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Building Scientific Apparatus

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  • Page extent: 658 pages
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 (ISBN-13: 9780521878586)

BUILDING SCIENTIFIC APPARATUS
Cambridge University Press
9780521878586 - BUILDING SCIENTIFIC APPARATUS - By John H. Moore, Christopher C. Davis, Michael A. Coplan and Sandra C. Greer
Index

INDEX

1/fnoise 492, 549

Abbe diagram (glass chart) 169

Abbe V number 168

aberrations, imaging system 169, 191, 161, 503, 561

charged-particle optics 333–336

and exact ray tracing 171

ABS thermoplastic 525

a.c. line

ground connection 501

three-wire system 501, 525

a.c. line cord 526

mounting at chassis end 526

a.c. line receptacles 18, 526

circuit diagram symbol(s) 509

accuracy of temperature measurement 600

achromat lens 169, 189

achromatic doublets (lenses) 169, 169, 191

acoustic absorber 229

acousto-optic modulators 238, 288

acrylic plastics 24

jointing of 24

in optical components 193, 241

properties 20, 233, 234, 241, 525

thermoforming of 24

in vacuum systems 117

active electronic components 363, 402–421

circuit diagram symbol(s) 509

active filters 381, 431

adhesives 34

in vacuum systems 117

admittance 366

Ahrens polarizer 208, 209

Airy function 301

alexandrite lasers 264

aligned section (in drawing) 43

alkali-ion source 344

alligator clips 529

alloy steels 18, 19, 20

alumina ceramics 24

as electrical insulators 130, 356

properties 20, 24, 356, 615

in vacuum systems 116, 130

aluminum and alloys 22, 356

properties 19, 141, 220, 615

in vacuum systems 117, 139, 140

aluminum coatings on mirrors 245

aluminum plate, vibration-isolated optical table 229

American Standard Pipe Thread 37

specifications 73

American Standard threaded fasteners 26

specifications 71

Amici prisms 199

amplifiers 421–435

classifications 421, 422

frequency ranges 422

impedances 422

stability 434

types 421

See also instrumentation amplifiers, isolation amplifiers, operational amplifiers

analog input circuits 485

analog input signals, data acquisition 196, 472–474, 485

analog multiplexer 458, 474, 475

analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) 453, 456, 458

applications 457, 472, 473, 103

anamorphic laser beam expanders 198, 278

annealing

glass 88–89, 166

metals 14

antireflection coatings, dielectric coatings as 183–184

aperture lenses (electrostatic lenses) 331–332

aperture stop 163, 164

apertures in optical system 163

aplanatic imaging 162

apochromat lens 169

arc lamps 255–257

argon ion lasers 263, 270, 271

arithmetic units 448, 451

arsenic trisulfide glass 241

properties 233, 234, 237, 242

ASA flange joints 119

ASCII computer code 469

aspheric lenses 191–193

aspheric surface 166

astigmatic mirrors 183

astigmatism 170, 171, 191


astronomical telescope 189

asymmetric electrostatic lens 330, 500

audio amplifiers 422, 423

auxiliary view 42

avalanche photodiodes (APDs) 574–577

Geiger mode 577

backing pump (for vacuum system) 105

backstreaming in vacuum pumps 109, 110

baffles, vacuum system 127

Bakelite, properties 20, 615

baking, ultrahigh vacuum system 144–145

ball bearings 60–61

ball-mounting schemes for electrostatic lenses 358

ball-and-socket joints 79, 80

banana plugs 525, 528, 529

band-pass filters 380

optical system 212, 213

band-reject filters 380

bandwidth, amplifier 422

Barber’s rule 349, 354

barium fluoride 238

properties 233, 234, 239

“barrel” distortion 172

barrier strips (connectors) 530, 531

baseline restorer circuit 439

BASIC programs, IEEE-488 system 484

batteries, circuit diagram symbol(s) 509

baud rate 469

Bayard–Alpert ionization pressure gauge 102

Bayer pattern, in imaging arrays 580

bead blasting 142

beam angle 325, 326

beam expanders 190, 198, 355, 278

beam parameter, Gaussian beam 179

beam waist, Gaussian beam 180

beams

bending of 50–52

vibration of 54–55

beamsplitters 90, 182, 185, 186

compared with pellicles 186

bearing mounts 59

bearings 59–61

lubrication of 59, 61, 63, 124

in vacuum systems 124

Belleville spring washers 63, 124

bending

beams and shafts 50–52

glass tubing 88, 89

sheet metal 11, 10, 441

bending moment 50

formulae 51

beryllium copper (bronze) 19, 22

springs 63

Bessel filter 381

“best form” lens 170, 188

biconcave lens 188

biconvex lens 187, 188

bimorph piezoelectric elements 221, 228

binary devices 447, 585

binary number system 447

binding posts 528

bipolar junction transistors (BJTs) 406–410

active loads 419

applications 402

case styles 406, 407

circuit diagram symbol(s) 407, 509

configurations 406

current–voltage characteristics 408

current-source circuits 419

junction capacitances 200, 409, 412

operating conditions 410, 412

properties 411, 413

separate power supplies for biasing voltages 409, 410

small-signal model 409, 412

bipolar operation of power supplies 443

bipolar pulse shaping 438, 440

birefringence 205

bits 467

black materials and coatings 296, 297, 356

blackbody pyrometry 611

blackbody sources 252–253

practical designs 254

blaze angle (of diffraction gratings) 202

blind scew holes, pumpout holes for 142

block diagrams 436, 441, 455, 475, 479, 480, 489, 490, 494, 505, 506, 507, 508

use when troubleshooting 534

blocking capacitors 425

“blooming” due to antireflection coatings 184

Bode plots 370

inverting amplifier 422, 423

bolometers 548, 594–595

characteristics 551, 592, 593

as thermometers 611

bolted joints, designs 36

Boolean algebra 448

Boolean expressions

logic units 449, 364

vacuum system interlock circuits 460, 462, 522

bootstrapping technique, for photoconductive detectors 570

boring bar 2

borosilicate glasses 24, 76, 239

properties 78, 79, 233, 235, 240

tungsten-to-glass seal 90, 117, 132

in vacuum systems 115, 116

See also Pyrex glass

Bourdon gauge 100

boxcar integrator 494

brake bending of sheet metal 11, 10

brass 21

properties 19, 615

in vacuum systems 116

brass brazing alloy 32

brazed joints 36

in tubing 39, 40

in vacuum systems 132, 141

brazing 30, 31–33

thermocouples 604

breadboard circuit/model 508, 510

prototype circuit boards 510

Brewster angle 177

Brewster-angle prisms 198

in laser systems 269, 270

Brewster windows, lasers 268, 269, 272


bridges, electrical 445–446

brightness

in charged-particle optics 324–325

of light 162

brightness theorem 286

Brinell hardness scale 14

various materials (listed) 15, 19

British Standard Pipe Thread Tapered specifications 38, 73

broach 3, 4

broad-band antireflection (BBAR) coatings 185

bronzes 19, 22

Buna-N synthetic rubber 24, 118

butterfly valve 121

Butterworth filter 295, 381

bytes 467

cables and wires 524–528

See also coaxial cable

CAD (computer-aided design) programs 40

CAD/CAM software 40, 8, 517

cadmium telluride 245

Calbick lens 331

calcite (CaCO3), properties 233, 235, 237

calcium fluoride 238

CAMAC system 476

bus 478

connectors 533

camera lenses 189

Cameralink interface standard 581

cameras

See digital cameras

capacitance, frequency response of detectors influenced by 553

capacitance manometers 100, 103

capacitance thermometers 611

capacitive effects, in electrical signal lines 503–504

capacitors

circuit diagram symbol(s) 509

codes 387

equivalent circuits 386

capillary (glass) tubing 79

carbide-tipped cutters and tools 6

carbon black coating 356

carbon-filament conductor cable 528

carbon steels 18, 19

card cage mounting for circuit boards 514

case hardening 15

cast iron 18, 19

casting 10–12

cathode-ray-tube guns 340

CCD imaging arrays 580–581

center drill 3, 6

centering optical mount 226

centroid 50

centroidal moment of inertia 50

centroidal polar moment of inertia 52

ceramic cements 34

ceramics 24–25

brazed joints 33

as electrical insulators 130

in vacuum systems 116, 130

cesium bromide 243

properties 233, 235, 237, 243

cesium chloride, properties 233, 235

cesium iodide 243

properties 233, 234, 237, 243

CF (ConFlat-compatible) sealing system 120

CGA (Compressed Gas Association) connections 38, 73

channel electron multipliers (CEMs) 556, 557, 587, 588

characters 467

charge-coupled device

See CCD

charge-sensitive amplifiers 421, 422

charge-sensitive preamplifier

Bode plot 438

combined with pulse detector 435, 438

test circuit 436, 438

charged-particle beam energy analyzers 345–353

charged-particle beam technology, applications 324

charged-particle detectors 358, 585–591

charged-particle lenses 327–338

compared with optical lenses 327

See also electrostatic lenses

charged-particle optical systems

construction of 355–360

magnetic-field control for 358–360

materials used in construction 356–357

vacuum requirements 355–356

See also electron-beam devices, ion-beam devices

charged-particle optics, basic concepts 324–327

charged-particle sources 338–345

chassis layout diagram (electronic circuit) 508

Chebyshev filter 381

chemically resistant glassware 77

chopping, amplifier 425

chopping wheels, optical modulation using 287

Christiansen filters 215, 216

chromatic aberrations 168, 191, 335

circle of least confusion 334

circuit analysis 365–369

computer-aided 381

Laplace-transform method 374–377, 376, 379

operational amplifier 428–432

circuit boards

extender boards used when troubleshooting 535

mounting of 514

perforated 510, 511

prototype 510

See also printed circuit boards

circuit breakers 501

circuit diagrams 508

symbols used 509

circuit theory 362–365

circularly polarized light 147, 205

clamp, operational amplifier as 429, 432

closed-loop control systems 480, 479

closed-loop gain, operational amplifier 426

CMOS imaging arrays 580–581

CMOS logic devices 464, 465

conversion circuits 466

power MOSFETs switched with 412

CNC (computer numerical control) machines 8, 9

CO lasers 263, 273

CO2lasers, 263, 264, 272–273, 290


coaxial cable 364, 389, 392

applications 498

procedure for stripping 504

properties 392, 393, 396

coaxial connectors 398–399

assembly procedures 398

circuit diagram symbol(s) 509

types 398

Code V analysis 166

optical table for 167

coherence properties of optical sources 248

coherent sources 247

See also lasers

coil springs 63

coincidence measurements 436, 498–500

coincidence time spectrum 498, 499

cold-cathode ionization gauge 103

cold-junction compensation circuits 605

cold traps 126

cold working 14

cold-solder joint 521

collet chuck 5

collision frequency 94

color filters 212

color temperature of lamps 255

coma (aberration) 170, 191

comb filter

electronic 380

optical 212

combinatorial logic units 450

combined pulse detector and charge-sensitive preamplifier 435, 438

common-mode rejection ratio (CMRR)

