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Toole's Cerebrovascular Disorders

Details

  • 156 b/w illus. 79 colour illus. 80 tables
  • Page extent: 422 pages
  • Size: 279 x 215 mm
  • Weight: 1.63 kg

Library of Congress

  • Dewey number: 616.8/1
  • Dewey version: 22
  • LC Classification: RC388.5 .T6 2010
  • LC Subject headings:
    • Cerebrovascular disease
    • Cerebrovascular Disorders

Library of Congress Record

Hardback

 (ISBN-13: 9780521866224)

TOOLE’S Cerebrovascular Disorders, Sixth Edition
Cambridge University Press
9780521866224 - TOOLE’S Cerebrovascular Disorders, Sixth Edition - By E. STEVE ROACH, KERSTIN BETTERMANN and JOSÉ BILLER
Index

Index

ABCC6 300

ABCD2 score 98

abetaliproteinemia 349

abscess 39, 304

liver 350

abulia 38

ACA

See anterior cerebral artery

ACAS

See Asymptomatic Carotid Atherosclerosis Study

ACE

See angiotensin converting enzyme

acetaminophen 171

acetazolamide 61

for moyamoya disease 185

TCD and 87

for venous thrombosis 290

acetylcholinesterase inhibitors 212

Achilles tendon 379

achromatopsia 51

acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) 322

acquired thrombophilia 336

acrocyanosis 169

ACST

See Asymptomatic Carotid Surgery Trial

ACTH 338–339

activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) 356

activities of daily living (ADLs) 377, 385–386, 388

IADLs 386

Adamkiewicz, artery of 345, 348

Adams, Robert 9

ADAMT13 166

adenosine diphosphate (ADP) 164

adenosine magnesium 354

adenosine triphosphate (ATP) 65

ischemic penumbra and 69

oxygen and 67

adhesion molecules 88

ADLs

See activities of daily living

ADP

See adenosine diphosphate

AF

See atrial fibrillation

AFO

See ankle-foot orthosis

age

CBF and 204

hypoxia and 71–72

ischemia and 71–72

progeria 302–303

subdural hematoma and 275

agenesis 30

AICA

See anterior inferior cerebellar artery

AIDS

See acquired immune deficiency syndrome

air embolism 127, 128–129, 349

Alagille syndrome 319

alcohol 19

atherosclerosis and 114

dilated cardiomyopathy and 121

hypertension and 139

subdural hematoma and 276

TIA and 100

alexia 51

alpa-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) 365

alpha-1-antitrypsin 178

alteplase 224

Alzheimer disease 207

amaurosis fugax 17, 20, 33, 34–43

TIA and 96

amblyopia 268

ambulation 379, 381

assistive devices for 382

21-aminosteroids 365

amiodarone 171

amitriptyline 197–199

amnesia 13, 14

with steal syndromes 53

TIA and 97

amnestic syndrome 50, 51

amniotic fluid embolism 338

AMPA

See alpa-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid

amphetamine 226, 351

for aphasia 387

ANCA

See antineutrophilic cytoplasmic antibodies

ancrod 364

Anderson-Fabry disease

See Fabry disease

anemia 19, 111, 162, 164

aplastic 163

Fanconi’s 184, 306

anesthesia 66

anesthesia dolorosa 51

aneurysms 238–247

associated conditions with 242–259

with AVM 261

distribution of 239–243

pregnancy and 337

screening for 249–250

TIA and 100

unruptured 252

vaginal delivery and 338

See underspecific types

angiokeratoma corporis diffusum

See Fabry disease

angioplasty 103

CAS 115, 371

intravascular 54

percutaneous luminal 8

transluminal coronary 8

angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)

