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Citizens Abroad
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  • Page extent: 268 pages
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Citizens Abroad

Cambridge University Press
0521858054 - Citizens Abroad - Emigration and the State in the Middle East and North Africa - by Laurie A. Brand
Index


Index

ʿAbd al-Jaber, Taysir 194

ʿAbd al-Nasir, Gamal 148

ʿAbdallah, King, of Jordan 176, 177

ʿAbdallah, Moulay 61

Abu-Odeh, A. 182

al-ʿAql, Jihad Nasri 143

Aleinikoff, T. A. 41

Algeria 19

Amal Movement 153, 156, 158, 163

amicales 51, 219

   Moroccan 71–74, 78, 79, 88

   Tunisian 111, 112, 122

Amicales des Algériens en Europe 71

Amicales des travailleurs et commerçants 71

Arab Deterrent Force 152

Arab League summit conference 181, 205

Arab Mahgrebi Union 54

ʿArafat, Yasir 193, 194, 199, 202

Arslan, Talal 19, 168, 169

assimilation 1, 9, 11

association, freedom of 48, 49, 51, 52, 74

ʿAtallah, ʿAtallah (Abu Zaʿim) 198

authoritarian states 6, 17, 18

authority 27

ʿAwn, General Michel 154

Azziman, Omar 83, 84, 85


Barkin, J. S. 30

Basch, L. 9, 10, 14

Basri, al-Fiqh 70

Bauböck, R. 13, 26, 40

Belgium 51–53, 125

Ben ʿAli, Zayn al-ʿAbdin 114, 120

   constitutional coup 101, 113

   relations with expatriates 101, 103, 113, 122, 129, 130

Ben Barka, Mehdi 8, 70

Bensimon, A. 61

Berri, Nabih 156, 163, 164, 169

Beur movement 49, 56, 74, 89, 113

Biersteker, T. J. 28

border control 1, 3, 5, 23, 29, 55, 216

Boubaker, Si Hamza 58

Boukhari, A. 60, 61

Bourguiba, Habib 21, 92, 128, 129

   coup against 100, 101, 113

   expatriate conferences 120

   state institutions during government 110–16

Bourguiba Institute 118

Bouteflika, President 58

Bouwayz, Faris 155, 156, 163–64, 166, 168, 169

Brazil 36, 158


Camilieri, J. A. 27

capitalism 14

Cassarino, J.-P. 131

Catroux, General 138

Césari, J. 58

Chamun, Camille 143, 147, 148

Chehab, General Fuʾad 143, 147, 148

Chekrouni, Neziha 90

China, Overseas Chinese Affairs 2

citizenship 5, 10, 18, 31, 59, 90, 129, 219

   dual 37–42, 44, 104

   enfranchised 27

   jus sanguinis 38, 138

   jus soli 38

   loyalty to the state 39, 41

   rights of 36

   and sovereignty 7, 219

civil society 10, 120, 216

colonization 42, 216

communist regimes 6

community, political 31, 32, 33, 40

Conseil Français du Culte Musulman (CFCM) 58

Contact 98 84

Cronin, B. 30


Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine 199

denizens 37, 42, 51, 52

diaspora studies 5

Dlimi, General Ahmed 61

Doty, R. 44

dual citizenship 37–42, 44, 104

   Tunisia 104, 105

dual nationality 31, 37–42, 44, 134

   Jordan 201, 204

   Lebanon 150, 173

Dudin, Marwan 203, 205


Eddé, Raymond 148

Egypt 19

embassies and consulates 7, 8

   Jordan’s 184, 196

   Lebanon’s 145

   Tunisia’s 120, 128

emigrants; see also expatriate communities

   characteristics of 33, 49

   integration into the host country 11, 89, 117, 129, 216, 218, 220

   loyalty to their home country 10, 17, 74, 83, 89, 103, 110

   political participation 12, 89, 113, 142

   power of 11

   rights of 103

emigration 2, 3–5, 11, 14–15, 216

   clandestine 16, 94, 96

   and domestic unemployment 17

   employment effect 17, 109

   explanations for

      domestic political explanations 17–18, 217

      economic explanations 17, 35, 217

      international political explanations 16

      macro-historical explanations 14–16, 89

      political explanations 34

