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Post-Imperial Brecht
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Details

  • 20 b/w illus.
  • Page extent: 414 pages
  • Size: 228 x 152 mm
  • Weight: 0.72 kg

Library of Congress

  • Dewey number: 832/.912
  • Dewey version: 22
  • LC Classification: PT2603.R397 Z74446 2004
  • LC Subject headings:
    • Brecht, Bertolt,--1898-1956--Criticism and interpretation
    • Brecht, Bertolt,--1898-1956--Political and social views
    • Brecht, Bertolt,--1898-1956--Appreciation--South Africa

Library of Congress Record

Hardback

 (ISBN-13: 9780521817080 | ISBN-10: 0521817080)




Index




Actors: v. puppets 362–3; see also worker-players

actors, German

   Alex, Hildergard (Müller: Bau) 116–17

   Bozat, Celâl (Tiyatron) 332–6

   Becker, Eckhardt (Fugard in the GDR) 304, 306; in Aloen 308–9

   Beyer, Hermann 118 (Bau), 130; (Müller: Lohndrücker)

   Christian, Norbert (Brecht: Katzgraben) 80–2

   Geschonneck, Erwin 4; and corporeal comedy 75; in Katzgraben 71; with Weigel 76–7

   Granach, Alexander 32, 33 (Brecht: Massnahme)

   Grashof, Christian 299 (Fugard)

   Gwisdek, Michael 117 (Bau); 128–9, 130 (Lohndrücker)

   Hegen, Iduna 148, 162 (Müller: Fatzer for radio)

   Hurwicz, Angelika 75, 77; (Katzgraben)

   Hübchen, Henry 196–7 (Castorf: Hauptmanns Weber)

   Karusseit, Ursula 117 (Bau)

   Koerbl, Jörg-Michael 162 (Fatzer)

   Lang, Alexander 299, 302 (Fugard); as director 302

   Lutz, Regine 4; in Katzgraben: 75; as non-romantic heroine 82; as positive hero 77–80

   Montag, Dieter 118, 124 (Bau); 128–9 (Lohndrücker)

   Neher, Carola 4, 40 (Dreigroschenoper)

   Paetzold, Anne-Else 304, 306 (Fugard)

   Saatçi, Dilruba (Tiyatron) 332–6; v. Bryceland in Fugard’s Hello and Goodbye 333

   Schall, Ekkehart 192; in Fatzer on stage 151; in Katzgraben 75

   Schall, Johanna, and Deutsches Theater 138–40; in Fatzer for radio 148, 155; voice of authority in 167

   Schelcher, Raimund 80–1 (Maetzig: Schlösser und Katen)

   Thalbach, Sabine 76 (Katzgraben)

   Topitz, Anton Maria (tenor) 198, 204 (Massnahme)

   Wuttke, Martin 173, 192 (Brecht Arturo Ui; dir. Müller); see also Castorf, Frank; Weigel, Helene

Actors, South African

   Bryceland, Yvonne (The Space) 245, 304

   Duru, Welcome (Serpent Players) 240, 241

   Henderson, Patti (JACT) 260

   Kani, John (Serpent Players, Market Theatre 218, 245–53, 288, 311; and African concert 247; and black minstrelsy; compared to Grashof 299

   Kruksdal, Megan (JATC) 269

   Magada, Mable (Serpent Players) 240, 241, 243–4

   Makhene, Ramalao (JATC) 259, 261, 269, 274; and Khulumani! 340, 370–1

   Malange, Nise (DWCL) 265

   Mbikwana, Mulligan (Serpent Players; also director) 241–4, 245

   Molepo, Arthur (JATC; Market Theatre) 259, 268, 274

   Nkonyeni, Nomhle (Serpent Players) 243

   Ntshinga, Norman (Serpent Players) 240, 241–2

   Ntshona, Winston (Serpent Players) 218, 245, 311; v. Kani 249; compared to Lang 299

   Shai, Patrick 268–9

   see also theatre directors, South Africa

Adorno, Theodor Wiesengrund; and artistic autonomy 20, 36–8; and critique of Brecht 45–6; and critics of Massnahme revival 203–4; and radio 167; on Picasso’s Guernica 46

African National Congress (ANC) 216, 224–5; banned 293; in the GDR 286–90; ANC school in Tanzania 288

   see also political organizations

Afrikaner National Party (NP) 227–9; and the Voortrekker centenary 229–31

Afrikaners against Nationalism: 226–31 see also Garment Workers’ Union

Afro-Germans 284–5, 318; defined 284; v. “mulattos” 291, 318; v. “Neger” 318; in GDR Sizwe Bansi 317