inhibitor 102, 121, 137, 213, 335

vascular dementia and 203

angiotensin II receptor blockers 335

Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial (ASCOT) 137

ankle-foot orthosis (AFO) 382

anomic aphasia 15–16

anosognosia 51

anterior cerebral artery (ACA) 32, 37–38

aneurysm of 241

anterior communicating artery and 38

bilateral syndrome 38

dysfunction of 38

ICA and 38

MCA and 38


anterior choroidal artery 38–39

anatomy of 38–39

bilateral syndrome 39

diabetes mellitus and 39

hypertension and 39

syndrome 39

anterior communicating artery 37

ACA and 38

aneurysm of 241

anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) 45, 47–48

long pontine circumferential branches from 49

syndrome 49

TIA and 49

watershed infarction of 65

anterior median spinal artery 346

branches of 346–347

anterior spinal artery 346

syndrome 348–349

anterior thalamosubthalamic paramedian artery 50

antibiotics 163

PAN and 148

platelet disorders from 166

anticoagulants 1, 163

for APAS 169, 337

for ASD 122

for CCADs 181

for children 326

epidural hematoma and 102

LB and 102

pregnancy and 336, 339–340

for prosthetic heart valves 371

for spinal cord infarction 354

for stroke prevention 370–371

subdural hematoma and 102, 276

for Takayasu arteritis 147–148

for TIA 102

for venous thrombosis 337

See also heparin, warfarin

antidepressants 171, 370, 388

for aphasia 387

anti-factor Xa 336

anti-heparin protein 69

antineutrophilic cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) 149

antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APAS) 169

migraine and 196

pregnancy and 336–337

thrombophilia and 336

TIA and 336

antiplatelet therapy

for APAS 337

for ASD 122

for children 326–328

for homocystinuria 299

for moyamoya disease 186

in pregnancy 339

for spinal cord infarction 354

for stroke prevention 370

for Takayasu arteritis 147–148

for venous thrombosis 289

antithrombin 334, 336

deficiency of 167–168

Anton’s syndrome 18, 50, 51

aortic atherosclerotic plaque 126

APAS

See antiphospholipid antibody syndrome

aphasia 14

clinical characterization of 15

dysarthria and 14

management of 386–387

MCA and 36

PCA and 51

See underspecific types

aplastic anemia 163

APOE

See apolipoprotein E

apolipoprotein E (APOE) 213, 225

apraxia 39

aPTT

See activated partial thromboplastin time

arachnoiditis 351

arterial blood pressure 22

arterial compression syndromes 52

arterial dissection

SAH and 237

of spinal cord 350

See also cervicocephalic arterial dissections

arterial oxygen tension (PaO2) 61, 67

arterial-to-artery embolism 126

arterial tortuosity syndrome 30, 302

arteriovenous malformation (AVM) 223, 223–224, 259–264

abscess and 304

brain infarction and 304

in children 314

HHT and 304

pregnancy and 337

seizures with 17

of spinal cord 352

HHT and 352

management of 354

subacute necrotic myelopathy and 351

treatment of 263–264

vaginal delivery and 338

arteritis 19, 151–152

artery of Adamkiewicz 345, 348

arthritis 42, 154

ASA 101

ascending frontal artery 36

ASCOT

See Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial

ASD

See atrial septal defect

aspergillosis 316

aspiration pneumonia 76, 366

aspirin 1, 6, 120

for APAS 337

with dipyridamole 115

for TIA 101

for homocystinuria 299

for migraine 197–199

platelet disorders from 166

in pregnancy 339

PXE and 301

for TIA 101

assistive devices, for ambulation 382

Asymptomatic Carotid Atherosclerosis Study (ACAS) 371

Asymptomatic Carotid Surgery Trial (ACST) 371

ataxia 19, 44

familial paroxysmal 100

Friedreich 320

ataxic hemiparesis 138

atenolol 137

atheromata 42

atherosclerosis

alcohol and 114

in basilar artery 42, 108

biomarkers for 88

brain infarction and 105

carotid artery obstruction from 26

cerebral infarction and 31

of cervicocranial arteries 105–116

in children 320

cholesterol and 106–107

clinical manifestations of 105–106

evaluation of 112

exercise and 114

genetics of 295

homocysteine and 107

hyperlipidemia and 295

hypertension and 106

management of 112–116

of MCA 36

ophthalmic artery and 20

parkinsonism and 106

pathogenesis of 109–112

pathology of 107–109

PCA and 51

PET for 83

risk factors for 106–107

spinal cord and 350

statins for 126

steal syndromes and 53

thrombosis and 107

TIA and 96

of VA 42, 43, 108

atorvastatin (Lipitor) 114, 126

ATP

See adenosine triphosphate

atrial fibrillation (AF) 6, 118, 119–120

cerebral embolism and 40

cerebral infarction from 5

hyperthyroidism and 320

NVAF 370

risk stratification with 120

warfarin for 370–371

atrial septal aneurysm, PFO and 121–122

atrial septal defect (ASD) 121–122, 320

auscultation 22–26

autonomic dysreflexia 139

autoregulation 62

of CBF 6

of cerebral perfusion 61

in spinal cord 347

autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease 242–243

AVM

See arteriovenous malformation

Babinski-Nageotte syndrome 49

Babinski’s sign 106

baclofen 381

Baillie, Mathew 105


Balint’s syndrome 37, 51

balloons

catheters with 8

with microcatheters 9

barbiturates 19

Barthel Index (BI) 377, 388

Baruch, Bernard 201

basal cerebral veins 284

basal ganglia 50

basilar artery 41

anatomy of 45

aneurysm of 241

ataxia and 44

atherosclerosis in 42, 108

diplopia and 44

dysfunction of 43–45

headache and 44

hemiparesis and 44

hemiplegia and 44

long pontine circumferential branches from 49

numbness and 43

paralysis and 43

paresthesias and 43

sensory disturbance and 43

short pontine circumferential branches from 49

syndromes 45–47

TIA and 43

vertigo and 43, 44

visual symptoms and 44

weakness and 43

basilar plexus 285

BBB

See blood brain barrier

Becker muscular dystrophy 320

Behçet’s disease 153–154, 320

bends 129

Benedikt’s syndrome 50, 43–44

benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) 95

benzodiazepines 381

beriberi 121

beta 2 integrins 88

beta blockers 137, 197–199

Bettermann, Kerstin ix

BI

See Barthel Index

bilateral ACA syndrome 38

bilateral anterior choroidal artery syndrome 39

bilateral homonymous hemianopia 44

bilateral PCA infarction 51–52

Biller, José ix

Binswanger’s disease 109, 209

biomarkers 87–88

bi-opercular syndrome 36

Blalock-Taussig operation 53

subclavian steal syndrome and 320

blindness

cortical 18, 50, 96

transient monocular 17–22

See also amaurosis fugax

blood-brain barrier (BBB) 67, 68, 136

blood gas interventions 365–366

blood pressure 72

atherosclerosis and 111

classification of 136–138

instability of 367

pregnancy and 334

subdural hematoma and 278

See underspecific types

B-mode

See brightness mode

boat hemorrhage 21

Bobath approach 385

body positions, TIA and 96

bone marrow transplantation 163

Bonnet-Dechaume-Blanc syndrome 260

botulinum toxin 381

Bouillaud, Jean Baptiste 13

boundary zone infarction 64–65

BPPV

See benign paroxysmal positional vertigo

braces 381–382

brachiocephalic artery 29

bradycardia 22, 118

brain death 87

brain infarction 62, 167, 361, 362

atherosclerosis and 105

AVM and 304

circle of Willis and 52

ischemic penumbra and 62

Lyme disease and 152

rCBF and 365

SAH and 95

SCD and 161

Sjögren’s syndrome and 154

Takayasu arteritis and 147

Wegener granulomatosis and 149

brain machine interface 390

brain tumors

in children 316

ICH and 226

SAH and 237

TIA and 95

brainstem 43–44

compression of 44

TIA in 52

veins of 285

branch artery syndromes 48

breath holding 61

brightness mode (B-mode) 86–87

Broca’s aphasia 14, 15

brodifacoum 171

Brodmann area 8, 38

bromocriptine 387

Brown-Séquard syndrome 349

bruits 22–26, 44

AVM and 260

causes of 22–24

Buerger’s disease 155

buphthalmos 268

buprenorphine 351

bupropion 370

Burrows, George 6

butterbur 197–199

C677I 107

CAA

See cerebral amyloid angiopathy

CADASIL

See cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy

CADASILM

See cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts, leukoencephalopathy, and migraine

Caisson’s disease 350

calcarine artery 50

calcium 65, 164

ischemic penumbra and 69

calcium channel blockers 186, 213, 365

for CADASIL 297

for migraine 197–199

callosomarginal artery 37

urinary incontinence and 38

CAMs 88

canes 382

CARASIL

See cerebral autosomal recessive arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy

carbamazepine 298

carbon dioxide (CO2) 61, 67–68

CBF and 67

ischemic penumbra and 70

cardiac embolism

in children 319–320

common carotid occlusion from 30

procedures with 126–127

transthoracic echocardiogram for 76

warfarin for 5

cardiac failure 121

cardiac tumors 125–126

caregivers 390

CaRESS

See Carotid Revascularization using Endarterectomy or Stenting System

Carotid and Vertebral Artery Transluminal Angioplasty Study (CAVATAS) 372

carotid artery 5, 26

anatomy of 29

anomalies of 30

bilateral infarction of 40

CCADs of 177, 178–179

disease of, cerebral infarction and 5

dysfunction of 29–32

kinking of 30

ligation of 6

palpation of 21

reconstruction of 8

for hemiplegia 8

TIA and 96

tortuosity of 30

ultrasound of 6

carotid artery angioplasty and stenting (CAS) 115, 371

vs. CEA 372

carotid canal 241

carotid duplex ultrasound 84–87

B-mode of 86–87

carotid endarterectomy (CEA) 6, 115–116, 371

vs. CAS 372

for TIA 102–103

Carotid Occlusion Surgery Study (COSS) 371

Carotid Revascularization Endarterectomy vs. Stent Trial (CREST) 372

Carotid Revascularization using Endarterectomy or Stenting System (CaRESS) 372


carotid siphon occlusion 31–32

carotid-cavernous fistula 264–266

CAS

See carotid artery angioplasty and stenting

catecholamines 62

catheter angiography 84

for AVM 263

for carotid-cavernous fistula 265

for ICH 228

for lacunar infarction 139

for moyamoya disease 184

for SAH 249

for venous thrombosis 289

catheter arteriography, for emergencies 360

catheters, with balloons 8

caudate hemorrhage 221

CAVATAS

See Carotid and Vertebral Artery Transluminal Angioplasty Study

cavernous malformation 223–224, 266–267

in children 314

familial 266

seizures with 17

of spinal cord 352

cavernous sinuses 285

thrombosis of 288

CBF

See cerebral blood flow

CBV

See cerebral blood volume

CCA

See common carotid artery

CCADs

See cervicocephalic arterial dissections

CCM1, CCM2, and CCM3 88

CD63 334

CEA

See carotid endarterectomy

central retinal artery (CRA) 17, 20, 33

central retinal vein (CRV) 33

cerebellum

aneurysm of 242

hemorrhage of 222

infarction of 44–45

veins of 285

cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) 88

ICH and 225–226

lobar hemorrhage and 219

SAH and 237

vascular dementia and 203, 211–212

cerebral angiography xi, 5

cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts, leukoencephalopathy, and migraine (CADASILM) 197

cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) 88, 210–211

clinical features of 295–305

genetics of 295–297

migraine and 197

vascular dementia and 203

cerebral autosomal recessive arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CARASIL) 210–211, 297

