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Neural Basis of Semantic Memory
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  • 31 b/w illus. 25 colour illus. 3 tables
  • Page extent: 394 pages
  • Size: 247 x 174 mm
  • Weight: 0.947 kg

Library of Congress

  • Dewey number: 612.8/2
  • Dewey version: 22
  • LC Classification: QP406 .N478 2007
  • LC Subject headings:
    • Memory
    • Memory disorders
    • Language disorders
    • Neuropsychology
    • Semantics

Library of Congress Record

Hardback

 (ISBN-13: 9780521848701)

Neural Basis of Semantic Memory
Cambridge University Press
978-0521-84870-1 - Neural Basis of Semantic Memory - by John Hart Jr. and Michael A. Kraut
Index

Index




Abstract concepts

activation, 156

vs. concrete concepts, 19

acquisition, 172

linguistic experience, 171

neural processing, 172

organisational principles, 171

verbal associative networks, 171

Abstract conditions

task demands, 156

Abstractness, 213

Abstract nouns

vs. concrete nouns, 150

perceptually-based representations, 165

Abstract verbs

non-cognates, 108

Abstract words see alsoConcrete and abstract words

activation, 160, 162

category membership, 18

vs. concrete words, 155

ventral temporal lobe, 161

vs. concrete words activation, 170

fMRI, 158

IFG, 163

lexical decision, 165

non-cognates, 108

parietal lobe, 163

semantic effects, 18

semantic similarity and association, 20

temporal pole, 163

ACC see Anterior cingulate cortex (ACC)

Acceptation

functional knowledge, 49

Access and storage deficits

mixed pattern of, 23

Access cases

vs. degenerative cases

temporal factors, 5

Access deficits

semantic distance effects,

semantic relatedness, 7

vs. storage deficits, 3, 4

Acetylcholine, 21

Action

basal ganglia direct loop, 239

vs. non-action features

task manipulations, 185

nouns and verbs, 212

picture matching task, 213

prefrontal and parietal cortex, 214

Action and tool

categorization

multimodal integration, 198

semantics, 196–7

Action naming, 46

body parts, 47

Action-object distinction, 212

Action observation

parietal cortex, 188

Action potentials

down to up state, 229

Action-selective effects

LPMT, 192

Action-selective left posterior middle temporal region

sensory experience, 191

Action-selectivity, 187

motor area connections, 191

Action semantics

neural systems, 183, 188–9

visuo-motor system, 186–8

Action type

visual experience, 189–90

Action verbs, 284

faces, 37

leg related, 37

selective impairment, 10

Action words

premotor cortex, 309

Activation, 268

abstract concepts, 156

abstract words, 160, 162

conjunction analysis, 185

inferior frontal region, 160

inferior parietal, 188

LPMT, 189, 190

posterior mid-temporal gyrus, 343

RT in lexical decision study, 163

semantic representation, 168

task performance, 331

temporal lobes, 343

Activation (cont.)

TPO junction, 343

ventral visual pathway, 161

visuo-motor system, 197

Acute cerebral blood

flow language symptoms, 223

Adaptation paradigms

processing characteristics

brain regions, 315

Added phrase, 250

Additive-amplitude method, 74–6, 86, 97, 99

future, 99–100

modularity as revealed by, 81–2

Additive-factor method, 66, 76

Additivity

electrodes, 81

electrode sites, 85

region, 81

Additivity-obscuring processor, 80, 97

Agrammatic patients

non-fluent aphasics, 34

Agrammatism

syntactic level

verb retrieval, 35

AIP see Anterior intraparietal area (AIP)

All-English experiments

full sentences, 115

Allport's model, 30, 31

Alzheimer's disease, 7, 23, 250, 255, 275

content, 255

episodic memory, 255

MTL, 50

rule-based categorisation, 257

semantic memory loss, 255

Ambiguous features, 286

Ambiguous pattern, 87

Amplitude additivity, 77–8, 94, 112

Amplitudes

normalized, 74

scalp potentials, 70

Amygdala

social and affective processes, 321

Analogous dissociations

semantic system, 16

Anatomic findings

animal-specific semantic knowledge, 334

Anatomic localization

specific categories, 335

Animal(s)

categorization, 343

distributed representation, 309–11

fusiform gyrus, 311

fusiform gyrus bilateral activity, 310

gender, 44

lesion anatomical location, 44

males, 44

nouns, 284

occipital lesion, 309

vs. plants

gender-related familiarity factors, 45

semantic detectors for stimuli, 338

semantic memory, 333

STS, 311

temporal lobe lesions, 44

vs. tools

PET, 310

words, 266

Animal category

sound stimuli, 340

Animal drawings, 268

Animal object name

clusters of activity, 283

Animal pictures

fusiform gyrus, 316

naming, 315

tool pictures, 185

Animal words

tools words, 185

Animate objects, 303

lateral temporal cortices, 321

Animate stimuli, 10

Anomic patients

fluent aphasics, 34

Anterior cingulate cortex (ACC)

FTD, 136

hypoperfusion, 136

Anterior intraparietal area (AIP), 187

manipulable objects vs. non-manipulable objects, 184

manipulation,

Anteromedial regions, 288

AoA

fMRI, 118–20

grammatical judgment, 119

modulations, 120

semantic tasks, 118

syntactic processing, 117

Aphasia

basal ganglia lesions, 223

fluent

anomic patients, 34

MRI, 223

nonfluent

primary progressive, 210

non-fluent

agrammatic patients, 34

nouns and verbs, 34, 209

optic, 47

primary progressive

VST,

Architecture

learning speed, 68

task generalization, 68

Artefacts

ability to identify, 37

brain correlates of category-specific semantic disorders, 44

category-specific deficit, 302

vs. category-specific disorders for biological entities, 33

functional properties, 49

gender, 44

identification, 37

functional attributes, 39

impairment, 37

lateral temporal cortices, 321

men, 44

semantic system diffuse damage, 41

of stimulus selection

category-specific semantic disorders for living entities, 38

Associated familiarity, 269

Associatively close arrays, 19

Associative processing

proficiency level, 113

Associative strength

lexical ambiguity priming, 236

Associative words

N400 priming effect, 113

Asymmetrical model H, 109

Asymmetry proposal, 109

Asynchrony, 86

Attractor network model, 278

Auditory presentation

nouns, 91

Autoassociated, 30

Automatic semantic priming

neural activity, 318

SOA, 109

Automatic tasks, 287

Basal ganglia

actions, 224–5

aphasia, 223

circuits, 220

closed circuits, 220–2

core language, 222–3

cortical function, 220

direct loop

actions, 239

cognition, 239

fMRI, 239

functions

semantic priming, 239

future research, 238–40

intention, 223–4

intentionally guided attention

semantic priming studies, 232–3

language semantics, 219–40

lexical item retrieval

word generation, 225–7

linguistic and semantic processes, 219

semantic and related language functions, 220

semantic priming, 233–4

SOA, 237

suppression, 227

word generation, 228

Basic-level naming

fMRI, 289

temporal lobe, 290

Behavioral perspective

anatomic regions subserving semantic processing, 342

Bi-directional lexical-semantic connections

semantic model, 280

Bilateral ventral occipitotemporal

objects, 304

Bilingual(s)