      security and stability explanations for 18–19

   forced 4

   study of 3–5

emigration policy 2, 3, 4, 5–9, 22, 222

   Lebanon 140–42, 143–47, 152, 169, 170, 174

   Morocco 59–69, 83, 90, 91

   Tunisia 93–104, 106, 110, 114, 118

employment effect 17, 109

employment policy, Tunisia 94, 96, 98, 99, 100, 116, 128

Europe 31, 47, 50–56

   border control 60

   family reunification 64

   immigrants’ rights 55, 103, 218

   immigration policy 59, 63, 92, 97, 98, 110, 216

   integration of immigrants 59, 89, 216, 218, 220

   Muslims in 58

exiles, political 18

exit regulations 6

   Jordan 186, 187, 189, 192, 207

expatriate communities 3, 7, 17

   composition of 64, 74, 89, 98, 192, 212

   home state control over 17

   monitoring of 7, 19, 70, 71, 88, 114, 128, 184, 218

      Jordan 184, 222

      Morocco 70, 71, 88

      Tunisia 111, 114, 128, 130

   and sovereignty 221–22

   stages of development of 14, 15, 49


family reunification 56, 98, 183, 216

   in Europe 47, 50, 52, 53, 63, 64

   in the Gulf states 183

Fateh 198, 199

Fédération de France du Front de Libération Nationale 71

Fondation Hassan II 79, 80–88, 218

   activities of 84, 85

   administration of 80, 83

   Arabic language instruction 85

   communication with and information for emigrants 80, 82

   evaluation of 86–87

   investment 85

   mission 80, 82, 84, 87

   and the MMCA 82

   services provided to expatriates 81, 86

Fox, Vicente 2

France 20, 47–49, 107

   association laws 48, 74

   family reunification 47

   immigrants’ rights 48

   immigration policy 97

   Islamist organizations 218

   labor market 46, 93, 95

   labor union activism 218

   Office National d’Immigration 59, 95, 96

   political participation of immigrants 48

   remittances transferred from 47

   Secretary of State for Immigration 47

France-Plus 49

Franjiyyah, Hamid 140

Front Islamique du Salut 57


Gaboune, Lahcene 78

Geagea, Samir 154

Gemayel, Amin 154

Gemayel, Pierre 141, 148

Germany 53, 125

al-Ghannouchi, Rachid 57, 114, 115

al-Ghazi, ʿAkka 73

Gildas, S. 98, 105

Glick Schiller, N. 9, 10, 14

globalization 2, 24, 216

Greece, citizenship in ancient 37–38

Groupement Islamique en France 113

Guarnizo, L. E. 15

Guedira, Reda 61

guest workers 31, 33

Gulf states 183, 193

   citizenship 183

   immigration policy 182, 183


Habash, George 198

Haddaoui, Rafiq 75–76, 78

Hague Convention 39

Haiti 15, 18

al-Hajj Hasan, Khalid 194

Hakim, Patriarch 166

Hall, Rodney 27, 28

Hamdan, K. 145

Harfush, N. 146

al-Hariri, Rafiq 157, 158, 161

Hasan, Crown Prince of Jordan 203, 207

Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan 21–22

Hassan II of Morocco 45–46, 61, 69, 83

   amicales 73, 79

   Green March 63

   Ministry for the Moroccan Community Abroad 75

Hawatmeh, Nayef 199

Hawrani, Muhammad Salih 207

Hizballah 163

Hobbes, Thomas 27

Hollifield, J. F. 2

host country 16, 34, 36

   institutions for dealing with immigrants 68

   integration of immigrants 1, 9, 11

      Europe 89, 216, 218, 220

      Tunisia and 117, 129

   political systems in 36, 218

   sovereignty of 35, 40, 163

   treatment of immigrants 16, 34, 36

Hrawi, Elias 155, 167, 169

Hubayqa, Samir 156

human rights 37, 55, 68, 90

Husayn, King 194, 198, 202

   emigré conferences 181, 195, 196, 199

al-Huss, Salim 154, 169–71


identity 22, 44, 56; see also national identity under Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Tunisia

