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Building Scientific Apparatus

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 (ISBN-13: 9780521878586)

BUILDING SCIENTIFIC APPARATUS
Cambridge University Press
9780521878586 - BUILDING SCIENTIFIC APPARATUS - By John H. Moore, Christopher C. Davis, Michael A. Coplan and Sandra C. Greer
Table of Contents

Contents

Preface
xiii
1       MECHANICAL DESIGN AND FABRICATION
1
1.1     Tools and Shop Processes
2
1.1.1   Hand Tools
2
1.1.2   Machines for Making Holes
2
1.1.3   The Lathe
4
1.1.4   Milling Machines
7
1.1.5   Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM)
9
1.1.6   Grinders
9
1.1.7   Tools for Working Sheet Metal
10
1.1.8   Casting
10
1.1.9   Tolerance and Surface Quality for Shop Processes
12
1.2     Properties of Materials
12
1.2.1   Parameters to Specify Properties of Materials
13
1.2.2   Heat Treating and Cold Working
14
1.2.3   Effect of Stress Concentration
16
1.3     Materials
18
1.3.1   Iron and Steel
18
1.3.2   Nickel Alloys
20
1.3.3   Copper and Copper Alloys
21
1.3.4   Aluminum Alloys
22
1.3.5   Other Metals
22
1.3.6   Plastics
23
1.3.7   Glasses and Ceramics
24
1.4     Joining Materials
25
1.4.1   Threaded Fasteners
25
1.4.2   Rivets
28
1.4.3   Pins
29
1.4.4   Retaining Rings
29
1.4.5   Soldering
30
1.4.6   Brazing
31
1.4.7   Welding
33
1.4.8   Adhesives
34
1.4.9   Design of Joints
34
1.4.10  Joints in Piping and Pressure Vessels
37
1.5     Mechanical Drawing
39
1.5.1   Drawing Tools
39
1.5.2   Basic Principles of Mechanical Drawing
40
1.5.3   Dimensions
44
1.5.4   Tolerances
46
1.5.5   From Design to Working Drawings
48
1.6     Physical Principles of Mechanical Design
49
1.6.1   Bending of a Beam or Shaft
50
1.6.2   Twisting of a Shaft
52
1.6.3   Internal Pressure
52
1.6.4   Vibration of Beams and Shafts
54
1.6.5   Shaft Whirl and Vibration
55
1.7     Constrained Motion
57
1.7.1   Kinematic Design
57
1.7.2   Plain Bearings
59
1.7.3   Ball Bearings
60
1.7.4   Linear-Motion Bearings
61
1.7.5   Springs
62
1.7.6   Flexures
63
Cited References
66
General References
66
Chapter 1 Appendix
68
2       WORKING WITH GLASS
76
2.1     Properties of Glasses
76
2.1.1   Chemical Composition and Chemical Properties of Some Laboratory Glasses
76
2.1.2   Thermal Properties of Laboratory Glasses
77
2.1.3   Optical Properties of Laboratory Glassware
78
2.1.4   Mechanical Properties of Glass
78
2.2     Laboratory Components Available in Glass
78
2.2.1   Tubing and Rod
78
2.2.2   Demountable Joints
79
2.2.3   Valves and Stopcocks
80
2.2.4   Graded Glass Seals and Glass-to-Metal Seals
81
2.3     Laboratory Glassblowing Skills
81
2.3.1   The Glassblower's Tools
81
2.3.2   Cutting Glass Tubing
82
2.3.3   Pulling Points
83
2.3.4   Sealing Off a Tube: The Test-Tube End
84
2.3.5   Making a T-Seal
85
2.3.6   Making a Straight Seal
87
2.3.7   Making a Ring Seal
87
2.3.8   Bending Glass Tubing
88
2.3.9   Annealing
88
2.3.10  Sealing Glass to Metal
89
2.3.11  Grinding and Drilling Glass
91
Cited References
92
General References
92
3       VACUUM TECHNOLOGY
93
3.1     Gases
93
3.1.1   The Nature of the Residual Gases in a Vacuum System
93
3.1.2   Gas Kinetic Theory
93
3.1.3   Surface Collisions
95
3.1.4   Bulk Behavior versus Molecular Behavior