genetics of 297

vascular dementia and 203

cerebral blood flow (CBF) 60

aging and 204

autoregulation of 6

CO2 and 67

CT and 79

ischemia from 61

ischemic penumbra and 69–70

MABP and 136

seizures and 72

sleep and 72

cerebral blood volume (CBV) 79

cerebral edema 367–368

cerebral embolism

AF and 40

clinical course of 131

diagnosis of 130–131

MI and 40

pathophysiology of 129–130

prognosis for 131

risk factors for 118–119

cerebral infarction 62–63

from AF 5

atherosclerosis and 31

carotid artery disease and 5

TIA and 31

cerebral metabolism 60–61

cerebral perfusion 60–61

autoregulation of 61

measurement of 61

cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) 230, 368

cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST), in children 325, 326

cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) 224, 336

cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) 60

ICP and 68

LB and 84

subdural hematoma and 275, 276

venous thrombosis and 289

cervical internal carotid artery, aneurysm of 240–241

cervical spine injury 42

cervicocephalic arterial dissections (CCADs) 177–181

associated conditions with 178–179

in children 320–321

clinical presentation of 179

course of 181

diagnosis of 179–181

management of 181

prognosis for 181

TIA and 96

cervicocephalic fibromuscular dysplasia 96

cervicocranial arteries 105–112

CFI

See color-flow imaging

CHADS2 119

Charcot, Jean Martin 29, 195, 259

Charcot-Bouchard aneurysms 223

CHD

See coronary heart disease

chest X-ray 360

children 9, 313–329

anticoagulants for 326

antiplatelet therapy for 326–328

atherosclerosis in 320

AVM in 314

brain tumors in 316

cardiac embolism in 318–320

cavernous malformation in 314

CCADs in 320–321

coagulation disorders in 315–316

CVST in 324, 325

FMD in 321–322

with hemiplegia 9

heparin for 328

homocystinuria in 323

hypercoagulability in 323

ICH in 313–314

evaluation of 317

treatment for 316–317

intracranial aneurysms in 314–315

ischemic infarction in 317–324

risk factors for 319–320

Kawasaki syndrome in 320

LMWH for 328

MI in 320

migraine in 322–323

moyamoya disease in 322

myxomas in 320

PAN in 320

PFO in 320

rhabdomyomas in 320

SAH in 277

subdural hematoma in 277

thrombocytopenia in 315

tPA for 328–329

vasculitis in 322

vitamin K and 316

warfarin for 329–333

chiropractic 19, 42

chlorpromazine 197

chlorthalidone 213

cholesterol 106–107, 114, 213

embolism 126

chondroitin sulfate 69

choriocarcinoma 237

choroid plexus 50, 284

choroid vein 284

Churg-Strauss syndrome 149

Cicero 356

cimetidine 171

CIMT

See constraint-induced movement therapy

ciprofloxacin 171

circle of Willis 37, 40, 52

aneurysm and 243

brain infarction and 52

PCA and 50

TCD for 87

CK-MB 366

Claude syndrome 43–44

clofibrate 171

clopidogrel 115, 339

stents and 120

for TIA 101

CMR O2

See metabolic rate of oxygen

CO2

See carbon dioxide

coagulation disorders 30

in children 315–316

genetics of 295

hepatic dysfunction and 316

ICH and 224–225

SAH and 236–237

See also anticoagulants, hypercoagulability

coarctation of the aorta 242, 319–320

cobalamin

See vitamin B12

cocaine 121, 226, 351

coenzyme Q10

for MELAS 306

cognitive changes 14, 40

with aneurysm 252

with AVM 260

intraparenchymal hemorrhage and 29

SAH and 252

subdural hematoma and 278

cognitive reserve theory 204

Collier’s sign 45

color-flow imaging (CFI) 87

color perception 51

common carotid artery (CCA) 30–31, 371

Compton effect 6

computed tomography (CT) 5, 7, 75, 76–79

for AVM 262

for emergencies 358

for epidural hematoma 281

for ICH 227–228

for ischemic penumbra 71

for lacunar infarction 139

for PAN 148

for SAH 247

for Sturge-Weber syndrome 270

for subdural hematoma 278

for venous thrombosis 288–289

computed tomography angiography (CTA) 79

for atherosclerosis 112

for AVM 262

for moyamoya disease 188

for SAH 247–248

conduction aphasia 15–16

confluens of sinuses 284–285

confusion 31

MCA and 36

PCA and 51

with subdural hematoma 278

TIA and 97

congenital afibrinogenemia 315

congenital heart disease 121

constipation 370

constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) 385

contracture prevention 379–380

contrast media transit time (MTT) 70–71

convulsions 40

copper deficiency 349

coronary artery disease 19

coronary heart disease (CHD)

obesity and 114

omega-3 fatty acids and 113

corpora fibrosa 1

corpus callosum 51

cortical blindness 18

PCA and 50

TIA and 96

cortical vein thrombosis

ICP and 29

seizures and 29

corticosteroids 45, 128, 163

for giant cell arteritis 146

methotrexate with 146

for Takayasu arteritis 147

COSS

See Carotid Occlusion Surgery Study

CPP

See cerebral perfusion pressure

CRA

See central retinal artery

cranial radiotherapy 184

craniocleidodysostosis 42

C-reactive protein (CRP) 88

giant cell arteritis and 144

for ION 34

Wegener granulomatosis and 149

CREST

See Carotid Revascularization Endarterectomy versus Stent Trial

Crestor

See rosuvastatin

CRP

See C-reactive protein

CRV

See central retinal vein

cryofibrinogenemia 169

cryoglobulinemia 151, 169–170

CSF

See cerebrospinal fluid

CT

See computed tomography

CTA

See computed tomography angiography

Cushing’s syndrome 139

cVCAM 88

CVST

See cerebral venous sinus thrombosis

CVT

See cerebral venous thrombosis

cyclophosphamide 149

cystathionine β-synthetase 298

Dandy, Walter 265

DBP

See diastolic blood pressure

De Humani Corporis Fabrica (Vesalius) 1

deafness 19

DeBakey, Michael 8

decompression sickness 350

decubitus 370

deep venous system 283–284

occlusion of 288

deep venous thrombosis (DVT) 336, 368–370

prevention and management of 386

Degos disease

See malignant atrophic papulosis

dehydration 188, 286

Dejerine-Roussy syndrome

See thalamic pain

delirium 36

dementia 31, 40

mixed 212

multi-infarct 209

See also vascular dementia

dental extraction 42

depression 16, 31, 370

diagnosis and management of 387–388

dermatomyositis 154

developmental venous anomalies (DVAs) 270

dextran 40, 364

diabetes 370

atherosclerosis and 295

hypertension and 137

diabetes mellitus 19

anterior choroidal artery and 39

TIA and 97, 100

diagnosis 357

diastolic blood pressure (DBP) 135, 136

DIC

See disseminated intravascular coagulation

diet 6

atherosclerosis and 113, 295

low-salt 137

for TIA 102

diffusion/perfusion weighted (DW/PW) 75

dihydroergotamine 199

dilated cardiomyopathy 121

warfarin for 371

diphenhydramine 197

diplopia 17–18, 44

basilar artery and 44

with steal syndromes 53

TIA and 96

dipyridamole 339

aspirin with 115

for TIA 101

discharge 388–390

disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) 124, 165, 335

diuretics 102, 137, 335

divalproex sodium 197–199

Doll, Richard 9

donepezil 212, 387

Doppler effect 6

dorsal meningeal tentorial artery 30

Dotter, Charles 8

Down syndrome 32

moyamoya disease and 185, 306

driving 390

drop attacks 44

spinal cord ischemia and 348

with steal syndromes 53

Duchenne muscular dystrophy 320

dural arteriovenous fistulas 352–353

dural sinus thrombosis 163

ICP and 29

seizures and 29

venous thrombosis and 287

DVAs

See developmental venous anomalies

DVT

See deep venous thrombosis

DW/PW

See diffusion/perfusion weighted

dysarthria 44

aphasia and 14

TIA and 96

dysarthria–clumsy hand syndrome 138

dyschromatopsia 51

dysfibrinogenemia 170

dysgraphia

alexia without 51

dyslexia without 51

dyslexia 51

dyslipidemia 108

dysmetria 44

dysphagia 44

aspiration pneumonia and 76

management of 386

TIA and 96


dysphasia

anterior choroidal artery syndrome and 39

with epidural hematoma 280

dyssynergia 44, 48

dystaxia 44

PCA and 51

with steal syndrome 53

TIA and 96

echocardiography (ECG) 120

eclampsia 139, 334–335

eculizumab 163

EDAS

See encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis

Edinger-Westphal nucleus 50

EDS

See Ehlers-Danlos syndrome

Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) 178, 243, 299–300

carotid-cavernous fistula and 266

electrocardiography 360–361

electrodes 225

embolism 118–131

with cardiac procedures 126–127

neoplasm and 129

PCA and 51

of retina 21

vasospasm with 130

See underspecific types

emergency

diagnostic procedures 358–361

evaluation 356–361

treatment 356–361

Emery-Dreyfus muscular dystrophy 320

emotional lability 31

enalapril 141

encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis (EDAS) 186

encephalofacial angiomatosis

See Sturge-Weber syndrome

Endarterectomy versus Angioplasty in Patients with Symptomatic Severe Carotid Stenosis (EVA-3S) 372

endotracheal intubation 357

ependymoma 237

epidural hematoma 275–281

anticoagulants and 102

differential diagnosis of 280–281

of spinal cord 352

management of 281

epilepsy 16–17

aneurysm and 252

AVM and 263

subdural hematoma and 276

TIA and 100

ergotamine 199

erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) 144, 147

for ION 34

erythromycin 171

esmolol 141, 230

ESR

See erythrocyte sedimentation rate

EVA-3S

See Endarterectomy versus Angioplasty in Patients with Symptomatic Severe Carotid Stenosis