   cultural 49, 51, 91

   national 43, 135, 216

   political 49

   religious 57, 91

   state 23

   transnational 12

immigration 1

   immigrants’ rights 55, 59, 103

immigration policy 12, 50, 216

   Belgium 52

   European states 59, 63, 92, 97, 98, 110, 216

   France 97

   Germany 53

   Gulf states 182

institutions for dealing with emigrants 2, 8, 10, 13–19, 23, 216, 219, 223

   establishment of 22

   in host states 20, 68, 218

   Jordan 20, 196, 218, 221

   Lebanon 165, 175

   in Morocco 69–88

   origin and development of 22

   sending states 7, 8, 12, 13, 19, 217

   and sovereignty 218

   Tunisia 92, 110–22, 128

International Bank for Reconstruction and Development 178

International Monetary Fund 65, 191, 206

international relations 3, 30

intifada, Palestinian 205

Inyatullah, N. 35

Iran, assassination of expatriates 8

Iran–Iraq war 191, 193

Iraq 20

Islam 23, 56–59, 113, 114, 115

   institutions 59

   organizations 56, 57

Israel 20, 176

Italy 53–54, 125

Itzigsohn, J. 13


Jettou, Driss 90

Joppke, C. 12, 37

Jordan 19, 21–22, 176–95

   1967 war 179, 187

   agreement with Kuwait 183

   allegiance 178

   Arab Legion 176, 177

   authority of 215

   Central Bank 201, 206, 207, 210

   citizenship 181, 184, 198, 206, 207, 212

   civil war 221

   collection of information on expatriates 211

   communal divisions 43

   Council of Higher Education 204

   dependence on foreign aid 185, 187, 193, 213, 217

   development assistance 179, 181

   development bonds 210

   Directorate of Jordanians Working Abroad 209

   dual nationality 201, 204

   economy

      development 179, 187, 189, 192, 193, 203, 217

      policy 185

      situation 176–77, 206, 208, 212, 213, 222

   education 186, 187, 188, 190, 197, 201, 204

   electoral law 198

   embassies and consulates 184, 196

   emigrants’ rights 188, 200

   emigration from 20, 21–22, 178–85, 188

   emigration policy 188, 189

   émigré conferences 193–208, 212, 214, 215

      businessmens’ 210–12

      third 202–5

      fourth 205–6

      fifth 206–8

   Employment Division, Ministry of Social Affairs 187

   exit regulations 186, 187, 189, 192, 207

   expatriate communities 182, 192, 196

      numbers of expatriates 195

   Expatriates Directorate 205, 209

   family reunification in the Gulf states 183

   General Intelligence Directorate 196

   immigration 191

   institutions for dealing with emigrants 20, 196, 218, 221

   internal intelligence service 182, 196

   International Monetary Fund assistance 206

   investment in 201, 211, 212, 222

      by expatriates 193, 197, 204, 208, 215

      investment law 210

      Investment Promotion Corporation 210, 211

   Iran–Iraq war and 191, 193

   job creation 185

   Jordanian Businessmen’s Association 210, 211

   labor

      accords 188, 189, 192

      attachés 190

      market 189, 195, 212

      policy 185–93

      shortages 189, 190, 191

      skill scarcity 189

   legitimacy 178, 221

   migration policy 185–93

   military spending 188

   Ministry of Labor 189

   Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs 194

   Ministry of Labor and Social Development 205

   Ministry of Planning 211

   Ministry of Social Affairs 187

   monitoring of expatriates 184, 222

   national identity 177, 181, 209, 212, 213, 215

   National Planning Council 189

   nationality 207, 212

   and the Palestine War 177

   Palestinian population 177–78, 181, 184, 203, 213, 221

      identification with Jordan 177, 213, 215, 221

      refugees 176

   politics

