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At War's End
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Acevedo, Carlos, 125

Adelman, Howard, 74

Afghanistan, 2, 4–5, 17, 212, 225–227, 232, 233

Ajello, Aldo, 142

Akashi, Yasushi, 85 n29, 86 n34

Ake, Claude, 21

Albania, 217 n19

Alden, Chris, 147

Alemán, Arnoldo, 121

Ali, Mohamed, 191 n31

Alianza Republicana Nationalista, 123, see also El Salvador

American Colonization Society, 90, see also Liberia

Amnesty International, 33, 95

Angola, 3, 5, 17, 63–69, 114, 136, 152, 154, 172 n94, 174, 190

   Bicesse Accord, 64–65, 67–69

   election of 1992, 66–69

   Lusaka Protocol, 67 n34

   United Nations Verification Mission in Angola (UNAVEM), 64–65, 68

Angulo, Carmelo, 118

Annan, Kofi, 2, 3, 6, 24–25, 42, 44, 56, 113, 217, 220, 225, 229

Anstee, Margaret Joan, 66

Arbenz, Jacobo, 129

ARENA Party, see Alianza Republicana Nationalista

Arévalo, Juan José, 129

Arias, Oscar, 112

Armenia, 165

Arusha Accords, see Rwanda

Asia Foundation, 197

Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), 81

Azerbaijan, 165


Ballantine, Karen, 76, 197

Barre, Said, 16

Belarus, 165

Belgium, 31, 70, 171

Berman, Sheri, 160–161

Bicesse Accord, see Angola

Bosnia, 3, 17–18, 26, 62, 97–107, 153, 154, 162–163, 181–183, 190–198, 202, 207–210, 213, 228, see also Dayton Peace Accord

   elections

     entity-level in 1997, 105

     national-level in 1996, 100–105, 192

     national-level in 1998, 105–106

   Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, 99, 101, 105

   International Force (IFOR), 100, 103

   Republica Srpska, 99, 101, 103–105

   Security Force (SFOR), 103 n28, 182

   United Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR), 97–98, 100, 141

Boutros-Ghali, Boutros, 2, 3, 6, 18, 24, 36–37, 42, 44, 55–56, 120

   Agenda for Democratization, 36–37

   An Agenda for Peace, 18, 55–56

Boyce, James, 128

Brahimi, Lakhdar, 229

Brazil, 203

Britain, 14, 31, 81, 137, 141, 222–223

Burki, Shavid, 203

Burkino Faso, 165

Burundi, 46


Callaghy, Thomas, 200

Cambodia, 3, 17, 62, 79–90, 153–154, 164–165, 172 n94, 190, 196, 206

   elections

     of 1993, 84–85, 87–88

     of 1998, 86–88

   Paris Peace Accords of 1990, 81–82, 86, 88

   United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC), 82–87

     Radio UNTAC, 196–197

Cambodian People’s Party (CPP), 85–89, see also Cambodia

Cameroon, 165

Canada, 31, 137, 198

Center for International Private Enterprise, 32

Central African Republic, 61

Chad, 62, 203

Chambers, Simone, 160

Chamorro, Violeta, see de Chamorro, Violeta Barrios

Chandler, David, 33, 209

Chapúltepec Accord, 122–123, see also El Salvador

Chile, 203

China, 23, 80–81

Chissano, Joaquin, 142, 144

Chossudovsky, Michel, 77

Christian Democratic Party, 123, see also El Salvador

civil society, see nongovernmental organizations

civil war, 1–2, 5, 8, 39, 42–46, 60, 148, 172, 232–233, 235–236

   characteristics of states emerging from, 3, 168–175, 201

   defined, 1, 60

Clinton administration, 42

Coalition pour la Défense de la République (CDR), 72–74, see also Rwanda

coffee, 114, 122, 129

Cold War, 13–16, 27, 180

   conditions at termination of, 16–17, 20–22, 33, 35

Collier, Paul, 169, 200 n60

Community of Sant’Egidio, 141

Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE), see Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE)