95
3.2     Gas Flow
95
3.2.1   Parameters for Specifying Gas Flow
95
3.2.2   Network Equations
96
3.2.3   The Master Equation
96
3.2.4   Conductance Formulae
97
3.2.5   Pumpdown Time
98
3.2.6   Outgassing
98
3.3     Pressure and Flow Measurement
98
3.3.1   Mechanical Gauges
98
3.3.2   Thermal-Conductivity Gauges
100
3.3.3   Viscous-Drag Gauges
101
3.3.4   Ionization Gauges
101
3.3.5   Mass Spectrometers
103
3.3.6   Flowmeters
103
3.4     Vacuum Pumps
104
3.4.1   Mechanical Pumps
105
3.4.2   Vapor Diffusion Pumps
109
3.4.3   Entrainment Pumps
112
3.5     Vacuum Hardware
115
3.5.1   Materials
115
3.5.2   Demountable Vacuum Connections
118
3.5.3   Valves
120
3.5.4   Mechanical Motion in the Vacuum System
123
3.5.5   Traps and Baffles
124
3.5.6   Molecular Beams and Gas Jets
127
3.5.7   Electronics and Electricity in Vacuo
130
3.6     Vacuum-System Design and Construction
131
3.6.1   Some Typical Vacuum Systems
132
3.6.2   Differential Pumping
138
3.6.3   The Construction of Metal Vacuum Apparatus
139
3.6.4   Surface Preparation
142
3.6.5   Leak Detection
143
3.6.6   Ultrahigh Vacuum
144
Cited References
145
General References
145
4       Optical Systems
147
4.1     Optical Terminology
147
4.2     Characterization and Analysis of Optical Systems
150
4.2.1   Simple Reflection and Refraction Analysis
150
4.2.2   Paraxial-Ray Analysis
151
4.2.3   Nonimaging Light Collectors
162
4.2.4   Imaging Systems
162
4.2.5   Exact Ray Tracing and Aberrations
166
4.2.6   The Use of Impedances in Optics
174
4.2.7   Gaussian Beams
179
4.3     Optical Components
182
4.3.1   Mirrors
182
4.3.2   Windows
187
4.3.3   Lenses and Lens Systems
187
4.3.4   Prisms
196
4.3.5   Diffraction Gratings
201
4.3.6   Polarizers
204
4.3.7   Optical Isolators
211
4.3.8   Filters
212
4.3.9   Fiber Optics
217
4.3.10  Precision Mechanical Movement Systems
219
4.3.11  Devices for Positional and Orientational Adjustment of Optical Components
222
4.3.12  Optical Tables and Vibration Isolation
229
4.3.13  Alignment of Optical Systems
229
4.3.14  Mounting Optical Components
230
4.3.15  Cleaning Optical Components
232
4.4     Optical Materials
236
4.4.1   Materials for Windows, Lenses, and Prisms
236
4.4.2   Materials for Mirrors and Diffraction Gratings
245
4.5     Optical Sources
247
4.5.1   Coherence
248
4.5.2   Radiometry: Units and Definitions
248
4.5.3   Photometry
249
4.5.4   Line Sources
250
4.5.5   Continuum Sources
252
4.6     Lasers
261
4.6.1   General Principles of Laser Operation
267
4.6.2   General Features of Laser Design
268
4.6.3   Specific Laser Systems
270
4.6.4   Laser Radiation
283
4.6.5   Coupling Light from a Source to an Aperture
284
4.6.6   Optical Modulators
287
4.6.7   How to Work Safely with Light Sources
289
4.7     Optical Dispersing Instruments
291
4.7.1   Comparison of Prism and Grating Spectrometers
293
4.7.2   Design of Spectrometers and Spectrographs
295
4.7.3   Calibration of Spectrometers and Spectrographs
299
4.7.4   Fabry–Perot Interferometers and Etalons
299
4.7.5   Design Considerations for Fabry–Perot Systems
308
4.7.6   Double-Beam Interferometers
309
Endnotes
314
Cited References
314
General References
318
5       CHARGED-PARTICLE OPTICS
324
5.1     Basic Concepts of Charged-Particle Optics
