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Space-Time, Relativity, and Cosmology
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  • Page extent: 330 pages
  • Size: 246 x 189 mm
  • Weight: 0.886 kg

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  • Dewey number: n/a
  • Dewey version: n/a
  • LC Classification: n/a
  • LC Subject headings:
    • Cosmology
    • Relativity
    • Space and time

Library of Congress Record

Hardback

 (ISBN-13: 9780521822800 | ISBN-10: 0521822807)

Space-Time, Relativity, and Cosmology

Cambridge University Press
0521822807 - Space-Time, Relativity, and Cosmology - by Jose Wudka
Index


Index

A

Abbasid Caliphate 64

Abélard 66, 71

absorption spectra 275

Accademia dei Lincei 103

acceleration 131

   absolute 199

   definition 110

   gravity 204–5

action at a distance 152

active galactic nucleus (AGN), black hole 220

Adams, J. C., Neptune 132

Albert of Saxony 81

Albertus Magnus 70, 71

alchemy 76, 103

Alfvén, H. (model of the Universe) 249

algebra 27

Almagest 23, 50, 81

amber 144

America (discovery of) 66

Ampere, A. 145, 147–8, 154

analytical geometry 103

Anasazi Indians 302

Anaxagoras 31

angles of triangles 214

Apollo 3, 121

Archimedes 52, 53, 64, 67

Aristarchus 37, 81

   heliocentrism 84

Aristotle 2, 6, 41, 61, 64, 66, 70, 74

   age of the Universe 47

   causes and effects 41

   constitution of matter 37

   cosmology 116, 230

   Galileo 114

   geocentrism 41, 46

   heliocentrism 38

   hypotheses of motion 41–2, 43, 45, 46

   idea of force 42

   influence 93–4

   motion of celestial bodies 43, 46

   motion of falling bodies 44–5

   On The Heavens 45

   prime mover 47

   uniqueness of the world 47

   vacuum 44

Aryabhata 27

astrology 25, 75, 76–7, 78, 102

astronaut paradox, Special Theory of Relativity 189–90

atomic nuclei, early Universe 242, 243

atomic structure 288

atoms 37, 287

   early Universe 243

Averroes 70

Aztec creation myth 59–60


B

Babylonia

   astronomy 24

   creation myth 54–5

Bacon, F. 3, 104, 105–7

Bacon, R. 70, 77, 79, 80

bending of light rays 224

bending of space 210

beta rays 287

Bethe, H. 292

Bhagavad-Gita 195

Bibliothèque Royale 103

Big Bang hypothesis 14, 237, 238

   Olber’s paradox 249

Big Crunch 248

Bismarck 99

black hole 199, 218–20

   active galactic nucleus (AGN) 220

   Cygnus X1 220

   emission of particles – Hawking radiation 247, 305

   escape velocity 218

   evaporation 247, 305

   horizon 218–19, 304

   light 218

   light-orbits 218

   mass 218, 219

   observability 219–20

   size 305

   supermassive 228, 247, 305–6

blood circulation 6, 104

Bodleian Library 103

BOOMERANG 246

Boyle 103

Brahma 56

Brownian motion, Einstein 168

Bruno, G. 88, 91

Buridan, J. 81


C

calculus 103, 105

   Leibnitz 126

   Newton 126

castle paradox, Special Theory of Relativity 188

Catholic Church 63, 68–70, 92

celestial bodies, Aristotle 43, 46

central fire, Pythagoras 35

Cepheid variable star 279

Chalchihuitlicue 60

Chandrasekhar 306

   white dwarf – Chandrasekhar limit 299

China

   astronomy 302

   creation myth 60–1

Christian

   philosophy 104

