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The Geomorphology of the Great Barrier Reef
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  • Page extent: 548 pages
  • Size: 247 x 174 mm
  • Weight: 1.22 kg

Library of Congress

  • Dewey number: 551.42409943
  • Dewey version: 22
  • LC Classification: n/a
  • LC Subject headings:
    • Geomorphology--Australia--Great Barrier Reef (Qld.)

Library of Congress Record

Hardback

 (ISBN-13: 9780521853026)

The Geomorphology of the Great Barrier Reef

Cambridge University Press
9780521853026 - The Geomorphology of the Great Barrier Reef - Development, Diversity, and Change - by David Hopley, Scott G. Smithers and Kevin E. Parnell
Index


Subject index

Aboriginal/indigenous peoples, 312, 428, 429

Acanthaster plancii (crown of thorns), 135

Accommodation space, 39, 40, 48, 191, 210, 211, 214, 307, 402

Aeolianite (eolianite, dune calcarenite), 54 Table 3.1, 68, 205, 214, 391

Agassiz, Alexander, 8

Algae,

   blooms, 131, 444

   coralline, 38, 42, 183, 196, 309, 370, 386, 387, 388, 396, 398, 399, 400

   macro, 443, 444

   Caulerpa sp., 185

   Lithophyllum sp., 398

   Pencillus sp., 185

   Udotea sp., 185

Algal pavement, 113, 227, 228, 279, 338, 464

Algal ridges/rims, 64, 83, 258

   microbialite reefs, 401–402, 406 Fig. 11.12, 409

Algal turf, 227, 338

Andrews, E. C., 8, 9

Antecedent karst control hypothesis, 13, 183, 305

Anthropogenic impacts, 3, 23, 134–135, 136, 192, 219, 226, 230, 232, 314, 428, 429, 432, 433–435, 434 Fig. 13.1, 435 Fig. 13.2, 438 Table 13.2, 439, 445, 459, 468

   see also Cays, use; Fertilizers; Land-use, deforestation; Nutrients, enhanced; Reefs, stresses and disturbance; Reefs, use and management; Sediments, impacts on corals and reefs, yield to GBR; Tourism

Aragonite saturation state, 42, 444

Atolls, 1, 3, 6, 396–399, 400, 402

Australian Institute of Marine Science (AIMS), 242, 315

Australian National Tidal Facility, 87


Bacteria, 443

Banks, Joseph, 6

Barnacles, 66

Basset edges, 226, 227, 330, 341 Fig. 10.11B

   see also Platforms, promenades, cemented

Beachrock/conglomerate, 8, 54 Table 3.1, 63 Fig. 3.6E, 67–68, 77, 82, 133, 228, 322 Table 10.2, 331, 332, 335 Fig. 10.8, 336, 338, 342, 343, 348, 349, 353, 354, 355, 358, 359 Fig. 10.15, 360, 393, 464

Beach ridges/barriers, 24, 25 Fig. 2.5A, 123, 174, 182, 196, 348, 413, 414, 416, 422, 428

   see also Cheniers

Bêche-de-mer, 314, 452

Beechey, Frederick William, 6

Bernoulli effect, 104, 105, 189, 190

Bioerosion, 72, 444, 446

Bioturbation, 109, 224

Blackwood, Capt. F. P., 8

Bleaching, see Climate change (Greenhouse effect)

Blue holes, 41, 300, 300 Fig. 9.21, 305, 392, 414, 448

Boulder beaches/tracts, 54 Table 3.1, 72, 77, 197, 200, 200 Fig. 7.4, 202, 214, 226, 227, 228

British Association for the Advancement of Science, 10

Bryozoa/bryozoan sediments, 29, 39, 170, 171, 187, 295

Bureau of Mineral Resources Canberra (now Geoscience Australia), 242, 244, 258


Calcrete, 62, 370

Callianassa sp., 109, 185

Cays (reef islands), 10, 249, 311, 468

   cementation, see Basset edges; Beachrock/conglomerate; Platforms, promenades, cemented

   classifications, 160, 315–343, 318 Table 10.1, 320, 327 Fig. 10.2, 364 Fig. 10.16

   climate controls, 317, 353, 355, 357 Fig. 10.14, 358, 453–455

   distribution, 312, 344 Fig. 10.12

   dynamics/erosion, 117 Fig. 4.11, 314, 315, 316–317, 330, 343, 351, 352–358, 356 Fig. 10.13, 359 Fig. 10.15, 360–365, 445, 446 Fig. 13.6, 451, 452–455, 453 Table 13.3, 456, 457 Fig. 13.10A, 458, 463