324
5.1.1   Brightness
324
5.1.2   Snell's Law
325
5.1.3   The Helmholtz–Lagrange Law
325
5.1.4   Vignetting
326
5.2     Electrostatic Lenses
327
5.2.1   Geometrical Optics of Thick Lenses
327
5.2.2   Cylinder Lenses
329
5.2.3   Aperture Lenses
331
5.2.4   Matrix Methods
332
5.2.5   Aberrations
333
5.2.6   Lens Design Example
336
5.2.7   Computer Simulations
338
5.3     Charged-Particle Sources
338
5.3.1   Electron Guns
338
5.3.2   Electron-Gun Design Example
341
5.3.3   Ion Sources
343
5.4     Energy Analyzers
345
5.4.1   Parallel-Plate Analyzers
346
5.4.2   Cylindrical Analyzers
347
5.4.3   Spherical Analyzers
348
5.4.4   Preretardation
350
5.4.5   The Energy-Add Lens
350
5.4.6   Fringing-Field Correction
352
5.4.7   Magnetic Energy Analyzers
353
5.5     Mass Analyzers
354
5.5.1   Magnetic Sector Mass Analyzers
354
5.5.2   Wien Filter
354
5.5.3   Dynamic Mass Spectrometers
355
5.6     Electron- and Ion-Beam Devices: Construction
355
5.6.1   Vacuum Requirements
355
5.6.2   Materials
356
5.6.3   Lens and Lens-Mount Design
357
5.6.4   Charged-Particle Detection
358
5.6.5   Magnetic-Field Control
358
Cited References
360
6       Electronics
362
6.1     Preliminaries
362
6.1.1   Circuit Theory
362
6.1.2   Circuit Analysis
365
6.1.3   High-Pass and Low-Pass Circuits
369
6.1.4   Resonant Circuits
372
6.1.5   The Laplace-Transform Method
374
6.1.6   RLC Circuits
377
6.1.7   Transient Response of Resonant Circuits
378
6.1.8   Transformers and Mutual Inductance
379
6.1.9   Compensation
380
6.1.10  Filters
380
6.1.11  Computer-Aided Circuit Analysis
381
6.2     Passive Components
382
6.2.1   Fixed Resistors and Capacitors
383
6.2.2   Variable Resistors
384
6.2.3   Transmission Lines
388
6.2.4   Coaxial Connectors
399
6.2.5   Relays
401
6.3     Active Components
402
6.3.1   Diodes
403
6.3.2   Transistors
406
6.3.3   Silicon-Controlled Rectifiers
419
6.3.4   Unijunction Transistors
420
6.3.5   Thyratrons
421
6.4     Amplifiers and Pulse Electronics
421
6.4.1   Definition of Terms
421
6.4.2   General Transistor-Amplifier Operating Principles
424
6.4.3   Operational-Amplifier Circuit Analysis
428
6.4.4   Instrumentation and Isolation Amplifiers
432
6.4.5   Stability and Oscillators
434
6.4.6   Detecting and Processing Pulses
435
6.5     Power Supplies
441
6.5.1   Power-Supply Specifications
442
6.5.2   Regulator Circuits and Programmable Power Supplies
443
6.5.3   Bridges
445
6.6     Digital Electronics
447
6.6.1   Binary Counting
447
6.6.2   Elementary Functions
447
6.6.3   Boolean Algebra
448
6.6.4   Arithmetic Units
448
6.6.5   Data Units
448
6.6.6   Dynamic Systems
450
6.6.7   Digital-to-Analog Conversion
453
6.6.8   Memories
458
6.6.9   Logic and Function
460
6.6.10  Implementing Logic Functions
464
6.7     Data Acquisition
467
6.7.1   Data Rates
467
6.7.2   Voltage Levels and Timing
469
6.7.3   Format
469
6.7.4   System Overhead
470
6.7.5   Analog Input Signals
472
6.7.6   Multiple Signal Sources: Data Loggers
474
6.7.7   Standardized Data-Acquisition Systems
474
6.7.8   Control Systems
479
6.7.9   Personal Computer (PC) Control of Experiments
482
6.8     Extraction of Signal from Noise
491
6.8.1   Signal-to-Noise Ratio
491
6.8.2   Optimizing the Signal-to-Noise Ratio
492
