelson   44, 124

TROS   269–70, 274, 277

Trouw   182

Tunstall, Jeremy   235, 257


Unità   94

United States   11

   broadcast regulation   216

   clientelism   243

   commercial broadcasting and political influence   236–7

   concentration of newspaper market   220

   constitutionalism   237, 244

   dominance of liberal ideology   238–9

   ethnic media   206

   interest groups   241

   literacy rates   199, 237

   majoritarianism   242

   political parallelism   208–9, 217, 286

   political parties   284

   press councils   224

   press history   204

   professionalization of journalism   217–18, 221, 244

   public broadcasting   31, 229–30, 231, 236

   radical press   205–6

   role of the state   228

   see also Federal Communications Commission; First Amendment

USA Today   206


Van der Eijk, Cees   27, 182–3

Vanguardia, La   105, 111

VCR, and commercialization of broadcasting   275

Venice   90

Veronica   274

Vietnam War   3, 234

Villalonga, Juan   137

Villiard, Henry   218

Volkskrant, Die   27

Vorwärts   155


Waisbord, Silvio   272

Washington Times, The   205, 209

watch-dog role of press   131–2

Watergate scandal   3, 233, 259

Weaver, David   258

Weber, Max   39, 55, 57, 155, 192

   on journalism as profession   195

Weibull, Lennart   147, 149, 152–3, 157, 162, 169, 172, 178, 179

Weischenberg, Siegfried   181

Welt, Die   176

Wert, José Ignacio   104, 107, 108

Westminster Lobby   172, 233–4

Wiebe, Robert   244

Wigbold, Herman   269–70

Winston, Brian   281

World Association of Newspapers (WAN)   256–7, 258

World Trade Organization   232

Worldwide Television News   259


Zaharapoulos, Thimios   98, 285


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