      political instability 179

      political liberalization 208

      political participation 202, 215

      political situation 186, 194, 197–202, 206, 208

   population policy 206

   relations with Britain 176

   relations with expatriates 184, 198, 200, 207, 212, 214, 215, 218

   relations with the Gulf states 184, 209

   relations with the Palestinian National Authority 209

   relations with the PLO 197, 208, 209, 213, 215, 221, 222

   relations with Syria 198

   remittances 179, 180, 181, 187, 193, 205, 222

      importance of 179, 182, 189, 203, 212

   returning emigrants 213

   security 184, 221

   services provided to expatriates 204, 210, 211, 214

   sovereignty 42, 43, 178, 206, 209, 215, 221

      over expatriates 181, 193, 198, 213, 221–22

   structural adjustment program 191, 204, 208, 210

   underemployment 178, 188

   unemployment, domestic 178, 181, 183, 186, 187, 188, 204

   and the West Bank 21–22, 178, 199, 205, 213, 214

   women’s participation 190

Jumʿah, Haytham 158

jus sanguinis citizenship 38, 138

jus soli citizenship 38


Karami, Rashid 148

Kataʾib party, Lebanon 141, 147, 148; see also Phalange Party

Khalil, ʿAli 158, 168

Khoury, Anwar 156

Khoury, Bishara al- 139

Khoury, Niqula 155–56

Klusmeyer, D. 41

Kohl, Helmut 53

Krasner, S. D. 25, 29, 30, 34, 39, 139

Kuwait 182, 198


Labaki, B. 152

labor recruitment 6, 8, 46, 50, 55, 128, 220

Laguerre, M. S. 15

Lalla Meryem 82, 87

Lebanese Emigrant Council for Investment 170

Lebanese International Business Council 170

Lebanon 19, 21, 133, 134

   Agence Libanaise 148

   Amal Movement 153, 156, 158, 163

   Arab Deterrent Force 152

   Christian community 136, 137, 139, 142, 147, 152

   citizenship 137, 138, 141, 147, 173, 174

      and the Treaty of Lausanne 136, 137

   civil war 154, 161, 171, 175

      effect on migration 133, 137

      and the WLCU 147, 152, 217

   Club des Emigrés 141

   confessional balance 43, 135, 148, 158, 166, 174, 221

      and citizenship 137

      and the political system 138, 144, 166

   diaspora communities 14, 133, 149, 160, 171, 174, 217, 221

   documentation for emigrants 143, 164, 165

   dual nationality 134, 150, 173

   economy

      development 135, 140, 142, 144, 171, 172

      policy 140, 145, 147, 172

      situation of 142

   embassies and consulates 145

   emigrants’ property rights 143, 164, 165

   emigration from 20, 21, 133, 136, 137, 152

      reasons for 133, 137, 152

   emigration policy 135–38, 140–42, 143–47, 152, 169, 170, 174

   émigré attachés 165, 168, 169, 170

   Emigré Congress 141

   expatriate communities 135, 145, 163, 165, 171

      ‘milk cow’ attitude toward expatriates 145, 171, 172

      numbers of expatriates 135, 137

   expatriate conferences 141, 148–50, 151, 153, 154

   Expatriate Directorate 153

   foreign policy 139, 144

   institutions for dealing with emigrants 141, 147, 160–71, 175

   investment in 134, 147, 172

   Lebanese Emigrant Council for Investment 170

   Lebanese International Business Council 170

   Lebanese World Union 36

   Maronite Church 136, 137, 139, 147, 152

   Ministry of Expatriates (ME) 146, 156–59, 160–71, 174, 175, 217

      achievements of 168, 170–71

      goals of 157, 168–69

      and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs 165–71

   Ministry of Foreign Affairs 145, 165–71

      Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Expatriates (MFAE) 142, 143

      Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Interests of the Lebanese Abroad 140