   effects of man-made structures, 446 Fig. 13.6, 454 Fig. 13.9B, 456–458

   formation, 116, 346, 455

   numbers/size, 148, 160, 161 Table 5.8, 322 Table 10.2

   terraces, 332, 342, 343, 348–349, 351

   types,

      multiple, 318 Table 10.1, 320, 337–338, 345

      mangrove, 318 Table 10.1, 320, 337, 345

      low wooded island, 160, 161 Table 5.8, 162, 226, 228, 235, 238, 249, 318 Table 10.1, 320, 322 Table 10.2, 327 Fig. 10.2, 338–343, 339 Fig. 10.9, 340 Fig. 10.10, 344 Fig. 10.12, 345, 347, 381, 427, 453, 458

      unvegetated sand and shingle, 160, 161 Table 5.8, 240, 241 Fig. 8.4B, 242, 317–331, 318 Table 10.1, 320, 322 Table 10.2, 329 Fig. 10.3, 330 Fig. 10.4, 343–345, 344 Fig. 10.12, 350, 354–355, 356 Fig. 10.13, 453, 458, 459

      vegetated sand, 160, 161 Table 5.8, 235, 239, 245, 247, 277 Fig. 9.2, 318 Table 10.1, 320, 322 Table 10.2, 331–335, 333 Fig. 10.5, 334 Fig. 10.6, 10.7, 344 Fig. 10.12, 345, 349–350, 355–358, 451 Fig. 13.8, 453, 457 Fig. 13.10B, 458, 459

      vegetated shingle, 160, 161 Table 5.8, 247, 248 Fig. 8.8B, 318 Table 10.1, 320, 336–337, 349–350

      vegetated, mixed, 335–336

   use, 312–314, 450–452

   see also Chapter 10

Chamisso, Albert, V., 6

Cheniers, 24, 71, 83, 174

Chlorophyll, 444

Climate, present, 93 Fig. 4.1, 94–99, 95 Fig. 4.2, 97 Table 4.1

Climate change (Greenhouse effect), 3, 44, 87, 92, 135–136, 220, 231, 438, 459–461

   bleaching, 228, 450, 459, 460, 462

   CO2 levels, 460

   island effects, 459, 461, 463–467

   ocean pH, acidity, 444, 460, 463

   rainfall, 460, 461

   sea level, 5, 88 Fig. 3.10, 446, 460, 461, 464

   sea surface temperature, 459

Coastal plains, 19, 22–23, 414

Coastal ranges, 19

Coffee rock, 68, 196

Continental drift/plate tectonics, 18–19, 27, 28 Fig. 2.7, 29, 43, 392–393, 408

Continental islands, 18, 22, 26–27, 199–202

Continental shelf, 18, 27, 30–34, 31 Fig. 2.8, 146 Fig. 5.4, 147 Fig. 5.5, 274, 274 Fig. 9.1, 275, 279, 285, 290 Fig. 9.12, 291 Fig. 9.13, 309

Cook, James, 1, 6, 314

Corals, ahermatypic, 295

   Lobophyton sp., 228

   Sinularia sp., 228, 426

Corals, hermatypic, 42, 459

   calcification/skeletal growth, 42, 444, 446, 460, 462, 465, 466 Table 13.4

   community dynamics, 64

   depth range, 42, 289

   environmental influences, 42–43

   larval dispersal/refuges/recruitment, 107–108, 373, 416, 425, 432, 438, 450, 468

   sea-level indicators, 61–62, 64

   tolerance to sediments, 432–439, 438

   Acropora sp. 63 Fig. 3.6B, 216, 217, 223, 227, 228, 279, 386, 388, 392, 398

   Acropora cervicornis, 400, 402, 407

   Acropora dana, 400

   Acropora palmata, 62, 400, 401 Fig. 11.11B, 409

   Acropora robusta, 400, 409

   Dendrophyllia sp., 187

   Endophyllia sp., 289

   Favia sp., 187, 223, 226, 386

   Galaxea fascicularis sp., 221

   Goniastrea sp., 212, 221, 223, 227, 228, 229, 400

   Goniopora sp., 386

   Leptoseris sp., 289

   Montipora sp., 223

   Pachyseris sp., 289

   Pocillopora sp., 386

   Porites sp., 130, 187, 212, 216, 217–218, 221, 223, 227, 228, 229, 386, 398

   Platygyra sp., 386

   Symphyllia sp., 386

Corals, morphotypes, 63, 279, 387

Crocodiles, 416

Currents

   mean circulation, 44

   topographic modification, 103, 105–108

   within reefs, 108–109

   within reef framework, 109–110

   see also Eddies; Tides

Cyanobacteria, 131, 188


Daly, R. A., 8

Darwin, Charles, 6, 8, 9

Dates and dating

   Accelerator Mass Spectrometer Dating (AMS), 68, 349

   ESR, 40

   radio carbon, 13, 15, 40, 43, 60, 61, 67, 69, 74, 75, 76 Fig. 3.8, 77, 78 Table 3.3, 80, 124, 180–182, 188, 197, 203 Table 7.2, 204, 209, 210, 228, 233, 234 Table 8.1, 235, 250 Table 8.2, 251, 252 Table 8.3, 255–258, 262, 273 Table 9.1, 276, 283, 289, 305, 342, 347–350, 371, 381–383, 382 Fig. 11.6, 393, 395