evidence-based medicine 9

examination 13–26

clues from 26

neurovascular 21–26

ophthalmological 19–21

exercise 7, 114, 295

external carotid artery 29, 30

Fabry disease 297–298, 324

facial artery 22

factor V Leiden

deficiency of 315

genetic testing for 88

mutation of 168–169

pregnancy and 334

protein C and 336

factor XIII deficiency 315

Fallopius 1

falls 370

prevention of 388

falx cerebri 1

familial cavernous malformations 266

familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM) 88, 197

familial hyperlipidemia 295

familial paroxysmal ataxia 100

familial polycythemia 163

Fanconi’s anemia 184, 306

fat embolism 128

FBN1

See fibrillin-1

fecal incontinence 370, 386

FEES

See fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing

FHM

See familial hemiplegic migraine

fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES) 386

fibrillin-1 (FBN1) 300

fibrinogen 164, 170

pregnancy and 334

fibrinolysis 169, 287

fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) 43, 178, 188–189

aneurysm and 242

in children 321–322

FIM

See Functional Independence Measure

fingers 51, 53

Fisher, C. Miller 5

Fisher CT classification 239

FLAIR

See Fluid Attenuation Fluid Recovery

flick phosphenes 99

Fluid Attenuation Fluid Recovery (FLAIR) 209

[11]-C-flumazenil 83

flunarizine 197–199

[18]-F-fluoromisonidazole 83

fluvastatin (Lescol) 114

FMD

See fibromuscular dysplasia

Foix-Alajouanine syndrome

See subacute necrotic myelopathy

folate 299

folic acid 114, 370

foramen magnum 41

foreign body embolism 127

Foville’s syndrome 49

free radicals 65

Freud, Sigmund 9

Friedreich ataxia 320

frontopolar artery 37

Fugl-Meyer Assessment 388

Functional Independence Measure (FIM) 388

fungal infections 152

fusiform aneurysm 245, 250–252

G20210A 336

gabapentin, for migraine 197–199

galantamine 212

Galen, great cerebral vein of 284

Galenic system 284

gangrene, in fingers 53

genetics 293–306

of arterial tortuosity syndrome 302

of atherosclerosis 295

of CADASIL 295–297

of CARASIL 297

of coagulation disorders 295

of EDS 299–300

of Fabry disease 297–298

of HERNS 297

of HHT 303–304

of homocystinuria 298–299

of hypertension 293–295

of Leigh syndrome 306

of Marfan syndrome 300

of MELAS 304–306

of migraine 197

of NF 301–302

of progeria 302–303

of PXE 300–301

of SCD 293

testing for 88–89

of Werner syndrome 303

Gerstmann syndrome 37, 219

giant cell arteritis 19, 143–146

CRP and 144

herpes simplex virus and 146

ION and 34

TIA and 95

Glasgow Coma Scale 238, 237

glaucoma

with Sturge-Weber syndrome 268

TIA and 95

glial fibrillary acidic protein 88

glioblastoma multiforme 237

global aphasia 15

global ischemia 61

glomerulonephritis 139

glucose 66, 72

glutamate receptor antagonists 350

glutaric aciduria 306, 323

glycerol 45

glycolipid 298

glycoprotein Ib 164

glycosaminoglycan 69

Goldstein, Murray ix, 9

Good, David ix

Gowers, William R. 29, 118, 135, 313

Gratiolet, radiation of 18

great cerebral vein of Galen 284

growth hormone 338–339

Gruentzig, Andreas 8


Hagen-Poiseuille equation 163

Hales, Stephen 163

hallucinations 44, 51

Harvey, William 1

HBV

See hepatitis B virus

HDL

See high-density lipoprotein

headache 19

basilar artery and 44

with cryofibrinogenemia 169

with ICA occlusion 40

with ICH 196

intraparenchymal hemorrhage and 29

MCA and 36, 196

SAH and 29

sentinel 234

with steal syndromes 53

with subdural hematoma 277

thunderclap 338

TIA and 96, 97

with venous thrombosis 287, 290

See also migraine

health-related quality of life (HRQOL) 390

Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation (HOPE) 137

HELLP

See hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets during pregnancy or the postpartum period

hematoma 42

hemianopia 17, 40

bilateral homonymous 44

with steal syndromes 53

hemiballism 51

hemihypesthesia 39

hemineglect 39

hemiparesis 38

anterior choroidal artery syndrome and 39

basilar artery and 44

with epidural hematoma 280

hemiplegia

basilar artery and 44

carotid artery reconstruction for 8

children with 9

motor function return in 377–388

hemodialysis 276

hemodilution 364

hemodynamic infarction

See boundary zone infarction

hemoglobin C 162

hemoglobin disorders 160–162

hemoglobin S 162

hemoglobin SC 162

hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets during pregnancy or the postpartum period (HELLP) 334–335

DIC and 335

thrombocytopenia and 335

hemolytic-uremic syndrome 335

hemophilia 88, 170

hemorrhagic infarction 64, 224

hemorrhagic transformation (HT) 367

Henoch-Schonlein purpura 151

heparin

for CCADs 181

for children 328

for emergencies 361

ICH from 230

for protein C deficiency 168

thrombocytopenia and 164

for thrombophilia 336

for venous thrombosis 289

See also low molecular weight heparin, unfractionated heparin

heparin-induced thrombocytopenia 336

heparin-neutralizing factors 164

hepatic dysfunction 171, 316

hepatitis B virus (HBV) 148, 351

hepatitis C virus 151

hereditary endotheliopathy with retinopathy, nephropathy and stroke (HERNS) 297

hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) 88, 262, 303–304, 320

spinal cord AVM and 352

HERNS

See hereditary endotheliopathy with retinopathy, nephropathy and stroke

heroin 351

herpes simplex virus 146

herpes zoster virus 151–152, 322

Herrick, James B. 160

Hetastarch 364

HHT

See hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia

Hicks, Ralph ix

HIF

See hypoxia-inducible factor

high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) 88, 203

high-density lipoprotein (HDL) 106–107

hippocampal gyrus 51

Hippocrates 94, 377

histamine 66

history 7

HIV

See human immunodeficiency virus

HLA

See human leukocyte antigen

HLA-DR4 143

HMG CoA reductase

See 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme-A-reductase

Hoffmann’s sign 106

Hollenhorst plaques 21, 33

homocysteine 107, 114, 295

homocystinuria 19, 298–299, 323

homonymous hemianopia 44, 96

homonymous visual field defects 18, 37, 40

HOPE

See Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation

hormonal replacement therapy 213, 289

Horner’s syndrome 20, 21, 44, 50

HRQOL

See health-related quality of life

hsCRP

See high sensitivity C-reactive protein

HT

See hemorrhagic transformation

β-human gonadotropin 338

human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) 84, 152, 245–246, 322

human leukocyte antigen (HLA) 185

Hunt and Hess score 238, 237

Hunter, John 160

Hurst, J. Willis 75

Hutchinson-Gilford syndrome

See progeria

hydralazine 141, 148, 335

hydrocephalus 250

3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme-A-reductase (HMG CoA reductase) 114

hydroxyurea 161

hyperaldosteronism 139

hyperbaric oxygen 129, 188, 365–366

hypercapnia 365

hypercoagulability 167–170

in children 323

in pregnancy 333

spinal cord ischemia and 349

venous thrombosis and 286

hyperemia 63, 66

hypereosinophilia syndrome 166–167

hyperextension injury 42, 350

hyperglycemia 72, 361, 370

TIA and 95

hyperhomocysteinemia 114, 166, 213, 299, 323

hyperinsulinemia 137

hyperlipidemia 295

hyperoxia 365–366

hyperperfusion syndrome 225

hypersensitivity vasculitis 151

hypertension 6, 19, 135–137

alcohol and 139

aneurysms and 239

anterior choroidal artery and 39

atherosclerosis and 106, 295

BBB and 136

control of 115

diabetes and 137

drug-induced 365

genetics of 293–295

ICH and 223

pathophysiology of 135–136

pregnancy and 334, 335

presymptomatic: diagnosis of 136

management of 136–137

TIA and 97

hypertensive encephalopathy 139–141

ICH and 227

LB and 141

pregnancy and 338

hyperthermia 72, 356

hyperthyroidism 320, 371

hypertrophic cardiomyopathy 121

hyperventilation 61

ICP and 290

moyamoya disease and 97

radiation vasculopathy and 186

hyperviscosity syndrome 163

hypocapnia 365

hypoglycemia 72

atherosclerosis and 111

drugs for 19

TIA and 95

hypogonadism 338–339

hypoleptinemia 137

hyponatremia 95, 338–339

hypophyseal arteries 30


hypoplasia 30

hypoplastic ventricle syndrome 121

hypotension 96, 100

hypotensive myelopathy 350

hypothermia 66, 356, 365

hypothyroidism 338–339

hypoxia 61, 66, 71–72, 111

hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) 268

hypoxic myelopathy 350

hysterical paralysis 16

IADLs

See instrumental ADLs

iatrogenic myelopathy 350–351

ICA

See internal carotid artery

ICAMs

See intercellular adhesion molecules

ICH

See intracranial hemorrhage

ICHD-2

See International Headache Society Classification and Diagnostic Criteria

ICP

See intracranial pressure

ICSS

See International Carotid Stenting Study

ICTP 88

idebenone 306

123-I-iomazenil 83

IL

See interleukins

implanted electrodes 225

incontinence

fecal 370, 386

urinary 14, 38, 370, 386

indapamide 137, 213

ineffective aneurysm 245

ineffective embolism 123–124

infants

See children

infection

arteritis from 151–152

spinal cord ischemia and 349

venous thrombosis and 286

infective endocarditis 320, 335

inferior hypophyseal artery 30

inferior mesencephalic paramedian artery 50

inferior petrosal sinus 285

inferior rectus 50

inferior sagittal sinus 284

inflammation 143–155

inflammatory bowel disease 170

infraclinoid intracavernous carotid artery 241

inherited thrombophilia 336

INO

See internuclear ophthalmoplegia

INR

See international normalized ratio

instrumental ADLs (IADLs) 386

intercellular adhesion molecules (ICAMs) 111–112, 203

interferons 88

interleukins (IL) 88, 112, 295

internal auditory artery 47

syndrome 47

internal carotid artery (ICA) 29, 30, 31, 371

ACA and 38

bilateral dysfunction of 32

CCADs of 177

middle ear and 32

occlusion of 32

headache with 40

stenosis of: TIA and 31

internal cerebral vein 284

International Carotid Stenting Study (ICSS) 372

International Headache Society Classification and Diagnostic Criteria (ICHD-2) 196