“conflict dampeners,” 168–173, 235

Congo, 14, 62, 212, see also Zaire

Conroy, Michael, 166–167

consociationalism, 193–194

Contras, 112, 115, 119, see also Nicaragua

Coser, Lewis, 157

Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (Comecon), 143, 161

Cousens, Elizabeth, 56 n6

Cristiani, Alfredo, 123

Croatia, 3, 62, 97–98, 107–111, 152–153, 162, 182, 213, 217, see also Dayton Peace Accord

   postconflict elections, 109, 110

   United Nations Civilian Police Support Group (UNPSG), 108 n58

   United Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR), 97, 98, 107

   United Nations Transition Administration for Eastern Slavonia, Baranja and Western Sirmium (UNTAES), 108

Croatian Democratic Union (HDZ), 101, 105, 109, see also Bosnia; Croatia

Cropsey, Joseph, 49 n54

Cuba, 23, 63–64, 136

Cyprus, 14


Dahl, Robert, 157, 161

Dallaire, Roméo, 73 n73, 197

Dayton Peace Accord, 99–100, 102, 104, 106–109, 192, 202, see also Bosnia; Croatia

de Chamorro, Violeta Barrios, 116–117

de Cuéllar, Javier Pérez, 122

de Montesquieu, Baron Charles-Louis, 50

de Tocqueville, Alexis, 156, 157 n12

“demagogue democracies,” 154

democracy, 6, 7, 19–25, 33, 35–37, 40, 42, 44, 156–160, 204–206, see also “illiberal democracy”

   contested definitions of, 15–16, 21

   logical paradoxes within, 156–159

   resistance to liberal version of, 21

democratic peace, see liberal peace thesis

Democratic Republic of Congo, see Congo

Democratic Turnhalle Alliance, 137, see also Namibia

democratization, see liberalization: political

Denitch, Bogdan, 162

Denmark, 203

Deutsch, Karl, 170

Diamond, Larry, 35–36, 44, 170, 207

Dodik, Milorad, 104–105

Doe, Samuel, 90–91, 94

Dokie, Samuel, 93

dos Santos, José Eduardo, 65, 67–69, 174, see also Angola

Downs, George, 56–57, 155

Doyle, Michael, 43, 81 n5, 82


East Timor, 3, 62, 218–221, 228–229, 233

   Constituent Assembly, 219

   elections

     of 2002, 220

     referendum of 1999, 219

   Special Representative of the Secretary-General, 220, 221

   United Nations Transitional Administration in East Timor (UNTAET), 218–220

Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), 91, 222

Economic Freedom of the World, 21–22

Economist Intelligence Unit, 126

Egypt, 13–14, 46, 167, see also United Nations Emergency Force

El Salvador, 3, 17, 62, 122–128, 130, 153, 154, 167, 195, 203, see also Chapúltepec Accord; Esquipulas Accord; United Nations Observer Group in Central America

   elections

     of 1994, 123

     of 1997 and 1999, 124

   United Nations Observer Mission in El Salvador (ONUSAL), 123

elections, 5, 20, 23–24, 30, 43, 81, 157–158, 162–164, 188–194, 214, see also individual country entries

Equatorial Guinea, 165

Esman, Milton, 110

Esquipulas Accord, 112–113, 115, 122, 129

Ethiopia, 164

ethnic cleansing, 1, 35, 44, 98, 111, 183, see also genocide

“ethnic entrepreneurs,” 161–163

Europe, Eastern, 6–7, 25–27, 32, 162

European Union, 18, 26–27, 31, 92, 106, 142, 197, 216


Farabundo Martí Liberation Front (FLMN), 112–113, 122–124, 127, see also El Salvador