L2-concept connections, 111

monolingual

semantic judgment, 118

Russian-German

semantic violation paradigm, 119

Bilingualism

co-ordinative

L1-L2 interaction, 106

language-tagged lexical forms, 107

Bilingual language processing

ERP, 105

functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), 105

Bilingual recognition system, 116

Bilingual semantic memory

ERP, 111–13

ERP and fMRI, 105–21

Binding

perirhinal cortex, 293

Binocular rivalry

tool pictures, 192

Biological categories

category interaction

gender, 44

Biological entities

functional attributes, 41

Biological mechanisms, 22

Block format

tasks, 225

Blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD), 157

Bodies

neural processing substrates, 335

Body movements

parietal region, 212

prefrontal cortex, 212

white matter tracts, 212

Body parts

action names, 47

identification, 37

impairment, 37

naming, 46

BOLD see Blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD)

Brain activation

correlation map, 140

semantic feature, 116

task demands, 116

Brain conceptual knowledge

semantic refractory access deficits, 10

Brain correlates of category-specific semantic disorders

artefacts, 44

living beings, 44

Brain damage, 273

category-specific deficit, 248

disorders in identification of living beings and artefacts, 37–46

familiarity, 273

naming animals vs. artefacts, 206

SE, 267

Brain maps

recall, 141

Brain regions

adaptation paradigms processing characteristics, 315

Brainstem potentials

scalp, 69

Categorical organisation

concrete concepts, 19

information stored in

evolutionary significance, 341

semantic relatedness, 13

Categorical pairs

N400 priming effect, 113

Categorical processing

critical period, 113

Categorization, 247, 248, 250, 251

rule-based, 248

Category

task, 186

Category-based and feature-based framework

object memory, 342

Category interaction

biological categories

gender, 44

Category judgment task, 137

with word pairs

fMRI, 336

Category member generation, 225

Category membership

abstract words, 18

semantic similarity, 18

subjects determining, 338

Category-related neural systems

top-down activity, 321–3

Category-related patterns

fusiform gyrus, 310

Category-selective activations

semantic level, 185

Category-specific deficit

for animals and plant-life, 43

cerebral artery, 43

temporal lobes, 43

artefacts, 302

for biological entities

vs. artefacts, 33

inanimate objects, 302

for nouns and verbs

cognitive defects, 34, 35

tools, 302

for verbs, 35

Category-specific model, 182, 277

Category-specific naming disorders

visuo-verbal disconnection, 46–8

Category-specific semantic deficits, 275

anatomical locus, 28–51

brain damage, 248

HSE, 276

living and non-living items, 183

for living beings and artefacts

interpretation of, 39–41

systematic review, 43

for living entities

artefact of stimulus selection, 38

objections, 38–9

living things, 266, 268

neuroanatomical correlates, 46

neuroanatomical lesions, 33

Category-specific vs. distributed neural systems, 281–4

Central processes, 96

Cerebral artery

category-specific disorders for animals and plant-life, 43

selective naming impairment for fruit and vegetables, 47

Cerebral cortex

nouns and verbs, 208

Cholinergic activity, 222

Cingulate cortex

concrete imageable concepts, 163

Cingulate gyrus

increasing task difficulty, 165

Cingulate region, 169

Circuits

basal ganglia, 220

Classical associationistic views, 30

Close and distant within-category arrays, 7

Closed circuits

basal ganglia impact, 220–2

Clustered acquisition

scanning, 167

Cognates

concrete words and nouns, 108

vs. non-cognates

processing, 108

Cognition

basal ganglia direct loop, 239

vs. motion

verbs, 37

Cognitive defect

category-specific disorders for nouns and verbs, 34, 35

grammatical category, 35

lexical level, 35

verbs, 35

Cognitive model, 30

semantic memory, 265–94

semantic organisation, 182–4

Cognitive operation

stimulus, 186

Cognitive processing, 230

mapping, 233

Cognitive science

naming, 205

Cognitive task study

neuropsychologists, 67

Collateral sulcus

T1-weighted scan, 292

Color

occipital lobes, 308

PET, 307

Color imagery

double dissociation, 308

ventral temporal lobe, 308

Color perception

double dissociation, 308

occipital sites, 308

Color word generation, 306

fusiform gyrus, 308

temporal lobe, 308

Common proper names

vs. famous proper names

refractoriness, 9

Competing movements

suppressing, 224

Complex feature integration, 291

Complex motion processing

lateral temporal cortex, 312

Compound and sub-ordinative hypothesis, 107

Comprehension, 11

mass nouns, 13

nouns and verbs, 34

proper nouns, 13

vocabulary, 4

Computational

modeling study

refractory access/storage distinction, 21

Concept mediation models

cross-language semantic priming, 107

Concepts

dimension, 269

Conceptual activities, 28

Conceptual functions, 29

Conceptual knowledge

categorical organisation, 32–48

cerebral organisation, 3

functional brain imaging, 316

organisation, 303

perceptual experience, 149

semantic relatedness, 13

thesaurus, 3

Conceptual links, 111

Conceptual processes

word imageability, 150

Conceptual representations

format, 29–32

functional brain imaging, 302–25

neural foundations, 302–25

sensory-motor hypothesis, 160

underlying perceptual activities, 29–32

Conceptual semantic information, 210

Conceptual space

organisation, 12

Conceptual structure account (CSA), 183,265–94

behavioral evidence, 271–3

category-specific semantic impairments, 273

functional imaging techniques, 271–3

future, 293

healthy participants, 278–81

living things, 277

model, 266–71

network, 270

neural instantiation, 281–4

neuropsychological patient studies, 273–8

property generation studies, 271–3

Conceptual system mapping, 105

Concrete and abstract words

contrast, 158

judgments, 161

lexical decision study, 170

neuroimaging studies, 150–6

nonwords, 157

semantic decision task, 163

similarity difference (SD) scores, 162

temporal lobe, 160

Concrete concepts, 11

vs. abstract concepts, 18, 19

acquisition, 172

categorical organisational principle, 19

cingulate cortex, 163

nouns and verbs, 206–8

perceptual-motor systems, 150

prefrontal cortex, 163

sentence comprehension, 85–91

task demands, 156

Concrete nouns

vs. abstract nouns, 150

Concrete words, 85

vs. abstract words, 155, 170

ventral temporal lobe, 161

cognates, 108

comprehension, 19

fMRI, 158

knowledge base, 19

vs. nonwords, 159

semantic similarity and association, 20

Confounding

functional properties, 49

Conjunction analysis

activations, 185

Connectionist model, 22, 31, 42

Connections

across and within systems, 348–51

Content

Alzheimer's disease, 255

Content and process

in semantic memory, 261

Content knowledge

SD, 258

Content words, 205

Context

sentence comprehension, 85–91

Context-dependent fashion, 187

Context information

L2 learners, 114

Contrast

concrete and abstract words, 158

Convergence

images, 30

sensory inputs, 291

zones, 208

Co-ordinative bilingualism

L1-L2 interaction, 106

Co-registered structural magnetic resonance imaging

with dense electrode arrays, 99

Core language

basal ganglia, 222–3

Core semantic structure

nouns and verbs, 213

Corpus callosum, 47

electrophysiological experiments, 150

Correlation map

brain activation, 140

Cortex

basal ganglia, 220

correlating with functions, 117

dominant meaning, 237

gamma rhythm

memory, 341

motor system

word-word feature binding task, 348

neuromodulators, 22

overlapping patterns, 315–16

stimulation mapping

object naming, 117

word naming, 212

Cortical damage

semantic memory, 247–61

Critical period

categorical processing, 113

Cross-language priming, 108

concept mediation models, 107

CSA see Conceptual structure account (CSA)