international normalized ratio (INR) 102

for warfarin 126, 370

internuclear ophthalmoplegia (INO) 45, 49

interview

See examination

intracerebral hemorrhage 39, 164, 187

intracranial aneurysms 223–224

in children 314–315

Turner syndrome and 319–320

intracranial dissection 179

intracranial embolism 100

intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) 170–171, 217–230

AVM and 259

with carotid-cavernous fistula 265

in children 313

evaluation of 317

treatment for 316–317

CT for 76

differential diagnosis for 227

drug-induced 226

evaluation for 227

headache with 196

management of 229

pregnancy and 337–338

risk factors for 218

treatment for 229–230

vascular dementia and 211

with venous thrombosis 289

intracranial pressure (ICP) 61, 68, 368

cortical vein thrombosis and 29

CSF and 68

dural sinus thrombosis and 29

epidural hematoma and 280

hypertensive encephalopathy and 140

hyperventilation and 290

intraparenchymal hemorrhage and 29

management of 229, 367

SAH and 29

subdural hematoma and 278

TIA and 95

venous thrombosis and 290, 337

intraparenchymal hemorrhage 1

cognitive changes and 29

headache and 29

ICP and 29

Lyme disease and 152

risk factors for 314

Wegener granulomatosis and 149

intrathoracic dissection 178

intravascular angioplasty 54

intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) 149, 163, 337

intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) 221–222

ION

See ischemic optic neuropathy

ipsilateral choroid hemangioma 268

iron therapy 163, 304

ischemia 61–62

age and 71–72

global 61

transitional zone 38

ischemic cascade 65–66

ischemic infarction

aneurysms and 240

in children 317–324

risk factors for 319

LB for 1

seizures and 40

ischemic optic neuropathy (ION)

anterior 34

CRP for 34

ESR for 34

giant cell arteritis and 34

ischemic penumbra 61, 69–71

brain infarction and 62

isoimmune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) 164, 225

isovaleric acidemia 306, 323

ITP

See isoimmune thrombocytopenic purpura

IVH

See intraventricular hemorrhage

IVIG

See intravenous immunoglobulin

Jacob, Francois 60

JAK2

See Janus kinase 2

Janeway, Richard ix

Janeway lesions 320

jugular veins 29, 285

Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) 163

Kawasaki syndrome 148, 320

Kearns-Sayre syndrome 320, 324

Kernohan’s notch 63

ketorolac 197

Kety, Seymour 9

Keys, John Maynard 234

kinking

of carotid artery 30

TIA and 96

Kohlmeier-Degos disease

See malignant atrophic papulosis

Korotkoff sound 136

KRIT1 88

krypton 6

labetalol 141, 230, 335

laboratory studies 75–76

labyrinthitis 52

β-lactam 166

lactic acid 66, 70

lacunar infarction 137–139

language dysfunction 14–15

L-arginine 67

L-asparaginase 168

lazaroids 365

LDL

See low-density lipoprotein

learned non-use 379

left common carotid artery 29

left subclavian artery 29, 40

Leigh syndrome 306

Leigh’s disease 323

lentiginosis 178

Leriche syndrome 146, 348


Lescol

See fluvastatin

lesion burden 209

LEU(UUR) 305

leucopenia 164

leukemia 163, 350

leukoaraiosis 207, 209–210

leukotrienes 65

Liebman-Sacks endocarditis 125, 322

LIFE

See Losartan Intervention for Endpoint Reduction in Hypertension

light sensitive retinopathy 34

lightning streaks of Moore 95

limb claudication 53

limb shaking 64, 97

linoleic acid 113

Lipitor

See atorvastatin

livedo reticularis 169

liver abscess 350

LMNA 302

LMWH

See low molecular weight heparin

lobar hemorrhage 219

locked-in syndrome 45

long pontine circumferential arteries 49

losartan 137

Losartan Intervention for Endpoint Reduction in Hypertension (LIFE) 137

lovastatin (Mevacor) 114, 171

low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) 181

for APAS 337

for children 328

for emergencies 361

for NBTE 124

pregnancy and 340

for protein C deficiency 168

for thrombophilia 336

for venous thrombosis 289

low-density lipoprotein (LDL) 106–107, 112, 213

atherosclerosis and 114

obesity and 114

low-salt diets 137

LP

See lumbar puncture

lumbar puncture (LP) 84

anticoagulants and 102

for brain hemorrhage 1

for emergencies 360

hypertensive encephalopathy and 141

for ICH 228

for ischemic infarction 1

for SAH 248–249

luxury perfusion syndrome 63

Luzi, Mondino di 1

Lyall, Watson 201

Lyme disease 152

MABP

See mean arterial blood pressure

macroglobulinemia 19

macrophage colony-stimulating factor (MCSF) 112

Maeda syndrome 197, 210–211

magnesium 197–199

magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) 5, 6, 81–82

for atherosclerosis 112

for moyamoya disease 184

for PAN 148

for SAH 248

magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) 6, 75, 79–81

for AVM 262–263

for cavernous malformation 266–267

DW/PW 71

for emergencies 358–360

for epidural hematoma 281

for ICH 228

for ischemic penumbra 71

for lacunar infarction 139

for PAN 148

during pregnancy 339

for SAH 248

of spinal cord 354

for Sturge-Weber syndrome 270

for subdural hematoma 278

for vascular dementia 207

for venous thrombosis 288

magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) 71

malignant atrophic papulosis (MAP) 189–190

man in the barrel syndrome 65

management 356–373

pre-hospital 356

mannitol 45

MAO

See monoamine oxidase

MAP

See malignant atrophic papulosis

marche-a-petit-pas 106

Marfan disease 178

Marfan syndrome 243, 335

genetics of 300

homocystinuria and 299

Marie-Foix syndrome 43

Masland, Richard ix, 9

mastoiditis 288

matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) 88

MCA

See middle cerebral artery

McHenry, Lawrence ix

McKinney, William M. ix

MCP-1

See monocyte chemotactic protein-1

MCSF

See macrophage colony-stimulating factor

mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) 136, 230, 368

mean transit time (MTT) 79

mechanical clot dissolving 364

mechanical clot extraction 364

Mechanical Embolus Removal in Cerebral Ischemia (MERCI) 364

medial longitudinal fasciculi (MLF) 49

medial medullary syndrome 49

medial striate artery 37, 38

medulla, veins of 285

medulla oblongata hemorrhage 223

melanoma 237

MELAS

See mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, latic acidosis and stroke