   palaeomagnetic, 40

   strontium, 404 Table 11.2

   uranium-series, 40, 51, 52, 371, 391, 395, 404 Table 11.2

David, T. Edgeworth, 6, 9

Davis, W. M., 7

Deltas, deltaic deposits, 22–23, 174, 177, 197, 207, 214, 220, 223, 415, 416, 436 Fig. 13.4

Denham, Capt. H. M., 8

Diagenesis, 62, 187, 262, 301, 368, 371

Drilling programmes, 9, 13, 14, 14 Fig. 1.4, 15, 34, 35 Fig. 2.10, 36 Fig. 2.11, 38–40, 48, 209, 233, 234 Table 8.1, 236 Fig. 8.1, 256 Fig. 8.9, 257 Fig. 8.10, 259 Fig. 8.11, 261 Fig. 8.12, 263 Fig. 8.13, 272, 277 Fig. 9.3, 283 Fig. 9.8, 286, 289–290, 293 Fig. 9.15, 294 Fig. 9.16, 297 Fig. 9.18, 301, 304 Fig. 9.24, 367

Dugong, 412, 416

Dune calcarenite, see Aeolianite

Dunes, 24, 25 Fig. 2.5B, 48, 129, 171, 174, 414, 428


East Australian Current (EAC), 100–102, 103

Ecology, 4, 468

Eddies, 105–107, 106 Fig. 4.7, 109

   see also Currents; Tides

El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), 87–89, 95 Fig. 4.2, 99, 135, 136, 216, 409, 429, 460, 461

Estuaries, estuarine sediments, 174, 177, 180, 416, 421, 423

Euphotic zone, 47, 57

Eutrophication, see Nutrients, enhanced


Fairbridge, Rhodes W., 12, 314, 316

Fan deposits, 413

Fertilizers, agricultural, 444, 445

Flinders, Matthew, 8, 314

Floods, flood plumes/runoff, 3, 23, 92, 102, 125–128, 127 Fig. 4.14, 131, 139, 167, 199, 200, 213, 218, 230, 385, 386, 433, 436 Fig. 13.3, 440, 441, 443, 444, 446

Foraminifera, 39, 45, 71, 170, 171, 174, 182, 187, 227, 309, 349, 362, 386, 445

   Amphistegina sp., 227

   Baculogypsina sp., 227

   Calcarina sp., 227

Freycinet, L-C de S., 6

Fringing reefs, 18, 23, 60, 103, 105, 106, 140, 148, 149, 152 Table 5.3, 5.4, 154 Table 5.6, 155 Table 5.7, 159, 160, 161 Table 5.8, 194 Fig. 7.1, 201 Fig. 7.5, 205 Fig. 7.6, 208 Fig. 7.8, 215 Fig. 7.11, 269, 396–399, 426, 438, 442

   distribution, 193 Table 7.1

   drilling data, 203 Table 7.2, 204

   foundations, 203 Table 7.2, 204, 368, 369

   incipient, 142, 148, 149, 152 Table 5.3, 152 Table 5.4, 154 Table 5.6, 155 Table 5.7, 159, 192, 196, 199, 218

   lateral growth, 211–222, 212 Fig. 7.9, 226, 230, 231, 428, 448

   low sea level, 416, 419–421

   nearshore shoals, 193, 207, 209, 220 Fig. 7.12, 229, 449

   vertical accretion, 211, 216, 219, 222, 225, 227–228, 231, 385, 386, 428

   zonation, 222

   see also Chapter 7


Gaimard, J. P., 6

Gardiner, J. S., 8

Geographical Information Systems (GIS), 4, 138, 140–145, 141 Fig. 5.1, 142 Table 5.1, 144 Fig. 5.3, 148, 162–163, 363

Geomorphology, 4–5, 431, 467–468

Gold mining, 444

Grainstones, 38

Great Barrier Reef

   age, 34–37, 38–41

   dimensions, 142 Table 5.1, 146, 146 Table 5.2, 147–160, 152 Table 5.4, 153 Table 5.5