Cue, 232

D1 activity

direct loop, 234–6

Damasio's model, 32

Decision tasks

LPMT, 189

Decision times

semantic knowledge, 166

Degenerative conditions, 274

vs. access cases

temporal factors, 5

semantic relatedness, 7

serial position effects, 6

Dense electrode arrays

co-registered structural MRI, 99

Diagnosticity, 259

Differential weighting hypothesis, 33, 47

Direct loop

D1 activity, 234–6

Discordant condition, 234

Discrete-stage architecture, 97

Disorganisation

FTD, 142

Display

tool-selectivity, 195

Dissociation, 186

clinical data, 33

verb production difficulties, 207

Distant arrays, 19

Distinctive properties

living things, 278

Distributed hypothesis, 260

DLPFC see Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC)

Domain-level naming, 288

fMRI, 289

Domains, 269

of knowledge hypothesis, 42–4

specific account, 323

specific knowledge systems hypothesis, 40, 41

Dominant meaning

cortical lesions, 237

SOA, 237

Dominant pallidotomy, 219

Donders' method of subtraction, 99

Dopaminergic modulation

Parkinson's disease, 238

Dopaminergic projections

substantia nigra pars compacta, 222

Dorsal stream of visual processing, 46

spatial and action functions, 46

Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC)

FTD, 136

semantic processing, 345

Dorsomedial nucleus, 349

Dorso-ventral dissociation

tool-selective activations, 194

Double dissociation, 19, 36, 182, 190

color perception and imagery, 308

between perceptual knowledge about verbs and grammatical properties, 211

Drawing performance, 267

D1 receptor, 235

Dual-coding theory, 85, 171

Dutch-only word

N400 priming, 115

Dynamic Causal Modeling, 195

Dysgraphic, 11

Dyslexic, 11

Dysphasic, 11

Early learners, 112

EEG see Electroencephalogram (EEG)

Effective Connectivity Analyses, 195

Elderly

categorization, 250

Electrical brain activity

ERP, 111

recording, 83

Electrical cortical interference, 344

Electrical evidence

spatially distributed brain activity, 352

Electrical interference

fusiform gyrus, 345

temporal gyrus, 345

Electrodes, 80, 81, 84

additivity, 85

factors interacting, 79

feature binding, 349

interaction, 79

repetition and relatedness interaction effects, 92

repetition and relatedness main effects, 92

word and stem main effects, 88

word X stem interaction effects, 88

Electroencephalogram (EEG), 68, 86

ERP, 69

Encapsulated, 82

Encoding process

object, 352

Encyclopedic knowledge

vs. semantic primitives, 304

English city name identification

geographical proximity, 14

English-only word

N400 priming, 115

Entorhinal cortex, 45

Episodic memory, 252, 291

Alzheimer's disease, 255

Equipotential models, 67

ERP see Event-related potentials (ERP)

ESFT, 206, 214

Event-related potentials (ERP), 65, 68–70, 77, 86, 92, 113–6

amplitude, 72–3, 88

bilingual language processing, 105

bilingual semantic memory, 111–3

EEG signals, 69

electrical brain activity, 111

experimental conditions, 72

fMRI

bilingual semantic memory, 105–21

latency, 84

levels of analysis, 70–2

L2 learners, 116

MEG techniques, 99

prerequisites, 69–70

revealing independently functioning processing modules, 68

scalp topography, 78

semantic memory functional modularity, 65–100

semantic priming studies, 112

single word vs. sentence processing, 114

source localization, 99

task performance, 331

typical topography analysis, 73

Evolutionary essential items

knowledge systems, 341

Evolutionary hypothesis, 260

Evolutionary significance

information stored in categorical organisation, 341

Evolutionary view, 249

Exception word naming

lexical mechanism, 166

Excitatory stimulation, 235

Executive attention, 224

Extrastriate, 281

Faces

action verbs, 37

distributed representation, 309–11

fusiform gyrus, 310

fusiform gyrus bilateral activity, 310

neural processing substrates, 335

Factorial design, 71–2

Factorially manipulated

semantic category, 195

Factors interact at some sites, 79–81

False localization

semantic memory, 334

False positive responses

schizophrenia, 140

Familiarity, 11

associated, 269

brain damage, 273

vs. imageability, 172

Famous proper names

vs. common proper names

refractoriness, 9

Farnsworth-Munsell Color Perception Task, 308

Far spreading activation theory

FTD, 135

Feature-based account

semantic memory, 183

Feature-based model

semantic memory, 196–7

Feature-based object retrieval

semantic memory, 142

Feature binding

electrodes, 349

thalamus, 348

Feature distinctiveness, 269

Feedback, 252, 280

Females

fruit and vegetables, 44

Final-word concreteness main effects

topographies, 87

Fine grain

category specific deficits, 10, 13

PET, 309

semantic organisation within broad categories, 10–3

Firing rate

adaptation effects, 21

presynaptic neuron, 22

Flow language symptoms

acute cerebral blood, 223

Fluency, 110

Fluent aphasics

anomic patients, 34

fMRI see Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)

Fodorian central process, 97

Fodor's modules, 82

Food

semantic information, 338

Formal thought disorder (FTD), 133, 250, 255

ACC, 136

clinical assessment tool, 134

disorganisation, 142

DLPFC, 136

far spreading activation theory, 135

fMRI, 139

inferior frontal gyrus, 136

Formal thought disorder (cont.)

negative vs. positive, 134

neuroimaging studies, 135–6

overbinding, 142

PET, 136

semantic memory, 134–5

semantic network associational activation, 135

semantic object recall neural correlates, 138–42

semantic priming, 135

STS, 136

symptoms, 133–4, 138

Frontal lobe

object, 350

verb activation, 37

Frontalvs. temporal activation

L2 semantic tasks, 120

Fronto-parietal areas, 46

Fruits and vegetables

females, 44

temporal lobe lesions, 44

visual attributes, 47

FTD see Formal thought disorder (FTD)