memory 14

subdural hematoma and 278

TIA and 96

vascular dementia and 207

Ménière’s disease 19, 44

TIA and 95, 100

vertigo and 52

meningioma 237

meningitis 151, 322

SAH and 237

spinal cord ischemia and 350

meningohypophyseal 30

mental retardation, with Sturge-Weber syndrome 268

MERCI

See Mechanical Embolus Removal in Cerebral Ischemia

MERRF 324

mesencephalic artery 48, 50

metabolic rate of oxygen (CMR O2) 83

metabolic stroke 306

metalloproteinases 88

metformin 370

methionine 299

methotrexate 146

methyldopa 335

methylene-tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 107, 166, 298

methylmalonic acidemia 306, 323

methylphenidate 370

methylprednisolone 350

metoclopramide 197–199

Mevacor

See lovastatin

Meyer’s loop 37

MI

See myocardial infarction

microbleeds 212

microcatheters 8

balloons with 9

microcirculatory compromise 68–69

microembolism 87, 95

micropsia 51

midbrain hemorrhage 222

midbrain long circumferential arteries 50

midbrain paramedian arteries 49–50

middle cerebral artery (MCA) 32, 34–37, 356

ACA and 32, 38

occlusion of 38

aneurysm of 241

aphasia and 36

atherosclerosis of 36

bilateral lesions of 37

confusion and 36

delirium and 36

headache and 36, 196

lacunar infarction and 137–138

moyamoya disease and 186

occlusion of 35–37

TIA and 36

Wernicke’s aphasia and 36

middle ear 32

middle meningeal artery 30

midline echogram 1

migraine 195–199

APAS and 196

with AVM 259

CADASIL and 197, 295

in children 322–323

genetics of 197

management of 197–199

PCA and 197

TIA and 19, 95, 100

venous thrombosis and 337

vertigo with 195

Millard-Gubler syndrome 43–45

Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE) 207

misery perfusion 63

mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke (MELAS) 88, 197, 324

clinical features of 305–313

genetics of 304–306

mitral valve prolapse (MVP) 124

mixed connective tissue disease 154

mixed dementia 212

MLF

See medial longitudinal fasciculi

MMPs

See matrix metalloproteinases

MMSE

See Mini-Mental Status Examination

Modified Rankin Scale 388

modifier genes 293

Moniz, Egas 6

monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors 19, 139, 140

monoclonal gammopathy 19

monocular blindness

See amaurosis fugax

monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) 112

Monro-Kellie doctrine 68

Moore, lightning streaks of 95

moyamoya disease 31, 178, 183, 184, 186, 195, 318

in children 322

Down syndrome and 306

Fanconi’s anemia and 306

hyperventilation and 97

ICH and 226

pathology of 185

pathophysiology of 185

from radiation therapy 187

SAH and 237

Turner syndrome and 306

MRA

See magnetic resonance angiography

MRI

See magnetic resonance imaging

MRS

See magnetic resonance spectroscopy

MRV

See MR-venogram

MR-venogram (MRV) 288, 337

MTHFR

See methylene-tetrahydrofolate reductase

MTT

See contrast media transit time, mean transit time

multi-infarct dementia 209

multiple myeloma 163

multiple sclerosis 349

murmurs 23, 32

Murray, Gordon 6

muscular dystrophy 320

MVP

See mitral valve prolapse

myocardial infarction (MI) 19, 120

cerebral embolism and 40

in children 320

pregnancy and 336

warfarin and 371

myotonic dystrophy 320

myxomas 125, 320

N-acetylcysteine 370

naloxone 350

National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Stroke (NINDS) 9

National Institutes of Health (NIH) 9

NBO

See normobaric oxygen

NBTE

See nonbacterial endocarditis

neglect 387

neoplasm 39

aneurysm and 246

embolism and 129

SAH and 237

spinal cord ischemia and 349

TIA and 100

nephrogenic systemic fibrosis 370

nephrotic syndrome 336

neuroborreliosis 152

neurocysticercosis 154

neurodevelopmental therapy 385

neurofibromatosis (NF) 32, 88, 301–302

moyamoya disease and 184

neuron specific enolase 88

neurorehabilitation

See rehabilitation

neurovascular examination 21–26

NF

See neurofibromatosis

nicardipine 141, 230, 335

nicotinamide 306

nicotine replacement therapy 370

nifedipine 335

NIH

See National Institutes of Health

NIH Stroke Scale (NIHSS) 46, 54

NIHSS

See NIH Stroke Scale

nimodipine 354

NINDS

See National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Stroke

nitrendipine 213

nitric oxide (NO) 67

nitric oxide synthase (NOS) 65, 67

nitrogen bubbles 129

nitroglycerin 67

nitroprusside 141, 230, 335

NMDA

See N-methyl-D-aspartate

N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) 213, 365

antagonists 213

for spinal cord infarction 354

NO

See nitric oxide

nonbacterial endocarditis (NBTE) 124

nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

for migraine 197–199

platelet disorders from 166

PXE and 301

nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) 371

nonverbal communication 13

normobaric oxygen (NBO) 365–366

nortriptyline 197–199

NOS

See nitric oxide synthase

Notch3 88, 295

Nothnagel syndrome 43–45

nucleus of Luys 51

NVAF

See nonvalvular atrial fibrillation

Nymmann, Gregor xi, 1

nystagmus 44, 53

obesity 137

atherosclerosis and 112

CHD and 114

LDL and 114

Observationes Anatomica (Fallopius) 1

occipitocervical synostosis 42

occupational therapy 385

ocular ischemic syndrome 97

oculomotor nuclear complex 50, 280

OEF

See oxygen extraction fraction

oleic acid 113

omega-3 fatty acids 113

OMIN

See Online Inheritance of Man

one-and-a-half syndrome 49

Online Inheritance of Man (OMIN) 295

ophthalmic artery 19, 20, 32–34

ophthalmological examination 19–21

ophthalmoplegic migraine 195

oral contraceptives 19, 169, 286, 289

orthoses 381–382

oscillopsia 18–19

Osler, William 13, 160, 333

Osler nodes 320

Osler-Weber-Rendu disease

See hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia

osteoarthritic spondylosis 350

osteogenesis imperfecta 178

otitis media 288

oxygen 67–68

ATP and 67

hyperbaric 129, 188, 365–366

ischemic penumbra and 69

NBO 365–366

oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) 62, 371

Paget’s disease 42

palinopsia 51

PAN

See polyarteritis nodosa

PaO2

See arterial oxygen tension

papillary fibroelastomas 126

papilledema

retinal hemorrhage and 288

with venous thrombosis 287

venous thrombosis and 337

paralysis 15–16

basilar artery and 43

TIA and 96

paraneoplastic vasculitis 154

paraphasias 14

parapontine reticular formation (PPRF) 49

Pare, Amboise 275

paresthesias 31, 43

Parinaud’s syndrome 45, 51

parkinsonism 106, 207

paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria 163

Patel, Aneel ix

patent foramen ovale (PFO) 121–123

atrial septal aneurysm and 121–122

in children 320

TCD for 87

TIA and 100

PCA

See posterior cerebral artery

PCP 88

PE

See pulmonary embolism

PECAM-1 334


PEG

See percutaneous gastrostomy tube

percutaneous gastrostomy tube (PEG) 386

percutaneous luminal angioplasty 8

perfusion CT 61

perfusion MRI 61

pericallosal artery 38

perimesencephalic SAH 236

perindopril 137, 213

peripartum cerebral angiopathy 338

peroxynitrate 65

persistent primitive anastomoses 52

PET

See positron emission tomography

Peto, Richard 9

PFO

See patent foramen ovale

PGI2

See prostacyclin

PHACE

See posterior fossa brain malformations, hemangiomas of the face, anomalous arteries, cardiac defects, and eye lesions

phenothiazine 19

phenylpropanolamine (PPA) 226

phenytoin 19, 171, 298

pheochromocytoma 139

phlebitis 350

phlebotomy 163

photophobia 51

physical therapy 385

pial arteriolar plexus 347

PICA

See posterior inferior cerebellar arteries

Pickwickian syndrome 67

PIGA 163

pineal gland 50

PINP 88

piracetam 387

pituitary apoplexy 338–339

pizotifen 197–199

plasminogen 169

plasminogen activator inhibitor-1

vascular dementia and 203–204

platelet antiaggregant therapy 115

platelet disorders 163–166

drug-induced 166

ICH and 225

SAH and 236–237

See also antiplatelet therapy

platelet Factor 4, 69

platybasia 42

pneumonia 366

polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) 148, 322

in children 320

spinal cord and 350

polycythemia 19, 162–163

spinal cord ischemia and 350

TIA and 100

polycythemia rubra vera 163

polycythemia vera 336

pons 285

pontine hemorrhage 222

pontine paramedian arteries 49

positron emission tomography (PET) 63, 83, 371

for ischemic penumbra 71

for moyamoya disease 185

posterior cerebral artery (PCA) 50

anatomy of 50

aneurysm of 241

migraine and 197

posterior communicating artery 39

anatomy of 39

aneurysm of 241

dysfunction of 39

posterior fossa brain malformations, Sturge-Weber syndrome and 270

posterior fossa brain malformations, hemangiomas of the face, anomalous arteries, cardiac defects, and eye lesions (PHACE) 243