      Ministry of the Lebanese Diaspora 153

   Ministry of Tourism 145

   Muslims 147, 153, 163

   Nadi al-Muharjirin 141

   National Accord Document 155

   national identity 139, 173, 174

   National Pact 139, 140, 142, 172, 221

   overpopulation 135

   and Palestinians 152

   politics

      political participation 142, 171

      political parties 140, 141

      political system 134, 135, 138–40, 154, 172, 173

   publications for emigrants 171

   relations with expatriates 134, 135, 144, 147, 150, 160, 217

   relations with France 133, 136, 139

   relations with Syria 154, 163, 173

   relations with Turkey 143

   relations with the USA 217

   remittances 134, 145–47, 172

   sectarianism 142, 160

   Shiʿi community 153, 158, 163

   sovereignty 140, 164, 172, 173, 221

      over expatriates 135, 221

      restrictions on 43, 152, 173

      Westphalian 142, 174

   state capacity 134, 144, 172, 173

   Sunni elite 139, 148

   Taʾif agreement 155, 172

   unemployment, domestic 135

   World Lebanese Cultural Union (WLCU) 147–60, 167, 168, 174, 175

      civil war and 152

      conferences 148–50, 151, 153, 154

      constitution 150

      and the Ministry of Expatriates 157, 159, 164, 165

   World Lebanese Union 143, 149, 150, 151, 217

legitimacy 30, 33, 43

Levitt, P. 13

lobbies, ethnic 16, 217

Locke, John 27

loyalty of emigrants to their home country 10, 17, 43, 219

   Morocco 74, 83, 89

   Tunisia 103, 110


Mahler, S. J. 13

Maronite Church 136, 137, 139, 147, 152

al-Masri, Tahir 195, 203, 205, 207

Mexico 2, 16, 18

Middle East North Africa (MENA) region 19, 22, 31

migration 3, 4, 216; see also emigration, immigration

Mirhaj, Bishara 157

Mohammed V of Morocco 45

Morocco 16, 19, 21, 45–91

   accords, bilateral 55

   amicales 51, 71–74, 78, 79, 88, 220

   Bank al-ʿAmal 65

   Banque Populaire 62, 65

   Bureau of Emigration 59

   citizenship 76, 90, 218

   communication with and information for emigrants 76, 77, 79, 82, 86–87, 91

   concern about the image of the country 72, 217

   corruption 61

   economy of 63, 65, 69

   emigration from 20, 46, 47

      emigration of Jews 60

      emigration-related services 63

   Emigration Fund 63

   emigration policy 59–69, 83, 90, 91

   emigration research unit 67

   employment 59, 64

   expatriate communities 65, 66, 89, 216

   Fondation Hassan II 79, 80–88, 90, 218

   Institut Nationale de Statistique et d’Economie Appliquée 86–87

   institutions for dealing with emigrants 69–88

   investment in 65, 67

   labor conventions 55, 59, 63

   labor recruitment 46, 220

   labor union activism 69, 70, 89

   Ministry for the Moroccan Community Abroad 74–80, 82, 88, 90

   Ministry of Communication 91

   Ministry of Foreign Affairs 75, 77, 78, 79

   Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation 67, 90

   Ministry of Human Rights 68

   Ministry of Labor 75

   Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs 59

   Ministry of National Education 85

   monitoring of expatriates 88, 89

   national identity 43, 45, 67

   Observatoire of the Moroccan Community Abroad 84

   passports 60

   political liberalization 70, 73, 74, 79, 90, 218, 220

   relations with expatriates 67, 69, 76, 77, 82, 83, 90, 217

      cooperation and dialogue 68

      cultural 85, 91

   relations with France 20, 45

   relations with host countries 67, 80

   relations with the Netherlands 51

   relations with Spain 63, 65

   remittances 66, 67, 69, 90, 91

      importance of 61, 62–63, 64, 65, 81, 220

   role of the army 70

   role of Islam 56–59

   social attachés 61

   sovereignty,

      domestic 89, 91, 219

      over expatriates 64, 65, 67, 69, 79, 83, 89, 91, 220

   stability 219–20

   state capacity 79, 88, 90

   state security services 42, 70, 88

   unemployment, domestic 60, 64, 65, 69

Mouvement de la Tendance Islamique (MTI) 113, 114

Murphy, A. B. 25, 28–29


al-Nahdah 113, 114, 115

nationality 38

   dual 31, 37–42, 44, 134

Netherlands 50–51

non-government organizations 26, 59

non-state actors 24, 26

Nouira, Hedi 114


Observatoire of the Moroccan Community Abroad 84

oil industry, development of 177, 181

Operation Condor 8

Oslo accords 209

Østergaard-Nielsen, E. 35

Ottoman Empire 31–32, 42

   and Lebanon 133, 136

al-Ouardi, Ahmad 78, 82

Oufkir, General Mohammed 61


Palestine Liberation Organization 181, 192, 194, 199, 205, 209, 222

   Jordan and 181, 184, 206

Palestinian identity 213

Palestinian intifada 205

Palestinian National Authority 20, 209

Palestinian nationalism 204, 213, 214

Palestinian state 184, 198, 207, 208

passports 6, 39

Petran, T. 145

Phalange Party, Lebanon 141, 148, 164; see also Kataʾib

Philpott, D. 25, 27, 29

pluralism, ethnic 9

political community, and sovereignty 105

political participation 17, 38

   in home states 12, 89, 113, 142

   in host countries 48, 51, 52, 56, 89

   Jordan 202, 215

   Lebanon 142, 171

   Tunisia 113

Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine 199

population movements 24

protection 32, 34

Qabbani 166

al-Qasim, Marwan 195


racism 49, 55, 56

religion, role in regional politics 23

remittances 17, 35, 216; see also under Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Tunisia