Full sentences

all-English experiments, 115

Function

vs. manipulation, 190

Functional attributes

biological entities, 41

results, 87

Functional brain imaging, 46, 184

conceptual knowledge, 316

conceptual structure account, 265

object properties and categories, 304–6

tool and action processing

future directions, 196

Functional independence, 82

Functional information

vs. visual information, 39

Functional knowledge

acceptation, 49

vs. manipulation, 190–1

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), 294

abstract words, 158

AoA, 118–20

basal ganglia, 239

basic-level naming, 289

bilingual language processing, 105

category judgment task with word pairs, 336

concrete words, 158

domain-level naming, 289

FTD, 139

imageability, 156

moving geometric forms, 322

multimodal integration, 198

naming pictures of animals, 305

nonsense syllables, 225

nonwords, 158

object categories, 315

picture naming, 334

regional brain activity, 251

semantic decisions, 282

semantic object memory, 346

SORT, 138

subtraction, 66

task performance, 331

visual lexical decision task, 158

word generation, 225

words and nonwords, 155

Functional modules, 66

multiple comparisons, 83–5

Functional properties

confounding, 49

Functional similarity

semantic memory revealed

statistical considerations, 82–5

Fusiform gyrus

animal and tools pictures, 316

animals, 311

bilateral activity

faces, 310

category-related patterns, 310

color word generation, 308

conceptual processing, 316–8

electrical interference, 345

faces, 310

mental imagery, 155

nouns, 210

object, 306, 314

object color, 308

repetition-related reductions in hemodynamic responses, 317

tools, 313

top-down vs. bottom-up processes, 321

visual object images, 317

word imageability, 164

Fusiform tool region, 194

GABA, 221, 222

Gamma rhythm

cortex

memory, 341

Gender

animals, plant life, artefacts, 44

category interaction biological categories, 44

familiarity factors

animals vs. plants, 45

living categories identification, 43

living vs. non-living things, 44

non-living categories identification, 43

Gender-related familiarity effects, 38

Generalized brain/behavioral organisation principles

object memory, 332

Generation tasks

LPMT, 189

Geographical domain

knowledge base, 15

Geographical information

experiments, 15

Geographical knowledge

global comprehension deficit, 14

organisation, 14–6

spoken word-written word matching task, 14

Geographical proximity, 14

English city name identification, 14

Geometric forms

fMRI, 322

German

PET

verbs and pseudo-verbs, 214

Geschwind's model, 47

Global analysis, 87

Global comprehension deficit

geographical knowledge, 14

Global level

language context, 115

Globus pallidus

operative procedures, 219

Glutamate, 220, 222

Grammatical category

cognitive defect, 35

hypothesis, 36

Grammatical judgment

AoA, 119

Grasping objects

premotor and intraparietal regions

tools, 314

Gratings

hemodynamic responses, 311

Group averaged hemodynamic responses

moving humans and tools, 313

Gyrus, 284

semantic judgment, 345

Hand manipulations

vs. whole body movements, 189

perceptual level,

Hemisphere

word-generation tasks, 227

Hemisphere X Anterior-Posterior, 94

Hemodynamic responses

moving gratings, 311

repetition-related reductions in

fusiform gyrus, 317

Herpes Simplex Encephalitis (HSE), 37, 49, 275, 277, 333

category-specific semantic impairments, 276

Hierarchical object processing system, 286–93

High property target word, 280

Houses

distributed representation, 309–11

neural processing substrates, 335

HSE see Herpes Simplex Encephalitis (HSE)

Human figures

vs. tools

lateral temporal cortex, 314

Human motion

vs. tools

MTG, 312

Humans and tools

group averaged hemodynamic responses, 313

Huntington's disease, 240

Hybrid semi-connectionist networks, 67

Hyperdirect loop, 221

semantic priming suppression, 236–8

Hypoperfusion

ACC, 136

VLPFC, 136

Identification

artefacts, 37

body parts, 37

IFG see Inferior frontal gyrus (IFG)

Imageability, 150

Images

vs. familiarity, 172

fMRI, 156

lexical and semantic decisions, 167, 169

lexical decision, 156–7

low-frequency exception word naming, 166

nouns and verbs, 206–8

positive effects, 155

semantic decision, 160–1

static vs. moving

STS and MTG, 312

vs. task difficulty, 165

word naming, 166–8

Imaging studies

semantic processing tasks, 159

Inanimate objects

category-specific deficit, 302

Inanimate stimuli, 10

Indirect loop

semantic priming suppression, 236–8

Indirect priming, 135

Inferior frontal gyrus (IFG)

abstract words, 163

FTD, 136

increasing task difficulty, 165

L1 phonological processing, 119

Inferior frontal region

activation, 160

Inferior parietal

activation, 188

Inferior temporal cortex (IT), 187

Inferotemporal lobe (ITL), 45, 293

Information processing

architecture, 67

neural processors, 71

separate parallel stream, 80

Insula

increasing task difficulty, 165

Integrated object concept

semantic memory, 351

Integration, 91, 96–7

implications, 96

Intention

basal ganglia, 223–4

Interactionism

vs. modularity, 66–8

Interaction-yielding processor, 97

Internal structure, 273

Intracranial potentials, 71

Invariant, 76

IT see Inferior temporal cortex (IT)

Italian-speaking patient

mirror deficit, 211

Item frequency, 11

ITL see Inferotemporal lobe (ITL)

Judgments, 253

concrete and abstract nouns triads, 161

Knowledge

domains, 15, 266, 268, 303

explicitly expressed, 304

expression and representation, 303–4

neural substrates, 28

systems

evolutionary essential items, 341

L1 activation during L2 processing

primes, 115

Language

clinical and neurosurgical research, 117

global level, 115

lexical forms

bilingualism, 107

selectivity, 115

semantics

basal ganglia, 219–40

switching, 115

system

expression, 303

Late learners, 112

Latency

ERP, 84

Late positive complex (LPC), 86

Lateral occipitotemporal sulcus (LOTS)

T1-weighted scan, 292

Lateral temporal cortex

animate objects and artefacts, 321

complex motion processing, 312

human figures vs. tools, 314

motion properties, 311–4

object, 305, 306

verb generation and activation, 306

L2-concept connections

bilinguals, 111

LDT see Lexical decision tasks (LDT)

Leaky modularity, 84

Learners

late, 112

Learning

dependent modulation

object category-related activity, 315–6

neural circuitry, 320

related changes

repetition suppression, 317

speed

architecture, 68

Left posterior middle temporal region (LPMT), 188

action-selective

sensory experience, 191

action-selective effects, 192

activation, 189, 190

decision or generation tasks, 189

manipulation

semantic tasks or written words, 189

stimulus, 191

tool category and action retrieval, 193

Lemma level, 110

Lexical access, 335

vs. semantic knowledge, 336

Lexical ambiguity priming

associative strength, 236

Lexical concepts, 108, 109

Lexical decision tasks (LDT), 32, 109, 162, 165

abstract words, 165

concrete and abstract words, 170

imageability, 167

effects, 156–7

normal semantic priming, 134

primed, 115

semantic knowledge, 156

visual-perceptual knowledge, 164

Lexical forms

language

bilingualism, 107

Lexical impairment

living beings, 43

Lexical item retrieval

basal ganglia

word generation, 225–7

Lexical level

cognitive defect, 35

RHM, 114

word generation, 233–4

Lexical links, 111

Lexical mechanism

exception word naming, 166

Lexical-semantic memory, 205, 333

for objects

perceptual featural organisation, 336

Lexicon

orthographic and phonological, 166

whole-word phonological representations, 166

Linear superposition, 75

Linguistic processes

abstract concepts, 171

basal ganglia injury, 219

Living things, 289, 303

vs. artefacts, 33

brain correlates of category-specific semantic disorders, 44

category-specific semantic deficits, 183, 266, 268

CSA, 277

dissociation with non-living things, 9

distinctive properties, 278

functional properties, 49

identification

gender, 43

visual properties, 39

identification impairment, 37

vs. man-made artefact domain, 33

lexical impairment, 43

naming or recognizing, 38

vs. non-living, 11

gender, 44

refractoriness, 9

RT, 278

priming experiment, 278

semantic dementia, 48

visual attributes, 47

weakly correlated distinctive features, 279

women, 44

word-picture matching, 277

L1–L2 asymmetry

in processing, 109–10

L2 learners

context information, 114

ERP, 116

L1–L2 interaction

co-ordinative bilingualism, 106

Localizing regions

semantic processing, 343

Locus of interference

N200 114

LOTS see Lateral occipitotemporal sulcus (LOTS)

Low-frequency exception word naming

imageability, 166

LPC see Late positive complex (LPC)

L1 phonological processing

inferior frontal gyrus, 119

L2 phonological processing

phonological processing, 119

LPMT see Left posterior middle temporal region (LPMT)