posterior inferior cerebellar arteries (PICA) 45, 47, 48–49

watershed infarction of 65

posterior spinal artery 346

syndrome 349

posterior spinal rami 347

posterior temporal artery 35

posterior thalamosubthalamic paramedian artery 50

potassium 137

PPA

See phenylpropanolamine

PPRF

See parapontine reticular formation

Pravachol

See pravastatin

pravastatin (Pravachol) 114

prednisone 146, 149

pre-eclampsia 334–335

pregnancy 169, 333–340

amniotic fluid embolism and 338

aneurysms and 240, 337

anticoagulants and 336, 339–340

antiplatelet therapy in 339

antithrombin and 334

APAS and 336–337

aspirin in 339

AVM and 337

blood flow changes in 333

blood pressure and 334

CADASIL and 295

CVT and 336

factor V Leiden and 334

fibrinogen and 334

hemodynamic changes in 333

hypercoagulability in 333

hypertension and 334, 335

hypertensive encephalopathy and 338

ICH and 337–338

LMWH and 340

medications in 171

MI and 336

neuroimaging during 339

peripartum cerebral angiopathy 338

physiological changes in 333–334

pituitary apoplexy 338–339

protein C and 334, 336

protein S and 334, 336

prothrombin and 334

SAH and 337

thrombocytopenia and 334

thromboembolism in 333–345

thrombophilia and 336

tPA and 340

UFH and 340

venous thrombosis and 286, 334, 337

warfarin and 339–340

pre-hospital management 356

premamillary artery 30

pressure ulcer prevention 379–380

pretectal nuclear complex 50

primary angiitis 148–149

primary polycythemia 163

prochlorperazine 197

procollagen peptides 88

PRoFESS 101–102

progeria 302–303

propionic acidemia 306, 323

propranolol 171

prosopagnosia 51

prostacyclin (PGI2) 101, 109

prostaglandins 65, 164, 354

prosthetic heart valves 125, 371

protein C 167, 168, 336

factor V Leiden and 336

pregnancy and 334, 336

protein S 168, 336

pregnancy and 334, 336

protein S100B 88

prothrombin 168, 334, 336

prothrombin 20210 allele 88

prothrombin time (PT) 102, 356

P-selectin 334

pseudo-athetosis 51

pseudobulbar palsy 106

pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) 178

genetic testing for 88

genetics of 300–301

PT

See prothrombin time

pulmonary embolism (PE) 336, 368–370

pure motor stroke 138

pure sensory stroke 138

putaminal hemorrhage 217–219

PXE

See pseudoxanthoma elasticum

pyridoxine

See vitamin B6

quality of life 390

radial peripapillary capillaries (RPC) 33

radiation 30, 32

atherosclerosis and 295

intracerebral hemorrhage from 187

for moyamoya disease 184

moyamoya disease from 187

spinal cord and 349, 351

vasculopathy from 188

dehydration and 188

hyperventilation and 188

radiation of Gratiolet 18

radicular arteries 345

radiosurgery 264

ramipril 137

randomized clinical trials 1

rapid eye movement sleep (REM) 72

Raymond-Foville syndrome 43–45

Raynaud’s phenomena 169

rCBF

See regional cerebral blood flow

rCBV

See regional cerebral blood volume


rCMG

See regional cerebral metabolism of glucose

reading difficulties 14–15

recombinant human alpha-galactosidase A 298

recovery assessment 388

recurrence prevention 370–373

recurrent artery of Heubner

See medial striate artery

red cell disorders 162–163

red veins 63

RED-M

See retinopathy, encephalopathy, and deafness associated microangiopathy

regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) 69, 71, 83

brain infarction and 365

regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV) 71, 83

regional cerebral metabolism of glucose (rCMG) 83

rehabilitation 373, 377–391

REM

See rapid eye movement sleep

renal failure 297

renal transplantation 298

rennin-angiotensin-aldosterone system 295

reperfusion injury 69

repetitive body movements 14

repose 66

respiratory acidosis 67, 163

retina

embolism of 21

hemorrhage of 20

papilledema and 288

with PXE 301

tear, TIA and 95–99

vascular physiology of 33

retinal migraine 195

retinopathy, encephalopathy, and deafness associated microangiopathy (RED-M) 189

Reye syndrome 328

rhabdomyomas 125, 320

rheumatic heart disease 320

rheumatic valvular heart disease 124

rheumatoid arthritis 154

rheumatoid spondylosis 350

riboflavin 197–199, 306

Rie, Oscar 9

right common carotid artery 29

right subclavian artery 29, 40

riluzole 354

rivastigmine 212

Roach, E. Steve ix

Rolandic artery 36

Rosenthal, veins of 284

rostral basilar artery 39

rosuvastatin (Crestor) 114

RPC

See radial peripapillary capillaries

rubeosis oculi 20

rubral tremor 51

rule of halves 137

saccular aneurysms 238

pathology of 246–247

treatment of 250

SAH

See subarachnoid hemorrhage

SAPPHIRE

See Stenting and Angioplasty with Protection in Patients at High Risk for Endarterectomy

SBP

See systolic blood pressure

SCA

See superior cerebellar artery

SCD

See sickle cell disease

scleroderma 154

seizures 40, 368

with AVM 17, 259

with cavernous malformation 17

CBF and 72

cortical vein thrombosis and 29

dural sinus thrombosis and 29

SAH and 250

with Sturge-Weber syndrome 267

temporal lobe and 51

TIA and 95

with venous thrombosis 287, 290, 337

See also epilepsy

selectins 88

P-selectin 334

sE-selectin 88

selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors 370

SELP 293

sensorimotor stroke 138

sensory disturbance 15–16

basilar artery and 43

sentinel headache 234

septal vein 284

sE-selectin 88

shaken baby syndrome 277

Shakespeare, William 293

short pontine circumferential arteries 49

shoulder pain 380

SIADH 338–339

sICAM-1 88

sick sinus syndrome 118–119

sickle cell disease (SCD) 9, 160–161, 323

brain infarction and 161

genetics of 293

management of 161–167

moyamoya disease and 184

SAH and 237

TCD for 87

TIA and 100

sickle cell trait 161–162

SICRET

See small infarction of cochlear, retinal and enceptialitic tissue

silent aspirators 386

simvastatin (Zocor) 114

Single-Proton-Emission-Computer-Tomography (SPECT) 7, 61, 83–84

for ischemic penumbra 71

for moyamoya disease 185

sinovenous occlusion 283–290

Sjögren’s syndrome 154

skip lesions 146

SLE

See systemic lupus erythematosus

sleep 31, 66, 72

small infarction of cochlear, retinal and encephalitic tissue (SICRET) 189

Smith, Homer W. 143

smoking

See tobacco

SP

See stress proteins

SPACE

See Stent-Supported Percutaneous Angioplasty of the Carotid Artery vs. Endarterectomy

SPARCL

See Stroke Prevention by Aggressive Reduction in Cholesterol Levels

spasticity 381

SPECT

See Single-Proton-Emission-Computer-Tomography

speech difficulties 14–15

spinal cord 345–354

amphetamines and 351

arachnoiditis of 351

arterial dissection of 350

arterial supply of 345–346

atherosclerosis and 350

autoregulation in 347

AVM of 350;

HHT and 352

management of 354

cavernous malformation of 352

circulation physiology of 347

cocaine and 351

dural arteriovenous fistulas of 352–353

epidural hematoma of 353;

management of 354

glioma 350

hemorrhage 351

hyperextension injury of 350

hypotensive myelopathy of 350

hypoxic myelopathy of 350

iatrogenic myelopathy of 350–351

infarction: artery-specific causes of 347;

clinical presentation of 347;

diagnosis of 354

management of 354;

risk factors for 350–356

ischemia: clinical features of 347;

differential diagnosis for 349

drop attacks and 348;

prognosis for 351

PAN and 350

radiation and 351

SAH of 353

SLE and 350

subacute necrotic myelopathy of 351

subdural hematoma of 353

substance abuse and 350, 351

trauma to 139, 350

venous anatomy of 347

watershed infarction in 347

spontaneous abortion 336

SSYLVIA

See Stenting of Symptomatic Atherosclerotic Lesions in the Vertebral or Intracranial Arteries

STA

See superficial temporal artery

statins 126, 213

steal phenomenon 53

steal syndromes 52–54

clinical features of 53

etiology of 53

pathophysiology of 53

TIA and 96

See also subclavian steal syndrome


Stenting and Angioplasty with Protection in Patients at High Risk for Endarterectomy (SAPPHIRE) 372