isolation amplifiers 433

operational amplifiers 425, 426, 433, 507

voltmeters 507

comparator circuits, operational amplifiers as 432

compensation, electronic circuit 380

compensator, in control system 489

complementary metal oxide semiconductor

See CMOS

complex admittance 366

compound lenses 189

compound parabolic concentrators (CPCs) 195, 115, 196

compound turbomolecular/drag pumps 108

compression ratio, vacuum pumps 107, 108, 132, 137

computer-aided circuit analysis 381

computer simulations

circuit analysis using 381

electrostatic lenses 338

concave gratings 203

concave meniscus lens 188

concentration ratio, nonimaging light collector 196

condensers (lenses) 192

conductance of vacuum system 96, 97–98

example calculations 139

confocal Fabry–Perot interferometer 308

conjugate points 162

connectors 528–534

circuit diagram symbol(s) 509

See also coaxial connectors

constant-fraction discriminator 440

constantan 604, 610, 615

constrained motion 57–66

construction considerations

charged-particle optical systems 355–360

electronic equipment 508–533

vacuum systems 131–145

continuous arc lamps 255–257

continuous wave (CW) CO2lasers 263, 272, 273

continuous wave (CW) dye lasers 280

tuning range 265

continuous wave (CW) gas lasers 270–273

operating wavelengths 263

continuous wave (CW) lasers, power outputs 266

continuous wave (CW) solid-state lasers 275

operating wavelengths 264

continuum sources 247, 252–261

contrast ratio, Fabry–Perot systems 307

control systems 479–481

response parameters 480–481

converging thin lens, paraxial ray tracing for 160

convex meniscus lens 187, 188

cooling systems, lasers 268

copper 21

oxygen-free high-conductivity 116, 356

properties 19, 615

copper alloys 21

brazing using 32

properties 19

copper mirrors 245

copper vapor lasers 264, 275

copper wire, insulated 524

corner-cube prisms 200–201

corner frequencies, in circuit analysis 369, 370

Coulomb blockade thermometers 611

counter digital-to-analog converter 456, 457

counterbore (tool) 3, 4

counters 453, 455

and power-supply noise 467

crimped connectors, 531, 532, 533

crimping tools 531

critical angle (optical reflection/refraction) 150, 151

critical backing pressure (vacuum pumps) 105, 107, 110

critical speed of shaft rotation 55

critically damped amplifiers 378

critically damped resonant circuit, response 378

crowbar circuits 444

crown glasses 168, 239

cryogenic thermometry 610–611

cryopumps 114

applications 132, 136

cryostats 620–621

cube beamsplitters 185, 186

current noise 549, 550

current sources, bipolar junction transistors 419

current-voltage relations 364

cutting fluids 4, 7

cuvettes 187


cyanoacrylate contact adhesives 34

cylindrical electrostatic analyzers 347

cylindrical lenses 195

charged-particle system 329

cylindrical-mirror electrostatic analyzer 348, 532

cylindrical pressure vessels, design of 53

Czerny–Turner grating monochromator 296, 298

Czerny–Turner prism monochromator 295, 296

D-connectors 348, 532, 533

D (delay) flip-flop 453, 454

damping of vibrations 54

dark-noise level, optical detectors 553

data acquisition 467–491

data-acquisition interface 486

data-acquisition systems 458

noise elimination 485

standardized 474–479

See also CAMAC system, NIM system

data buffer 471

data format 469

data loggers 458, 474

data rates 467, 469

data selector 463, 464

data transmission 469

cables 528

system overhead 470–472

data units 448, 452

date code 535

datum 45

d.c. ground connection 501

d.c.-to-d.c. converters 443

decay time, sample-and-hold circuit 474

decelerating lens, in charged-particle system 336, 350

decibel (dB) scale 370

decimal number system 447

decoder (data unit) 117, 448, 452

degenerative feedback 434

delay-line applications 395, 498

delay-line shaping 439

Delrin 23, 117, 525

demosaicing 580

demountable glass joints 79–80

demountable pressure fittings 38

demountable vacuum system connections 118–120

demultiplexer (data unit) 448, 452

depletion-mode transistors 412, 414

output current–voltage characteristics

derating 382

desoldering techniques 522

detectivity 550–551

determination of 597

optical detectors, 550, 567, 568, 570, 571, 573, 575

thermal detectors 592, 593

See also spectral detectivity

detector arrays 578–582

detectors

calibration of 597

charged-particle detectors 358, 585–591

classification 548

electronics used with 596

equivalent circuits 435, 583, 590

figures of merit for 550–554

ionizing-radiation detectors 591

optical detectors 547

particle detectors 435, 585

photoconductive detectors 566–572

photoemissive detectors 554–566

photovoltaic detectors 572–578

signal-to-noise ratio calculations 582–585

thermal detectors 591–596

deuterium arc lamp 256

deuterium-filled thyratrons 421

diamond 239

properties 234, 240

diaphragm pressure gauge/sensor 100, 103

in vacuum system interlock circuit 461

diaphragm pumps 106–107

dichroic polarizers 208

dielectric coatings

as antireflection coatings 183, 185

as high-reflectance coatings 185

dielectric-coated mirrors 246

differential-equation method, circuit analysis using 369–372

differential-pressure flowmeters 104

differential pumping 130, 138–139

applications 138, 257

differential-input amplifiers 425

differentiating circuits 369, 372

charge-sensitive preamplifier 438

operational amplifier 429, 431

diffraction gratings 201–204

See also grating spectrometers

diffractive optics 195

diffusion pumps 109–112

applications 132, 132–135, 356

digital cameras, imaging arrays in 580

digital comparator (arithmetic unit) 448, 451

digital controllers, thermostat 616

digital electronics 447–467

digital multimeter (DMM) 491

digital-to-analog converters (DACs) 453, 456, 455

dimensions, on drawings 44–46

diode lasers 278

operating wavelengths 279

diode-pumped solid-state (DPSS) lasers 279–280

operating wavelengths 264

diodes 402–406

circuit diagram symbol(s) 509

configurations 402, 405

current–voltage characteristics, 363, 402, 403, 405

diopters (optical units) 155

direct-coupled amplifiers 425

disc of least confusion 334

disc springs

dispersion

diffraction gratings 203

optical 150

prisms 196

dispersive-type analyzers 346

displacement pumps 106

distortion, imaging system 172

distributed parameters, in high-frequency electrical connections 364


diverging thin lens, paraxial ray tracing for 161

doping, semiconductor materials 402

double-beam interferometers 309–314

design considerations 314

See also Mach–Zender interferometer, Michelson interferometer, Twyman–Green interferometer

double Gauss lens 166

modulation transfer function 172, 174

optical table for Code V analysis 167

spot diagrams for 170

double-insulated cases 501

double refraction 151, 205

polarizers using 204, 208, 209

doublets (lenses) 188

dove prisms 199, 200

drafting software 40

drag pumps 107

applications 132, 137

drain wire 528

drawing tools 39

drawings

See mechanical drawing(s)

drilled holes

locational accuracy 3

threaded 4

drilling 2–4

glass sheet 91

drills

sizes 68

tool speeds for 4

dual-slope digital-to-analog converter 456, 457

duoplasmatron ion source 345

duty cycle, signal-enhancement systems 494, 496

dynamic mass spectrometers 355

dynamic resistance, diodes 405

dynamic systems (logic units) 450

dynamic transfer curve, diode 406

dynode chains (in photomultiplier tubes) 561–563

dynodes (in photomultiplier tubes) 555, 557

materials used 556–561

Ebert–Fastie monochromator 297

echelle gratings 203

ECL devices 464, 465

conversion circuits 466, 477

efficiency, diffraction gratings 203, 504

einzel (electrostatic) lens 331

elasticity modulus 13

See also Young’s modulus

elastomers 24

electrical connections, in vacuum systems 131

electrical discharge machining (EDM) 9

electrical grounds, safety aspects 500–503

electrical insulators, in vacuum systems 130

electrical signal pickup

capacitive effects 503

inductive effects 504

electrically erasable programmable ROMs (EEPROMs) 459

electromagnetic interference 505

electromagnetic radiation, fundamental parameters 147

electromagnetic relays 399

electromagnetic spectrum 147

electron-beam devices

chromatic aberration in 335

construction of 355–360

electron guns 338

design example 340

electron-impact ionization ion source 343

efficiency 345

electron multipliers 586

coupling via transformer 587, 588

See also channel electron multipliers (CEMs)