L2 semantic tasks, 111

frontal vs. temporal activation, 120

L2 STG activation

phonological processing, 119

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

aphasia, 223

co-registered structural

with dense electrode arrays, 99

Magnetoencephalography (MEG), 65

ERP, 99

Males See also Men

animals, 44

Manipulable objects, 38

vs. non-manipulable objects, 191

AIP, 184

Manipulation, 338

AIP

vs. function, 190

vs. functional knowledge, 190–1

LPMT

ventral premotor

Man-made artefact domain, 13

vs. living beings impairment, 33

Man-made objects

sensory-motor mechanisms, 46

Mapping

cognitive processing, 233

isolated preservation, 10

Masked vs. unmasked priming, 109

Massive structural interconnectivity, 67

Mass nouns

comprehension, 13

Master binder, 293

Medial globus pallidus, 230

Medial temporal lobe (MTL), 45, 50

Alzheimer's disease, 50

Mediating processing

synchronizing rhythms, 346

MEG see Magnetoencephalography (MEG)

Men

artefacts, 44

Mental imagery

fusiform gyrus, 155

Mentally visualized, 150

Methylmalonic enzyme, 259

Midbrain reticular activating system

increasing task difficulty, 165

Middle cerebral artery

blockage, 223

stroke, 11

Middle cortex lesions

noun production deficits, 208

Middle temporal gyrus (MTG)

motion, 312

object-associated motion, 312

tools, 311, 313

tool vs. human motion, 312

Mid-fusiform gyrus

word imageability, 161

Minimal syntactic frame

noun or verb phrase, 211

Mirror deficit, 211

Italian-speaking patient, 211

Misclassification

semantic memory impairment, 249

Modal

specificity, 16–8

Modality

specific deficits

VST, 209

specific higher visual association cortex, 164

specific refractory deficits, 17

specific semantic storage deficits, 18

specific sensory-motor systems, 149

tool-selectivity, 195

Modularity

vs. interactionism, 66–8

sentence comprehension, 85–91

Modular organisation

semantic knowledge, 281

Module

definition, 66

Monkey

vs. human

neuron areas, 188

Monolingual

vs. bilinguals

semantic judgment, 118

Motion

vs. cognition

verbs, 37

Motion (cont.)

MTG, 312

properties

lateral temporal cortex, 311–4

related information, 284

temporal sulcus, 311

STS, 312

Motor area connections

action-selectivity, 191

Motor memories, 338

Motor schemata, 208

Motor system

signal change patterns, 338

MRI see Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

MTG see Middle temporal gyrus (MTG)

MTL see Medial temporal lobe (MTL)

Multifocal cerebral tumours

refractoriness, 23

Multimodal integration

action and tool categorization, 198

fMRI, 198

Multimodal network model, 31

Multimodal semantic processing, 341

Multimodal semantic relationship

between semantic entities, 343

Multiple modality-specific semantic systems hypothesis, 31

parsimony principle, 31

Multiple selective impairments, 10

N200

locus of interference, 114

single word and sentences, 114

Naming

animal and tools pictures, 315

animals

fMRI, 305

ventral premotor cortex, 316

cognitive science, 205

compromised, 16

living things, 38

performance, 275

tools

ventral premotor cortex, 316

visuo-verbal disconnection, 46

Natural categories

semantic information, 338

Natural complex human movements, 190

Naturally-formed categories, 252

Natural response pace, 5

N400 component, 87, 91, 112

semantic priming, 112

Network

CSA, 270

Neural activity, 69

automatic semantic priming, 318

Neural and cognitive information processing

questions, 99

Neural basis of bilingual semantic memory, 116–18

Neural circuits

learning, 320

object property information, 318–20

property-based

object categories, 309

Neural foundations

conceptual representations, 302–25

Neural hybrid model

of semantic memory, 331–53

Neural instantiation

CSA, 281–4

Neural mechanisms

composite figure, 351

tool and action processing, 197–8

Neural processing, 71

abstract concepts, 172

bodies, 335

faces, 335

information processing, 71

Neural regions

knowledge domains, 266

Neural semantic detector model

nonverbal sound of objects and animals, 339

Neural substrates

knowledge, 28

Neural systems

action semantic features, 183

action semantics, 188–9

processing tools and action semantics, 182–98

sensory deprivation, 191

speech production, 210

Neuroanatomical correlates

category-specific semantic disorders, 46

disorders selectively affecting nouns and verbs, 35–6

disorders specifically affecting living and non-living things, 42–3

Neuroanatomical substrates, 28

Neurodegenerative diseases, 275

semantic memory impairments, 248

Neuroimaging studies

concrete and abstract word processing, 150–6

FTD, 135–6

Neuromodulators, 22

cortex, 22

refractory access deficits, 21

Neuron areas

monkey vs. human, 188

Neurophysiological basis

semantic refractory access disorders, 21–3

Neurophysiological studies

non-human primates

Neuropsychological patient studies

CSA, 273–8

Neuropsychologists

cognitive task study, 67

Neuroscientific investigations

semantic memory, 343

Neurosurgery

bilingual, 117

Neurotransmitters, 22, 220, 222

Non-cognates

abstracts words and verbs, 108

Non-distinctive information, 267

Non-fluent aphasics

agrammatic patients, 34

Non-fluent primary progressive aphasics, 210

Non-human primates

neurophysiological studies

Non-linguistic concepts

semantic forms, 108

Non-living categories identification

gender, 43

Non-living concepts

vs. living concepts, 11

Nonliving domains, 266, 272

Non-living things

category-specific semantic deficits, 183

deficit, 39

dissociation, 9

vs. living things

dissociation with, 9

refractoriness, 9

RT, 278

Non-manipulable objects

vs. manipulable objects, 191

Non-member foils, 256

Nonsense syllables, 226

fMRI, 225

Non-sound stimuli, 340

Nonstructural design, 72–3

Nonthreatening stimuli, 340

Nonverbal sound

of objects and animals

neural semantic detector model, 339

targets, 339

Nonwords

concrete and abstract words, 157

vs. concrete words, 159

fMRI, 158

letter string, 232, 234

Noradrenaline, 21

Normal semantic priming

lexical decision task, 134

Nouns

auditory presentation, 91

fusiform gyrus, 214

minimal syntactic frame, 211

naming

selective deficits, 211

production deficits

middle cortex lesions, 208

representing animals and tools, 284

vs. verbs, 206

concrete knowledge, 207

Nouns and verbs, 212

aphasia, 209

aphasic patients, 34

cerebral cortex, 208

comprehension, 34

concreteness or imageability, 207

core semantic structure, 213

disorders in production and comprehension, 34–7

distinction, 212

imageability and concreteness, 206–8

objects and actions, 212

semantic core approach, 213–14

semantic dementia, 209

semantic representation, 205–14

sensory/functional approaches, 205–6

visual and sensorimotor features, 208–11

Novel animal study, 258

Novel category, 251

Novel objects

left lateral view, 319

N400 priming

associative words, 113

categorical pairs, 113

Dutch-only word, 115

English-only word, 115

NT400 priming modulations, 114

Null hypothesis, 82–3

Number produced

words, 136

Objects

associated color, 306–8

associated motion, 306–8

MTG, 312

STS, 312

categories, 304

fMRI, 315

learning-dependent modulation, 315–16

color, 307

fusiform gyrus, 308

ventral temporal cortex, 307

decisions tasks

semantic degradation, 32

form, 307

memory, 291

category-based and feature-based framework, 342

neural processing substrates, 335

nouns and verbs, 212

phase-scrambled images, 319

processing, 287

properties

neural circuits, 318–20

retrieving information, 306–8

recall, 139

feature binding, 348

semantic memory, 137

thalamus, 348

ventrolateral occipito-temporal cortex, 214

word pairs, 317

Occipital lobes

animals, 309

color, 308

color perception, 308

stimuli, 334

Occipitotemporal cortex

bilateral ventral

objects, 304

PET, 309

processing stream, 287

visual imagery, 316

Old age

breaking down, 100

processing ossified, 100

On-line

identification of objects/items producing sounds, 340

language processing, 279

priming, 280

Operative procedures

globus pallidus, 219

Optic aphasia, 47

Organisation

conceptual knowledge, 303

conceptual space, 12

geographical knowledge, 14–16

principles

abstract concepts, 171

Organized Unitary Content Hypothesis (OUCH), 29

OUCH see Organized Unitary Content Hypothesis (OUCH)