Federalist Papers, 49–50, see also Hamilton, Alexander; Madison, James

First World War, see World War I

Fishel, Kimbra, 125, 127

France, 14, 31, 79, 81, 144, 147

Free Trade Union Institute, 32

Freedom House, 89

Frente de Libertação de Moçambique (Frelimo), 141–147, see also Mozambique

Frente Nacional de Libertação de Angola (FNLA), 63–68, see also Angola

Front Uni Pour Un Cambodge Indépendant, Neutre, Pacifique et Coopératif (FUNCINPEC), 80, 81, 85–88, see also Cambodia

Fukuyama, Francis, 20


Gabon, 165

Galtung, John, 57–58

Gambia, 24

General Framework for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina, see Bosnia; Dayton Peace Accord

genocide, 1, 63, 74–78

George, Alexander, 58

Georgia, 62, 165

Germany, 4, 31, 82, 135, 137, 160–162, 195, 198, 207

Gershman, Carl, 22

Ghana, 203

Gini Index of income equality, 117, 125, 129

Glickman, Harvey, 172

“good governance”

   and the United Nations Development Program, 23–24

   and the World Bank, 30, 201–202

   and the International Monetary Fund, 201–202

Gorbachev, Mikhail, 80

Greenstock, Jeremy, 229–230

Guatemala, 3, 62, 112–114, 128–133, 153, 154, 167, 205, see also Esquipulas Accord

   Coordination Committee of Agricultural, Commercial, Industrial, and Financial Associations, 131

   election of 1999, 130

   Socio-Economic Accord, 130–133

   United Nations Human Rights Verification Mission in Guatemala (MINUGUA), 130, 133

Guatemalan National Revolutionary Unity (URNG), 112, 129–130, see also Guatemala

Gusmão, Xanana, 219, 221


Habyarimana, Juvénal, 70–76

Haiti, 28, 61

Halperin, Morton, 44

Hamilton, Alexander, 49–50

Hammarskjöld, Dag, 14, 16

hate speech, 197, see also news media

Heyman, Jeffery, 197 n54

Hobbes, Thomas, 47–48, 177, 187

Hoeffler, Anke, 200

Holbrooke, Richard, 101, 183 n14

Holiday, David, 131 n109

Holland, see Netherlands

Honduras, 203

Horowitz, Donald, 164, 191

Human Development Index, 124–125, see also United Nations: Development Program

Human Immunodeficiency Virus, 232

Human Rights Watch, 33, 94

Huntington, Samuel, 174–175, 185–187


IFOR, see Bosnia: International Force

“illiberal democracy,” 21, see also democracy

India, 20, 171, 183, 191

Indonesia, 218

Institute for Democracy in Eastern Europe, 32

Institutionalization Before Liberalization (IBL), 7–8, 187–212, 215, 218, 223, 227–228, 232–233

Inter-American Democratic Charter, 28

Inter-American Development Bank, 115, 123, 126, 130–132

International Centre for Human Rights and Democratic Development, 32

International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, 206 n88

International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia, 102

International Crisis Group, 223

International Foundation for Electoral Systems, 32, 92

International League for Human Rights, 33

International Monetary Fund, 26, 29–30, 71, 77, 83, 100, 106–107, 116–117, 121, 123–124, 128, 130–132, 138, 143–144, 166, 199–205

international organizations

   ideological predispositions of, 22–35

International Peace Research Institute, 44

International Republican Institute, 32

International Support and Verification Commission, see Nicaragua

intrastate violence, see civil war

Iraq, 5, 212

Islamic National Front, 163, see also Sudan

Israel, 14

Ivory Coast, 4

Izetbegovic, Alija, 99 n5, 105


Japan, 4, 32, 82, 207

Jelavic, Ante, 105

Journal of Democracy, 35


Kabbah, Ahmed Tejan, 222–223

Kamm, Henry, 206 n87

Kant, Immanuel, 49

Karadzic, Radovan, 103–105

Karl, Terry Lynn, 164

Kaufmann, Chaim, 172, 181–183, 185

Kazakhstan, 165

Kelly, Michael, 104 n34

Kenya, 165

Keynes, John Maynard, 158

Khmer People’s National Liberation Front (KPNLF), 80, 81, 85, see also Cambodia

Khmer Rouge, 80–81, 84–87, see also Cambodia

Kopstein, Jeffrey, 160

Kosovo, 2, 3, 26, 62, 198, 213–218, 228, 229, 233

   Institute for Civil Administration, 215

   Kosovo Force (KFOR), 213, 216

   Special Representative of the Secretary-General, 213–215, 217–218, 228

   territorial elections of November 2001, 216

   United Nations Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK), 213, 215–216, 229

Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA), 213, 215, see also Kosovo

Krahn ethnic group, 90–91, 94, see also Liberia

Krajina, 107–108, see also Croatia

Kyrgystan, 165


Le Monde, 219

League of Nations, 40, 90, 231

Lebanon, 14

   United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL), 14

Lesotho, 27

liberal peace thesis, 6, 8–9, 37, 40–51, 77–78, 94, 151–152, 176–178, 235

liberalization

   as an antidote for various social ills, 35–37, 40–42, 44

   economic, 5, 19, 26, 34, 36–37, 45–46, 55–60, 158–159, 166–168, 175–178, 187–188, 199–205, 228, 233, 235

   pathologies of, 159–168

   as a policy goal of international organizations, 22–35

   political, 5–9, 19, 34, 37, 45, 55, 57, 59–60, 151–156, 187–199, 216, 228, 233, 235

   problems of, 6, 45–46, 74–77, 87–88, 103, 106–107, 113–114, 118–122, 124–125, 134, 146, 148, 159–168, 173–178, 199–201

Liberia, 3, 5, 62, 90–96, 154, 164, 172, 190

   Abuja Accord of 1996, 91, 93, 95

   Americo-Liberian elite, 90–94

   Anti-Terrorist Unit, 93–94

   Economic Community of West African States Monitoring Group (ECOMOG), see Economic Community of West African States

   elections of 1997, 92–95

   United Nations Mission in Liberia (UNMIL), 5, 95, 143

   United Nations Observer Mission in Liberia (UNOMIL), 5, 91

Liberians United for Reconciliation and Democracy (LURD), 95, see also Liberia

Libya, 62

Lijphart, Arend, 193

Linz, Juan, 170, 174 n102

Lipset, Seymour Martin, 167, 170

Locke, John, 6, 47, 48, 176–177

Lomé Convention, 27, 138, see also European Union

Lusaka Accord, 67, see also Angola

Lyons, Terrence, 95


Macedonia, 2, 162

Madison, James, 49–50, 176

Makinda, Samuel, 70

Malaysia, 171

Mali, 46

Mansfield, Edward, 45

marketization, see liberalization, economic

Marten, Kimberly Zisk, 227

Mauritania, 62, 165

McNeill, Dan, 227

media, see news media

Mexico, 203

Mill, James, 50

Milosevic, Slobodan, 98 n4, 108

Mocumbi, Pascoal, 146

modernization theory, 176

Morris-Hale, Walter, 157

Mouvement Révolutionnaire National pour le Développement (MRND), 71, see also Rwanda

Movimento Popular de Libertação de Angola (MPLA), 63–68, see also Angola

Moynihan, Daniel Patrick, 20

Mozambique, 3, 17, 62, 141–148, 153–154, 172, 190–191

   elections

     of 1994, 142, 144

     of 1999, 144

   peace agreement of 1992, 141–142

   United Nations Operation in Mozambique (UNOMOZ), 142

Muravchik, Joshua, 44

Museveni, Yoweri, 70


Namibia, 3, 13, 17, 22, 62, 64, 135–141, 153, 172, 182, 217

   Constituent Assembly, 136–138

   Contact Group, 137

   elections

     of 1989, 136–137

     of 1999, 140

   peace agreement of 1998, 131, 136

   United Nations Transition Assistance Group (UNTAG), 136

National Democratic Institute for International Affairs, 32

national development agencies, 31–32

National Endowment for Democracy (NED), 32

National Patriotic Front for Liberia (NPFL), 91, see also Liberia

National Patriotic Party (NPP), 91–92, see also Liberia

Neier, Aryeh, 33

Netherlands, 31

New Guinea, 15, 164

   United Nations Security Force (UNSF), 15

New York Times, 134

news media, 76, 196–199, 214

Nicaragua, 3, 28, 114–122, 130, 153, 154, 167, 203, see also Esquipulas Accord; United Nations Observer Group in Central America