Stenting of Symptomatic Atherosclerotic Lesions in the Vertebral or Intracranial Arteries (SSYLVIA) 373

stents 8

clopidogrel and 120

for TIA 103

Stent-Supported Percutaneous Angioplasty of the Carotid Artery vs. Endarterectomy (SPACE) 372

steroids 354

See also corticosteroids

sticky platelet syndrome 166

Stokes-Adams attacks 14

strategically placed infarcts 209

streptokinase 6

stress proteins (SP) 112

string sign 86

Stroke Prevention by Aggressive Reduction in Cholesterol Levels (SPARCL) 114

Sturge-Weber syndrome 267–270

subacute necrotic myelopathy

AVM and 351

of spinal cord 351

subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) 234–238

brain infarction and 95

with carotid-cavernous fistula 265

caudate hemorrhage and 221

causes of 234

CT for 76

diagnostic studies for 247–249

epidural hematoma and 281

headache and 29

ICH and 227

ICP and 29

LB for 84

Lyme disease and 152

pregnancy and 337

seizures and 40

of spinal cord 353

Wegener granulomatosis and 149

subclavian arteries 29

subclavian steal syndrome 5, 44, 52

Blalock-Taussig operation and 320

diagnosis of 53–54

management of 54

subcortical lacunar infarcts 209

subdural hematoma 1, 39, 275–281

anticoagulants and 102

differential diagnosis for 278

of spinal cord 353

TIA and 99, 100

trauma and 19, 275, 277

suboccipital triangle 41

substance abuse 19, 100, 350, 351

sulfonamides 148

superficial temporal artery (STA) 22, 186

superficial venous system 283

superior cerebellar artery (SCA) 48, 49, 50

watershed infarction of 65

superior medial pontine syndrome 49

superior mesencephalic paramedian artery 50

superior petrosal sinus 285

superior rectus 50

superior sagittal sinus 283, 337

supraclinoid internal carotid artery 241

Susac syndrome 189

susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) 82

swallowing function 189

See also dysphagia

SWI

See susceptibility-weighted imaging

Sylvian fissure 34, 36

syncope 40, 64

syphilis 84, 152, 349

spinal cord ischemia and 349

systemic diseases 19

systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) 124, 140, 152–153

spinal cord and 349

systolic blood pressure (SBP) 135, 136

Takayasu arteritis 30, 146–148, 322

Takayasu’s disease 53

tamoxifen 171

Tatsuyuki Kudo 183

TCD

See transcranial Doppler

99-Tc-labelled isotopes 83

tDCS

See transcranial direct current stimulation

TEE

See transesophageal echocardiogram

telestroke 356

temperature 72

Terson syndrome 21

tetracycline 62

tetralogy of Fallot 121, 318

TGA

See transient global amnesia

thalamic hemorrhage 219–221

thalamic pain 43–44, 51

thalamic syndromes 51–52

thalamogeniculate arteries 50

thalamus 50

thalassemia 162

thiamine 121

thiopental 354

thromboangiitis obliterans 155

thrombocythemia 165

thrombocytopenia 164, 225

in children 315

HELLP and 335

pregnancy and 334

thrombocytosis 19, 100

thrombolytic therapy

See tissue plasminogen activator

thrombophilia

APAS and 336

heparin for 336

LMWH for 336

pregnancy and 336

venous thrombosis and 336

thrombosis

acquired causes of 167–177

atherosclerosis and 107

See underspecific types

thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) 165–166, 225

thunderclap headache 338

thyroid disease 100

See also hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism

thyroid hormone 171

TIA

See transient ischemic attack

ticlopidine 101

time to maximum peak of the contrast agent (TTP) 79

TIMPs

See tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases

tinnitus 53

tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) 88

tissue necrosis factor (TNF) 112, 295

tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) 1, 6, 169, 224, 361–364, 373

for CCADs 181

for children 328–329

pregnancy and 340

ultrasound and 364

tizanidine 381

TMS

See transcranial magnetic stimulation

TNF

See tissue necrosis factor

tobacco

aneurysms and 238

atherosclerosis and 295

Buerger’s disease and 155

cessation of 370

protein S and 168

Tolosa-Hunt syndrome 265

toluene 351

top of the basilar syndrome 45–47

topiramate 197–199, 290

tortuosity

arterial tortuosity syndrome 30, 302

of carotid artery 30

tPA

See tissue plasminogen activator

transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) 387

transcranial Doppler (TCD) 7, 9, 61, 87

transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) 385, 387

transesophageal echocardiogram (TEE) 119, 122

transfusions 161, 163

for HHT 304

for subdural hematoma 279

TTP and 166

transient global amnesia (TGA) 37

transient ischemic attack (TIA) 14, 75, 94–103

AICA and 49

aneurysms and 240

APAS and 336

arterial occlusion and 32

basilar artery and 43

in brainstem 52

CEA for 102–103

cerebral infarction and 31

clinical features of 96–98

course of 103

diagnostic evaluation of 100–105

differential diagnosis for 98–100

evaluation of 100–101

frequency of 97

ICA stenosis and 31

management of 101–103

MCA and 36

migraine and 19

neurovascular examination for 97–98

nonsymptoms of 98

physical findings with 98

prognosis for 98, 103

risk stratification for 98

with watershed infarction 64

transient monocular blindness 17–22

transitional zone ischemia 38

transluminal coronary angioplasty 8

transplantation

bone marrow 163

renal 298

transposition of great vessels 121

transthoracic echocardiogram 76

transverse infarction syndrome 349

transverse myelitis 349

trauma 19

epidural hematoma from 280

to spinal cord 139, 350

subdural hematoma and 275, 277

venous thrombosis and 286

tricyclic antidepressants 171

Trotter, Wilfred 177

TSH 338–339

TTP

See thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, time to maximum peak of the contrast agent

tuberculosis 322, 349

tumor necrosis factor 88

turbulent flow 23

Turner syndrome 320

moyamoya disease and 306

tyramine 19, 139, 140

UFH

See unfractionated heparin

ultrasound 5, 84

for atherosclerosis 112

of carotid arteries 6

for emergencies 361

for giant cell arteritis 145

during pregnancy 339

tPA and 364

for venous thrombosis 289

unfractionated heparin (UFH) 181, 361

for NBTE 124

pregnancy and 340

for venous thrombosis 289

unruptured aneurysms 252

upper motor neuron syndrome 381

urea 45

urinary incontinence 14, 38, 370, 386

urinary tract infections 366

urokinase 6

VA

See vertebral artery

vagus nerves 29

valproate sodium 197–199

valproic acid 164

Valsalva maneuver 21, 22

valvular heart disease 123

varenicicline 370

vasa vasorum 112

vascular cell adhesion molecules (VCAMs) 111

vascular dementia 109, 201–213

diagnosis of 207, 203

differential diagnosis for 206–217

etiology of 201

prevention of 212–213

risk factors for 203–206

topography of 202–203

treatment for 212–213

vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) 268

vascular reactivity 61

vasculitides

anatomic distribution of 144–160

classification of 144

vasculitis

in children 322

TIA and 96

vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) 67

vasospasm 95, 130, 250

VCAMs

See vascular cell adhesion molecules

VEGF

See vascular endothelial growth factor

veins of Rosenthal 284

venous anatomy 283

venous stasis retinopathy 34

venous thrombosis 285–293

ICP and 337

migraine and 337

papilledema and 337

pregnancy and 334, 337

secondary complications with 290

seizures and 337

thrombophilia and 336

Wegener granulomatosis and 149

ventilator settings 357

Vernon, Diane C. ix

vertebral artery (VA) 29, 40–43

aneurysm of 242

arthritis and 42

atherosclerosis of 42, 43, 108

CCADs of 177, 178–179

SAH and 237

vertebral-basilar syndrome 42

vertigo 19, 40

basilar artery and 43, 44

with cryofibrinogenemia 169

Ménière’s disease and 52

with migraine 195

with steal syndromes 53

TIA and 96

very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) 106–107

Vesalius, Andreas 1

vide supra 52

VIP

See vasoactive intestinal peptide

vitamin B6 299

vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) 370

vitamin B12 (cobalamin) 114, 349, 370

vitamin E deficiency 349

vitamin K 102, 170, 225

children and 316

warfarin and 171

VLDL

See very low-density lipoprotein

vocation 390

von Willebrand disease 166

von Willebrand factor 164, 166

Waldenström’s macroglobulinemia 163

Wallenberg syndrome 21, 48, 43–44

warfarin 6, 124, 224

for AF 371

for cardiac embolism 5

for CCADs 181

for children 326–333

for dilated cardiomyopathy 371

dosage of 371

for hyperthyroidism 371

ICH from 230

INR for 126, 370

MI and 371

pregnancy and 339–340

for protein C deficiency 168

for TIA 102

toxicity with 170–171

vitamin K and 171

water 66

watershed infarction 64–65

moyamoya disease and 186

in spinal cord 347

Weber syndrome 43–44

Wegener granulomatosis 149

brain infarction and 149

CRP and 149

intraparenchymal hemorrhage and 149

SAH and 149

venous thrombosis and 149

Wepfer, Johann Jakob 1, 275

Werner syndrome 303

Wernicke’s aphasia 15, 37, 219

clinical characterization of 15

MCA and 36

WFNS

See World Federation Neurological Surgeons

wheelchairs 382–385

whiplash 42, 350

Williams syndrome 88, 318

Willis, Thomas 94, 275

WINGSPAN 373

World Federation Neurological Surgeons (WFNS) 237, 238

writing difficulties 313

Wyburn-Mason syndrome 260

xenon 6

133-Xenon 83

X-rays ix

Zocor

See simvastatin




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