electronic compensation circuits (for thermocouples) 605

electronic components

active 402–421

circuit diagram symbol(s) 509

passive 382–402

selecting 508

electronic devices, in vacuum systems 131

electronics

amplifiers and pulse electronics 421–441

basic concepts 362–382

construction considerations 508–533

digital electronics 447

grounding 500–507

laws and theorems 364

power supplies 441–446

troubleshooting 534–536

electro-optic modulators 287

electropolishing 142

electrostatic lenses 338

compared with optical lenses 327

computer simulations 338, 342

design example 336

electrodes 357

mounting schemes 358

ellipsoidal mirrors 183

elliptically polarized light 147, 204, 485

embossing of sheet metal 11, 10

emissivity 252

enclosure thermostats 619, 620

encoder (data unit) 448, 452

energy analyzers, charged-particle beam 345–353

energy-add lens (in electrostatic energy analyzer) 350–352

energy-level diagram, lasers 267

enhancement-mode transistors 412, 414

output current–voltage characteristics 415

entrainment pumps 112–115

entrance pupil (in optical system) 162, 163

epoxy adhesives 34

epoxy resins, in vacuum systems 118

equivalent circuits 367, 368

capacitors and resistors 386

detectors 435, 583, 590

field-effect transistor 509

equivalent noise charge (ENC) 591

equivalent noise temperature (in amplifiers) 493

detectors 583, 590


erasable programmable ROMs (EPROMs) 450, 459

erector lens 163

error band (of waveform) 379

etalons 187, 299–302

as filters 212, 284

See also Fabry–Perot etalons

étendue

Fabry–Perot system 307

optical concentrator 195

eutectic temperature 613, 614

evanescent wave 150

exciplex (excimer) lasers 264, 273

expansion thermometers 601

exponential amplifiers 431

extended source(s), coupling to aperture 286

extension lines (on drawings) 46

extrinsic photoconductive detectors, properties 568

extrinsic photoconductivity 566

eyepiece lens 163

F-center lasers 276

f/number

lens 163

monochromator/spectrometer 292

fabrication materials 12–25

fabrication processes 2–12, 25–39

Fabry–Perot etalons 212, 299

properties 303, 304

Fabry–Perot fringes, observation of 305

Fabry–Perot interferometers 299–308

alignment of 229

characteristics 294

compared with other optical dispersing instruments 295

practical operating configurations 303, 305

spherical-mirror 307

Fabry–Perot semiconductor lasers 279

Fabry–Perot systems

design considerations 308

optical characteristics 303

performance limitations 303

fall time (of pulse) 364

Faraday cup (charged-particle detector) 358, 585

Faraday materials 211

FASTTMlogic devices 456, 467

ferrofluidic shaft seals 124

ferromagnetic table tops (optical tables) 229

fiber jumpers (for optical fibers) 219

fiber lasers 264, 275

fiber optic connectors 218

fiber optics 217–219

field curvature (aberration in imaging system) 172, 191

field lens, electron-optical analog 351

field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) 460

field stop 163, 164

field of view (in camera lens) 189

field-effect transistors (FETs) 410–419

applications 402

small-signal equivalent circuit 590

See also junction field-effect transistor, metal oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors

figures of merit

amplifiers 422

detectors 550–554

sample-and-hold (S/H) circuits 474

filters

electronic 380

optical system 212–217

fine-scale movement in optical systems 220

finesse, in Fabry–Perot systems, 302, 303, 305

fire-polishing of cut glass tubing 83

first-angle projection 42

fits (between parts) 35, 48

fixed-point cells 605, 612, 613

fixed points (reference temperatures) 614

fixed resistors 383–384

codes 386

types 383

fixed-voltage power supplies 444

fixed-voltage regulators 444

Fizeau interferometer 308

flash converter (digital-to-analog converter) 456, 457, 456

flashlamp-pumped dye lasers 270

flashlamps 257–261

detector response determined using 597

flat mirrors 182

flexures 63–66, 224

flicker noise 492, 549

flint glasses 168, 239, 241

flip-flops 450, 454

float plate glass 315

mirrors 182

floating power supplies 501

flowmeters, in vacuum systems 103

fluid baths (thermostats) 616, 617

materials used 615, 619

fluorescence thermometry 622

fluorocarbon polymers 24, 117

properties 20, 525, 615

See also Teflon

focal lengths 152, 153

focal points 152, 153

foldback current limiting (in power supplies) 444

force fit(s) 35

forward bias, of diode 402

four-wire measurement techniques, resistance thermometry 608

Fourier transform spectroscopy 311

framegrabber card (in digital camera) 581

free spectral range, Fabry–Perot devices 302, 303

frequency response

detectors 553

operational amplifiers 426

Fresnel criterion 159

Fresnel lenses 193, 194

Fresnel retardation rhombs 211

full adder (arithmetic unit) 448, 451

full-duplex transmission of data 469

fused silica 24, 77, 238

properties 78, 79, 233, 234, 237, 240

See also quartz

fuses 501

circuit diagram symbol(s) 509

fusion splicer (for optical fibers) 218


GaAlAs lasers 277, 280

gain, amplifier 421

gain margin, amplifier 423, 424

gain profile, laser 267, 268

gain-bandwidth product (GBWP) 422

typical values 426

Galilean telescope 189, 190

gallium arsenide

in optical components 245, 273, 277

properties 233, 235, 244

gas-filled photodetectors 547, 555

gas flow, parameters for specifying 95–96

gas jets, in vacuum systems 127–130

gas kinetic theory 93–95

gas thermometers 610

gaseous ion lasers 270–275

operating wavelengths 263–264

gases

bulk vs molecular behavior 95

molecular velocity 94

residual, in vacuum system 93

gate valves, in vacuum systems 122, 122

gated integrator 494, 495

Gauss lens

See double Gauss lens

Gaussian beams 179–182, 278

Gaussian lineshape function 251

Gaussian optics 325

Gaussian waveform 438

Geiger mode avalanche photodetectors 577

generation–recombination (gr) noise 549, 550

geometrical aberrations 169, 333–335

Gerber file (for printed circuit board production) 518

germanium

in optical components 244, 273

properties 233, 234, 237, 244

germanium photodiodes 573, 574, 575

getter pumps 113–114

ghost reflections (from mirrors) 182

gimbal mounts 223, 226

Glan–Foucault polarizer 209

Glan–Taylor polarizer 208, 209

glass chart (Abbe diagram) 168, 169

glass fibers 78

glass joints 80

glass laboratory components 78–81

glass rod 78, 79

glass sheet

drilling of 91

sawing of 91–92

glass stopcocks 80–81

glass surfaces, cleaning of 143

glass tubing 78–79

bending 82–83, 88, 89

cutting 82–83, 89

fire-polishing of cut end 83

flaring end 87

grinding end 91

pulling points 83–84

ring seal in 87–88, 89

sealing off 84–85

straight seal in 87, 88

T-seal in 85–87

test-tube end formed in 84–85

glass vacuum accessories 116

glass valves 80, 81

glass-to-metal seals 81, 89–90, 116, 132, 241

glassblower’s tools 81–82

glassblowing skills 81–92

glasses

Abbe diagram (glass chart) 168, 169

chemical composition 76–77

chemical properties 76–77

mechanical properties 78, 233

in optical components 239–241

optical properties 78, 79, 234, 240

thermal properties 77–78, 233, 234

in vacuum systems 115–116

Golay cells 595

characteristics 551, 592, 593

gold coatings on mirrors 247

graded index lenses 193

graded seals 81, 116, 231

granite table tops (optical tables) 229

graphical construction, of image size and position 159–161, 328

grating spectrometers

characteristics 294, 295

compared with prism spectrometers 293

graybody emitters 253

grinding 9–10

glass tubing 91

ground loops 506–507

ground-fault interrupters (GFIs) 501

grounds and grounding 507

circuit diagram symbol(s) 509

Gullstrand opthalmoscope 163

Hagen–Poiseuille relation, tube conductance derived from 97, 104

half adder (arithmetic unit) 448, 451

half-duplex transmission of data 469

half-wave plates 206, 210

hand tools 2

hand-shaking (in data transmission) 470

Hänsch-type pulsed dye laser 282

hardness of materials 14

various materials 19, 233

hardness scales 14

hardware, electron-equipment construction 516

harmonic distortion, amplifiers 424

Hastelloy alloys 21

HC logic devices 467

HCT logic devices 467

heat-and-pull method of removing components from PCBs 522

heat treatments 14

heliarc welding 34, 117, 141

helical springs 63

helium–cadmium lasers 263, 270, 272

helium melting-curve thermometers 610

helium–neon lasers 263, 268, 272, 299

Helmholtz coils/pairs 359–360

Helmholtz–Lagrange law 325–326

applications 334, 335, 342

hemispherical electrostatic analyzer 349

hexadecimal number system 447


high-efficiency broad-band antireflection (HEBBAR) coatings 185

high-pass circuit 369

analysis of 369–372

Bode plots 370

idealized gain and phase responses 370, 371

Laplace-transform equivalent 377

high-pass filters 380, 429, 431

high pressure, meaning of term 52

high-pressure arc lamps 255–256

high-pressure gas cylinders, CGA connections 38, 73

high-pressure pulsed discharge lamps 597

high-pressure systems, windows in 231

high-reflectance coatings, dielectric coatings as 185

high-temperature thermometry 611

high vacuum

characteristics 94

pumps 109, 132

high-voltage cable 527–528

high-voltage connectors 533, 534

hole-making machines 2–4

holographic gratings 203, 295

holographic nondestructive testing (HNDT) 17

holographic notch filters 214

hookup wire 526

hoop strain 53

hoop stress 53

hot-carrier-effect photoconductive detectors 572

hot-cathode ionization pressure gauges 102, 103

hot-air rework station, removal of components from PCBs using 522

housekeeping signals (in data transmission) 470

human eye

cones and rods (receptors) 249

spectral response 249

hybrid pumps 108–109

hydrogen brazing 33

hydrostatic gauges 98–100

ice point (temperature reference) 605, 612–613

ice-point bath 605, 613

IEEE-488 system 482–483

BASIC program for 484

connectors 482

for measurement of temperature-dependent dielectric constant of liquid 482–484

image intensifiers 581

image plane 161, 162

imaging arrays 580–581

imaging spectrographs 299

imaging systems 161, 162–165

impedance

amplifier 422

electric circuit 366–369

optical medium 149, 148

transformation through multilayer optical systems 177–178

impedances method, use in optics 174–179, 300

incoherent sources 247

Inconel alloys 19, 21

indium antimonide photodiodes 574

indium (gallium) arsenide photodiodes 573, 574, 575, 577

in imaging arrays 580

signal-to-noise ratio calculations 584

inductive effects, in electrical signal lines 504

inductors, circuit diagram symbol(s) 509

infrared absorption spectrum, temperature measurement using 612

infrared lasers 273, 275, 277

safety precautions 290

infrared polarizers 208

infrared thermometers 611

infrared-transmissive materials 241–245

properties 233, 234–235

input plane (of optical system) 152

instrumentation amplifiers 432

typical specifications 433

insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) 418

compared with other transistors 418, 419

inductive load switching circuit 418

internal connections 418

insulators, properties 615

integral control, thermostat 616

integrated-circuit (IC) amplifiers 425

integrated-circuit packages

abbreviations 503

code prefixes 151

photodiode + op-amp 574

temperature sensors 609–610, 612

integrated-circuit voltage references 445

integrated-circuits, packages 515

integrating circuit 369

operational amplifier 358, 429, 431

interference filters, characteristics 294

interference fringes, observation of 305–306, 309

interferometers 299–314

additional uses 291

See also Fabry–Perot interferometer, Mach–Zender interferometer, Michelson interferometer, Twyman–Green interferometer