Great Barrier Reef Committee, 1, 8, 9, 10, 314

Great Barrier Reef Marine Park (GBRMP), 1, 2 Fig. 1.1, 140, 147–151, 162, 192, 447

Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority (GBRMPA), 3, 139, 146, 162, 199, 244, 432, 447, 448, 450

   gazetteer, 139, 140–145, 141 Fig. 5.1, 143 Fig. 5.2, 151, 312, 343, 447

   zoning, 142, 162–163, 163 Table 5.9, 164 Table 5.10, 199, 447

      see also Representative Areas Programme (RAP)

Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area (GBRWHA), 312

Groundwater

   discharge to continental shelf (“Wonky holes”), 128–129, 131, 176, 444

   Ghyben-Herzberg lens, 109–110, 110 Fig. 4.8, 465

   layered-aquifer model, 465–467

Guano 276, 277 Fig. 9.2, 312, 336, 451, 452–455, 465

   see also Phosphatic cay sandstone


Halimeda (Halimeda bioherms), 39, 103, 105, 145, 151, 153, 166, 170, 171, 173, 174, 184 Fig. 6.5, 186 Fig. 6.6, 6.7, 262, 276–278, 284, 289, 371, 386, 395, 422, 423, 425, 442

Halosteric effects, 90

Hedley, Charles, 9, 314

Heinrich events, 52

High islands, see Continental islands

Holmes, Arthur, 7

Holocene “high energy window”, 64, 213, 218, 219, 226, 227, 362, 381, 425, 427–428

Holothurians, 187

Hydrographic survey, 12

Hydro-isostasy, 44, 47, 75, 83, 84 Fig. 3.9, 85, 269, 275, 343, 345, 347, 348, 351, 370, 380, 383, 410, 426, 445


International Consortium for Great Barrier Reef Drilling, 38–40, 239, 272

International Society for Reef Studies (ISRS), 15

Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), 96

Island research stations, 12, 315

Isostasy, 47, 58, 83–86

   see also Hydro-isostasy


James Cook University (of North Queensland), 14 Fig. 1.4, 236 Fig. 8.1, 242, 244, 258

Jukes, J. B., 8, 314


Karst (karstified reef), 41, 108, 110, 179, 398, 409, 414, 417

   see also Antecedent karst control hypothesis; Pleistocene foundations

King, Capt. P. P., 8


Land-use, deforestation, 439, 440, 442, 443, 444

Larvae, dispersal, 107–108, 425

   recruitment, 432, 438

   refuges, 373

Limestone islands (emerged reef, Makatea), 55, 180, 189, 409, 411, 412, 416, 419 Fig. 12.5, 420 Fig. 12.6A, B, 421, 422, 423, 429

Lithoclasts, 38, 40

Lithification (submarine), 390, 396

Lyell, Charles, 6


MacGillivray, J., 314

Madden-Julian circulation, 96

Mainland coastline, 23–24

Main Dividing Ranges, 19

Mangroves

   swamps, 24, 26 Fig. 2.6, 69 Table 3.2, 71, 174, 180–182, 196, 224, 411, 414, 416, 417 Fig. 12.3, 418, 418 Fig. 12.4, 421–422, 423, 424 Fig. 12.8, 425, 428, 429

   on low wooded islands, 144–145, 238, 249, 337, 340–342, 340 Fig. 10.10, 342

   peats and muds, 63 Fig. 3.6F, 68–71, 82, 83, 180, 181 Fig. 6.4, 173, 182, 209, 221, 348

   Avicennia sp., 196, 224

   Rhizophora sp., 196, 224, 337

Marchant, E. C., 10

Marginal plateaux, 27–29

Marshall, Sheina, 11

Maxwell, W. G. H., 12–13, 276, 305

Meltwater discharge pulses, 58, 59–60, 72

Microatolls, 4, 64–66, 227, 229

   fossil, 63 Fig. 3.6C, 66, 75, 77, 82, 86, 211, 223, 227, 269, 342, 343, 347, 348, 381, 393