   elections

     of 1990, 116

     of 1996 and 2001, 121

   International Support and Verification Commission (ICVN), 116

   rearmados, 119

   Somoza regime, 114–115, 120–121

   United Nations Observer Mission for the Verification of Elections in Nicaragua (ONUVEN), 116

Niger, 27

Nigeria, 46, 91, 167, 191–194, 222

Nitlapán-UCA, 119

nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), 2, 19, 32–35, 76, 156–157, 160–161, 169, 194–196

   “democracy NGOs,” 32

North Atlantic Treaty Organization, 18, 27–28, 103, 154, 198, 213, see also Bosnia: International Force; Bosnia: Security Force; Kosovo: Kosovo Force

   North Atlantic Treaty, 27

   Partnership for Peace, 27–28

Nujoma, Sam, 137, 140


Öjendal, Joakim, 83

O’Neill, William, 216

Open Society Institute, 31–32, 197

Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, 31–32, 195

   “Culture of Peace” program, 195

   Development Assistance Committee, 31

Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), 19, 25–26, 100–101, 103, 108, 214, 230

   Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights (ODIHR), 25–26

Organization of African Unity, 70, 92, 142

Organization of American States, 18, 28, 115–116

   Unit for the Promotion of Democracy, 28

Ortega, Daniel, 116


Packenham, Robert, 176

Pape, Robert, 182

Paraguay, 28

Paris Peace Accords, see Cambodia

partition, as a strategy for peacebuilding, 179, 181–185

Party of Democratic Action (SDA), 101, 105, see also Bosnia

Pastor, Manuel, 20 n22, 128, 166–167

peace enforcement, 18, 38

   definition of, 38

peace operations, 18, 37–39

   typology, 37–39

peacebuilding

   aims of, 2–3, 13, 55–57, 125, 155

   categories of, 153

   definition of, 38, 39

   as a form of social engineering, 4, 5, 231

   operations

     standards for evaluating the success of, 5–6, 55–57, 155

     typical elements of, 3–4, 18–19, 38, 175

   underlying assumptions of, 4–6, 41–42, 59, 235

peacekeeping, 13–18

   definition of, 37–38

peacemaking, definition of, 38

Peou, Sorpong, 88

Peru, 28, 167, 203

Petritsch, Wolfgang, 105 n41

Philippines, 24, 171, 195

Plavsic, Biljana, 103–105

Poplasen, Nikola, 105

Portugal, 63–65, 100, 141, 218

Posen, Barry, 181 n5

Pot, Pol, 80

preventive diplomacy, definition of, 37

privatization, see liberalization, economic

Pugh, Michael, 202

Putnam, Robert, 157 n12


Radio-Télévision Libres des Milles Collines (RTLM), 72–73, 76, 197, see also news media; Rwanda

Ramos-Horta, Jose, 220

Ranariddh, Norodom, 85, 86–87

Reagan, Ronald, 32

refugees, 2, 18, 102, 109, see also United Nations: High Commissioner for Refugees

Reinicke, Wolfgang, 30

Resistência Nacional Moçambicana (Renamo), 141–147, 153, see also Mozambique

Revolutionary United Front (RUF), 222–223, see also Sierra Leone

Rhodesia, 141, 145

Roberts, David, 88

Roman Catholic Church, 130

Rose, Richard, 175 n104

Rugova, Ibrahim, 216–217

Rummel, R. J., 43–44, 157

Russett, Bruce, 43

Rwanda, 2, 3, 5, 63, 69–78, 114, 152, 154, 161, 167, 172, 189, 195, 196

   akazu, 71

   Arusha Accords, 70, 71–77

   events of April 1994, 73–74, 161, see also genocide

   popular media, 76, 197–198, see also Radio-Télévision Libres des Milles Collines

   Presidential Guard, 73

   United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda (UNAMIR), 72–73

Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF), 70, 75–77, see also Rwanda