internal pressure 52–54

internal resistance, of voltage/current source 365

International Temperature Scale (ITS) 600, 612

triple points used to define 612, 613

intrinsic photoconductive detectors, properties 567

intrinsic photoconductivity 554, 566

Invar alloy 19, 21

inverting amplifier 422, 429

ion-beam devices, construction of 355–360

ion pumps 115

applications 132, 136, 356

with titanium sublimation pumps 115, 136

ion sources 343–345

ionization pressure gauges 101–103

vacuum system controllers based on 135

ionizing radiation, detection of 591

irradiance 249

ISO joints 119, 120

ISO (metric) threads 25, 71

isolation amplifiers 433–434

isolation transformers 503

isolation-mode rejection ratio (IMRR) 433

isolators, electronic 461

isothermal block 605

jig plate 229

J/K flip-flop 450, 454

Johnson noise 491

detectors 549, 583, 584, 590

joining of materials 25–39

joints

demountable glass 79–80

design of 34–37

piping and pressure vessels 37–39

types 35

junction field-effect transistor (JFET) 410

circuit diagram symbol(s) 509

construction (N-channel JFET) 411

current–voltage characteristics 413

Kapton (polyimide) 117, 356, 525, 152–159, 528

Karnaugh maps 448, 450, 462

Kel-F polymer 24, 241

properties 20, 234, 525

Kerr cells 288

KF (Klein flange) vacuum joints 119

kinematic design 57–59

optical mounts 223

Kirchhoff’s laws 365

application 380

Knoopness hardness scale 14, 236

various optical materials (listed) 236

Kovar alloy 21, 81

Kovar-to-glass seals 81, 116, 243

KRS-5 (thallium bromoiodide) 243

properties 236, 237, 243

KRS-6 (thallium chlorobromide) 236, 237

krypton ion lasers 263, 270, 271

laboratory glassblowing skills 81–92

Lambertian radiator 249

blackbody as diffuse radiator 252

radiant intensity characteristics 249

Lambertian source 250

lamp-pumped solid-state laser 270, 271

lamps 254–261

Laplace-transform method

circuit analysis using 374–377, 379

control theory using 479

Laplace transforms 375

control systems 481, 489

pulse electronics 435, 438, 439

large-scale integrated (LSI) circuits 458, 464

MOSFETs used in 412

laser beam

focusability parameter 181

focusing with lens 180–181

laser beam expanders 190, 198, 278

laser diodes 277

laser radiation 283–284

lasers 261–291

detector response time determined using 597

features of design 268–270

operating wavelengths 263–265

power output(s) 249, 266, 270–272

principles of operation 267–268

safety precautions 290–291

specific systems 270–283

types 266

latch 471

latching relay circuit, in vacuum system 135

lateral-effect photodetectors (LEPs) 578–580

lathe

component parts 5

cuts made by 5

lathe cutting tools 6

speeds for 4

lathe turning 4–7

lava (aluminium silicate) 25

layout diagram, electronic circuit 508

lead sulfide and lead selenide photoconductive detectors 570, 570

lead-free solders 31, 521

leak detection, in vacuum systems 143

“leak” valves 122

least significant bit (LSB) 447

left-hand circularly polarized light 205

lens aberrations 161, 168, 169, 191

lens aperture (camera lens) 189

lenses and lens systems 187–196

materials 236–245

Lexan (polycarbonate) plastic 20, 24, 525

light collectors, nonimaging 162, 195

light sources 147, 247–261

coupling light to aperture 284–286

safety precautions 289–291

light traps 216

line regulation of power supplies 442

line sources 247, 250–252

line-operated equipment, floating power supplies used 502

linear circuit theory 363

linear-motion bearings 61

linear polarizers 208

optical isolators using 210

linearizing of response curve 363

linearly polarized light 147, 204

lineshape functions 251

liquid baths (thermostats), materials used 615, 617, 618, 619

liquid-in-glass thermometers 601–602, 612

liquid-nitrogen-cooled cryotrap (for diffusion pump) 111, 126

lithium fluoride 237

properties 10, 237, 238

Littrow monochromator 295

Littrow prisms 197

in laser systems 269

Littrow-type dye laser 283

load-line analysis, diodes 405–406

load regulation of power supplies 442

lock-in amplifier 495

logarithmic amplifiers 429, 431

logic analyzers 535

logic functions, implementing 464–467

logic gates 447, 449

applications 460–464

sinking capabilities 469

sourcing capabilities 469

logic probe (in troubleshooting) 535

logic pulser (in troubleshooting) 535, 536

logical interlock system, vacuum system protection by 135

long items, representation on drawings 44

long-pulse flashlamps 257, 258–260

long-pulse solid-state lasers 266

long-wavelength-pass filters 214

Lorentzian lineshape function 251

low-pass circuit 369

analysis of 369–372

Bode plots 370

idealized gain and phase responses 69, 370

Laplace-transform equivalent 371

low-pass filters 380, 429, 431

low-temperature thermometry 609–611

low-temperature thermostats 620

lubrication, of bearings 60

Lucite

See acrylic plastics

luminance 250

luminosity, optical dispersing instruments 291, 307

luminous flux 250

lumped circuit components 383

Lyman ghosts 203

Mach–Zender interferometer 313

machinability of material 14

machine screws

materials 27–28

types 26–27

machine-tool operations

electrical discharge machining 9

grinding 9–10

lathe turning 4–7

milling 7–9

surface quality for 10, 12

tolerance for 7, 8, 10, 12

McLeod pressure gauge 99–100, 103

Macor ceramics 20, 25, 116, 356, 615

MacSimion simulation of charged-particle system 339, 343

Magnaflux stress-detection method 18

magnesia, thermal properties 615

magnesium and alloys 22

magnesium fluoride 238

as coating on aluminum mirrors 245, 246, 247

properties 233, 234, 238

magnesium oxide, properties 234, 237, 242

magnet wire 528

magnetic energy analyzers 353

magnetic-field pickup 504

magnetic sector mass analyzers 354

magnetic-shielding materials 359, 504

magnetic shields 359–360, 565

magnetic suspension systems 108

magnetic thermometers 611

magnetoresistance 610

magnification

electrostatic lens 328

optical lens 161

maintenance, vacuum pumps 109, 109

manganin 112, 615

manufacturers’ logos 536

manufacturing date code 535

marginal rays 164, 165

maria (in glass tubing) 87, 89, 245

mass analyzers 354–355

mass spectrometers 103

pressure measurement using 103, 144

mass spectrometry, silicon substrate 487–489, 509

materials 18–25

charged-particle optical system 356–357

joining of 25–39

magnetic-shielding 359

optical system 234–235, 236–247

properties 12–18, 19

vacuum system 115–118

matrix methods for optical analysis 152–159, 528

charged-particle optics 332–333

Maxwell–Boltzmann velocity distribution law 94

mean free path (between molecular collisions) 94, 355

mechanical design, physical principles 49–57

mechanical drawing(s) 39

abbreviations used 46, 47

basic principles 44

dimensions on 44–46

notes 44, 45, 46, 130

symbols used 6, 43, 44

tolerances expressed on 46–48, 49

mechanical pressure gauges 98–100

mechanical properties

brazed joints 32

metals 19

plastics 20

soldered joints 30


mechanical pumps 105–109

mechanical relays 399

contact-conditioning circuits 401, 402

medium-scale integration (MSI) 464

medium-scale movement in optical systems 220

melting point

as fixed point temperature 614

various optical materials 233

melting-point baths 613

memories 458–460

memory cell, one-bit 458–459

mercury arc lamp 255

mercury cadmium telluride (MCT) detectors 570, 574, 578

properties 567, 571, 573, 575

mercury diffusion pumps 111

mercury lamp 251

characteristic lines 252

mercury manometer 98, 99, 103

mercury-in-glass thermometers 601–602

meridional rays, imaging of 170, 171

metal mirrors 245–246

metal oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) 411–418

circuit diagram symbol(s) 509

output current–voltage characteristics 414

structures 414

as switches 412, 474

metal resistance thermometers 605–607

metal-to-glass seals 81, 89, 116, 132, 241

metal vacuum chambers 139–141

metal vacuum gaskets 120

metal vacuum valves 121–123

metals 18

machining of 4

metering valves 122

meters, circuit diagram symbol(s) 509

metric threaded fasteners 25, 71

specifications 25, 71

mica sheets 357

Michelson interferometer 248, 309–311

microbolometers 595

microchannel plate (MCP) 556, 557, 588–589

image intensifiers 581

microstrip line 389, 392

microwave lamps 257

Miller effect 367

Miller transform equivalent circuits 367, 368

milling 7–9

cutting operations 7, 8

dimensional accuracy 8, 59

milling cutters 7

speeds for 4, 8

milling machines, types 4, 8

mirror holders/mounts 222–225

mirrors 182–187

materials for 245–247

substrates for 246

“MISER” ring laser design 280

mode-locked lasers 266, 284

modems 470

modulation transfer function 172

double Gauss lens 173, 174

modulo-Ncounters 453

Mohs hardness scale 14

various materials (listed) 15, 623

molecular beams, in vacuum systems 127

molecular-drag pumps 107

applications 132, 137

molecular-nitrogen lasers 264, 275

molecular-sieve vacuum system traps 125–126

molecular thermometers 598

molybdenum 23, 599

Monel alloys 19, 21

monochromators 291

design 295–299

See underspectrometers

Mooney retardation rhomb 211

most significant bit (MSB) 447

motherboard 514

mounts

See optical mounts

multichannel analyzer (MCA) 441, 591

multiconductor cable 528

multilayer dielectric coatings on mirrors 246

multilayer dielectric interference filter, characteristics 294

multilayer optical systems, transformation of impedance through 177–178

multimode lasers 274, 284

multiple-beam interferometers 299–309

See also Fabry–Perot interferometers

multiple-contact connectors 458, 532

multiple-input data-acquisition systems 458, 474, 475, 532

multiple monochromators 298

multiplexer (data unit) 448, 452, 622

multiplying digital-to-analog converter 456

Mylar

electrical properties 525

PCB drafting sheet 520

nanoscale movement in optical systems 220

nanoscale piezoelectric drives 220–221

near-infrared photodiodes, properties 573, 574

near-infrared-transmissive materials 239–241

properties 233, 234

negative electron affinity (NEA) photocathode materials 558–559, 560

properties 558, 560

negative feedback 434

amplifiers with 378, 381

negative-logic system 447, 469

neodymium lasers 264, 265, 275, 290

netlist, printed circuit board production 517

neutral-density (ND) filters 216

Newton’s formula 328, 332


Newton’s law 328

nickel, properties 583, 615

nickel alloys 19, 20–21, 359

NIM system 474–476

connectors 475, 476, 533

ECL and TTL conversion circuits 477

logic level specifications 475

modules available 475

nitrogen lasers 264, 275

NMR thermometers 611

noble-gas discharge 256

noise elimination

in data acquisition 485–487

in detectors 553

noise-equivalent power (NEP), of detectors 550, 584

noise figure (NF) 492

detectors 553–554, 583

noise margin (in logic devices) 464, 465

typical values 465

noise sources 491, 493, 505–506

optical detectors 548–550

noise temperature

amplifiers 493

detectors 588

noise thermometers 610

nonimaging light collectors 162, 195

nonlinear devices 363

nonlinearity, amplifier 441

Norton’s theorem 365

notch hinge 65–66

nuclear instrumentation module

See NIM system

nuclear-orientation thermometers 611

numerical aperture

optical fiber 218

optical system 162

nut-and-bolt assembly, locking methods 28

Nylon 20, 23, 117, 525, 615

Nyquist noise 549

O-ring joints 79, 80, 118–120

O-ring seals 231

object plane 583, 615, 22, 161

objective lens 163

octagonal prisms 199, 200

octal number system 447

off-null bridges 445

oil diffusion pumps 109–112, 356

oil manometers 98–99, 103

oil-sealed rotary vane pumps 105–106

oil-free vacuum systems 136–138, 356

on–off control, thermostat 234

open-loop control systems 479

open-loop d.c. gain

operational amplifier 426

typical values 426

operational amplifier(s) 425

circuit analysis 428–432

comparison of 741 and OP7 components 426, 427

design rules 427–428

ideal characteristics 425

parameters 425–427

specialized 428

symbol 426

optic axis 205

optical benches 227–228, 228

optical cells 187

optical components 182–219

cleaning of 232–236

mounting of 230–231

positional and orientational adjustment of 219, 222–229

precision mechanical movement systems for 219–222

optical concentrators 195–196

optical deflectors 289

optical design

software 166

wavelengths used 168

optical detectors 147, 547–548

factors governing choice of 547–548

noise in 548–550

spectral detectivity 550–551, 551

See underphotoconductive …; photoemissive …

See also photovoltaic detectors

optical dispersing instruments 291–314

See underinterferometers;monochromators;spectrographs;spectrometers

optical fibers 217

connectors 218–219

types 218

optical filters 212–216

optical isolators 211–212

See also optically isolated relay

optical lenses 187–196

compared with charged-particle lenses 327

optical materials

characteristics 233–235

for diffraction gratings 201, 247

factors governing choice 236

for lenses, prisms and windows 236–245

for mirrors 245–247

optical modulators 287–289

optical mounts

characteristics required 220, 222, 230

constructional details 223

optical multichannel analysers (OMAs) 299

optical parametric oscillators (OPOs) 266, 283

optical sources 147, 247–262

coherence properties 248

optical system(s)

alignment of 229

characterization and analysis of 150–182

design software 178

schematic diagram(s) 152

optical tables 229

selection criteria 229

optical terminology 147–149

optical windows 187

materials 236–245

suppliers 322–323

in vacuum systems 116, 231, 232

optical-frequency oscillator, laser as 267

optically isolated relay 461

orthographic projection 41–42

oscillators 434–435

outgassing 98


output plane (of optical system) 152

overdamped resonant circuit, response 379

overshoot (of waveform)

overvoltage protection in power supplies 444

oxygen-free high-conductivity (OFHC) copper 116, 356

P-polarized wave (TM wave) 176, 175

paraboloidal mirrors 183

parallel circuits, analysis of 366

parallel dimensions 45

parallel format 469

parallel-plate electrostatic analyzers 346–347

parallel resonant circuit 373

current as function of frequency 373

phase relations between voltage and current 374

parallel–series formats 469

paraxial optics 325

paraxial-ray analysis 151–162

paraxial ray tracing 159–161

parity bit (in data transmission) 470

parity generator/checker (arithmetic unit) 448, 451

particle-counting experiment 436, 441

particle detectors 435

See also charged-particle detectors

parts identification 535

passband, energy analyzer 346

passivated implanted planar silicon (PIPS) solid-state detector, equivalent noise charge calculations 591

passive electronic components 363, 382–402

circuit diagram symbol(s) 509

considerations in choice 382–383

peak reverse voltage (PRV), diodes 402, 403, 407

peak-to-peak voltage 364

pellicles 186–187

compared with beamsplitters 186

Peltier devices 620

Peltier effect 602

pencil angle 326

penta prisms 199, 200

perforated circuit boards 510, 511

personal computer (PC) control of experiments 482–491

dielectric-constant temperature experiment 482–484

example of sensor and control electronics 487–489

mass spectrometry of silicon substrate 487–491

Perspex

See acrylic plastics

phase margin, amplifier 423, 424

phase-sensitive detection, signal-to-noise ratio improved by 287

phase-transition baths 613, 614

phase-transition temperatures 614, 612, 613, 619

phenol–formaldehyde thermosetting plastics 20, 23, 615

phone plugs 530

phosphor thermometry 612

photocathode materials 556–561

properties 552, 559

photocathodes, types 558

photochemical detectors 548

See also photographic film

photoconductive detectors 548, 566–572

biasing circuit for operating 569, 569

cooling of 568, 569

op-amp circuit dor 569

properties 567, 568

spectral detectivity 551, 568, 570

photodiodes 548, 572–578

equivalent circuit 583

signal-to-noise ratio calculations 583–584

photoelastic method of stress detection 16

photoemissive detectors 548, 554–566

photoemissive materials, properties 552, 559

photoemissive surfaces, quantum efficiency 551

photoexcitation at pnjunction 572, 573

photographic film 548

photometric quantities 250

correspondence with radiometric quantities 250

photometry 249–250

photomultiplier tubes (PMTs)

anode signal coupling methods 562

cooling of 564, 565

dynode chains in 563

dynodes in 555–556, 557

focusing electrodes 562

mounting of 563

noise in 564–566

practical operational considerations 561–566

time-response characteristics 553, 555, 563

photomultipliers 555–556

detectivity 555

signal-to-noise ratio calculations 582

photon counting, signal-to-noise ratio calculations 585

photon detectors 548

spectral sensitivity 548

See underphotochemical …, photoconductive …, photoemissive …

See also photovoltaic detectors

photon-drag detectors 548, 594

photon energy 149

photon-limited performance of detectors 553

photon noise 548

photons 147

Phototron lamp 144

photovoltaic detectors 548, 572–578

spectral detectivity 551

pickling of metal surfaces 143


piecewise linear model, diode IVcharacteristic curve represented by 405

Pierce diode geometry (in electron guns) 340, 344

pencil angle characteristic 340, 342

piezoelectric pressure transducer 100, 103

piezoelectric scanning (wavelength scanning) in interferometers 305

piezoelectric transducers (PZTs), positioning of optical components using 220–222, 228