Microbialite reefs, see Algal ridges/rims

Microfossils, 71

Milankovitch’s astronomical theory, 45

Moating, 64, 65, 227, 228–229, 230, 231, 232, 363

   see also Shingle ramparts

Mollusks, 170, 171, 180, 182, 187, 309, 349

Monitoring, 3, 5, 438, 467

Moorehouse, F. W., 314

Mudflats (saline flats), 24, 174


Navigation aids (light towers), 8, 276, 312, 329 Fig. 10.3, 451, 452, 456, 458

Notches, drowned, 53, 54 Table 3.1, 68, 412

Nutrients, 18, 28 Fig. 2.7, 35, 40, 42, 129, 133, 419, 428, 429

   effects on corals, 443, 444, 446, 447

   enhanced/eutrophication, 134, 296, 437, 442–444, 462, 465

      see also Fertilizers; Land-use, deforestation

   nutrient upwelling, 102, 104–105, 188–190, 296, 422, 429, 442

   yield to GBR, 130–131, 130 Table 4.3, 131, 422, 443


Ocean Drilling Program (ODP), 15, 27, 32, 35, 74, 275

Oceanographic regions, 93 Fig. 4.1

Ooids, 171

Orr, A. P., 11, 314

Oxygen isotope analysis, 38, 39, 45, 48, 50, 51, 52, 74

   see also Paleoenvironmental analysis

Oysters, 63 Fig. 3.6D, 66–67, 70, 82, 86


Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), 87, 89

Packstones, 38

Paleo-drainage channels, 70, 129, 174, 175–180, 175 Fig. 6.2, 178 Fig. 6.3, 414, 417, 421, 425

   incision into shelf, 175, 176, 178, 179

Paleoenvironmental analysis, 16, 45, 135, 212, 217–218, 384, 409, 417 Fig. 12.3, 418 Fig. 12.4, 429, 444, 445

Paleosols, 39, 48, 62, 242, 368, 372, 398

Phosphatic cay sandstone, 276, 278, 335, 336, 349, 353, 465

   see also Guano

Photosynthesis, Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR), 42, 44, 432, 444

Pisonia grandis, 465

Plankton, phytoplankton, 103, 105, 133, 189, 443, 444

Plate tectonics, see Continental drift

Platforms, promenades, cemented, 338, 343, 348

Pleistocene clays, 70, 170, 172, 187, 202, 214, 219, 220

Pleistocene foundations, 149 Fig. 5.6, 152, 170, 173, 180, 258, 269, 284, 288, 343, 389 Fig. 11.8, 411, 462

   constituents and age, 205, 207, 209, 210, 214, 283–284, 370–372, 398, 404 Table 11.2

   depth, 60, 234 Table 8.1, 250 Table 8.2, 252, 252 Table 8.3, 273 Table 9.1, 289, 301, 368–372, 369 Fig. 11.1, 374 Fig. 11.2, 383, 391, 393, 395, 398, 399, 400, 402, 408

   morphology and influence on modern reefs, 233, 251, 254, 269–270, 387

Pollen, pollen analysis, 71, 212, 228

Purdy, E. G., 13


Quoy, J. R., 6


Rainfall and runoff, 96, 126 Fig. 4.13

   see also Floods, flood plumes/runoff

Reef islands, see Cays

Reefs

   chronology/evolution, 265–270, 268 Fig. 8.15, 306 Fig. 9.25, 361 Table 10.3, 363–365

   classification, 148, 149 Fig. 5.6, 150 Fig. 5.7, 152 Table 5.3, 247–249, 250 Table 8.2, 252 Table 8.3

   distribution of reef types, 151–160, 156 Fig. 5.8, 157 Fig. 5.9, 158 Fig. 5.10

   environmental controls and limits, 3, 42–43, 199, 212, 296, 391

   facies/internal structure/processes, 109–110, 202–207, 255–260, 265–270, 386–390

Reefs, growth strategies

   catch-up (“Katch” up), 193, 233, 383, 388, 394, 395, 398, 402, 407, 411, 425, 426

   keep-up, 57, 60, 62, 254, 269, 295, 383, 384, 388, 395, 398, 399, 400, 401, 402, 407

   turn-off/dead/give-up, 38, 40, 57, 216, 282, 282 Fig. 9.7, 283, 289, 293, 296, 384, 403

   turn-on/take-off, 37, 49, 193, 222, 373, 390, 398, 402, 408, 418, 419, 423, 425, 461

Reefs, stress and disturbance, 3, 135–137, 216, 217, 222, 230

   see also Anthropogenic impacts

Reefs, structure and growth rates, 39, 210, 284, 289, 301, 375–380, 378 Fig. 11.4, 383–385, 392, 392 Table 11.1, 395, 396, 398, 399, 402, 409, 425, 427

   detrital, 209, 210, 235, 249, 254, 258, 261, 262, 265, 268 Fig. 8.15, 284, 361 Table 10.3, 373, 376–380, 378 Fig. 11.4, 386, 387, 388, 390, 395, 399, 410, 447, 448, 449 Fig. 13.7

   framework, 209, 210, 235, 239, 240, 262, 266, 284, 292, 295 Fig. 9.17, 373, 374 Fig. 11.2, 375, 376–380, 377 Fig. 11.3, 378 Fig. 11.4, 379 Fig. 11.5, 385 Fig. 11.7, 387, 389 Fig. 11.8, 390, 396, 399, 447, 448