   theology 63, 104

Churchill 4

clocks 67

   biological 185

   gravity 215

   mechanical 67

   water 25

coal burning 292

cold fusion 17–18

Columbus 40, 65

Compte, A. 276

conservation of charge 145, 148, 149–50

   Maxwell’s equations 155

conspiracy theory 20

continental drift 8–9

Copernicus 14, 64, 66, 70, 83, 84–6, 228

   heliocentric hypothesis 86–7, 99, 135

   On the Revolution of the Celestial Orbs 85, 117, 135

   retrograde motion 89

coronium 274

cosmic background explorer (COBE) 246

cosmic background radiation inhomogeneities 246

cosmic distance ladder

   Cepheid stars 279

   Hertzprung–Russel diagram 277–8

   parallax 277

   Type 1A supernova 280–1

   Universe 276–81

cosmic microwave background radiation 245

   discovery 244

   horizon problem 263

   inhomogeneities 264, 269

   steady-state cosmology 250

Cosmological Constant 232, 261–3

   evolution of the Universe 234

   predicted value 262

   problems 251

   subatomic particles 262

   Type 1A supernova 245, 262

Cosmological Principle 229–30, 232, 236, 263

cosmology 4, 26

   cosmic microwave background radiation 250

   Cosmological Constant 251

   missing mass problem 251

   relativistic 227, 230

Coulomb 143–4, 145, 150

Council of Trent 65

counter-earth 35

Crab Nebula 30, 302, 303

creation myths 4, 23, 24

   Aztec 59–60

   Babylonia 54–5

   China 60–1

   Egypt 55–6

   Greek 57–9

   India 56–7

Cronus 57

crusades 64, 70

current generation 145, 153, 154

curvature

   measurement 213–14

   space-time 212, 215

Cusa, N 81

cyclops 57

Cygnus X1 (black hole candidate) 220


D

Damocles 7

dark matter 228, 255, 256–61

   cold 258, 259

   galaxies 255

   halo 256

   hot 258–9, 260

   massive astrophysical compact halo object (MACHO) 257

   searches 282

   tepid 261

   weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) 258

decimal system 103

decoupling

   neutrinos 242

   radiation 243

deductive reasoning 2, 3, 105

   Aristotle 3

Democritus 27, 34, 61, 103

demons 75

Descartes, R. 104

destiny and matter–energy density 252

deuterium 242, 243

Digges, T. 91

   Olber’s paradox 248

Doppler Effect 272–4

   emission and absorption lines 275

   speed of source 275

   gravitational waves 221–2

Durant, W. 61


E

early Universe 241

   atomic nuclei 242

   atoms 243

   cosmic microwave background radiation 245

   fossils 243

   light elements 243

   nucleosynthesis 243

   relics 242

   subatomic particles 241

Earth

   evolution of the crust 104

   shape 104

   size 38

   spherical shape 40

Eddington, A. 225, 292

Egypt 61

   calendar 25

   cosmology 26

   creation myth 55–6

   mathematics 25

Einstein 4, 6, 159, 168, 169, 170

   cosmology 227, 228–30, 232, 233, 234, 236, 237, 251, 261–3, 283

   General Theory of Relativity 6, 7, 52, 115, 121, 127, 130–2, 187–90, 191, 199, 200, 201–2, 204–5, 205–8, 209, 211, 212–13, 213–14, 215, 216–17, 222–5, 227, 230, 231, 236, 237, 266

   Principle of Relativity 6, 111–15, 121, 123, 124, 125, 141, 160, 161, 163–4, 165, 167, 168, 169, 170, 171, 172, 173–4, 174–80, 180–5, 186–7, 187–90, 191–6, 199, 206, 223, 293, 294–5, 306

