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  • Page extent: 252 pages
  • Size: 253 x 177 mm
  • Weight: 0.66 kg


 (ISBN-13: 9780521867054)


This text is intended for a second-level course in materials science and engineering. Chapters encompass crystal symmetry including quasicrystals and fractals, phase diagrams, diffusion including treatment of diffusion in two-phase systems, solidification, solid-state phase transformations, amorphous materials, and bonding in greater detail than is usual in introductory materials science courses. Additional subject material includes stereographic projection, the Miller–Bravais index system for hexagonal crystals, microstructural analysis, the free energy basis for phase diagrams, surfaces, sintering, order–disorder reaction, liquid crystals, molecular morphology, magnetic materials, porous materials, and shape memory and superelastic materials. The final chapter includes useful hints in making engineering calculations. Each chapter has problems, references, and notes of interest.

William F. Hosford is a Professor Emeritus of Materials Science and Engineering at the University of Michigan. Professor Hosford is the author of a number of books including the leading selling Metal Forming: Mechanics and Metallurgy, 2/e (with R. M. Caddell), Mechanics of Crystals and Textured Polycrystals, Physical Metallurgy, and Mechanical Behavior of Materials.

Materials Science


University of Michigan

Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore, São Paulo

Cambridge University Press
32 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10013-2473, USA
Information on this title:

© William F. Hosford 2007

This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception
and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements,
no reproduction of any part may take place without
the written permission of Cambridge University Press.

First published 2007

Printed in the United States of America

A catalog record for this publication is available from the British Library.

Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data

Hosford, William F.
Materials science : an intermediate text / William F. Hosford.
p. cm.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN-13: 978-0-521-86705-4 (hardback)
ISBN-10: 0-521-86705-3 (hardback)
1. Materials science – Textbooks. I. Title.
TA403.H63    2006
620.11 – dc22    2006011097

ISBN-13 978-0-521-86705-4 hardback
ISBN-10 0-521-86705-3 hardback

Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for
the persistence or accuracy of URLs for external or
third-party Internet Web sites referred to in this publication
and does not guarantee that any content on such
Web sites is, or will remain, accurate or appropriate.