Reefs, types

   size as influence, 235, 249, 254, 266, 270, 346–347, 348

      see also Pleistocene foundations, morphology and influence on modern reefs

   types in evolutionary order

      submerged, 53, 57, 61, 142, 150, 152 Table 5.3, 5.4, 154 Table 5.6, 155 Table 5.7, 159, 161 Table 5.8, 163, 179, 183, 185, 199, 271, 272, 274, 275, 285–296, 285 Fig. 9.9, 287 Fig. 9.10, 288 Fig. 9.11, 298–299, 299 Fig. 9.20, 305, 360, 370, 403, 412, 413, 415, 443, 448, 450, 468

      patch, 109, 150 Fig. 5.7, 152 Table 5.3, 5.4, 154 Table 5.6, 155 Table 5.7, 159, 161 Table 5.8, 163, 240, 247, 360, 427, 447

      crescentic, 150 Fig. 5.7, 152 Table 5.3, 5.4, 154 Table 5.6, 155 Table 5.7, 159, 161 Table 5.8, 235, 239, 240, 242, 244, 247, 249, 252–255, 266, 360, 427, 447

      lagoonal, 150 Fig. 5.7, 152 Table 5.3, 5.4, 154 Table 5.6, 155 Table 5.7, 159, 161 Table 5.8, 240, 243 Fig. 8.5A, 242, 244, 245, 246 Fig. 8.7A, 247, 248, 248 Fig. 8.8, 249, 251, 253–254, 255, 258, 265–268, 360, 447, 448, 449 Fig. 13.7

      planar, 150 Fig. 5.7, 152 Table 5.3, 5.4, 154 Table 5.6, 155 Table 5.7, 159, 160–162, 161 Table 5.8, 163, 235, 239, 241 Fig. 8.4B, 242, 245, 246 Fig. 8.7B, 247, 249, 251–252, 253, 254, 258–260, 317, 338, 343, 345, 346, 351, 352, 358, 360, 361 Table 10.3, 363, 364, 449

   other types

      deltaic, 272, 274, 275–276, 278–279, 278 Fig. 9.4, 299, 302 Fig. 9.22, 303 Fig. 9.23, 305–307, 412, 448

      detached, 271, 272, 276–278, 349, 415

      resorbed, 267, 305

      ribbon, 64, 104, 142, 148, 152 Table 5.3, 5.4, 154 Table 5.6, 155 Table 5.7, 159, 161 Table 5.8, 163, 167, 183, 189, 251, 271, 272, 274, 275, 279, 280 Fig. 9.5, 281 Fig. 9.6, 286, 307, 390, 412, 413 Fig. 12.1, 415 Fig. 12.2, 416, 422, 425, 448

      see also Fringing reefs

Reefs, use and management, 138, 165, 312–314, 438, 447–459, 467, 468

   see also GBRMPA

Reefs, zonation, geomorphological features,

   aligned coral zone, 284, 381

   boulders, 8, 124, 125

   channels, 94, 104, 105, 174, 189, 244, 275, 278, 279, 298 Fig. 9.19, 299, 301, 305

   double fronts, 240, 242, 244, 245 Fig. 8.6, 260–265, 264 Fig. 8.14

   hardline edge, 240, 242, 243, 247, 255, 260

   lagoonal patch reefs, 48, 240, 242, 244, 254, 255, 258, 260, 266, 368, 380, 387, 392 Table 11.1, 448, 449 Fig. 13.7

   lagoonal ridge reefs, 301, 305, 307

   lagoons, 241, 244, 265, 301, 305, 308 Fig. 9.26, 346, 392, 392 Table 11.1, 407, 448

   reef flats and reef flat age, 249–253, 254, 380

   reef slope, 228, 281 Fig. 9.6, 282 Fig. 9.7, 290 Fig. 9.12, 291 Fig. 9.13, 421 Fig. 12.7

   reef terraces, 52, 53

   sand slopes/aprons, 62, 266, 280, 284, 387, 388

   spur-and-groove systems, 113, 279, 281

   zonation, 113, 226–228, 229, 279, 284, 338, 380, 388, 415

Remote sensing, 102, 138–139

   aerial photography, 12, 138, 139, 145, 183, 192, 199, 314, 343, 452, 455

   Laser Airborne Depth Sounder (LADS), 145

   Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV), 73, 166, 272, 282, 285, 286–288, 412