piezotubes 221

“pincushion” distortion 172

pins 29

pipe threads 37, 118

specifications

piping, joints in 37–39

Pirani pressure gauge/sensor 101, 103, 135

piston pumps 106

piston-type/poppet valves 121, 122

pitch, graded index lenses 193

pitch of threads 25

pipe threads 73

screw threads 71

plain bearings 59–60

plane mirrors, optical systems with 158

plano-concave lens 188

plano-convex lens 187, 188

plastic films, optical applications 244

plastics 23–24

far-infrared optical applications 244

in optical components 241

properties 241

in vacuum systems 117–118, 356

platinum, properties 615

platinum resistance thermometers (PRTs) 606, 612

Plexiglass

See acrylic plastics

Pockel’s cells (electro-optic modulators) 287

point source(s) 248

coupling to aperture 284–286

coupling to optical fiber 286

Poisson distribution 497

Poisson’s ratio 14

polariscope, strain in glass observed by 89, 90

polarization-maintaining (PM) fiber 219

polarized light 204–206

polarizers 204–211

pole-zero compensation 380, 423, 438

polyamides 20, 23, 525

polycarbonate plastics 24, 117, 525

polyethylene 23, 525

polygon prisms 199, 200

polyimides

insulated cables 528

properties 20, 525

in vacuum systems 117

polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA)