Preface page xiii
1   Microstructural Analysis 1
    Grain size 1
    Relation of grain boundary area per volume to grain size 3
    Relation of intersections per area and line length 4
    Volume fraction of phases 4
    Alloy composition from volume fraction of two or more phases 4
    Microstructural relationships 5
    Three-dimensional relations 6
    Kelvin tetrakaidecahedron 6
    Notes of interest 8
    References 8
    Problems 9
2   Symmetry 11
    Crystal systems 11
    Space lattices 11
    Quasicrystals 14
    Fractals 17
    Note of interest 18
    References 19
    Problems 19
3   Miller–Bravais Indices for Hexagonal Crystals 21
    Planar indices 21
    Direction indices 22
    Three-digit system 23
    Note of interest 24
    References 24
    Problems 24
4   Stereographic Projection 26
    Projection 26
    Standard cubic projection 27
    Locating the hkℓ pole in the standard stereographic projection of a cubic crystal 28
    Standard hexagonal projection 30
    Spherical trigonometry 31
    Note of interest 31
    References 31
    Problems 31
5   Crystal Defects 33
    Vacancies in pure metals 33
    Point defects in ionic crystals 34
    Dislocations 36
    Burgers vectors 37
    Energy of dislocations 38
    Stress fields around dislocations 38
    Partial dislocations 39
    Notes of interest 40
    References 41
    Problems 41
6   Phase Diagrams 43
    The Gibbs phase rule 43
    Invariant reactions 44
    Ternary phase diagrams 44
    Notes of interest 49
    References 49
    Problems 50
7   Free Energy Basis for Phase Diagrams 52
    Gibbs free energy 52
    Enthalpy of mixing 52
    Entropy of mixing 53
    Solid solubility 55
    Relation of phase diagrams to free energy curves 55
    Pressure effects 57
    Metastability 57
    Extrapolations of solubility limits 60
    Notes of interest 61
    References 62
    Problems 62
8   Ordering of Solid Solutions 64
    Long-range order 64
    Effect of long-range order on properties 67
    Short-range order 67
    Note of interest 67
    References 68
    Problems 68
9   Diffusion 69
    Fick’s first law 69
    Fick’s second law 70
    Solutions of Fick’s second law and the error function 70
    Mechanisms of diffusion 73
    Kirkendall effect 74
    Temperature dependence 75
    Special diffusion paths 76
    Darken’s equation 77
    Diffusion in systems with more than one phase 78
    Note of interest 81
    References 82
    Problems 82
10   Freezing 85
    Liquids 85
    Homogeneous nucleation 85
    Heterogeneous nucleation 88
    Growth 89
    Grain structure of castings 90
    Segregation during freezing 91
    Zone refining 93
    Steady state 95
    Dendritic growth 95
    Gas solubility and gas porosity 98
    Growth of single crystals 98
    Eutectic solidification 98
    Peritectic freezing 100
    Notes of interest 101
    References 101
    Problems 102
11   Phase Transformations 104
    Nucleation in the solid state 104
    Eutectoid transformations 106
    Avrami kinetics 108
    Growth of precipitates 111
    Transition precipitates 113
    Precipitation-free zones 113
    Ostwald ripening 113
    Martensitic transformations 114
    Spinodal decomposition 116
    Note of interest 118
    References 119
    Problems 119
12   Surfaces 121
    Relation of surface energy to bonding 121
    Orientation-dependence of surface energy 122
    Surfaces of amorphous materials 125
    Grain boundaries 125
    Segregation to surfaces 127
    Direct measurements of surface energy 128
    Measurements of relative surface energies 129
    Wetting of grain boundaries 130
    Relative magnitudes of energies 131
    Note of interest 131
    References 131
    Problems 131
13   Bonding 133
    Ionic binding energy 133
    Melting points 134
    Elastic moduli 134
    Covalent bonding 136
    Geometric considerations 136
    Ionic radii 139
    Structures of compounds 140
    Note of interest 142
    References 143
    Problems 143
14   Sintering 144
    Mechanisms 144
    Early stage of sintering 146
    Intermediate stage of sintering 147
    Final stage of sintering 147
    Loss of surface area 147
    Particle-size effect 148
    Activated sintering 150
    Liquid-phase sintering 150
    Hot isostatic pressing 151
    Note of interest 151
    References 151
    Problems 151
15   Amorphous Materials 153
    Glass transition 153
    Glass transition in polymers 154
    Molecular length 154
    Hard sphere model 155
    Voronoi cells 157
    Silicate glasses 157
    Chemical composition 158
    Bridging versus nonbridging oxygen ions 158
    Glass viscosity 159
    Thermal shock 160
    Thermal expansion 161
    Vycor 161
    Devitrification 162
    Delayed fracture 163
    Other inorganic glasses 163
    Metal glasses 164
    Note of interest 166
    References 167
    Problems 167
16   Liquid Crystals 168
    Types of liquid crystals 168
    Orientational order parameter 169
    Disclinations 170
    Lyotropic liquid crystals 171
    Temperature and concentration effects 171
    Phase changes 172
    Optical response 173
    Liquid crystal displays 174
    Note of interest 174
    References 175
    Problems 175
17   Molecular Morphology 176
    Silicates 176
    Molybdenum disulfide 178
    Carbon: graphite 179
    Diamond 179
    Carbon fibers 180
    Fullerenes 180
    Nanotubes 181
    Zeolites 182
    Notes of interest 183
    References 183
    Problems 183
18   Magnetic Behavior of Materials 184
    Ferromagnetism 184
    Exchange energy 185
    Magnetostatic energy 187
    Magnetocrystalline energy 188
    Magnetostrictive energy 189
    Physical units 189
    The B–H curve 190
    Curie temperature 191
    Bloch walls 191
    Magnetic oxides 192
    Soft versus hard magnetic materials 194
    Soft magnetic materials 194
    Hard magnetic materials 197
    Square-loop materials 199
    Notes of interest 200
    References 201
    Problems 201
19   Porous and Novel Materials 202
    Applications of porous materials 202
    Fabrication of porous foams 202
    Morphology of foams 203
    Relative density of foams 203
    Structural mechanical properties 204
    Honeycombs 204
    Novel structures 205
    Notes of interest 205
    Reference 206
    Problems 206
20   Shape Memory and Superelasticity 208
    Shape memory alloys 208
    Superelasticity 209
    Applications 212
    Shape memory in polymers 212
    Note of interest 213
    References 213
    Problems 213
21   Calculations 214
    Estimates 214
    Sketches 215
    Units 217
    Available data 219
    Algebra before numbers 220
    Ratios 220
    Percentage changes 221
    Finding slopes of graphs 221
    Log-log and semilog plots 222
    Graphical differentiation and integration 224
    Iterative and graphical solutions 226
    Interpolation and extrapolation 228
    Analyzing extreme cases (bounding) 228
    Significant figures 229
    Logarithms and exponents 230
    The Greek alphabet 231
    Problems 231
Index 235


This text is written for a second-level materials science course. It assumes that the students have had a previous course covering crystal structures, phase diagrams, diffusion, Miller indices, polymers, ceramics, metals, and other basic topics. Many of those topics are discussed in further depth, and new topics and concepts are introduced. The coverage and order of chapters are admittedly somewhat arbitrary. However, each chapter is more or less self-contained so those using this text may omit certain topics or change the order of presentation.

   The chapters on microstructural analysis, crystal symmetry, Miller–Bravais indices for hexagonal crystals, and stereographic projection cover material that is not usually covered in introductory materials science courses. The treatment of crystal defects and phase diagrams is in greater depth than the treatments in introductory texts. The relation of phase diagrams to free energy will be entirely new to most students. Although diffusion is covered in most introductory texts, the coverage here is deeper. It includes the Kirkendall effect, Darken’s equation, and diffusion in the presence of two phases.

   The topics of surfaces and sintering will be new to most students. The short chapter on bonding and the chapters on amorphous materials and liquid crystals introduce new concepts. These are followed by treatment of molecular morphology. The final chapters are on magnetic materials, porous and novel materials, and the shape memory.

   This text may also be useful to graduate students in materials science and engineering who have not had a course covering these materials.

   The author wishes to thank David Martin for help with liquid crystals.

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