   Satellite imagery, 89, 90, 138–139, 140, 145, 147, 189, 192, 199, 343

Representative Areas Programme (RAP), 145, 162, 447–448

   see also Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, zoning

Rhodoliths (see also Algae, coralline), 34–37, 38, 40, 227

Richards, Prof. H. C., 9, 314

Royal Geographical Society of Australasia, 9

Royal Society, London,

   1896–98 Funafuti Coral Reef Boring Expedition, 6, 9, 183

   1928–29 GBR Expedition, 1, 7, 10 Fig. 1.2, 11 Fig. 1.3, 128, 138, 452

   1973 Royal Society–Universities of Queensland Expedition to the northern GBR – 11, 11 Fig. 1.3, 13, 14, 228, 235, 251, 315, 317, 348, 452

Royal Society of New South Wales, 9


Salinity, 42

Saville-Kent, I. W., 314

Sclerochronology, 212

   see also Paleoenvironmental analysis

Sea-level change

   eustatic, 45, 47

   GBR response, 53–55

   high-frequency oscillations, 55, 74, 87

   rates of change, 55–57

   relative, 43, 44, 395, 399, 400, 402, 405, 408, 439

   see also Hydro-isostasy; Isostasy

Sea-level curves, 72, 73 Fig. 3.7, 77, 84 Fig. 3.9, 85, 406 Fig. 11.12

Sea-level indicators, 61–72, 63 Fig. 3.6

Sea levels, past

   Cainozoic/Quaternary, 6, 29, 30, 37, 44–49, 46 Fig. 3.1, 49–58, 272, 282

   last glacial maximum (LGM), 44, 52–53, 54 Table 3.1, 272, 309, 412–416

   last interglacial, 40, 51, 54 Table 3.1, 57 Fig. 3.4, 166, 269, 278, 305, 371, 408

   late Holocene, 86–87, 214, 226, 228, 230, 362, 426, 428, 445, 463

   low stands, 44, 271

   mid-Holocene, 13, 23 Fig. 2.4, 24, 58, 66, 75–86, 211, 214, 223, 228, 229, 231, 258, 347, 351, 380

   modern changes, 87–90, 88 Fig. 3.10, 102

   post-glacial/Holocene transgression, 58–61, 59 Fig. 3.5, 72–75, 166, 209, 295, 296, 298–299, 372–375, 411, 416–426, 417 Fig. 12.3, 418 Fig. 12.4, 419 Fig. 12.5, 421 Fig. 12.7, 432

   stadial/interstadials, 42–43, 50 Fig. 3.2, 52, 260, 274, 275, 309, 408, 421

   see also Hydro-isostasy

Sea Surface Temperatures (SSTs), 98–99

Seabirds, 314, 381, 412, 450, 451–452, 451 Fig. 13.8, 465

Seagrass, 133, 249, 362, 428, 429, 445, 446 Fig. 13.6

Sediment, 18, 23, 29, 37, 432–442

   bedload, 129, 131, 440

   Halimeda production and sediments, 188

   impact on corals and reefs, 5, 133, 134, 231, 432, 435, 437–438

   movement/dynamics, 24, 103, 106, 109, 116, 117, 118, 119, 120–123, 168, 224, 353, 427, 440, 453 Table 13.3, 461, 463, 465

   offshelf flux, 57, 296, 423, 430

   rates of settlement, 180, 182, 188, 433 Table 13.1, 437–438, 438 Table 13.2, 440–442, 441 Fig. 13.5, 453 Table 13.3

   reef production (carbonate), 5, 167, 199, 217, 218, 230, 266, 267–269, 350–351, 424, 462, 462 Fig. 13.11, 463, 464, 466 Table 13.4

   relict, 170, 171, 172

   resuspension, 132–133, 213, 218, 224, 225, 428, 433, 439, 440, 441

   shelf zones, 94, 167–168, 169 Fig. 6.1

   suspended, 129, 131, 132, 432, 433 Table 13.1, 440

   yield to GBR, 19, 127 Fig. 4.14, 130, 168, 170, 213, 218, 223, 225, 415, 419, 422, 424, 432, 433 Table 13.1, 435 Fig. 13.2A, 436 Fig. 13.3, 439–442

Sediment compartments, 24

Sediment traps, 11, 433, 435 Fig. 13.2, 437–438, 438 Table 13.2, 440, 453

Sediment wedge/prism (inshore), 131–132, 168, 174–175, 180, 182, 213, 213 Fig. 7.10, 219, 221, 428, 433, 439

Seismic survey, 13, 14, 27, 48, 49, 53, 170, 171–172, 173, 175, 175 Fig. 6.2, 176, 177, 179, 185, 187, 233, 242, 244–245, 247, 250 Table 8.2, 253, 261, 262, 272, 276, 284, 286, 288 Fig. 9.11, 297 Fig. 9.18, 299 Fig. 9.20, 301, 303 Fig. 9.23, 412, 413