Einstein equations and the General Theory of Relativity 216–17

electric charge inside stars 285

electricity

   charges 145

   conservation of charge 145

   electrostatic attraction 144, 145, 150

   field 153

   flow 145

electricity and magnetism

   Maxwell’s equations 148–55

   unification 145

   waves 148, 159

   electromagnet 145, 154, 155

   electromagnetic radiation 228

   electromagnetic spectrum 160

electrons 241

   beta rays 287

electrostatic attraction 144

elements 37

   Aristotle 43

emission and absorption lines 275

   Doppler Effect 275

   helium 274

   light 274

   spectrum 274

   speed of source 275

Empedocles’ table of the elements 36, 37, 103

energy 194

   and mass 191–6, 194

   gravity 208

   wavelength 215

enlightenment 65

epicycles 49, 87

   geocentrism 49–50

Epimetheus 59

Eratosthenes 38, 39

escape velocity 139

   black hole 218

ether hypothesis 161–4

   in transparent materials 163

   inconsistency 164

   light propagation 125, 160, 167

   Maxwell 173–4

   Michelson–Morley experiment 167, 173

   motion of the Earth 163

   shift in stellar positions 161, 173, 174

   wind 161, 167, 173

Euclid 51, 64

   geometry 52

   parallel lines postulate 52

   The Elements 50

exclusion principle 289, 290

experiments 5

   accuracy 11, 12, 13

   control group 14

   double-blind 13, 14

   error 13

   hypothesis verification 7

   predictions 8

   reproducible 8

extraterrestrial life 16


F

falsifiable 7, 16

Faraday, M. 145, 146–7, 153

fate of the Universe 247

Fates 59

fermions 289

fields

   concept 151

   electric 153

   gravity 152

   magnetic 152

   speed of propagation 152

fifth element 43, 46

FitzGerald, G. F. 167

fixed stars 33

Fizeau, A. 158

   ether hypothesis 163

flatness problem 265

   inflationary universe 267

fluctuation growth 264

force 42, 124

fossils 104

   Galileo 112, 113

free fall 200, 202

   observer 201

friction 127

   Galileo 114


G

galaxies 228

   Andromeda 228

   clusters 228, 247

   dark matter halo 255

   discovery 282

   Local Group 228

   Milky Way 228

   rotation curves 254

Galen 6, 104

Galileo 3, 95, 109–10, 303

   Aristotle 114

   dialogue 109, 136, 138

   Eppur si muove 139

   frame of reference 112, 113

   friction 114

   gravity 115

   heliocentrism 118, 135

   inquisition 110, 134–8

   Jupiter 109, 119

   law of falling bodies 115

   law of inertia 108, 113

   Letters on Sunspots 110

   Milky Way 117

   Moon 117

   motion of projectiles 116

   natural motion 114

   pendulum 108

   phases of Venus 109, 118

   relativity hypothesis 111–15

   Saturn 117

   supernova 116

   telescope 108

   The Assayer 110, 136

   theory of motion 110–11

Gamow, G. 283

   cosmic microwave background radiation 244

gas clouds 228

Gea 57

General Theory of Relativity 7, 121, 132, 231, 236

   acceleration and gravity 204–5

   clocks 215

   cosmology 227, 230

   curvature 212, 213–14

   Einstein 115

   Einstein equations 216–17

   freely falling observers 202

   gravitational lensing 208

   gravitational waves 221–2

   light, light bending 205–8, 224–5

   Mercury 222–3

   motion 212–13, 217

   non-inertial reference frames 190

   practical applications 199

   Principle of Equivalence 201–2

   propagation speed 200

   red-shift 216, 223–4

   space-time 191, 212, 215

   tests 222–5

   time 215, 216

   Universe 237

geocentrism 41

   Aristotle 46

   epicycles 49–50

   Ptolemy 93

   reference frames 91

geodesics 217

geometry

   curved 211

   Euclidean 52, 210

   geometrical figures 34

   parallel lines postulate 52

Gilbert, W. 97, 142, 145

Gilgamesh 24

gravitational lensing 207, 208

gravitational red-shift 224

gravitational waves 221–2

   detection 221

   generation 221–2

   Hulse, R. 222

   speed 221

   Taylor, J. 222

gravity

   acceleration 204–5

   energy 208

   Galileo 115

   Galileo’s law of falling bodies 115

   mass 130

   motion 201

   Newtonian 7, 127–30, 132, 200

   propagation speed 200

   property of space 209

   relative existence, local 200

Greek

   atomic idea 37

   creation myth 57–9

   early cosmology 32

Greenwich Observatory 104

grey holes 305

Grosseteste, R. 77, 80, 81

Gutenberg, J. 64


H

