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  • Page extent: 364 pages
  • Size: 228 x 152 mm
  • Weight: 0.732 kg

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 (ISBN-13: 9780521824507 | ISBN-10: 0521824508)

Looking for Life, Searching the Solar System

Cambridge University Press
0521824508 - Looking for Life, Searching the Solar System - by Paul Clancy, André Brack and Gerda Horneck
Index


Index


α-helices 39, 57, 313, 315

Abyzov, S. S. 117

Acantharia 121

acidic and alkaline environments 68

acidophiles 68

acridine orange 318

adenine 34–37

advanced life support 173

advanced propulsion 173

aeroshell entry 224

after the discovery 128–32

airborne micro-organisms 114, 123

aircraft carrier 282

alanine 38

Alexander the Sixth, Pope 4

algae 203–06

alkaliphiles 69

alkaloids 322

Allan Hills (AIH84001) meteorite 79–83, 134

Allende meteorite 54

alpha proton X-ray spectrometer (APXS) 236, 328

amber 322

Ames Research Center 209

amino acids 37–41, 48, 50–56, 64, 250, 315

amorphous silicate 121

Amundsen, Roald 3, 11–12, 24, 240

anaerobic ecosystems 331

analysis context 131

ancient craters 130

ancient shorelines 130

Antarctic: 53, 79

   agencies (France, Italy), 177

   base operations, 168

   base simulations, 262

   bases, 177, 264

   exploration 11–16

   ice, 117, 122

   soils, 117, 124

antibodies 132

anti-nuclear movement 266

Apollo:

   Apollo 11: 17, 173, 174, 288

   Apollo 12: 182

   Apollo 13: 173, 174

   Apollo 17: 172, 174, 208

   missions, 168, 177, 276

   Programme, 24, 135, 169, 171–73, 174, 244, 245

   scientific payback, 289

   space missions (1969–1973), 22

   spacecraft, 169

   spacesuit, 168

Appell, P. W. U. 119

aquifers: 71, 114, 117, 123, 231

   underground, 218

Archaea 63

Archaean Earth 116, 123–26

Arctic: expedition of Amundsen (1903–1905), 12

argon 218

Ariane 5: 196, 226

Armstrong, Neil 172, 173

Arrhenius, S., see Panspermia

asexual reproduction 203

asteroid:

   mining, 273

   sample return mission, 269

astronauts 22

astronomers 178

astronomy 175

asymmetry 52

asymptotic limit 278

atmosphere sample return 264

atmospheric:

   oxygen, 113, 120, 121

   sample return mission, 238

ATP 130, 319

Australia 120

autocatalysis 33, 317

autocatalytic reactions 317

autotrophism 203


β-sheets 40, 58, 313–14

Bacillus subtilis spores, see spores, bacterial

bacteria 63, 203, 206

bacterial:

   heterotrophs, 119, 125

   membrane, 119, 125

   spores, 114, 117, 120

Bailey, J. 52

Baja California 116

Baker, David 240

balloon package 224

Balsiger, H. J. 17, 225

Ban, N. 59

banded iron formation 120

Barberton and Pilbara greenstone belts 120

Barbier, B. 54

barophiles 69

base pairing 37

Beagle 2: 204, 208, 211, 233, 234–35

Beagle, HMS 9–11, 139, 143

bed-rest studies 262, 264

bees in amber 117

BepiColombo mission 220, 262, 266

Bering Straits 25

Bernal, J. D. 45

Bernard, F. P. 70

Bernhardt, G. 69

Bertrand, M. 56

BGM, see Biology/Greenhouse Module

Biemann, K. 120

biochemists 134

biogenic magnetite 121, 329

biogenic minerals 121

biological:

   activity on Mars, 113

   analysis, 272

   and economic growth, 278

   contamination, 182

   context, 129

   engineering, 332

   life support system, 206

   water treatment, 203

biologists 134

Biology/Greenhouse Module (BGM) 213, 214

biomarkers 119–20, 125, 129, 132, 320, 321, 322

biomass 119, 203, 250

biomedical monitoring 173

biomineralisation 120–21

biopolymers 313

bioregenerative:

   life support, 331

   methods, 202–04

   processes, 266

BIOS 1–3: 203

biosedimentary structures 124

biosphere, see also Gaia hypothesis 113

Biostack method 108–09

biotechnology: 134, 218, 271

   industries, 134, 252, 282

   research, 263

bioweathering 117, 120

black smokers 117, 125

bombardment 127

Borucki, M. K. 117

boundary molecules 55

Brack, André 18, 58, 315

brines 43

British Admiralty 7, 240, 276

Bruno, Giordano 181

building blocks 55, 60

Burmeister, J. 317

Burne, R. V. 124

12C/13C ratio 119, 235

Callisto 246, 250

Campbell, S. E. 116

Cano, R. J. 117

carbodiimides 56

carbon 12C 41, 235

carbon chemistry 41

carbon dioxide: 12, 19, 46, 48, 206, 214, 215, 216, 218

   cycle, 121

carbon: in water, 62

   isotopes, 41

carbonaceous:

   chondrites, 50, 51

   micrometeorites, 53

carbonates 119, 123, 124, 329

carbon-chemistry based life 65

carbothermal reduction 216

Carr, Michael 122

Cartier, J. 3

Case for Mars, The 240

Cassini/Huygens mission 254, 262, 264, 268

catabolic activity 125

cataclysmic impacts 48

catalysts 53

catalytic:

   activity, 315

   molecules, 55

   processes, 201

Cech, T. R. 59

celestial mechanics 193

cell membranes 132

cellular:

   microfossils, 125–26

   structures, 318

Cernan, Gene 168, 208

Chaikin, Andrew 172

Challenger disaster 174

channels and outflows 130

Chapelle, F. 119

Charlou, J. L. 49

chemical:

   and biological indicators 210

   anomalies 113, 123

   degradation 313

   fossils 321

   propulsion 194, 327

   records 320

   robots 47

   rockets 197

chemoautotrophic communities 122

chemofossils 320

chiral centres 322

Chlorella 203

choice 189

cholesterol 322

chondritic chemical reactor 53

Christensen, P. R. 231

Christianity:

   and conversion of heathens 22

chromosomes 132

Clark, Ben 240

clay mineral 47

clays 44, 56

Clementine mission 226

climatic change 18

Clinton administration, see President Bill Clinton

Closed Environmental Life Support System (CELSS) 214

closed life support systems 199, 262

CLSM 318

CNRS 18

Cold War: 277

   rivalry, 22

cold-loving:

   Archaea, 66

   organisms, 66

Colombo, Giuseppe 220

colonies 129

colonisation 287

colonists 270

Columbia disaster 175, 176

Columbus, Christopher 3, 22, 26

Comet 67P/Churyumov Gerasimenko 211, 257, 263

Comet Hale-Bopp 51

Comet Halley 50

Comet Hyakutake 50

comet sample return mission 269

cometary grains 51

comets: 50, 206, 230, 250

   and asteroids, 256–59

   as dirty snowballs, 257

commercialisation of space 267–68

complex adaptive systems (CAS) 274, 275, 278

concept of outer space 134

Concordia Station 177

conquest 187

consequences of failure 333

consumables 199–202

contamination: 183, 184

   context, 131–32

Cook, Captain James 3, 6–9, 22, 276

Cooper, G. 52

copal 322

coral reefs 120

core drilling device 210

coring and grinding 208

cosmic radiation 16

COSPAR 183

costs:

   of Space Shuttle operations, 20

   of human Moon programme, 20

   of space, 281

countermeasures: 145, 145–46, 160, 161–62

   anti-g suit, 146

   lower body negative pressure device, 145

   short-arm centrifuge, 147–48

   treadmill, 146

Cousteau, Jean-Michel 285

covalent and non-covalent bonds 62, 66

Cragg, B. A. 72

crater 226

craters on Moon:

   confirmation as meteor impacts 22

Crawford, I. A. 173, 178, 285, 289

crew:

   health, 225, 244

   rescue vehicle, 226

   size, 226–27

crew in Zubrin scenario: 242

   biogeochemist, 242

   commander, 242

   field scientists, 242

   flight engineer, 242

   medical care, 242

   pilot, 242

crew skills: 243

   manufacturing technology, 227

   software engineering, 227

   spacecraft engineering, 227

Crew Transfer Vehicle 176, 262, 264

Cronin, J. R. 52

crystal structure 329

crystalline structures 121

cultural world 186

cyanamide 56

cyanobacteria 116, 121, 313

cytosine 36

da Gama, Vasco 26

Darwin, Charles: 3, 9–11, 46, 233

   see origins of life

Davies, Paul 114, 123, 127

de Duve, Christian 1, 56

de Fontenelle, Bernard 181

Deamer, D. W. 52, 55

Dean, Darrick A. 289

DeBakey, M. E. 28

decarboxylation 54

decline, evidence of:

   delays in advanced transportation systems, 290

   in rate of innovation, 290

   inability to engage in new projects, 289

   inability to solve social problems, 290

   increase of bureaucracy, 289

   spread of irrationalism and pseudoscience, 290

deep hot biosphere 72

defence spending 281–82

Deinococcus radiodurans 73, 184

DeLong, E. F. 66

delta V 196, 326

dental surgery 211

destiny of humanity 185

determinism 186

deuterium/helium-3 reaction 219

DeVincenzi, Donald 183

diagenetic alteration 320, 321, 323

dielectric constant 313

dihydroxyacetone 52

dipole moment 45, 313

directed Panspermia, see Panspermia

discovery:

   of America, 22

   of life, 128

distillation 201

divergent glaciation 44

dividing cells 114

DNA: 34, 218

   degradation at high temperatures by loss of purine bases, 64

   double-helix stability at high temperatures, 64

   stability and natural radioactivity, 73

DNA/RNA: 131, 218

   fragments, 131, 132

   mechanism, 132

DNA/RNA/protein scheme 128

Dobbs, Lou 291

dogs:

   and their use by Amundsen 11–12

double helices 317

Driessen, A. J. M. 65

drilling: 206, 208, 235

   and sampling, 210

   experiments in oilfields, 70

   technology, 211–12

drugs, new 252

duplexes 316

dynamic cycles 121

Early Precambrian 119, 125

Earth:

   observation, 175

   orbit, 53

Earth Return Vehicle 241

Earth-Mars Cycler 263, 267, 271

Earth-Moon system 17

Earth-return 184

ecological context 130–31

ecopoeisis 331–32

edible plants 218

Edwards, H. G. M. 320

Ehrenfreund, P. 51

electric:

   fields, 194

   ion thrusters, 265

   propulsion, 194, 327

electrolysis 201, 215–17, 241

elemental analyses 210

Elephant Island 13–16

Ellington, A. D. 59

endolithic communities 320

Endurance, The, 12–13

Enlightenment 27

entry process 110

environmental:

   criticisms, 198

   extremes, 114

environmentalist movement 266

environments hazardous to humans: 162

   dust, 163–64

   UV radiation, 164

enzymes 34, 55

Epicurus 11–16

epifluorescence 181

ESA, see European Space Agency

Eschenmoser, Albert 319

ethical steps 316

ethics, interplanetary 180–90

eucaryotic algae 67

EURECA 67

Europa: 206, 247–53

   chaos regions, 249

   crater features, 247

   filaments, 248

   fissures in ice, 248

   human missions, 252

   magnetic field, 249

   magnetic poles, 250

   melting probes, 252

   ocean, 247, 249

   orbital eccentricity, 247

   organisms, 250

   resonance with other moons, 247

   similarity with Earth ice, 247

   tidal stresses, 247

   volcanic activity, 250

   water ice, 247

   water/ice boundary, 251

Europa, Ganymede and Callisto 268

European Mars Missions Architecture Study 213

European Space Agency (ESA): 175, 177, 196, 208, 211, 213, 221, 223, 276

   science team report ESA SP-1231, 235

   study laboratory, 213

EVA, see extravehicular activity

evaporites 116, 117, 122, 122–26

evapotranspiration 121

evidence for extinct life 123

evolution 47, 181

existentialist maxim 292

exobiologists 173

exobiology: 74–78, 208, 214, 235

   science package, 235

EXOMARS: 208

   mission, 211, 235–36, 262

expendable rocket costs 333

exploration: 187, 189

   exploitation and colonisation, 276

   motivations, 289

   technology, 194, 206–14

   urge for, 3–4, 28

exploratory behaviour 25

exponential growth 278

extant life 114–22

extinct life 117, 122–26

extraterrestrial:

   life, 180

   microbes, 187

extravehicular activity (EVA): Table 1 22, 168–71, 209, 225

   airlock, 213

extremophiles 66, 74, 129, 185, 218, 252

failure, frequent and unpredictable 275

faster cooling, of Mars 127

fatty acids 52, 55

Fe2+/Fe3+ ratio 328

Ferris, J. P. 56, 59

fieldwork 172, 213

fluorescence microscopy 318

‘follow the water’ strategy 230, 233, 237

food:

   plants, 203

   production, 203, 214

formaldehyde 48, 50

Forterre, Patrick 73, 74, 75

fossil life 124

fossilised micro-organisms 129, 131

FOTON satellite 54, 182

Fourier spectrometer 234

Fox, S. W. 56

Frank, Louis 257

Franklin, Sir John 240

free oxygen 331

freedom 189

Friedman, E. I. 66, 116

frozen soils 65

fundamental research 282

fungi 203, 206

Furness, H. 70

fusion powered mission to Mars 263

fusion:

   propulsion, 263, 271

   reactions, 214

   reactors, 218

Gagarin, Yuri 3, 16, 135, 173

Gaia hypothesis 113

Galapagos Islands 10–11

Galileo spacecraft 247

Galinski, E. A. 67

Ganymede and Callisto: 253

   grooves and ridges, 253

   landers, 263

   subsurface oceans, 253

gas:

   regeneration, 203

   sources, 70

gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GCMS) 118, 131

gas-exchange experiment 118

Gemini: 182

   flights, 168

   Gemini 4: 168

   Gemini 9: 168

   programme, 173

genes 132

genetic:

   code, 319

   new sequences, 252

   sequences, 134

genome 132

genotype 319

geochemical:

   context, 129–30

   reactions, 70

geographical location 128–29

geological context 129

geologists 173, 288

Gilichinsky, D. A. 117

Giotto mission 50

Gitelson, Josef 203

global:

   cycles, 202

   defence spending, 281

   economy, 277

glycerol 55

God, Gold and Glory 26, 27

gold 22

Gold, T. 72

Grant, W. D. 69

graphitic derivatives 320

gravity: 141

   artificial, 146–48

   levels, 225

   reduced Martian, 142

   weightlessness, 141–42, 144–48, 156

greenhouse: 214

   effect, 44

Greenland 119, 125

grey water 199

grinding/polishing device 210, 211

ground penetrating radar 230, 237

guanine 34

Gusev Crater: 237

   lake in, 237

Hab module 242

haematite 237

Haldane, J. B. S. 46

halophiles, extreme 67–8

halophilic archae 68

handedness 320

hard sciences 288

Haridon, H. 70

Harrison, John 28

Haynes, Bob 331

3He: 18, 214, 218, 225

   from Moon, 263, 271

3He – 3He reaction: 219

   fusion reactors, 271

health care 282

heavy bombardment 48

Henry the Navigator 3

Herodotus 181

hexopyranose ribose 316

hexose-2,4,6-triphosphate 316

high pressure environments 69–70

high temperature limit for terrestrial life 62

higher plants 206

Hirsch, P. 117

Holland, John 274, 275, 278

Holm, N. G. 49

homochirality 38, 315

Hooker 46

Horikoshi, K. 69

Horneck, Gerda 17, 21, 119

Horowitz, N. H. 118, 125

‘hot origin of life’ hypothesis 74

hot vents 114, 123

Hoyle, Fred 135, 258

Hubble Space Telescope 168, 170–71, 178, 256

human:

   exploration, 180

   fusion missions, 263, 272

   intervention, 173

   long-term survival, 290

   migrations, 25–6

   mining of asteroids, 263

   mobility vehicles, 207–09

   needs, 204

   nuclear/thermal missions, 272

   occupation, 268

   search-for-life exploration, 209

   surface exploration, 208

   tourism, 262, 263, 267, 271

human factors:

   acquisitiveness, 278

   crises, 277

   desire for security, 278

   ingenuity, 277

human health in space:

   bone loss, 144–45, 146

   fluid shift, 145–46

   long-duration expedition, 139, 143

   muscle loss, 145

   orthostatic intolerance, 145

   psychology, 156–62

   radiation effects, 150

   space adaptation syndrome, 142–43

   survivability, 4, 21, 22

Human Mars Reference Mission 240

human missions:

   to asteroid/comet, 263

   to Jupiter moons, 263

   to Mars, 140, 140–41, 141–42, 144–45, 146, 150–51, 153–56, 158–62, 240, 240–45, 258

   to Moon, 262, 266

   to Titan, 263

human spaceflight: 139

   EVA, 145, 153

   habitat, 156

   lunar base, 140

human/robotic context 131, 177–79

humanism 189–90

Humboldt 3

HUMEX study 21, 217, 243

hydrocarbons 42, 49

hydrogen: 214, 215

   bonds, 36, 43, 45, 313

hydrogen cyanide 48, 50

hydrogen peroxide 210

hydrogen sulphide 49, 113

hydrophilic 39, 313

hydrophobic 39, 313

hydroponic cultures 205

hydrothermal:

   systems, 49, 314

   vents, 49, 63, 117, 250

hyperthermophiles 63–65, 69, 72, 251

hyperthermophilic alkaliphiles 69

ice-cores 117, 121–22

ilmenite soil 216

ilmenite/volcanic glass reaction 216

imagining new worlds 275

impact scenario: 87–90

   acceleration experiments, 93

   ejection process, 92–94

   escape velocity, 87

   shock recovery experiments, 93–94

   spallation process, 88–89, 91

Imshenetsky, A. A. 117

inaccessible terrain 209

Indies 22

indirect fingerprints of life 120

industrial complex 264

inflatable:

   greenhouses, 203

   structures, 206

influenza 258

information 55

infrastructure 217

Ingledew, W. J. 68

inhabited lunar bases 225

inner planets: 220–45

   early history, 223

Innes, Hammond 7–8

in-situ analysis 167

in-situ carbon dioxide 196

in-situ investigations 120

in-situ resource analysis 193

in-situ resource technology 194

in-situ resource utilisation on Moon 263

in-situ resources: 8, 12, 18, 19, 21, 24

   exploitation technology, 214–19

   research, 214

   utilisation, 213, 240–42

in-situ utilisation 225

Institute of Biophysics 203

intelligent life in our Galaxy 287

international goal 173

International Ocean Drilling Programme 70

International Space Station (ISS) 20, 168, 175–76, 178, 199, 200, 201, 262, 263, 266

   development/operational costs, 281

   modules, 244, 245

interplanetary ethics 38, 180–90

interstellar medium 41, 49, 50, 54

Inuit people 12

Io, volcanoes on 23

ion/electron probes 329

ion thruster 197

ionised gas 194

ionisable groups 45

IR astronomy 226

IR spectroscopy 329

Iran 176

iron: 218

   oxides, 217

iron sulphide 49

isolation 177

isotopic:

   disequilibria, 113

   evidence, 119

   information, 322

   ratios, 121, 130

isotopic and molecular analyses 210

ISS, see International Space Station

Isua rocks 119–20, 125

Japan 221

JIMO, see also Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter

JIMO objectives: 246–47

   charged particle impacts, 246

   ice layers, thickness, 246

   interior structures, 246

   magnetic field, of Jupiter, 246

   origin of life, 246

   radiation environment, 246

   surface composition, 246

   surface features, 246

Johnstone, R. 17

Joyce, Gerald 316

Jupiter: 194

   and its moons, 245–46

Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO): 197, 245, 251

   mission, 262, 266

Kauffmann, Stuart 29, 31, 33

Keller, M. 69

Kennedy, M. J. 72, 76

Kerguelen Islands 7

kerogens 119, 132, 320, 323

King Haakon Bay 15

Klein, H. P. 118

Kobayashi, K. 49

Kolbel-Boekel, J. 117

Kuiper Belt 255

labelled release experiment 118

Laguna Figueroa 116

lake deposits 123

Lake Voskhod 252

Lanier, Jason 275

laser altimeter 222, 251

last common universal ancestor 74

launch:

   costs, 333–34

   mass requirements, 215

LDEF 182

Leonov, Alexei 168

Levin, G. V. 118

Libya Linea, on Europa 249

life:

   absence on Mars surface, 22, 72

   and physical sciences, 175

   as cosmic phenomenon, 132–35

   effects on a planetary environment, 113

   low temperature limits, 65–7

   new forms, 252

   non-terrestrial, 4, 25

life protection systems: 199

   subterranean, 70–73

life support systems: 156

   and protection systems, 194, 199–206

   bioregenerative, 152

Lindhal, T. 64

linear growth 278

lipids 119, 125

liquid:

   hydrogen, 194, 196

   oxygen, 194

   water, 42, 43, 44–45, 130

literary/humanities axis 133

Litho-Panspermia 54

   see also Panspermia

living entity, biosphere as 113

local human exploration 213

logistical and ethical issues 270

logistics 12, 24

long communications time 244

long-term decisions 282

long-term survival of humans 262

Lovelock, James 113

low Earth orbit space missions (1961–1969) 22

low energy transfer trajectory 243

Lucretius 181

Luisi, P. L. 31

Lunakhod lunar rover 207, 209

lunar:

   base, 202, 225–27

   poles, 214, 226

   samples, 172

Lunar Rover Vehicle 208

luxury goods 26

MacDermott, Alexandra 320

Magellan, Ferdinand 3, 4–6, 22, 26, 276

Magellan spacecraft 223

magnetic: 222

   field of Earth, 3

   minerals, 70

   record of Earth, 70

   separator, 210

   susceptibilities, 210

magnetometer 222

magnetosphere 221

major planets and their moons 245–55

Man on the Moon, A 172

Manhattan Project 278

manned spaceflight 171

mapping 209

mare basins 217

Marguet, E. 64

Margulis, Lynn 116

marine sediments 70

Mariner 9: 19, 227, 230

Mariner 10: 220

Mars: 227–33, 245

   500-day mission, 243

   1000-day mission, 243

   andesite, 228

   as target in search for life, 17

   atmospheric carbon dioxide, 234, 241

   atmospheric science, 233–35

   carbon chemistry, 238

   carbon dioxide ice, 232, 233

   climatic change and loss of water and atmosphere, 18

   dust and wind, 227

   epithermal neutron spectrometry, 228

   erosion, 228, 231

   exploratory/ colonisation costs, 281

   flooded craters, 230

   geothermal heat, 230

   gullies, 230

   human presence, 263

   hydrothermal environment, 237

   igneous basalt, 228

   launch window, 243

   magnetic field, 228

   north pole, 232

   northern hemisphere, 227

   outflow channels, 228

   oxidising layer, 235

   ozone concentration, 234

   permafrost, 230

   protected niches, 92

   radiation climate, 110

   radio science, 234

   river beds, 228, 230

   sample return mission, 262

   scientific exploration, 18

   sedimentary deposits, 230

   shorelines, 228

   simulations, 264

   snowy deposits, 231

   soils, 218

   southern hemisphere, 227

   surface science, 233

   topography, 227

   volcanism, 228

   warmer and wetter period, 18

   water, 230, 230–31, 236, 237

   water vapour concentrations, 234

Mars Climate Orbiter mission 232

‘Mars Direct Plan’ 12, 240

   see also Zubrin, Robert

Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) 207

Mars Express mission 233–35, 262, 264

Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) 227, 228, 237

Mars Odyssey spacecraft 227, 228, 230–32

Mars Polar Lander mission 232

Mars Project, The 243

Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter 237, 262, 264

Mars Reference Mission of NASA 208, 213, 216

Mars Science Laboratory (MSL): 238

   mission, 262, 266

Martian:

   meteorite, 134

   origin, 127

   regolith, 206

mass spectrometry 208

materials and processes, new 282

matting behaviour 124

Maurette, M. 53

Maxwell, J. R. 70

McKay, Christopher 20, 122, 123, 187, 331

McKinley, J. P. 70, 71, 117

McKnight 291–92

membrane filtering 201

membranes: 39, 55

   leaky at high temperatures, 65

   permeability in unbalanced ionic environment, 69

   survival at low temperatures, 66

Mercury: 220–23

   high density, 222

   polar water, 222

   programme, 173

Meridianum Planum 237

messenger RNA 75

MESSENGER spacecraft 222

metabolic pathways 134

metabolism 129

metabolites 322, 323

meteorite shield 169

meteorites: 51, 79–82

   ALH 84001, 79–82, 88

   artificial, 107, 110, 112

   entry and landing, 110–12

   Martian, 79, 87, 89

   Martian, possible fossil life forms in, 18

methane 42, 47, 48–49, 70, 214–15, 241

MGS, see Mars Global Surveyor

micelles 39

microanalysis 210

microbial:

   activity, 116

   cells, 114

   ecosystems, 114, 123

   reactors, 204

microbial communities: 114, 116, 117, 123, 124, 125

   Deinococcus radiodurans, 101–02

   endolithic, 100–01, 104, 105–06, 110

   evaporites, 101, 110

   Haloarcula, 108

   halophilic, 108

   Synechococcus, 108

microbialites 124–25

microenvironments 322

microfloras 119, 125

microfossils: 124, 125

   relics, 320

microgravity environment 168

micrometeorites 53

micro-organisms 72–73, 114–21, 116, 119, 130, 132, 182, 218, 318, 319

microsporidia 74

microspheres 58

mineral oxides 216

mineralisation: 321

   processes, 121

mineralogical determination 210

mineralogical mapping spectrometer 233

mineralogy 129

mini RNA 316

MIR space station 22, 168, 173, 175, 199, 200, 201, 245, 267

mirror image 38

mission control 16

mitochondria 129, 132

mitotic eucaryotes 114

mobile buggy 172

Mobile Pressurised Laboratory (MPL) 213

mobility 173

Mojsis, S. J. 119

molecular:

   evolution, 59

   spectroscopy, 329

montmorillonite 54

Moon: 189

   and the imagination, 19

   as assembly base, 263, 273

   as potential scientific outpost, 17

   as test-bed for new technologies, 18

   base at south pole, 263, 269

   human missions to as natural space station, 19

   race, USA/USSR of 1960s, 27

   rocks, 22

   similarities with Mars, 18

Moorbath, S. 119

Moore, L. S. 117, 124

Moore’s Law 274

moral choices 287

morphological and biochemical record 113

Mössbauer spectroscopy 212, 234, 236, 328

motivations and consequences of exploration 21–24, 22

MSL see Mars Science Laboratory

Munoz Caro, G. M. 50

Murchison meteorite 52, 55

nanotechnology 21

Nansen 3

NASA: 168–73, 276, 291–92

   robotic missions, 236–39

NASDA 276

national security/prestige 277

natural world 186

Nedell, S. S. 123

Neptune 255

neutral ions analyser 233

neutron:

   and gamma-ray spectrometer 222

   detectors 232

   star 52

Next Fifty Years, The (quotations) 127, 274, 275

Nielsen, P. E. 317

Nienow, J. A. 66, 116

nitrogen: 218

   cycle, 121

non-reducing atmosphere 49

Norris, P. R. 68

North West Passage 6, 9, 22, 240

Nozick, Robert 291

nuclear:

   electric mission, 262

   electric propulsion, 197–98, 247, 262, 265, 266

   fusion on ground, 198

   fusion propulsion, 197–99

   fusion reactors, 225

   power plants, 206

   reactor, 197, 252

   technology, 197

   thermal propulsion, 197–98, 252, 262, 265, 327

nuclear/electric probes at Uranus/Neptune 263

nucleic acids: 58

   sequencing, 117, 319

   survival of, 76

nucleotides 34, 59

O’Neill, G. K. 291

O2/CO2 balance 204

ocean floor 188

oil and gas formation 70

oilfields, subterranean 70

oldest sedimentary rocks 123, 124

olivine 329

one-handed life 52

one-handedness 41, 52

on-site investigations 243

Oort cloud 256

Oparin, Aleksander 46, 48, 254

open life support systems 199

open sea 188

Opportunity rover 236–37

opposition to human spaceflight 290

optical:

   examination, 212

   handedness, 120

   investigation, 210

   microscopy, 328

organic:

   debris, 322

   matter, 48

   molecules, 134, 320

   residues, 118, 122–26

   resins, 322

   substance, 320

organics 330

Orgel, Leslie E. 59, 316

origins of life: 4, 85, 223

   Darwin, Charles, 85

   Oparin, A. I., 85

   Haldane, J. B. S., 85

   Miller, Stanley, 85

   Urey, Harold, 85

   de Duve, Christian, 92

Orion nebula 256

Orion OMC-1 52

osmosis 201

Ourisson, G. 55

Owen, Tobias 113

oxalic acid 116

oxidation state 328

oxidative processes 122

oxidising:

   agents, 210

   layer, 211

oxygen: 42, 201, 213, 214

   as life-induced atmospheric anomaly, 113

   consumption, 200

   for life support, 18

   18O, 48

oxygenic photosynthesis 313

Pacific Ocean: exploration of 22

Paecht-Horowitz, M. 56

paleoontological evidence 118, 122–26

Palmer, J. D. 74

Panspermia: 83–6, 87, 108

   Arrhenius, S., 83, 84

   Clark, Ben, 90

   Crick, Francis, 86

   directed, 86

   Litho-Panspermia, 89–112, 107, 108, 109, 112

   Lord Kelvin, 84

   Mileikowski, C., 109

   revised, 89–91

Parkes, R. John 70, 72

past Solar System missions:

   Galileo, 261

   Magellan, 261

   Mars 1: 260

   Mariner 2: 5, 10, 261

   Mariner 4: 6, 7, 9, 260

   Mariner 10: 261

   Mars 2: 3: 260

   Mars 5: 6: 260

   Mars Global Surveyor 260

   Mars Odyssey 260

   Mars Pathfinder 260

   Phobos 1, 2: 260

   Pioneer 1, 2: 261

   Pioneer 10, 11: 261

   Vega 261

   Venera 4–8, 9, 10, 11–14: 261

   Viking 1, 2: 260

   Voyager 1, 2: 261

Pasteur, Louis 52

PASTEUR package 235

Pathfinder: 207

   mission, 232

patrimony of humanity 188–89

Paulet Island 13

payload in orbit 333

PCR reaction 272

peculiarity 33

peptide bond 38, 55

peptides 56

permafrost 114, 117, 123, 206, 218

permanent presence on Mars 269–71

peroxides 118

petroleum and coal 120

Pflug, H. 118, 125

pH conditions 68–69

pharmaceutical:

   companies, 272, 282

   potential, 252

   products, 134

pharmacology 134

phenotype 319

philosophical consequences 134–35

philosophy:

   need for shared, by explorers 27

Philosophy, Trade and Science 27

phospholipids 119

photoautotrophy 117

photodissociation 44

photosynthesis 119, 250

photosynthesising cultures 206

photosynthetic:

   activity, 121

   restoration, 203

phototropic cyanobacteria 119, 125

phylogenetic tree 64, 319

phylogeny 320

physical and life sciences 266

physical limits: 280

   Second Law of Thermodynamics, 280

   speed of light, 280

   Uncertainty Principle, 280

physical sciences community 134

physiological and psychological isolation 174

phytoplankton 121

Picrophilus oshimae acidophile 68

Pioneer: 196

   Pioneer 10: 4

   spacecraft, 229

Pizzarello, S. 52

planetary:

   atmospheric gases, 214

   engineering, 331

   ethical exploration, 4, 24–25

   micro-organisms, 214

   minerals, 214, 218

   missions (1976–2003), 22

   protection, 24, 87, 162, 164–65, 182, 183, 288

   scientists, 134

   soil, 214

   surface exploration, 208

   surface laboratories, 212–14

planets:

   core, mantle and crust 222

plant culture 205

plate tectonics 120

Pluto: 255

   atmosphere, 255

   surface composition and temperature, 255

   surface morphologies, 255

Pluto/Charon system 255, 262, 267

Pluto/Kuiper Belt (PKB) mission 255, 258, 262, 264, 267

plutonium-238 197

PNA 317

polar:

   craters, 203

   regions, 218

polar caps: 218

   topography, 222

polarised synchrotron 52

Polo, Marco 3

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) 218

polymerisation templates 59

polymers 313

Precambrian 321

predicting technology 278

predictions 282

predictive arts 273

predictive theory 274, 275

preparation of samples for return 213

preservation biochemicals 322

President Bill Clinton 134, 176

President George Bush 240

President John F. Kennedy 135, 171, 245, 270

President Ronald Reagan 175

pressure: effects of 69

pressurised rovers 208

Prieur, Daniel 69

primitive cell 60

primordial soup 46

prions 132, 184

private corporations 277

p-RNA 316

procaryotes: 114, 125

   as evolved organisms in reduction from earlier forms, 76

   as small unicellular micro-organisms, 63

   in early evolution, 76

procaryotic ecosystems 124

procaryotic/eucaryotic dichotomy, terrestrial 76

procurement decisions 282, 283

proficiency of software 274

progress 176

Project Prometheus 198, 245, 247

propellant costs 333

propulsion technology 194, 194–99

protection of spacefaring humans 25

proteinoids 56

proteins: 37

   stability at high temperatures, 64

psychological value 204

psychrophiles:

   as low temperature micro-organisms, 66

psychrotrophs:

   as micro-organisms existing above 15 °C, 66

purine 34, 58

pyrimidines 34, 58

pyrite 49

Pyrodictium occultum 62

pyrolitic release experiment 117

Pyrolobus fumarii 62

pyrolysis analyser 212

pyroxenes 329

quarantine 184

racemisation 322

radiation environments 225

radiation protection: 151–52, 152–56

   ALARA principle, 152

radiation-resistant organisms 73

radioisotope generators 197, 255

Raman spectroscopy 320

ramjet fusion propulsion see Plate 13

Reanney, D. C. 76

recycling 202–05

reduced launch to LEO costs 334

regolith: 211

   gravel, 212

Reichert, M. 20

religious:

   cults and sects, 270

   persecution, 270

remote sensing 122

replicating systems 331

replication 316

res communis 185, 188–89

Resolution, The, 6

responsibility 189

Reuter, P. 70

ribonucleotides:

   instability at high temperatures, 65

ribose 34, 52, 58, 59, 60

ribozymes 59, 60

rings:

   of Jupiter, 22

   of Saturn, discovery of resonance with moons, 22

risk sharing 277

risks: 146, 277

   related to human health, 139

   reliability objectives, 139, 140

   probability of diseases, 140

   probability of injuries, 140

   radiation risk, 152

RNA: 34, 58

   analogues, 316

   instability at high temperatures, 64, 65, 74

   surrogates, 60, 316

   world, 59, 60

robotic:

   and human exploration, 197

   exploration, 180, 186

   mining missions to asteroids, 263

robots 131, 178–79, 181

rock corer 211

rock cores 212

Rocket Equation 196–97, 214, 241, 326–27

rock weathering 44

Rosetta mission 211, 257–58, 263

Rosing, M. T. 119

Rothschild 116

rRNA 319

RTG generator 267

Rummel, John 183

runaway greenhouse effect 44

Russel, N. J. 65, 66

Russian Academy of Sciences 203

Russian Space Agency 176, 276

Ryder, Graham 167

Sabatier process 215, 241–42

salt:

   concentrations, 43

   concentrations, tolerance of organisms, 67

   flats, 116, 123–26

   lakes, 67

salts 43

Salyut space station 22, 168, 173–75, 199

sample:

   handling and preparation, 211–12

   retrieval and analysis, 208

   return, 180, 186

   return missions, 117, 124, 167, 176, 239

   return missions from comets and asteroids, 263

   return robotic missions, 194

   transfer system, 210

sampling device 210

Samwell 8

Saturn: 194

   and its moons, 253

Saturn V 169, 242

Saturn V/Shuttle technology 196

scanning electron microscopy(SEM) 318

Schidlowski, M. 114, 119, 123

Schleper, C. 68

Schmitt, Harrison 172, 208

Schopf, J. W. 114, 123, 126

Schwartz, Alan W. 52, 58, 316

Schwartz, D. E. 121

science glovebox 213

scientific:

   and technology communities, 133

   objectives, 19

   training, 186

Scott, Robert 3

Scout missions 237, 262, 264

S-curve/sigmoid 278

search:

   for extant life, 117, 121–22

   for extinct life, 123

search for life: 258

   missions, 262

   package, 266

   researches, 212

   sensors/analysis technologies, 210–11

   strategies, 210

second genesis 127, 181

Second World War 252, 281

sedimentary:

   record, 122

   rocks, 119, 130, 323

sedimentation of minerals 130

sediments 320, 321, 323

sediment-water interface 124

self-organising systems 134

self-replication 37, 317

self-reproduction 33, 181

self-reproduction and evolution 128

sequence combinations 315

Shackleton, Ernest 3, 12–16

shell limestone 120

Shibata, T. 317

shielding structures 218

Shuttle:

   main engines, 242, 265

   solid boosters, 242

Siebert, J. 117

silicate grains 49

silicates 216

silicon 218

silicon-based 41

Simultaneous Location and Mapping (SLAM) 209

Skylab 168, 169–70, 178, 199, 267

Smith, M. D. 73

Snow, C. P. 290

soda lakes 69

soft sciences 288

solar:

   electric propulsion, 194, 221

   panels, 169

   UV radiation, 120

Solar System:

   exploration, 7

   unexpected diversity, 22

solfataric fields 117, 124

South Africa 120

South Georgia 13, 15, 16

South Pole 11–16, 22

South Shetland Islands 13

Soviet programme 174

Soviet Union 175

Soyuz 168, 176

space agencies 291–92

Space Cycler 263

space environment: 94, 95

   exposure facilities, 94, 103

   galactic cosmic radiation, 95, 96, 108, 149

   interplanetary, 96

   low Earth orbit, 96

   radiation, 95, 101, 108–09, 148–56

   radiation belts, 149–50

   simulation facilities, 94–95

   solar particle radiation, 96, 149

   solar UV radiation, 96, 98, 106

   temperature, 96, 98

   vacuum, 95, 96, 103–06

Space Exploration Initiative 240

space missions and facilities:

   Apollo, 94, 143, 146

   BIOPAN, 108

   EURECA, 94, 102

   EXPOSE on ISS, 100, 101, 109, 164

   FOTON, 94, 106, 112

   Gemini, 94

   IML-Spacelab, 150

   ISS, 143, 146, 148

   LDEF, 104

   MIR, 143, 144, 145, 150, 156, 158

   Spacelab 1, 94

   Spacelab D2, 94

   STONE, 112

   Viking, 165

Space Shuttle 174–75, 176, 194, 226

Space Station Freedom 175, 176

Space, the New Business Frontier 291

space tourism 19, 187

Spacelab 182

spacewalks 168

Spach, G. 315, 316

Spanish conquistadors 27

spark discharge 49

species:

   new plant and animal, 22

specific impulse (Isp) 196, 326

Spice Islands 26

Spirit rovers 236–37

Spirit/Opportunity rovers 262, 264

spores:

   and sporulation, 77

   and stability of DNA, 73

   revival from ancient material, 73

spores, bacterial 84, 91, 93, 99, 108, 109

   survival in space, 103–04, 105–06, 106–08, 109

Sputnik: 134

   Sputnik 1, 3

staining techniques 319

stereo camera 233

stereochemistry 322

sterilisation 184

steroids 322

Stetter, Karl 62, 69, 70, 74, 117

Stevens, T. O. 70, 71, 117

Stirling engines 197, 265

Stoker, Carol 122

Stolz, J. F. 116

Straat, P.A. 118

Straits of Magellan 9, 22

stratified mats 116

stromatolites 121, 124–25

Stromness whaling station 15

strontium sulphate 121

structural indications of life 114–16

STS-31 170

STS-61 171

submarine life support systems 200

subsurface:

   probe on Europa, 263

   radar/altimeter, 233

   reservoirs, 214

   samples, 210

Sulfolobales 68

sulphate reducing bacteria 113

sulphur-rich subsurface 117

Summons, R. E. 119

surface:

   drill, 224

   robots, 209

   rovers, 207–09

survival of human species 292–93

tactical mission approach:

   need for flexibility 24

Taylor, P. A. 333

technological development 277

technological limits: 279, 283

   chemical propulsion, 279

   Moore’s Law, 279

   solar panel efficiency, 279

   speed of sound, 279

technological progress 278

telemedicine 21, 141

tele-robotic exploration 213

temperature limits for existence of life 62–67

templates 45, 316, 317

terraforming: 20, 86–87, 187–88

   Mars, 263, 331–32

terrestrial life:

   survival at high and low temperatures, 67

Tharsis region 123

theoretical computer power 275

theory of evolution 3, 11, 22, 233

Thera, on Europa 248

thermal IR spectroscopy 329–30

thermal mapping 122

Thermococcus alkalhiphilus 69

thermocouple 197

Theta 1 Orionis C 256

thioesters 56

Thrace, on Europa 249

threo furannyl nucleic acid (TNA) 316

threose 316

thrust 196

thymine 36

tides on Earth 130

time and technological progress 280

Titan: 46, 253, 268, 271

   complex organics, 254

   isotopic ratios, 254

   methane, 254

   noble and trace gases, 254

   surface topography, 254

   volcanoes and geysers, 255

   winds and temperature, 254

Titan lander 263

Tito, Dennis 292

tools:

   for scientific Mars missions, 19

trade:

   English 7

transfer in Solar System 257–58

trash spacecraft 200

transmission electron microscopes (TEM) 318

Treaty 189

tree of life 64, 74

Trent, J. D. 63

triple helices 317

‘two cultures’ effect 290

Tyndall, B. J. 67

ultrafiltration 201

ultraviolet:

   irradiation, 49

   radiation, 53

   spectrometer, 223

unicellular:

   algae 323

   organisms 206

United Nations Treaties on Outer Space 24

United States spending on defence 281

universal ‘tree of life’ 64, 74

University of Arizona 238

unpressurised vehicles 208

uracile 36

Urey-Miller:

   experiment, 254

   mould, 134

Urzeugung 85

US Department of Defense 174

US Department of Energy 72, 198

US National Academy of Sciences 224

use of natural resources 165

UV:

   and IR atmospheric spectrometer, 234

   protective ozone, 121

   radiation, 118, 210, 218

Vahsel Bay 12, 13

Vallis Marinaris 123, 227

Vega mission 50

vegetables 203

Venera spacecraft 223

Venus: 223–25

   atmosphere, 223, 225

   greenhouse effect, 223

   noble gas isotopic abundances, 225

   sulphuric acid, 223

Venus Express spacecraft 223

Venus In-Situ Explorer (VISE) mission 224

Verne, Jules 19

Viking 1 and 2: 19

Viking:

   life-detection experiments, 114, 123

   missions, 117–19, 120, 212

   spacecraft, 232

Vikings 3, 25

viruses 132, 258

Vishniac, H. S. 117

visionaries 277

volcanic glasses 216

von Braun, Wernher 243

von Kiedrowski, G. 317

Voskhod II 168

Voyager: 196

   spacecraft, 229, 247

   Voyager 1: 253

Wächtershäuser, G. 49

Walter, M. R. 120, 125

Wänke, Heinrich 122

war effort 281

warm little pond 78

Warrawoona Group 118, 125

waste:

   management, 200–04

   products, 199

water: 215

   context, 130

   cycle, 121

   treatment, 203

   usage, 200–02

water-rich comets 226

Weddel Sea 13

weightlessness 17

West Indies 22

Westall, Frances 18, 120, 126

Whipple, F. 257

White, Ed 168

window of opportunity 127

Wittenberg, L. J. 218

Woese, C. R. 319

Woolley, Richard 288

Wynn-Williams, David 319

xenon 197

X-ray:

   fluorescence, 120

   spectrometer, 234

   spectroscopy, 329

Yanagawa, H. 49

zero-gravity 174

zircons 48

Zubrin, Robert 12, 24, 176, 194, 206, 227, 240, 242, 291

Zubrin scheme 196, 225, 263


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