   importance of 2, 17, 61, 217

   services to enable transfers 8, 62

al-Rifaʿi, Zayd 200, 203, 204

Rjeily, K. A. 152

Roman Empire, citizenship in 38

Rousseau, Jean-Jacques 27

Ruggie, J. G. 27

Russia, Council of Compatriots 2


Saʿadeh, Antun 140

Sabbah, ʿAli 167

al-Sadr, Musa 153

Salon Marocain à Paris 84

Saouda 145

Saudi Arabia, Palestinian expatriates from Jordan 182

security 1, 22, 24, 34–35, 42, 216–23, 219

sending states 216

   and dual nationality 41

   economic situation of 42

   emigration policy 2, 3, 4, 5–9, 222

   institutions for dealing with emigrants 7, 12, 13, 217, 218

   monitoring of expatriates 7, 19, 218; see also under Jordan, Morocco, Tunisia

   moral authority of 34, 68, 103, 130

   policies toward expatriate communities 11, 16, 19, 36, 50

   services provided to expatriates 65

   and sovereignty 32, 33, 40, 41, 109, 219

Sfeir, Patriarch 166

Smith, Robert C. 11, 12, 13, 16

al-Solh, Riyad 139

SOS racisme 49

South America, assassinations in 8

sovereignty 24–44, 91, 216–23

   challenges to 22, 56

   and citizenship 5, 23

   definition of 3

   development of the principle of 26

   and dual citizenship 42

   and expatriate communities 27–33, 221–22

   and immigration 1, 219

   and loyalty 219

   maintenance of 33–37

   and resilience 219

   and security 220

   territorial 28, 29, 31

   types of 29

      domestic 29, 34, 39, 41, 160, 174, 219

      interdependence 29, 39, 139

      international legal 29, 39

      internal 44

      popular 33

      Westphalian 25, 29, 37, 39, 40, 160, 174

Soysal, Y. N. 32, 37

Spain 16, 54–55

Spears, General 138

Spruyt, H. 25

state capacity 35

   Lebanon 134, 144, 172, 173

   Morocco 79, 88, 90

   Tunisia 132

states 5, 10, 28, 38

   authority of 43, 219

      moral 34, 68

   power of 24, 34

   resilience of 24–44, 219

Syria 3, 19

Syrian Social National Party (SSNP) 140, 147


Tabbaʿ, Hamdi 211

Tabbara, Ahmed 170

Tabet, Ayoub 138

Tacla, Philippe 150

al-Tall, Wasfi 185, 187

territory 44

tolerance 103

transnationalism 11, 24, 26, 216–23

   literature on 2, 9–12, 26, 31, 35, 90

Treaty of Lausanne 136, 137

Tunisia 19, 21, 92–109

   amicales 111, 112, 120, 122, 220

   Arabic language instruction 103, 104, 118, 124–26

   association, freedom of 131

   authoritarian government 107, 111, 132

   Bourguiba, Habib regime 220

   Bourguiba Institute 118

   Center for Specialized Documentation 119

   changement 101, 102, 107, 113–16, 120, 129

   citizenship 113, 124, 129, 130, 132

   collection of information on expatriates 119, 132

   concern about the image of the country 121, 130, 217

   consular networks 110, 120, 125, 128

   cooperation 113, 130

   Council of Tunisian Communities in France 114

   cultural policy 118

   development plans 93–104, 106, 110, 114, 118

   dual citizenship 104, 105

   economic policy 93, 105, 109, 117, 128

   economy 100, 109

   embassies and consulates 120, 128

   Emigration Bureau 93

   emigration from 20, 92, 99, 100

   emigration policy 93–110, 115, 120, 128, 220–21

      development plans and 93–104, 106, 110, 114, 118

      law and 104–07

   employment effect 109

   employment policy 96, 99, 100, 116, 128

      aims of 94, 98

      and emigration 94, 97

   encadrement of Tunisians abroad 112, 121, 124, 127