Halley, E., Olber’s paradox 248

Hammurabi 24

Harmony of the spheres 35

Harvey, W. 6

   circulation of blood 104

Hawking radiation 305

Hawking, S. 305

heat, nature of 105

Heaven 91

heavy elements supernovas 300

Hecantocheries 57

heliocentrism 91, 118

   Aristarchus 84

   Aristotle 38

   circular motion 90

   Copernicus 86–7, 99

   Heaven 91

   Hell 91

   heresy 119

   hypothesis 14, 82, 87

   On the Revolution of the Celestial Orbs 85

   reference frames 91

   retrograde motion 87

helium 242

   discovery 274

Hell 91

Hertzprung, E. 277–8

Hertzprung–Russel diagram 277–8, 285, 296

   Main Sequence 278, 279, 285

high-energy accelerators, Special theory of Relativity 171

Hindu numerals 27

Hipparchus 49

Hiroshima 197

homogeneity 229, 230, 233

   horizon problem 263

   problems 252

Hooke, R. 103

horizon 265

horizon problem 264

   cosmic microwave background radiation 263

   inflationary universe 267

Hubble flow 237

Hubble plot 238

Hubble, E. 237

Hubble’s constant 237

Hubble’s law 237, 239, 282

Hulse, R. 222

hypothesis 5, 6–10, 119

   Big-Bang 14

   falsifiable 7

   heliocentric 14

   non-falsifiable 7


I

Ibn Daud 40

India, creation myth 56–7

inductive reasoning 3, 3–4

inertia mass 127

inertial reference frame 124, 190, 199, 206

inertial observers 124

inflation

   cosmic microwave background radiation 269

   end of 268

   expansion 267

   flatness problem 267

   horizon problem 267

   hypotheses 268

   paradigm 265–9

   problems 269

   Universe 267

   unsavory properties 269

initial conditions 230

   Universe 263

inquisition 76, 98, 102

   Galileo 110, 134–8

instantaneous interactions 200

interstellar travel 187

inverse-square law 272, 273

Islam

   astronomy 65

   philosophy 65, 80

   science 65

   thought 64

   translations of Greek texts 70

isotropy 229, 230, 233

   horizon problem 263

   problems 252


J

Jewish philosophy 80

Jupiter 48, 109, 119

Jupiter’s moons, speed of light measurement 158


K

Kepler, J. 92, 95–6, 108

   geometric hypotheses 96–7

   geometrical model of the Solar System

   laws of planetary motion 76, 98–9, 125, 129, 254

   mysticism 94

   Olber’s paradox 248

   Tycho Brahe 96


L

law of inertia

   Descartes 104

   Galileo 108, 113

Leavitt, H. S. 279

Leibnitz, G. W. Calculus 126

Lemaître, G., Cosmic microwave background radiation 244

length contraction

   Lorentz–FitzGerald 167–8

   parallel to direction motion 186

   perpendicular to direction motion 186

   Special Theory of Relativity 186–7

Leverrier, U. J. J. Neptune 132

Levi ben Gerson 80

Leyden jar 143

life 302

light 145

   absolute space and time 171

   absolute speed 164

   as a stream of particles 158

   curved paths 207

   Doppler effect 272–4

   electromagnetic waves 159

   emission and absorption lines 274

   energy 215

   ether 125, 160, 167, 173–4

   gravity 205–8

   inverse square law 272

   Jupiter’s moons 158

   nature of 104–5, 134

   Newton 125, 133

   particle-wave behavior 159

   speed of propagation 157, 164, 168, 171, 172

   wave nature 133, 159

   wavelength 215

light bending, gravitational 224–5

light-clock 180, 182, 183

light curve 281

light element abundances 302

light-year 276

lithium 242

little green men 7, 168

loadstone 30, 145

Lobachevsky, N. I. 52

Local Group 228

logarithms 103

Lorentz, H. A. 167

luminosity 285, 294

Luther, M. 64, 65, 70, 99


M

Magellan, F. 64

magic 75–9, 102

magnetism

   earth 145

   field 152

   inside stars 285–6

   isolated magnetic poles 153

   loadstone 145

Maimonides (Moshe ben Maimon) 40

Main Sequence 278, 285

   Hertzprung–Russel diagram 278, 279

Marduk 55

Martian meteorite 16

mass

   energy 191–6

   gravitational 130–2, 201

   gravity 130

   inertia 127, 130

   inertial 130–2, 201

   Special Theory of Relativity 192

   speed 192

mass and energy, nuclear reactions 194

massive astrophysical compact halo object (MACHO) (dark matter) 257

matter–energy density

   above critical 232

   amount of shining matter 253

   below critical 232

   changes 233

   cosmic census 252–6

   critical 232, 234, 252, 263

   destiny 252

   evolution of the Universe 234, 236

   nucleosynthesis 253

Maxwell, J. C. 145, 148–55