See acrylic plastics

“pop” (blind) rivets 29, 28

population inversion, lasers 267

Porro prisms 198, 199

position-sensing potentiometers 367

position-sensitive electron detectors 588

positive feedback, in amplifiers 422, 434

positive-logic system 447, 469

potassium bromide, properties 233, 237

potassium chloride 242

properties 145, 216, 242

potassium iodide, properties 233, 234, 237

potentiometers 384, 391

power, lens surface 155

power amplifiers 423

power bipoar junction transistors, compared with other transistors 419

power bipolar junction transistors 406

power diodes 402

configurations 404, 405

properties 404

power-failure safeguards, vacuum systems 134

power line

See a.c. line

power line entry modules 526

power MOSFETs 412

applications 416, 417

compared with other transistors 418, 419, 37

example circuits 417

operational characteristics 418

output current–voltage characteristics 416

structure 416

power supplies 441–446

biasing voltages for transistors 409, 410, 425

current–voltage characteristics 442

fixed-voltage 444

floating 501–503

regulator circuits 443–445

specifications 442–443

power-line-coupled noise 505–506

power-supply noise, reduction of 467

Poynting vector 149, 205

preamplifiers 423

pulse electronics 435

precision mechanical stages 219

precision rectifier, operational amplifier as 429, 431

precision of temperature measurement 600

preretardation, in charged-particle system 350

pressure, units 93

pressure gauges

operating ranges 103

in vacuum systems 98–103

pressure scanning (wavelength scanning) in interferometers 305

pressure vessels

design of 53

joints in 37–39, 52

pressure-tight seals 231

principal planes 152, 153, 327

principal points 152, 153

principal rays 152, 153, 163, 164, 165, 328


printed circuit boards (PCBs) 516–523

circuit-board substrates 516

construction considerations

fabrication from hand-drawn artwork 520

production of 516–518

schematic-capture and board-layout software 517, 538

soldering components to 518–520

prism beam-expanders 198

prism spectrometers 291

characteristics 294

compared with grating spectrometers 293–295

prisms 201

materials 236–245

programmable logic arrays (PLAs) 459

programmable power supplies 443–444

programmable ROMs (PROMs) 450, 459

programmers for 459

truth tables implemented using 459, 460

proportional controllers, thermostat 616

proportional gain, thermostat 616

proportional, integral, and differential (PID) controllers 481, 616

proportional and integral (PI) control 616

protection diodes (for transistors) 416, 417, 535

prototype circuit boards 510

pulling points in glass tubing 82–83

pulse-counting applications 436, 441, 587

pulse detection and processing 435–441

pulse-height analysis 438

pulse-height analyzer (PHA) 441, 498

pulse timing systems 436, 439

pulsed amplifiers 378

pulsed dye lasers 281–283

pumping arrangements 281

tuning range 265

pulsed gas lasers 270, 275

operating wavelengths 263

pulsed lasers

detector response time determined using

energy outputs 266

pulsed solid-state lasers 276–277

mode configurations 266

operating wavelengths 264–265

pumpdown time (for vacuum system) 98

punch and die 11, 10

PVC, electrical properties 525

Pyrex glass 76, 239

properties, 78, 79, 233, 234, 240, 615

See also borosilicate glasses

pyroelectric detectors 548, 593–594

characteristics 551, 592, 593

operating circuits for 594

pyrometers 611

Q-switching in lasers 266, 276

QF (quick flange) vacuum joints 119

quadrant detectors 578, 579

quadrupole mass analyzer 355

quantum cascade lasers 277

quantum efficiency

photoemissive surfaces/materials 551, 558, 559

photon detectors 552, 554

quantum noise 548–549

quarter-wave plate 206, 208

optical isolator using 210

quartz 24, 77

fiber torsion springs 24, 62

helium permeability 116

optical properties 237, 240

in vacuum systems 115–116

quartz crystal oscillators 434

quartz fibers 78

quartz windows in vacuum systems 116

quasi-optics 148

quenching, of metals 14

quick-connect joints 79, 80, 118, 119

quick-connect terminals 531

R/S (reset/set) flip-flop 454

rack-mounted circuit board 515

radial cylindrical electrostatic analyzer 347–348

fringing-field correction 352

radiant sensitivity, photoemissive materials 551, 62–63, 552, 559, 560

radio-frequency interference 420, 443, 505

radiometric quantities 248

correspondence with photometric quantities 250

radiometry, units and definitions 248–249

random-access memories (RAMs) 458

rare-earth glasses 168, 239

“rat nest,” printed circuit board production 517

ray tracing 159

aberrations and 166–171

paraxial-ray analysis implemented using 159–161

ray transfer matrices 153

charged-particle optics analysis using 332–333

optical-system analysis using 153–159

Rayleigh criterion 302

razor-blade-stack light trap 217

reactances, capacitive or inductive 365

read-only memories (ROMs) 448, 452, 459

reamer 3, 4

recovery time of power supplies 442

rectifier, operational amplifier as 429, 431

reed relays 400

reference ground 507

reflectance 176

oblique-incident waves 177


reflection 150

polarization changes due to 177, 206–208, 207

reflection coefficient of surface 176

refraction

charged-particle beam of light 150

refractive index 149, 148

glasses 77, 233

various optical materials (listed) 233

refractory metals 22, 356

properties

regenerative feedback, in amplifiers 422, 434

regulator circuits (in power supplies) 443–445

relays 399–402

residual-gas analyzers (RGAs) 103

resistance temperature detectors (RTDs) 605

resistance thermometers 605

compared with other thermometers 612

dissipation factor(s) 608

high-temperature use 611

low-temperature use 610

properties 606

stability requirements 610

resistance thermometry

measurement systems for 608–609

operating circuit(s) 614

resistor programming of power supplies 443

resistors

circuit diagram symbol(s) 509

codes 384, 386

equivalent circuits 380

fixed 383–384

types 383

variable 384

resolution

energy analyzers 346, 348, 350, 350

mass analyzers 354

optical stage 219

resolving power

diffraction gratings 203

Fabry–Perot devices 302, 303

optical dispersing instruments 291

resonant circuits 372–374

transient response 378

responsivity of detectors 551

optical detectors 572, 574

thermal detectors 593

Reststrahlen filters 215

retaining rings 29–30

retardation plates 208

retardation rhombs 211

retarding-potential analyzers 345

reticons 578

retroreflectors 198, 200–201

reverse bias, of diode 402

rheostats (variable resistors) 384

rhomb retards 211

rhomboid prisms 199, 200

ribbon-and-plane transmission line 384, 389

right-angle prisms 198

right-hand circularly polarized light 205

ring laser resonator 280

ring seal in glass tubing 87–88, 89

ringing (resonant circuits) 378

ripple binary counter 453, 455

rise time (of waveform) 363, 364, 371, 378

riveted joints, designs 36

rivets 28–29

RLCcircuit(s) 377

Laplace-transform equivalent 376

pole trajectory for 377

Rochon polarizer 209

Rockwell hardness scale 14

various materials (listed) 15

rod mounts for electrostatic lenses 357

Rogowski TEA laser design 273

roll forming (sheet metal) 11, 10, 441

roller bearings 60

roller-slide assemblies 61

root-mean-square (rms) voltage 364

Roots blowers 106

rotary pumps 105–106

rotators for optical components 226

roughing pump (for vacuum system) 105

Rowland circle, for concave gratings 298

Rowland ghosts 203

RS 232 C serial interface 469, 471

connector for 532–533

RTV (room temperature vulcanizing) silicone rubber 24, 34

ruby lasers 238, 276

rugate filters 214, 215

S-polarized wave (TE wave) 176, 175

safe operating area (SOA), semiconductors 383

safety precautions

electrical 289, 500–503

grinders 10

light sources 289–291

machine tools 8–9

sagittal rays, imaging of 170, 171

sample-and-hold (S/H) circuits 458, 473, 474, 485

sampling time, sample-and-hold circuit 474

sand casting 10–12

sapphire 25

properties 233, 234, 237, 239

satellites, diffraction-grating defects 203

sawing, glass sheet 91–92

scattering, as diffraction-grating defect 203

schematic circuit diagrams 508

symbols used 407, 420, 426, 459, 509

use when troubleshooting 534

Schmitt trigger 432, 432

Schottky devices 467

scintillation counters 591

screw thread

standard specifications 25–26, 71

terminology 25–26

section (in drawing) 43, 44

sector magnet energy analyzer 353

Seebeck effect 602

Seidel aberrations 170–172

semiconductor detectors

frequency dependence of noise in 549, 550

size/time-constant relationship 553

semiconductor lasers

properties 277–279

representative structures 278, 278

semiconductor materials

doping of 402

electronic applications 402

optical applications 244

properties 233–235, 237, 243, 244

semiconductor photocathodes 548

wavelength dependence of radiant sensitivity 552

semiconductor resistance thermometers 607

properties 607

semiconductor thermometers 609–610

low-temperature use 610

Senarmont polarizer 209

sensitivity, control system 480–481

sensors, vacuum system 100–103, 135

serial format 469

series circuits, analysis of 366

series dimensions 45

series resonant circuit 373

current as function of frequency 373

phase relations between voltage and current 374

setscrews 27

settling time

analog-to-digital converter 472

digital-to-analog converter 453

waveform 379

Seya–Namioka monochromator 298

shafts

bending of 50–52

twisting of 52

vibration of 54–55

whirl and vibration of 55–57

shear modulus 52, 79

various materials 19

shears, sheet-metal 10

sheet-metal processes 10

for electronic-circuit chassis construction 515

shift registers 450, 455

and power-supply noise 467

shop processes

casting 10–12

drilling 2–4

electrical discharge machining 9

grinding 9–10

lathe turning 4–7

milling 7–9

sheet-metal processes 10

surface quality for 10, 12

tolerance for 7, 8, 10, 12

Shore hardness scale 14

short-circuit current 365

short-pulse high-power flashlamps 258, 260, 262

short-wavelength-pass filters 214

shot noise 492

detectors 548–549, 582, 583, 590

shoulder screws 29

shrink tubing (for connectors) 533

SI metric threads 25, 71

siemen (SI unit) 366, 421

signal averaging 494

signal diodes 403

properties 404

signal injection, circuit fault diagnosis using 535

signal-enhancing techniques 494

signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) 491–492, 493

detectors 553–554, 582–585

optimizing 492–493

silicon 244

properties 233, 234, 237, 244

silicon-controlled rectifiers (SCRs) 419–420

applications 402, 421, 444

circuit diagram symbol 509

current regulation by 420

silicon-controlled switch (SCS) 420

circuit diagram symbol

silicon photodiodes, 572, 573, 63, 575

silicon substrate, mass spectrometry 487–491

silicone oils

in diffusion pumps 111

in thermostats 619, 617

silicone rubber

insulated cable 527–528

room temperature vulcanizing 24, 34

silver brazing alloys 32, 117

silver bromide, properties 233, 234, 242

silver chloride, properties 233, 234, 237, 243

silver coatings on mirrors 246

simplex transmission of data 469

Simulation Program with Integrated-Circuit Emphasis (SPICE) 381

sine condition, imaging system 162, 163

single-mode lasers 284

singlet lenses 187–188

sinusoidally varying voltage

skimmers, vacuum system 130

skin effect (in electrical conductors) 364, 390

slew rate, operational amplifiers 426

sliding-gate valve 121

slow-blow fuse 501

slush baths 613

small-scale integration (SSI) 464

small-signal model

field-effect transistor 590

transistors 409, 614

Snell’s law 150, 151

applications 177, 196, 300

charged-particle analog 325

soda-lime glass 76

thermal properties 78

sodium chloride 241–242

properties 233, 234, 237


sodium fluoride, properties 233, 234, 237

solder aspiration 522

solder wick/braid 522

soldered joints 31, 36

in vacuum systems 141

soldering 30–31

connectors 531

printed circuit board components 518–522

thermocouples 604

third hand device used 532

vacuum systems 141

soldering fluxes 30, 521

soldering guns 521

solid-state amplifiers, general operating principles 424–428

solid-state detectors (SSDs) 589–591

equivalent circuit 590

solid-state lasers 277

operating wavelengths 264–265

solid-state relays 401–402, 462

sorption pumps 112–113

applications 136, 356

space-charge effect 336

spatial coherence 248

spatial filtering 191

specific heat, various materials 615

spectral detectivity (of detectors) 550–551

various detectors 551

spectral width of optical source 248

spectrofluorometers 291

spectrographs 291

See also spectrometers and spectrographs

spectrometers and spectrographs 291

calibration of 299

design 295–299

spectrophotometers 291

spectroscopy experiment, data transfer rate 467, 470

spherical aberration 170, 191

spherical-aberration coefficient 334

spherical electrostatic analyzers 348–350

fringing-field correction 352

spherical mirror Fabry–Perot interferometers 307

spherical mirrors 159, 183

paraxial ray tracing for 160–161

“spike” filters, optical 214, 275

spinning of sheet metal 10, 11

spinning-rotor pressure gauges 101, 103

splice protector (for joined optical fibers) 219

spot diagrams (optical system) 168, 170

spot welding 34, 35

Sprague capacitors 273

spring rate 62

helical springs

springs 62–63, 552

square-wave testing 371–372

stability, optical mount 220

stacked-plate polarizers 208

stainless steels 18, 21, 356

properties 19, 220, 615

in vacuum systems 116–117, 139–140

stall pressure (vacuum pumps) 105, 107, 110

stamp and die 10, 11

standard cubic centimeter 96, 104

standardized data-acquisition systems 474–479

static resistance, diodes 405

steady-state accuracy, control system 481

steatite 20

steel(s) 18, 20

properties 19, 141

steel bolts, SAE grades 27

steel vacuum fittings 117

Stefan–Boltzmann law 253

Steinhart–Hart equation 607

step-index optical fiber 218

stigmatic imaging 162

stirred-liquid thermostats 617–619

stopcocks 80–81, 121

straight seal in glass tubing 87, 88

strain 13, 53

stranded line cord 526

tinning of wire 526

stray capacitances, in amplifiers 434

Strehl ratio 173

stress 13

cylinder under internal pressure 53

stress concentration

detection methods 16–18, 89, 90

effect in materials 16–17

stress–strain curves 13

strip line 392

strontium fluoride, properties 233, 13

strontium titanate (SrTiO3), properties 233, 234, 237

styrofoam, thermal properties 615

subtractor circuit (operational amplifier) 429

successive-approximation digital-to-analog converter 456, 457

summer circuit (operational amplifier) 428, 429

summing point (in operational amplifier) 428

super mirrors 182

superachromat lens 169

supersonic jets, in vacuum systems 128

surface collision frequency 95

surface-ionization ion source 344

surface-mount technology (SMT) components 384

codes 390

soldering to PCBs 519

surface preparation, for vacuum systems 142–143, 356

swing valve 121

switches

circuit diagram symbol(s) 614

electrically actuated 402, 409, 474

sync bit (in data transmission) 470

T-seal in glass tubing 85–87

T (toggle) flip-flop 454

tantalum

in capacitors 384, 385

properties 20

taps and dies 3, 4

drill sizes for 68, 509

Teflon 24

in glass stopcocks and valves 80, 81, 121

insulated cable 528

properties 20, 525, 615

Teflon thread tape 118

telecentric lenses 189

telescopes 189–190

tellurium 233, 235, 245

temperature

control of 600–621

measurement of 600

temperature-control system 487–489, 490

temperature ranges 536

tempering of metals 14

temporal coherence 248

tensile strength 13

glasses 78

various materials 19

terminology

optical 147–149

screw thread 25–26

terrestrial telescope 189

Tesla coil (for vacuum leak detection) 144

test prod 536

test-prod wire 527

test-tube end, forming in glass tube 84–85

thallium bromide, properties 233, 234

thallium bromoiodide

See KRS-5

thallium chlorobromide

See KRS-6

thermal capacitance 614

See also specific heat

thermal circuit 614

thermal conductivity

aluminum compared with steel 220

glass 78

various materials 615

thermal-conductivity pressure gauges 100–101

thermal conductors, properties 615

thermal detectors 591–596

detectivity 550, 551

types 548, 592

See also bolometers, Golay cell, pyroelectric detectors, thermopiles

thermal e.m.f. 602

thermal energy 149

thermal expansion coefficient

various materials 19, 220

various optical materials 235

thermal insulators, properties 615

thermal mass flowmeters 104

thermal noise 549, 550

thermal resistance 102

thermal time constant 614

thermionic electron guns 338

thermionic emission, noise due to 564

thermionic ionization pressure gauges 102, 103

thermistor-based thermometers 607, 612

thermistor bolometers 595

characteristics 551, 592

operating circuits for 595

thermocouple pressure gauges 101, 103

vacuum system controllers based on 135

thermocouples 602–605

advantages and disadvantages as thermometers 605, 612

calibration of 605

construction details 604

high-temperature use 611

low-temperature use 610

principles governing 603

properties 604

reference junction for 605

types 603–604

thermoelectric coolers (TECs) 620–621

thermoelectric effects 487

thermometers

calibration of 601–602, 605, 612–613

comparison of 607

expansion thermometers 601

resistance thermometers 605

semiconductor thermometers 609–610

very-low-temperature 610–611

thermopiles 548, 593, 603

characteristics 551, 592, 593

thermoplastics, properties 20, 525

thermostat 378

thermostats 614–621

design considerations 170

materials used 615

thermowells 604

Thevenin’s theorem 365

thick lens

charged-particle lens as 327

geometrical optics 327–328

ray diagrams 156, 188

ray transfer matrix analysis 155–157

thick-film circuits and components 520

“thimble” traps 126

thin lens

charged-particle analog 331

ray transfer matrix analysis 157

third-angle projection 41

threaded circular (military-style) connectors 533, 534

threaded fasteners 25–28

stress concentration in 16

See also machine screws, screw thread, steel bolts

three-cylinder electrostatic lens 330, 342

three-legged table, constrainted motion 57, 59

three-terminal circuit(s)