6.8.3   The Lock-In Amplifier and Gated Integrator or Boxcar
493
6.8.4   Signal Averaging
494
6.8.5   Waveform Recovery
495
6.8.6   Coincidence and Time-Correlation Techniques
496
6.9     Grounds and Grounding
500
6.9.1   Electrical Grounds and Safety
500
6.9.2   Electrical Pickup: Capacitive Effects
503
6.9.3   Electrical Pickup: Inductive Effects
504
6.9.4   Electromagnetic Interference and r.f.i
505
6.9.5   Power-Line-Coupled Noise
505
6.9.6   Ground Loops
506
6.10    Hardware and Construction
508
6.10.1  Circuit Diagrams
508
6.10.2  Component Selection and Construction Techniques
508
6.10.3  Printed Circuit Boards
513
6.10.4  Wire Wrap™ Boards
523
6.10.5  Wires and Cables
524
6.10.6  Connectors
528
6.11    Troubleshooting
533
6.11.1  General Procedures
533
6.11.2  Identifying Parts
535
Cited References
537
General References
538
Chapter 6 Appendix
541
7       DETECTORS
547
7.1     Optical Detectors
547
7.2     Noise in Optical Detection Process
548
7.2.1   Shot Noise
548
7.2.2   Johnson Noise
549
7.2.3   Generation-Recombination (gr) Noise
549
7.2.4   1/f Noise
549
7.3     Figures of Merit for Detectors
550
7.3.1   Noise-Equivalent Power
550
7.3.2   Detectivity
550
7.3.3   Responsivity
551
7.3.4   Quantum Efficiency
552
7.3.5   Frequency Response and Time Constant
553
7.3.6   Signal-to-Noise Ratio
553
7.4     Photoemissive Detectors
554
7.4.1   Vacuum Photodiodes
554
7.4.2   Photomultipliers
555
7.4.3   Photocathode and Dynode Materials
556
7.4.4   Practical Operating Considerations for Photomultiplier Tubes
561
7.5     Photoconductive Detectors
566
7.6     Photovoltaic Detectors (Photodiodes)
572
7.6.1   Avalanche Photodiodes
574
7.6.2   Geiger Mode Avalanche Photodetectors
577
7.7     Detector Arrays
578
7.7.1   Reticons
578
7.7.2   Quadrant Detectors
578
7.7.3   Lateral Effect Photodetectors
578
7.7.4   Imaging Arrays
580
7.7.5   Image Intensifiers
581
7.8     Signal-to-Noise Ratio Calculations
582
7.8.1   Photomultipliers
582
7.8.2   Direct Detection with p–i–n Photodiodes
582
7.8.3   Direct Detection with APDs
584
7.8.4   Photon Counting
585
7.9     Particle and Ionizing Radiation Detectors
585
7.9.1   Solid-State Detectors
589
7.9.2   Scintillation Counters
591
7.9.3   X-Ray Detectors
591
7.10    Thermal Detectors
591
7.10.1  Thermopiles
593
7.10.2  Pyroelectric Detectors
593
7.10.3  Bolometers
594
7.10.4  The Golay Cell
595
7.11    Electronics to be Used With Detectors
596
7.12    Detector Calibration
597
Endnotes
597
Cited References
597
General References
599
8       MEASUREMENT AND CONTROL OF TEMPERATURE
600
8.1     The Measurement of Temperature
600
8.1.1   Expansion Thermometers
601
8.1.2   Thermocouples
602
8.1.3   Resistance Thermometers
605
8.1.4   Semiconductor Thermometers
609
8.1.5   Temperatures Very Low: Cryogenic Thermometry
610
8.1.6   Temperatures Very High
611
8.1.7   New, Evolving, and Specialized Thermometry
612
8.1.8   Comparison of Main Categories of Thermometers
612
8.1.9   Thermometer Calibration
612
8.2     The Control of Temperature
613
8.2.1   Temperature Control at Fixed Temperatures
613
8.2.2   Temperature Control at Variable Temperatures
613
Cited References
621
General References
623
Index
625



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