   electromagnetism 169

Maya

   astronomy 29

   cosmology 28

   culture 28

   mathematics 28

mechanics

   Newton 121–7

   relativistic 169

mechanistic Universe 101

medieval Universe 73

Mercury 7, 223

   orbit and orbit precession 141, 222–3

method of derivation, thought experiments 196

Michelson–Morley (M&M) experiment 164

   ether 163–4, 167, 173

Milky Way 117, 228

Milne, E. A. Universe 249

Moon 117

Moore, J. 100

Moscow papyrus 26

Moses 91

motion

   and Nature 42

   Aristotle 43, 44–5

   curved space 212–13

   geodesics 217

   mass-independent 201

   nature 46

   shortest distance 217

   theory of 110–11

motion of projectiles, Galileo 116


N

natural motion, Aristotle, Galileo 42, 43, 44–5, 114

Nature and Number 34

negative numbers 29

Neptune, discovery of 132

neutrinos 228, 241, 242, 287–9, 292, 306

   decoupling 242

   flash 300

neutron 241, 287

   decay 287, 290, 291

   degenerate pressure 291, 301

neutron star 291

Newton 3, 6, 73, 99, 125–7

   calculus 126

   force 124

   gravity 7, 127–30, 132

   Kepler’s laws 125, 129

   laws of motion 120, 121–7

   light 125, 133, 134, 158

   limitations of his theories 121

   mass 127, 130–2

   Neptune 132

   Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica 122, 126, 133

   reference frame 124

   scientific method 120

   space and time 122–3

Nostradamus 78

nuclear ashes 195

nuclear fission 293, 294–5, 306

   hydrogen and helium 294

   iron 295

nuclear problem 194–6

nuclear processes 292

nuclear reactions 292, 293

   mass and energy 194

nuclear weapons 196

nucleosynthesis 253

   matter–energy density 253

Nuit 56


O

observations 5

observer, free fall 201

Ockham, W. 3, 10, 69, 70, 73–5

Ockham’s razor 3, 10, 74–5, 158, 173

Olber’s paradox 248–9

Ommayad dynasty 64

On the Revolution of the Celestial Orbs 85, 92

Oppenheimer, R. J. 195

Oresme, N. 81

Orsted, H. C. 145, 154

Osiander, A. 85


P

Pain 8

Palissy, B. Fossils 104

Pandora 59

paradigm 6, 48

   blood circulation 6

   Special Theory of Relativity 6

paradigm-shift 15

   space-time 217

paradoxes, Special Theory of Relativity 187–90

parallax 277

parapsychology 9

Paris Observatory 104

particle–anti-particle creation 305

particles 155–7

Pauli, W. 288

   exclusion principle 289, 290

pendulum 108

Penzias, A. A., cosmic microwave background radiation 244

perfection 34

Petrus Ramus (Pierre de la Ramee) 71

Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica 122, 126, 133

philosophy, Scholastic 74, 75

Phiolaus 61

photoelectric effect, Einstein 159, 168

planets 33

   laws of motion 76, 98–9

Plutarch 54

Pan Gu 60

Pound, R. V. 224

precession of Mercury’s orbit 141, 223

predictions 5, 6, 8, 9

pressure 230, 234, 286–91

   degenerate, fermionic 289–91, 298

   gas 289, 291

prime mover 74

Principle of Equivalence 201–2, 209, 212

Principle of Relativity 168, 169

   absolute motion 184

   Einstein 168

printing 64, 102

projectile motion 117

Prometheus 59

Protestant Church 70

proton 241, 287

   degenerate pressure 291

protostars 296

pseudo-science 20

Ptolemy 23, 47, 85

   Almagest 23, 50, 81

   geocentrism 93

pulsar 301, 303

Pythagoras 30, 33, 61

   Harmony of the Spheres 35

   Nature and Number 34

   theorem 29, 33, 181

Pythagorean universe 35


Q

quantum effects 121

quarks 241, 287

Quetzalcoatl 29, 60

quo vadis 269


R

radiation 195

   decoupling 243

   natural 195

reality 4

Rebka, G. A. 224

red giant 296

   Type 1A supernova 280

red-shift

   gravitational 216, 223–4

reference frame 91, 112

   accelerated 204, 206

   inertial 124, 190, 199, 206

   non-inertial 190

relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC) 240

relativity

   Galileo 111–15

   hypothesis 111

Renaissance 65, 67

retrograde motion 48, 50, 89

   heliocentrism 87

Rheticus, G. J. 84

Riemann, B. 52

Romer, O. 158

rotation curves 254, 255

Royal Society of London 103

Russel, H. N. 277–8


S

Saturn 117

Scholastic philosophy 74, 75, 108

scientific instruments 103, 105, 116

scientific knowledge 19

scientific method 1, 3, 4–5, 6, 80

   experiments 5

   hypothesis 5

   Newton 120

   observations 5

   predictions 5

   tests 1

   theory 5

shape of space and mass–energy 266