Overbinding

FTD, 142

Pallidum, 230

PANSS see Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS)

Pantomime understanding, 36

Parahippocampal region, 45

Parallel distributed processing (PDP) models, 67, 97

Parietal cortex

actions, 214

Parietal lobe

abstract words, 163

action observation, 188

body movements, 212

Parieto-occipital cortex, 169

Parkinson's disease, 227, 235, 239

dopaminergic modulation, 238

impairment site, 238

Parsimony principle

multiple modality-specific semantic systems hypothesis, 31

unitary abstract model, 31

PDP see Parallel distributed processing (PDP) models

Perception, 28, 29

conceptual knowledge, 149

hand manipulations vs. whole body movements

lexical-semantic memory for objects, 336

moving stimuli, 186

reading motion words, 186

Perceptual-motor systems

concrete concepts, 150

Perceptual priming

tool-selectivity, 195

Perfect learner, 253

Perirhinal cortex, 45, 291

binding, 293

multimodal features, 293

PET see Positron emission tomography (PET)

Phase-scrambled images

objects, 319

Phonological processing

L2 phonological processing, 119

L2 STG activation, 119

Picture matching task

action, 213

Picture naming

fMRI, 334

PET, 334

verbs, 211

Picture stimulus arrays

word-picture matching, 12

Picture-word stimuli, 348

Pizza-versus-quarter, 251

Plants

vs. animals

gender-related familiarity factors, 45

gender, 44

Position effects

refractoriness, 8

Position X Anterior-Posterior, 94

Position X Relatedness, 94

Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS), 139

Positron emission tomography (PET)

color, 307

fine-grained category-related differences, 309

FTD, 136

German

verbs and pseudo-verbs, 214

occipitotemporal cortex, 309

picture naming, 334

subtraction, 66

task performance, 331

tools vs. animals, 310

Posterior mid-temporal gyrus

activation, 343

Post-lexical integration, 112

Prefrontal cortex, 169, 212, 251

actions, 214

body movements, 212

concrete imageable concepts, 163

objects, 304

verb production deficits, 208

Premotor cortex

action word generation, 309

grasping objects

tools, 314

increasing task difficulty, 165

signal changes, 336

stimulus, 191

Pre-SMA basal ganglia circuit, 220, 221

word generation, 226, 350

Pre-SMA-dorsal caudate nucleus-ventral anterior thalamic loop, 226

Presynaptic neuron

firing rate, 22

Primary progressive aphasia

VST

Primed lexical decision tasks, 115

Prime-target relationships

Priming, 95

controversial, 236

L1 activation during L2 processing, 115

living and nonliving concepts, 278

masked vs. unmasked, 109

semantic decision, 280

SOA, 237

Probes

word picture matching task, 10

Processing, 71, 77

cognates vs. non-cognates, 108

L1-L2 asymmetry, 109–10

patterns, 256

training, 256

word-class effects, 108

Proficiency effects, 110–11

Progressive cerebral atrophy, 23

Proper names

famous vs. common

refractoriness, 9

Proper nouns

comprehension, 13

Property-based neural circuits

object categories, 309

Property generation studies, 271

Pseudowords, 156

Psycholinguistic experimental methodologies, 105

Psycholinguistic stimuli, 282

Pulvinar connect

signal changes, 350

visual cortex, 350

Reading motion words

perception, 186

Recall

brain maps, 141

Refractoriness, 8

experiments, 17

multifocal cerebral tumours, 23

position effects, 8

response inconsistency, 8

semantic relatedness, 8

Refractory access deficits

frequency, 6–7

neuromodulatory systems, 21

response consistency, 6

selective, 16

serials position curves, 6

vs. storage deficits

response consistency, 6

storage distinction

computational modeling study, 21

temporal factors, 5

word-picture matching, 5, 8

Regional brain activity

fMRI, 251

Relatedness, 94, 95

semantic satiation, 91–6

Relative theoretical ambiguity, 84

Relay station role, 348

Repetition, 92–5

electrode site, 92

object perception, 320

semantic satiation, 91–6

suppression, 317

learning-related changes, 317

object, 320

verbs, 211

Repetition X Anterior-Posterior, 93

Response

accuracy

semantic relatedness, 11

consistency

frequency effects, 22

inconsistency

refractoriness, 8

time

visual lexical decision task, 159

Response-stimulus interval (RSI), 4, 5

Retrieving information

object properties, 306–8

Revised Hierarchical Model, 109

RHM

lexical-level translation links, 114

RSI see Response-stimulus interval (RSI)

RT, 113–16

in lexical decision study

activation, 163

sensitivity, 160

Rules

AD, 258

categorisation, 259

Alzheimer's disease, 257

SD, 257

semantic dementia, 257

Russian-German bilinguals

semantic violation paradigm, 119

SANS see Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS)

SAPS see Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS)

Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS), 138

Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS), 138

Scalp, 79

potentials, 69–71

amplitudes, 70

measurable, 69

topographic distribution, 70

topographies, 77

weak interaction, 81

Scanning

clustered acquisition, 167

objects, 320

Scenes

neural processing substrates, 335

Schizophrenia

false positive responses, 140

semantic memory, 133–42

semantic memory network over activation, 141

semantic object, 136–8

symptoms, 133

Scrambled images, 287

Selective deficits

noun and verb naming, 211

Selective impairment

action verbs, 10

naming fruit and vegetables, 47

Selective influence, 76

Semantic access

vs. semantic processes, 342

word imageability, 149–72

methods, 157, 162, 167

results, 157–9, 162–3, 167

word naming, 166

Semantically related items

arrays, 4

Semantic and episodic memory retrieval, 307

Semantic association, 19

Semantic category

factorially manipulated, 195

signal change patterns, 341

Semantic Category Decision task, 256, 258

Semantic content

knowledge, 247

stimuli, 184

Semantic core approach

nouns and verbs, 213–14

Semantic decision tasks

concrete and abstract words, 163

fMRI, 282

imageability, 160–1, 167

priming, 280

task difficulty, 164

temporal gyrus, 170

word imageability, 164

word level, 119

Semantic degradation

object decisions tasks, 32

Semantic dementia, 23, 50, 255

content knowledge, 258

living things, 48

nouns and verbs, 209

rule-based categorisation, 257

temporal lobes, 50

Semantic disorder for artefacts

lesions, 43

Semantic distance effects, 10, 14

Semantic effects

abstract word domain, 18

Semantic features hypothesis, 292

brain activation complexity, 116

intercorrelations among, 40–2, 51

Semantic forms

non-linguistic concepts, 108

Semantic impairment for living things

temporal lobe, 43

Semantic information, 96

food, 338

neurons

storage deficits, 21

word naming task, 167

Semantic judgment

gyrus, 345

monolingual vs. bilinguals, 118

Semantic knowledge, 233 See also Sensory-motor model

decision times, 166

vs. lexical access, 336

lexical decision task, 156

modular organisation, 281

SFT, 206

Semantic level

category-selective activations, 185

Semantic memory

Alzheimer's disease, 255

bilingual

ERP and fMRI, 105–21

cognitive model, 265–94

content and process, 261

cortical damage, 249

feature-based account, 183

feature-based model, 184, 196–7

feature-based object retrieval, 142

FTD, 134–5

functional modularity

event-related brain potentials, 65–100

functional similarity

statistical considerations, 82–5

impairment

misclassification, 249

neurodegenerative disease, 248

original studies, 3

integrated object concept, 351

network over activation

schizophrenia, 141

neuroscientific investigations, 343

objects, 137, 331, 347, 352

process and content, 247–61

schizophrenia, 133–42

semantic network dysfunction, 138

semantic representation, 352

shared, 107–9

subsystems, 332–42

task

bottom-up approach, 137

theories, 261

two-level theories of, 108

Semantic model

bi-directional lexical-semantic connections, 280

Semantic network associational activation

FTD, 135

Semantic network dysfunction

semantic memory operations, 138

Semantic object

memory

fMRI, 346

recall, 346, 349

neural correlates

FTD

schizophrenia, 136–8

Semantic Object Recall from Features input Task (SORT), 136–8

fMRI, 138

Semantic organisation

cognitive models, 182–4

principles, 18–21

semantic refractory dysphasia, 13

Semantic priming, 112, 231, 232

basal ganglia, 233–4

basal ganglia functions, 239

basal ganglia in intentionally guided attention, 232–3

ERP, 112

FTD, 135

N400 component, 112

normal

lexical decision task, 134

suppression, 236–8

hyperdirect loop, 236–8

indirect loop, 236–8

Semantic primitives

vs. encyclopedic knowledge, 304

Semantic processes, 141, 233

basal ganglia injury, 219

DLPFC, 345

encoded by anatomic regions, 346

imaging studies, 159

irrespective of stimulus type, 342–8

localizing regions, 343

vs. semantic access, 342

tool and biological actions, 285

Semantic refractory access, 3–24

brain conceptual knowledge, 10

category dissociations, 8–10

description, 4–8

neurophysiological basis, 21–3

recognise, 16

semantic organisation, 13

synaptic depression, 21

verbal-visual and visual-visual matching performance, 17

Semantic regions, 183

Semantic relatedness, 7–8, 11, 19

access deficits, 7

within array, 10

categorical organisation, 13

conceptual knowledge base, 13

function, 12

gradient, 13

refractoriness, 8

response accuracy, 11

Semantic representation

activation, 168

nouns and verbs, 205–14

semantic memory, 352

Semantic satiation

relatedness, 91–6

repetition, 91–6

Semantic segregation, 197

Semantic similarity, 11, 13

abstract and concrete words, 20

Semantic space, 9

Semantic system

analogous dissociations, 16

diffuse damage

artefacts, 41

Semantic tasks

AoA, 118

LPMT, 189

Semantic violation paradigm

Russian-German bilinguals, 119

Senile dementia

target's resemblance to humans, 260

Sensitivity

RT, 160

Sensorimotor cognitive systems

objects, 332

Sensory association cortex, 259

Sensory deprivation

neural systems, 191

Sensory experience

action-selective LPMT, 191

Sensory features, 293

Sensory/functional theory (SFT), 39, 42, 84

implementation, 40

nouns and verbs, 205–6

semantic knowledge, 206

visual-perceptual properties, 41

Sensory inputs

convergence, 291

Sensory-motor channels, 48

semantic categories, 48

Sensory-motor image codes, 150

Sensory-motor mechanisms

man-made objects, 46

objections, 48–51

Sensory-motor model, 183, 248, 260, 282

conceptual representation, 160

object, 304

semantic knowledge, 51

of semantic knowledge, 34, 36–7, 45, 50

Sensory-Motor-Property Model for Representing Domain-Specific Information, 303

Sensory-motor regions, 183, 184

Sentence

bilingual semantic access in, 113–16

completion tasks

verbs, 211

comprehension

concreteness, context, modularity, 85–91

ending positivity, 95

Sentences

vs. single word

ERP, 114

NW00 114

Sequentially organized modules, 97

Serial position curves

refractory access patient, 6

Serial position effects

degenerative conditions, 6

SFT see Sensory/functional theory (SFT)

Shared semantic memory, 107–9

Short stimulus onset asynchronies (SOA), 234, 235

automatic semantic priming, 109

basal ganglia, 237

dominant meaning, 237

priming paradigms, 237

Signal changes

motor system, 338

premotor region, 336

pulvinar exhibit, 350

semantic categorical or featural properties, 341

word pairs, 336, 337

Signal-to-noise ratio, 230

Similarity difference scores

concrete and abstract words, 162

word triads, 162

Simple motion trajectories

tools, 312

Single word

vs. sentences

ERP, 114

N200 114

SOA see Short stimulus onset asynchronies (SOA)

Social and affective processes

amygdala, 321

ventromedial prefrontal cortex, 321

Social interactions, 321

SORT see Semantic Object Recall from Features input Task (SORT)

Sound stimuli

animal category, 340

Sparse imaging scanning, 167

Spatial and action functions

dorsal stream of visual processing, 46

Spatial distinctiveness, 75

Spatially distributed brain activity

electrical evidence, 352

Spatial representation

temporal lobe, 335

Speech production

neural systems, 210

Spoken word

picture matching, 9, 11

written word matching task, 9

English cities, 15

geographical knowledge, 14

Stem and Word factors, 89, 91

Stem-concreteness

topographies, 87

Stem X Word interactions, 89, 90

STG, 290

Stimuli

category, 288

characteristic dimensions, 184

cognitive operation, 186

features, 286

frequency, 6

LPMT, 191

mapping cortical areas

object naming, 117

neural processing substrates, 335

perception, 186

premotor cortex, 191

samples, 253

selection

category-specific semantic disorders for living entities, 38

semantic content, 184

semantic memory, 352

type

semantic process, 342–8

verb generation, 345

Storage deficits

vs. access deficits, 3, 4

physiological account, 22

vs. refractory access

response consistency, 6

semantic information neurons, 21

Striatal neurons, 229

Stroke

lateral projections, 344

middle cerebral artery, 11

transient deficits, 210

Structural design, 72

Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders, 139

STS see Superior temporal sulcus (STS)