Sachs, Jeffrey, 21

Sambanis, Nicholas, 169

Samosa García, Anastasio, 114

Sanderson, John, 221 n35

Sandinistas, 115–116, 119, see also Nicaragua; Sandino, Augusto César

Sandino, Augusto César, 115, see also Sandinistas

Sankoh, Foday, 223

Sann, Son, 80

Savimbi, Jonas, 67–69, 72, 92

Schattschneider, E. E., 157

Schear, James, 82, 86

Seddon, David, 29, 46

Sen, Hun, 79, 81, 85–87, 88–90, 153, 154

Senegal, 203

September 11, 2001, attacks on New York and Washington, D.C., 2, 225

Serb People’s Alliance, 104, see also Bosnia

Serbia, 162, 213, see also Yugoslavia, Federal Republic of

Serbian Democratic Party (SDS), 101, 104, see also Bosnia

Shin, Don Chull, 175 n104

Sierra Leone, 3, 27, 62, 222–225, 233

   election of 2002, 222–224

   United Nations Mission in Sierra Leone (UNAMSIL), 222–225

Sihanouk, Norodom, 80, 81, 85

Slavonia, see also Croatia

   Eastern, 107–110

   Western, 107–108

Slovenia, 97, 162, 213

Smith, Adam, 41, 48–49, 158, 177, 201

Snyder, Jack, 45, 76, 162, 197

social investment funds, 134, 202–203, see also structural adjustment programs

sociology, world polity school of, 34–35

Solomon, Richard, 87 n47

Somalia, 3, 16–18, 61

Somoza García, Anastasio, 114, see also Nicaragua: Somoza regime

Soros, George, 32

South Africa, 63–64, 135–136, 139–140, 145, 153

South West Africa, see Namibia

South West Africa People’s Organization (SWAPO), 136, 138–140, 148, see also Namibia

Soviet Union, see Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

Srebrenica, Bosnia, 98

Sri Lanka, 164, 171

Stability Pact for Southeastern Europe, 26 n58, see also European Union

Stanley, William, 131 n109

Stedman, Stephen John, 56–57, 155

Steiner, Michael, 217, see also Kosovo

Stiftungen, 32, see also Germany

Straw, Jack, 2

structural adjustment programs, 29, 71–72, 77, 83, 106–107, 117, 123, 130, 143, 144, 166–167, 199–205, see also International Monetary Fund; World Bank

   typical elements of, 166

“structural violence,” 57–58

Sudan, 163–164, 167

Suez Crisis of 1956, 13–14, see also Egypt

Suhrke, Astrid, 74

Surinam, 28

Switzerland, 31, 142


Tajikistan, 62, 195

Talbott, Strobe, 42

Taliban, 225–226, see also Afghanistan

Tanzania, 46, 165, 167

Taya, Ould, 165

Taylor, Charles, 79, 91, 94, 153

terrorism, see September 11, 2001, attacks on New York and Washington, D.C.

Thailand, 80

Thayer, Nate, 87 n47

Tigrean People’s Liberation Front, 164, see also Ethiopia

Tito, Josip Broz, 162

Togo, 165

Tudjman, Franjo, 109

Tunisia, 46, 167

Turkmenistan, 165


Uganda, 70, 203

União Nacional para a Indepêndencia Total de Angola (UNITA), 63–68, see also Angola

Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, 15, 16, 27, 63, 80–81, 180