shift in stellar positions 161

   ether 173, 174

shoot the monkey 130, 131

Sibu 56

simultaneity

   Newton 174

   Special Theory of Relativity 174–80

   speed of light 176

   time ordering 177

space travel, time dilation 185

space-time 6

   absolute Newtonian 122–3, 171

   coordinates 190

   dynamic 191, 217

   geometry 211

   gravity 209

   paradigm-shift 217

   relative 208

   singularities 199

   Special Theory of Relativity 190

Special Theory of Relativity 6, 121, 165, 168

   Einstein 170

   high-energy accelerators 171

   length contraction 186–7

   mass 192

   mass and energy 191–6

   paradoxes 187–90

   simultaneity 174–80

   space-time 190

   subatomic particles 171

   time, time dilation 180–5, 191

speed of light simultaneity 176

spin 289

stars 33

   birth 295

   Chandrasekhar limit 299

   collapse 297

   electric charge 285

   evolution 286, 300, 302, 304

   interior 292, 297, 298

   iron 297

   luminosity 294

   magnetic fields 285–6

   Main Sequence 278, 279

   mass ejection 295, 298

   maturity 296

   neutron star 291

   normal 289

   nuclear reactions 296

   oscillations 294

   protostars 296

   red giant 296

   rotation 295

   source of energy 292, 294

   white dwarf 291, 299

statistics 105

stellar evolution

   light stars 286

   medium stars 300, 302, 304

strong force 287

subatomic particles 241, 286

   Cosmological Constant 262

   Special Theory of Relativity 171

   time dilation 184–5

Sun size 38

supernova (new star) 93, 116

   1987A 9079

   core collapse 301

   degenerate pressure 301

   element creation 300

   Kepler’s 303

   luminosity 300

   neutrino flash 300, 303, 304

   shock wave 300

   Type 1A 245, 262, 280–1

   Type II 299–303

   X-rays 301

Surya Siddanta 57


T

Taylor, J. 222

telescope

   Galileo 108

   reflecting 104

Teotihuacan 60

Tezcatlipoca 29, 59

Thales 2, 28, 31, 32, 144

The Little Prince 271

The Shatterer of Worlds 195

theory 5, 6–10

   limited applicability 11

Thomas Aquinas 40, 67, 70, 71, 100

Thompson, W. (Lord Kelvin) Olber’s paradox 249

thought experiments, method of derivation 196

Tiamat 54

time 6

   absolute 171

   General Theory of Relativity 215, 216

   local 215

   relative 180–5

time dilation 184

   Pythagoras’ theorem 181

   space travel 185

   subatomic particles 184–5

time ordering, Special Theory of Relativity 177, 182, 191

Titans 57

Tlaloc 60

top-loading 10

transparency

   neutrinos 242

   radiation 243

turbulence 113

Tweedledum and Tweedledee paradox, Special Theory of Relativity 189

Tycho Brahe 92, 93, 95, 303

   Kepler 96

Typhoeus (Typhon) 58


U

universals 72

Universe

   age, age problem 47, 240, 261

   alternatives to the Big-Bang hypothesis 249, 250

   average properties 228–30

   Big-Bang hypothesis 237

   closed 232

   complete theory 237

   contraction 230, 234, 247

   cosmic distance ladder 276–81

   Cosmological Constant 234

   evolution 233, 234–5, 236

   expansion 230, 234, 237, 270, 281

   fate 228, 247

   flat 232

   General Theory of Relativity 237

   geometry 233

   homogeneity 229, 230, 237

   initial conditions 230

   isotropy 229, 230, 237

   mass–energy density 232, 234

   open 232, 234

   properties 234

   static 230, 232

   unstable 232

universities 64, 102

uranium 287

Uranus 57


V

vacuum 105

Vasco da Gamma 65

velocity

   absolute 164, 171, 199

   definition 110

   escape 139

   Newtonian addition 170

   Special Theory of Relativity 112, 170, 174

   upper limit 172

Venus 109, 118

   phases 118


W

wavelength and energy 215

waves 155–7

   amplitude 156

   frequency 155, 156, 157

   gravitational 221–2

   propagation medium 157

   speed of propagation 156

   spreading 157

   vs. particles 157

   wavelength 156

weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) (dark matter) 258

Wegener, A. 8

western Roman Empire 63

Wheeler, J. A. 209

white dwarf 291, 299

   Chandrasekhar limit 299

   Type 1A supernova 280

Wigner, E. 234

Wilson, R. W. Cosmic microwave background radiation 244

witchcraft 75, 102

wormholes 199


X

X-ray lighthouse (pulsars) 301


Z

Zeus 58, 61

Zhou bi 29


© Cambridge University Press


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