Miller transformations for 367, 368

Y–Δ transformation for 367, 368

three-terminal devices

fixed-voltage regulators 444

silicon-controlled rectifiers 419–420

transistors 406, 410

thrust bearings 59–60, 59, 60

thyratron 421

circuit diagram symbol

thyristor

circuit diagram symbol

See also silicon-controlled rectifier

tilt adjusters 223

time constant for detectors 553

determination of 597

optical detectors 567, 568, 573

thermal detectors 593

time-correlation techniques 436, 439, 496–500

time-of-flight energy analyzers 345

time-of-flight mass spectrometer 355

time-to-amplitude converter (TAC) 441, 498

time-to-digital converter (TDC) 498

tin-based lead-free solders 31, 521

tin–lead solders 30, 142, 520

tip plugs 528

Ti:sapphire lasers, 264, 265, 275

titanium and alloys 23

titanium dioxide (TiO2), properties 233, 234, 237

titanium sublimation pump 113–114

applications 132, 136

with ion pump 115

tolerances

decimal system for specification 47, 48

on drawings 46–48, 49

machine-tool operations 7, 8, 10, 12

relation to production cost 46, 47

tools

electronic-circuit construction 515

glassblowing 81–82

hand 2

sheet metal working 10

torch brazing 32–33

total internal reflection 150–151

transconductance amplifiers 422, 589

transfer functions 374

control systems 480, 482

high-pass circuit 376

low-pass circuit 376

pole-zero compensation network 380

pulse electronics 438, 439

transformer circuit 233

Laplace-transform equivalent 476

transformers 379

circuit diagram symbol(s)

transient response of power supplies 442

transistor-amplifiers, general operating principles 424–428

transistor isolators 461

transistor switches 409

transistor–transistor logic

See TTL devices

transistors 406–419

circuit diagram symbol(s)

current–voltage characteristics 407

logic device interface circuits 466

operating conditions 410, 412

properties 240, 413

protection diodes used, 416, 417, 535

separate power supplies for biasing voltages 409, 241, 425

See also bipolar junction transistors, field-effect transistors, unijunction transistors

transit time, photomultiplier tubes 556

transit-time spread, photomultiplier tubes 555

translation stages 225

with flexure mounts 226, 227

groove mounting arrangements for 226, 226

transmission coefficient, of optical media boundary

transmission curves, optical materials 79, 238–244

transmission lines 389, 389–396

configurations 392

properties 392

See coaxial cable

transmittance, optical media 175

transresistance amplifiers 422

transversely excited atmospheric-pressure (TEA) CO2lasers 273

traps, vacuum system 124–127, 132

triacs 420

applications 402

circuit diagram symbol 509

triangular prisms 198

triboelectric induction 487

trihedral locating holes 223

trimmers (variable resistors) 384

triple-point measurements 612, 613

trochoidal analyzer 353

troubleshooting, electronics 534–536

truth tables

arithmetic units 451

data units 452

elementary logic gates 449, 364

flip-flops 454

implementation by PROMs 459, 460

Karnaugh maps for 450, 462

vacuum system interlock circuits 461, 462, 463, 522

TTL devices 464, 465

conversion circuits 466, 477

edge-triggered 467, 468

level-triggered 467

logic probe and pulser 536

open-collector output 467

power MOSFETs switched with 486

in signal-conditioning circuits 467, 468

three-state output 467

tunable diode lasers 277

tungsten 19, 23

tungsten-filament lamps 254–255

tungsten–halogen lamps 254–255

tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding 34, 117, 141

tungsten-to-Pyrex-glass seal 90, 132

tuning-fork chopper devices 287

turbomolecular pump 107–109

applications 137–138, 356, 460

combined with molecular drag pump 108–109, 137

TV tube electron guns 340

twist drills 3

twisted-pair cables 391, 392, 485, 504, 528

twisting, shaft 52

two-axis rotators (for optical components) 223–225

two-cylinder electrostatic lens 329–330

two-wire transmission line 389, 391

Twyman–Green interferometer 251, 311

ultrahigh pressure equipment 52

ultrahigh vacuum

characteristics 94

pumps 113, 114, 132

sealing materials 120

valves 122

ultrahigh vacuum system(s)

baking of 144–145

oil-free 136–138

small inexpensive 135–136

ultrasonic cleaning

of metal surfaces 143

of optical components 235

ultraviolet detectors 566

ultraviolet lasers 266, 270, 272, 274

safety precautions 291

ultraviolet radiation, safety precautions 290

ultraviolet-transmissive materials 237–239

properties 233, 234

underdamped resonant circuit

output waveform 378

response 378

unfolding technique, optical systems with plane mirrors analyzed using 158

uniaxial crystals 205

unijunction transistors (UJTs) 420–421

applications 420, 421

circuit diagram symbol 509

current–voltage characteristics 421

structure 420

unipotential electrostatic lens 331

universal asynchronous receiver-transmitters (UARTs) 469

V-coating (antireflection coating) 184

vacuum photodiodes 554

vacuum pumps 104–115

costs 132

operating ranges 105, 106, 107, 109, 113, 114, 115

vacuum system(s)

analytical representation 96

applications 93

conductance formulae 97–98

costs 124–127, 132

demountable connections in 118–120

design and construction 131–145

electronics and electrictricity in 130–131, 132–138

fail-safe mechanisms 120–123, 134

flow measurement in 95, 103–104

hardware 97, 115–131

interlock systems for 135, 139, 460–463

leak detection in 143

master equation for 96, 547

materials used 115–118

mechanical motion in 123–124, 555

molecular beam and gas jets introduced into 127

molecular-flow regime 95, 298, 97, 127

network equations 96

pressure measurement in 98–103

pumpdown time for 98

residual gases in 93

transition region 97–98

traps and baffles in 124–127, 132

typical systems 130–131, 132–138

valves in 120–123, 134

viscous-flow regime 95, 103–104, 97, 115–131, 139, 460–463

windows in 116, 231, 232

vacuum-tube photodetectors 96, 547, 123–124, 555

vacuum valves 120–123, 134

vacuum-ultraviolet detectors 566

vacuum-ultraviolet monochromators 95, 298

valves

glassware 80, 81

vacuum system 120–123, 134

vapor-degreasing procedure, for optical components 236

vapor diffusion pumps 109–112

vapor-pressure thermometers 610

variable resistors 384

materials 444

types 384, 390

See also potentiometers

variable-voltage regulators 444

velocity of light 148

Venturi pumps 136, 137

“Verdi” laser 280

very-high-temperature thermometry 611

very-large-scale integrated (VLSI) circuits 458, 464

MOSFETs used in 412

very-low-temperature thermometry 610–611

Vespel (polyimide) 20, 117, 525

VHDL programming language (for FPGAs) 459

vibration, beams and shafts 54–55

vibration isolation of optical system 229

Vickers hardness scale 15

various materials (listed) 15

vignetting 165

charged-particle beam 326

virtual ground 431

virtual images 160

virtual leaks (in vacuum systems) 132

viscous-drag pressure gauges 101

visible- and near-infrared-transmissive materials 239–241

properties 216, 233


visual checks (when troubleshooting) 534

Viton-A elastomer 24, 118, 122

voice coil actuators 228

Voigt lineshape profile 251

voltage-controlled resistor, transistor as 411

voltage dividers 366–367

Thevenin equivalent 367

voltage programming of power supplies 443

voltage-to-frequency converters 472, 473

applications 472

Vycor (96% silica) 77, 239

properties 78, 79, 187, 234, 240

water solubility, various optical materials 234–235

wave–particle duality 147

waveform recovery 495

wavelength scanning in interferometers 305

wavemeters 299

wedge prisms 199, 200

welded joints 36–37, 36

in vacuum systems 142

welding 33–34

thermocouples 604

Wheatstone bridge 445

white noise 491, 493, 549, 550

“white-light interferometry” 309

Wien filters 353, 354

Wien’s displacement law 253

windows

See optical windows

“Winston Cone” 195

wire nuts 526

wire-and-plane transmission line 389, 392

wire strippers 526, 527

wire terminals 530, 531

Wire WrapTMboards 523–524

advantages 523

wrap list 523, 524

wires and cables 524–528

stripping of 299, 526, 527

See also coaxial cable

wiring, circuit diagram symbol(s) 302

wiring diagrams

See underschematic wiring diagrams

Wollaston polarizer 209

wood, properties 20

Wood’s horn (light trap) 216

words 467

work functions, photoemissive surfaces 554

working drawings, design translated to 48–49

working-standard thermometers 601–602, 612

working voltages, capacitors 383, 385

X-ray detectors 591

xenon arc lamp 256

xenon flashlamps, 258, 260, 261

Y–Δ transformation 367, 368

yield strength 13

various materials 19, 52

Young’s modulus 13

glasses 78

various materials 78–81, 141

Zener diodes 402

zero crossing switching 420

zero potential 500

Zerodur glass ceramic 25

zinc selenide

in optical components 243, 272

properties 305, 323, 243

zinc sulfide, properties 305, 323, 242




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