   espaces femme 118, 124, 131

   expatriate communities 98, 113, 216

      numbers of expatriates 109

   expatriate conferences 112, 120–22

   Fund for Industrial Promotion and Decentralization 96

   Higher Council for Tunisians Abroad 120

   history of 21

   Housing Bank 106

   immigration into 92–93

   institutions for dealing with emigrants 92, 110–22, 128

   integration of emigrants in host countries 129

   internal security 42

   Investment Code 106

   investment in 100, 102, 105, 117, 131

   Investment Promotion Agency 96

   Islam in 114, 115

   job creation 94, 96, 102

   labour recruitment 128

   media 127–28

   Ministry of Education 124

   Ministry of Foreign Affairs 111

   Ministry of Social Affairs 124

   monitoring of expatriates 114, 128, 130

   moral authority of 103, 130

   National Agency for Technical Cooperation 100, 116

   National Day of Tunisians Abroad 122

   national identity 43

   nationality 104, 113

   Office de la Formation Professionnelle et de l’Emploi 95, 96, 116

   Office des Travailleurs Tunisiens à l’Etranger de l’Emploi et de la Formation Professionnelle 97, 101

   Office des Tunisiens à l’Etranger 101, 116–22

   partnership accord with Europe 103

   pluralism 114, 115, 220

   political community 98

   political system 121, 132

      political participation 113

   population growth 97, 100, 104

   publications for emigrants 112, 118–19, 127

   radio, national 127

   Rassemblement constitutional démocratique (RCD) 122–26

   relations with expatriates 92, 117, 120, 130, 218, 221

      activities 117, 130

      cultural element in 103, 118

      discourse about 101, 110, 129, 132

      two-way dialogue 102, 104

   relations with France 20, 93, 124

   remittances 99, 107–09, 129, 132

   returning emigrants 104, 106, 119–20

   services provided to expatriates 95, 107, 114

   social attachés 95, 118, 131

   social policy 118

   Société Nationale Immobilière 106

   Société Tunisienne de Banque 107

   sovereignty 103, 128, 130, 220

      over expatriates 105, 110, 129, 132

   state capacity 132

   television 127–28

   tolerance 103, 115, 220

   unemployment, domestic 92, 94, 95, 98

      and emigration 96, 97, 99, 105

   women, policies on 97, 104, 117, 118, 121, 124, 129

   youth policy 117, 124, 129

al-Turk, Fuʾad 166

Turkey 20


unemployment, domestic, and emigration 17

Union Marocaine de Travail 70

Union Nationale des Etudiants Marocains 70

Union of Islamic Organizations in France 57, 114

United States 36

ʿUwayni, Husayn 148


Vlaams Block, Belgium 52


Waever, Ole 40

Wahid, Ridha 156, 157, 158, 159, 162, 166

Walker, R. B. J. 31

Weber, C. 28

Weiner, Myron 3–5

West Bank, Jordan and 21–22, 178, 205, 213, 214

women, situation of 97, 104, 117, 118

Workers’ and Businessmen’s Friendship Societies 71

World Lebanese Cultural Union (WLCU) 147–60, 167, 168, 174, 175

   civil war and 152

   conferences 148–50, 151, 153, 154

   constitution 150

   evaluation of 159–60

   and the Ministry of Expatriates 157, 159, 164, 165

   reasons for failures of 159–60

   World Lebanese Union 143, 149, 150, 151, 217


Yemen 19

Youssoufi, ʿAbd al-Rahman 68

Yunis, Joseph 157


Zahi, Abderrahman 84


© Cambridge University Press


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