Subcortical motor system

word-word feature binding task, 348

Substantia nigra pars compacta

dopaminergic projections, 222

Subtraction

functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), 66

positron emission tomography (PET), 66

pure insertion, 66

Sulcus

increasing task difficulty, 165

Superior temporal sulcus (STS), 187, 283, 290

animals, 311

FTD, 136

motion, 312

object-associated motion, 312

static vs. moving images, 312

Suppression-enhancement-suppression cycle

word generation, 231

Synaptic depression, 21

semantic refractory access, 21

Synchronizing rhythms

mediating processing, 346

Synchronous co-activation

thalamus, 353

Synonym Judgment Task, 137

Syntactic level

agrammatism

verb retrieval, 35

Syntactic processing

AoA, 117

Systematic review

category-specific semantic disorders for living beings and artefacts, 43

Task difficulty

vs. imageability, 165

Tasks

block format, 225

category, 186

demands, 185

brain activation, 116

concrete and abstract conditions, 156

difficulty

cingulate gyrus, 165

IFG, 165

insula, 165

midbrain reticular activating system, 165

premotor cortex, 165

semantic decision task, 164

sulcus, 165

generalization

architecture, 68

instructions, 168

manipulations, 185

action vs. non-action features, 185

performance

activation studies, 331

ERP, 331

fMRI, 331

PET, 331

temporal foci, 165

Temporal cortex

objects, 304

top-down vs. bottom-up processes, 321

Temporal delay, 340

Temporal factors, 22

access cases vs. degenerative cases, 5

Temporal foci

tasks, 165

Temporal gyrus, 282

electrical interference, 345

semantic decision study, 170

tools, 334

Temporal lobes, 289

activation, 343

animals, 44

basic-level naming, 290

category-specific disorders for animals and plant-life, 43

color word generation, 308

concrete and abstract words, 160

fruits and vegetables, 44

functions, 45

semantic dementia (SD), 50

semantic impairment for living things, 43

spatial representation, 335

Temporal phenomena, 233

Temporal pole, 46

abstract words, 163

Temporal sulcus

motion-related information, 311

Temporal summation requirement, 69

Temporo-parietal-occipital (TPO) junction

activation, 343

Test endorsements, 257

Thalamocortical and corticothalamic connections, 348

Thalamus

feature binding, 348

increasing task difficulty, 165

object recall, 348

signal change, 349

synchronous co-activation, 353

word-word feature binding task, 348

Thesaurus

conceptual knowledge, 3

Thought, Language and Communication Scale (TLC), 134

Thought Disorder Index, 139

TLC see Thought, Language and Communication Scale (TLC)

TMS see Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)

Tool pictures

animal pictures, 185

binocular rivalry, 192

fusiform gyrus, 316

Tools

and action processing, 285

functional imaging, 196

neural mechanisms, 197–8

vs. animals

PET, 310

and animal-selective activations, 195

category and action retrieval

LPMT, 193

category-specific deficit, 302

distributed representation, 309–11

fusiform gyrus, 313

grasping objects premotor and intraparietal regions, 314

group averaged hemodynamic responses, 313

vs. human figures

lateral temporal cortex, 314

vs. human motion

MTG, 312

MTG, 311, 313

nouns, 284

object name

clusters of activity, 283

representations, 84

selective activations

dorso-ventral dissociation, 194

selective responses, 192–4

selectivity, 195

display, 195

modality, 195

perceptual priming, 195

semantic content, 196

visuo-motor action system, 192–4

semantic information, 338

semantic memory, 333

simple motion trajectories, 312

temporal gyrus, 334

words

animal words, 185

Topographies

ERP, 73

final-word concreteness main effects, 87

scalp potentials, 70

stem-concreteness, 87

Word X Stem interaction effect, 89

TPO see Temporo-parietal-occipital (TPO) junction

Training pairs, 252

Training trial displays, 254

Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), 194, 213

Transient deficits

stroke, 210

Tripartite dimensional structure, 280

T1-weighted scan

collateral sulcus, 292

lateral occipitotemporal sulcus (LOTS), 292

Unintegrated multimodal network, 31

Unitary abstract model, 31

parsimony principle, 31

Unitary distributed conceptual system, 183

Up state, 228

Upstream input systems, 82

Vegetables see Fruits and vegetables

Ventral activation

visual properties, 161

Ventral-medial temporal cortex, 169

Ventral occipitotemporal cortex, 286

Ventral premotor cortex, 187

manipulation

naming animals, 316

naming tools, 316

object, 306

objects, 304

Ventral temporal cortex

color imagery, 308

concrete vs. abstract words, 161

object color, 307

word imageability, 161

Ventral visual pathway

activation, 161

Ventrolateral occipito-temporal cortex

objects, 214

Ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC)

hypoperfusion, 136

social and affective processes, 321

Verbal-visual and visual-visual matching performance

semantic refractory access deficit, 17

Verbs, 284 See alsoNouns and Verbs

associative networks

abstract concepts, 171

leftward lateralization, 171

category-specific deficit, 35

cognitive defect, 35

conceptual system, 165

frontal lobe, 37

lateral temporal cortex, 306

minimal syntactic frame, 211

motion vs. cognition, 37

naming

selective deficits, 211

vs. nouns, 206

picture naming, 211

production, 207

production deficits

prefrontal cortex lesions, 208

production difficulties

dissociation, 207

repetition, 211

sentence completion tasks, 211

stimulation studies, 345

Visual complexity, 11

Visual cortex

pulvinar connect, 350

Visual experience

action type, 189–90

Visual features, 149

fruits and vegetables, 47

living things, 47

nouns and verbs, 208–11

Visual imagery

occipitotemporal cortex, 316

Visual information

vs. functional information, 39

Visual lexical decision task

fMRI, 158

response time, 159

Visual living stimuli, 281

Visually-based semantic knowledge, 344

Visual nonsemantic judgment, 118

Visual object images

conceptual processing, 318

fusiform gyrus, 317

Visual object representation, 45

Visual-perceptual knowledge

lexical decision task, 164

Visual-perceptual properties, 48

sensory-functional theory, 41

Visual properties

living categories identification, 39

ventral activation, 161

Visual/sensorimotor theory (VST), 209, 212

modality-specific deficits, 209

primary progressive aphasia

Visual similarity, 286

Visual systems

data acquisition, 333

Visual-visual condition, 17

Visual-visual matching tests, 16

Visuo-motor system, 187

action semantics, 186–8

activation, 197

tool-selectivity, 192–4

Visuo-verbal disconnection, 34, 47

category-specific naming disorders, 46–8

naming abilities, 46

VLPFC see Ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC)

V5/MT, 198

VST see Visual/sensorimotor theory (VST)

Weak interaction

scalp topographies, 81

Weinreich, Uriel, 105

Wernicke sites, 89

White matter tracts

body movements, 212

Whole body movements

vs. hand manipulations, 189

perceptual level

Whole objects, 286

Whole-word phonological representations

lexicon, 166

Women

living things, 44

Word and stem, 89, 90

electrode site, 88

Word and Stem interaction effects

topography, 89

Word-class effects

processing, 108

Word factor, 90

Word form level, 110

Word generation

basal ganglia, 228

fMRI, 225

frontal activity, 227

hemisphere, 227

lexical item retrieval basal ganglia, 225–7

lexical level of processing, 233–4

pre-SMA basal ganglia circuit, 226

pre-SMA region, 350

suppression-enhancement-suppression cycle, 231

Word imageability

conceptual processes, 150

fusiform gyrus, 164

mid-fusiform gyrus, 161

semantic access, 149–72

methods, 157, 162, 167

results, 157–9, 162–3, 167

semantic decision task, 164

ventral temporal lobe, 161

Word level

semantic decision task, 119

Word-like nonwords, 156

Word naming

cortical distribution, 212

imageability, 166–8

semantic access, 166

semantic information, 167

Word-nonword contrasts, 159

Word pairs

objects, 317

signal changes, 336, 337

Word-picture matching, 4, 9, 275

living things, 277

picture stimulus arrays, 12

probes, 10

refractory access disorders, 5

refractory access patient, 8

Words

fMRI, 155

number produced, 136

orthographic and phonological characteristics, 156

production data, 110

written and oral forms, 209

Word triads

SD scores, 162

Word-word feature binding task

cortical motor system, 348

subcortical motor system, 348

thalamus, 348

Word X Anteior-Posterior interaction, 88

Word X Stem interaction effects

topography, 89

Word X stem interaction effects

electrode site, 88

Written verb production, 209

X Anterior-Posterior yield, 90

X Electrode-Site interaction, 87

X Hemisphere X Anterior-Posterior

analysis, 93

test, 88


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