United Nations, 2, 13–19, 22–25, 36–37, 56, 63–66, 68, 72–73, 81–84, 86, 92–93, 98, 100, 107–108, 113, 115–116, 123, 129–130, 136–137, 141–142, 197, 210, 213–214, 217–223, 225–226, 228–230, see also International Monetary Fund; World Bank; World Health Organization

   Charter, 15

   Commission on Human Rights, 23

   Department of Peace-Keeping Operations, 229

   Department of Political Affairs, 229

   Development Program, 18, 23–24, 92, 118, 223

   Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, 197

   Electoral Assistance Division, 23

   General Assembly, 23

   High Commissioner for Human Rights, 23

   High Commissioner for Refugees, 100, 109 n63, 142

   peace operations, see also peace enforcement; peacekeeping

     United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda (UNAMIR), see Rwanda

     United Nations Civilian Police Support Group (UNPSG), see Croatia

     United Nations Emergency Force (UNEF), 14, see also Egypt; Suez Crisis of 1956

     United Nations Human Rights Verification Mission in Guatemala (MINUGUA), see Guatemala

     United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL), see Lebanon

     United Nations Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK), see Kosovo

     United Nations Mission in Liberia (UNMIL), see Liberia

     United Nations Mission in Sierra Leone (UNAMSIL), see Sierra Leone

     United Nations Observer Group in Central America (ONUCA), 116

     United Nations Observer Mission for the Verification of Elections in Nicaragua (ONUVEN), see Nicaragua

     United Nations Observer Mission in El Salvador (ONUSAL), see El Salvador

     United Nations Observer Mission in Liberia (UNOMIL), see Liberia

     United Nations Operation in Mozambique (UNOMOZ), see Mozambique

     United Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR), see Bosnia; Croatia

     United Nations Security Force (UNSF), see New Guinea

     United Nations Transition Administration for Eastern Slavonia, Baranja and Western Sirmium (UNTAES), see Croatia

     United Nations Transition Assistance Group (UNTAG), see Namibia

     United Nations Transitional Administration in East Timor (UNTAET), see East Timor

     United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC), see Cambodia

     United Nations Verification Mission in Angola (UNAVEM), see Angola

   Security Council, 15, 17, 60, 63, 81, 86, 94, 213

   Trusteeship Council, 136, 230–231

United States, 15–16, 44, 63, 80, 100, 115, 137, 141, 180, 211, 216, 218, 225, 230

   Agency for International Development (USAID), 31, 117

   Department of State, 94, 124

Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 22–23

Uruguay, 203

Uzbekistan, 165


Vietnam, 79–81

Vilas, Carlos, 120


Walton, John, 29, 46

War of the Comuneros, 114, see also Nicaragua

Washington Consensus, 29, see also International Monetary Fund; World Bank

Washington Post, 95, 216

Wealth of Nations, The, 49, see also Smith, Adam

Weber, Max, 207

Westendorp, Carlos, 105

Western Sahara, 17, 62

Westminster Foundation for Democracy, 32

Williams, David, 33

Wilson, Woodrow, 6, 40–41, see also Wilsonianism

Wilsonianism, 6–7, 41–42, 57, 59–60, 76–77, 79, 81, 89–90, 93–96, 102–103, 109, 114, 134, 139–141, 145–147, 151–155, 156, 175–178, 179–187, 211, see also liberal peace thesis; Wilson, Woodrow

   alternatives to, 179–211

   definition of, 6

Woodward, Susan, 163

World Bank, 26, 29–30, 71, 77, 106, 115, 117, 123–124, 128, 130–132, 138, 144, 166, 199–205, 232

   Articles of Agreement, 30

World Health Organization, 142

World War I, 6, 7, 40–41, 135

World War II, 4, 136


Young, Tom, 33

Yugoslav National Army (JNA), 97, 107, 109–110

Yugoslavia, Federal Republic of, 27, 97–98, 107, 153, 162–163, 167–172, 213, see also Kosovo


Zaire, 2, 16, see also Congo

Zambia, 46, 136, 167

Zepa, Bosnia, 98

Zimmerman, Warren, 163



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