Shingle ramparts, 64, 68, 72, 226, 227, 228–229, 230, 232, 335, 336, 338–340, 339 Fig. 10.9, 340, 341 Fig. 10.11, 342, 349–350, 442

   see also Basset edges/promenades

Shore platforms, 72, 412

Shorelines, submerged, 54 Table 3.1, 73, 412

Siboga Expedition, 183

Silcrete, 68

Solution unconformity, 14, 39, 48

   see also Pleistocene foundations

Spender, Michael, 7, 10, 314, 315

Spiculite (Alcyonarian), 426

Spits, island, 202, 207, 453, 454 Fig. 13.9A, 456

Sponges, 295

Stanley, G. A. V., 314

Stanley, Capt. Owen, 8

Steers, J. Alfred, 7, 10, 14, 314, 436 Fig. 13.3, 450, 451, 452

Stoddart, D. R., 11 Fig. 1.3, 14

Storm deposits, 64, 336

   see also Boulder beaches/tracts; Shingle ramparts

Submersible, manned, 35 Fig. 2.10, 185, 272, 281, 281 Fig. 9.6, 289, 412


Taphonomy, 217, 221

Tectonic activity

   earthquakes, 32–34, 33 Fig. 2.9

   see also Continental drift/plate tectonics

   subsidence, 30, 32, 43, 48, 85, 191, 275, 292, 370, 372, 383, 425, 427

   uplift, 19, 22, 43, 44, 63 Fig. 3.6A, 82, 83, 225, 266, 420 Fig. 12.6

Teichert, Kurt, 12, 314

Thermocline, 102

Thermosteric effects, 90

Tides and tidal currents, 92, 99–100, 100 Fig. 4.4

   currents, 94, 118, 132, 168, 170, 173, 179–180, 223–224, 275–276, 279, 286, 296, 298, 305, 423, 433, 435, 437–438, 440, 445

   effects on waves, 114

   internal tides, 102

   jets, 103, 104–105, 104 Fig. 4.6, 189, 422, 442

   range, 61–62, 64, 68, 75, 100, 101 Fig. 4.5, 217, 275, 279, 363

   velocities, 103, 104

   see also Eddies

Tourism and the GBR, 314, 450, 451–452

Tridacna sp. 278, 336, 349, 350

Tropical cyclones, 4, 94, 96, 98 Fig. 4.3, 118–124, 221, 226, 354, 460, 462

   cyclones

      Althea (1971), 123, 327, 355

      David (1976), 456

      Emily (1972), 456, 458–459, 465

      Ingrid (1984), 124, 343

      Ivor (1990), 119, 280–281, 379

      Mahina (1899), 124

      Manu (1986), 436 Fig. 13.3, 438

      Sadie (1994), 128

      Simon (1980), 456–458

      Winifred (1986), 119, 127 Fig. 4.14, 167, 443

   cyclonic surges, 118, 119, 120–124, 122 Table 4.2, 460, 462, 465

   effects on reefs and islands, 119, 229, 230–231, 280, 336, 343, 345, 351, 358, 361–362, 379, 388, 407, 438, 442, 456, 458, 465

   past frequency, 218, 337

Tsunami, 94, 124–125

Tubeworms (Serpulids), 66, 67

Turbidites, 38

Turbidity, turbid environments, 39, 57, 132, 133–135, 140, 197, 199, 210, 217, 218, 221–222, 224, 225, 229, 230, 385, 415, 419, 432–435, 437, 442, 449, 450, 467

Turtles, 133, 314, 381, 412, 416, 451, 452


Upwelling, 104, 105, 190, 450


Vermetid gastropods, 386

Volcanic activity, 19–22, 32

Volcanic islands, 22 Fig. 2.3, 392, 396


Waves

   fringing reef interaction, 117, 224

   gauges, recorders, 111, 112 Fig. 4.9

   interaction with reefs, 113–117, 117 Fig. 4.11, 224, 225, 307, 354, 398, 409, 435, 463–464

   low frequency, 102–103

   modeling, 111, 113, 116, 120–123, 121 Fig. 4.12

   refraction and diffraction, 116, 117 Fig. 4.11, 161, 346, 352, 353

   setup on reefs, 114 Fig. 4.10, 115–116, 123

   shoaling/breaking, 113, 114–115

   wind waves and swell, heights and periods, 111–113, 112 Fig. 4.9


Yonge, C. A., 10, 14

Younger Dryas, 51, 59, 72

Yule, Capt. I., 8


Zooxanthellae, 432, 444, 459


© Cambridge University Press


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