Alienation (Entfremdung) as Hegelian/Marxist dispossession v. Brechtian estrangement 42–3; existential, in Fugard 289; as Kafkaesque unease 107; as proletarian distance from capitalism 86; as proletarian distance from socialism 96–102; as post-socialist 131–2; aural through radio 154; from Brecht’s theatre 71

   see also dis-illusion; estrangement; Verfremdung

Althusser, Louis 153–4

Antigone (Sophocles) in South Africa 217, 243

anti-fascism 1; defined 3; and Jewish presence 319; and the Popular Front 39; in South Africa 220–37; v. Nazism 22; v. state socialist claims of 57–9, 128–30; v. Western alleged inheritance of Fascism

   see also communism; imperialism; Nazism; socialism

apartheid 215, 216, 217, 238–71; and state violence 293–4; and West Germany 281–2, 305

   anti-apartheid 34; and integration 267–71; and socialism 287–8

   post-apartheid 271–80; v. anti-apartheid 274, 337, 339–44

   pre-apartheid segregation 222–3

Arendt, Hannah 10; on imperialism 13; Origins of Totalitarianism 13

aria, socialist: defined 29, 110; and pathos 74, 106; v. kitsch 120–1; v. opera 74

art

   artistic autonomy: Brecht’s critique of 24–6, 36–8; v. Adorno’s paradox of 45–6

   v. instrument 1, 56–9

   of political theatre 236

   art theatre as bourgeois institution 238

   as weapon 51–3, 337; defined 337

   see also commitment; enlightenment; function

Artaud, Antonin, and the theatre of cruelty 299

audience: African 234–7; against white 234–5, 251, 293–4; as institution: 24, 48; for Katzgraben 76–7; in Brecht’s theory 141–6; in Lohndrücker 94; reading silence of 115–16; v. spect-actor (Boal) 28, 264–6; of the TRC 343–4; v. therapeutic listener 341, 342–3; underground invisibility of 319–20

avant-garde, defended 41; dismissed 42, 52; state socialist rapprochement with 39–40; in South Africa 220, 236

Balzac, Honoré de, as model realist 40, 51

Barthes, Roland 161

Bataille, Georges, and expenditure (dépense) 161; and potlatch 164

Benjamin, Walter 13, 16, 19, 20; distraction v. estrangement in 43–4

Berlin 7, 17; and ANC 9; and Brecht 177–82; as Weimar and GDR capital 21; glocalization in 177, 336; Kreuzberg and Fugard 330–6; and post-industrial former GDR 210–14; and post-unification rationalization 174; and Turkish settlement 324–36

Berliner Ensemble (BE) 38, 52; in the GDR ; Brecht’s Katzgraben 69–81; Massnahme revival 210; Müller as director 176, 192; Ostalgie in 174, 176–7; Peymann as director 176, 192; Wekwerth as director 170; Wekwerth’s Fatzer 137–8

Berlin Wall 48, 50; as Cold War icon 1–12; in GDR drama 103–4, 121; Ostalgie around 174–7; symbolic persistence of 210–14

Bhabha, Homi, and “colonial mimicry” 293

Bharucha, Rustom, and critique of racial masquerade 329

Biermann, Wolf, and expulsion from GDR 115, 136, 298; and Müller’s protest 138

blackface in the GDR 285, 304, 310–11; v. ANC aversion 309; critique through absence 301–2; critique through estrangement 313–17; v. Fugard’s gestic interpretation 310

Blame Me on History (William “Bloke” Modisane) 268

Bloch, Ernst; and critique of Nazism 22–3; and defense of avant-garde 41–2

Boal, Augusto 25; and Brecht 252; theatre of the oppressed 13; influence in South Africa 261–7, 340; theatre as therapy 368

body:

   and corporeal comedy 74–7

   as animal 128–30; as apparatus 129–30

   beautiful 77–80 (Katzgraben); 116–17 (Bau; dir. Marquardt); 121 (Bau; dir. Castorf); 204–5 (Massnahme; revived Emmerich)

   flesh 161–4

   incommunicable pain of 342

   muscled 80, 128–30

   naked 305–6

   racialized (in GDR performance of Fugard) 291, 296, 304, 317; see also blackface; racial masquerade

   tired 80–2 (Christian); 116–18, 124 (Montag); 125; v. tireless, steely man of Stalinism 81–2, 130

Born in the RSA (Barney Simon et al.) 7, 218, 256

bourgeois, analyzed by Marx 188–90; as leisured amateurs 20; institutions 238; object of satire 259

   see also class; genre; worker

Brecht, Bertolt

   as marxist 4–6, 15–16, 23–39; but not Communist 185; as theorist 19–55, 140–6; as un-Brechtian defender of theatre as art 71–3; centenary of 171–2; commodified 171, 201–6; limits of Enlightenment project 18, 338–44; and racial stereotypes: 327–9

Brecht in the GDR 56–132, 133–70, 289

Brecht in South Africa 215, 216–79, 337; v. Brecht in the GDR 215–16, 217

Brecht in unified Germany 171

Brecht in Weimar Germany and exile 19

Brecht’s collaborators

   Berlau, Ruth (photographer) 4

   Busch, Ernst 4; as actor 29; as Communist 5, 16; as singer 196

   Dessau, Paul (composer) 4

   Dudow, Slatan (film-maker) 5, 27–38

   Eisler, Hanns (composer) 4; as Communist 5, 16; as composer of Massnahme 28, 37; interrogated by HUAC 198; from Vienna 202

   Feuchtwanger, Lion (writer) 4; and Brecht’s version of the Communist Manifesto 185

   Hauptmann, Elisabeth (editor and translator) 4, 28; of Chicago material 183–4; of Brecht’s Werke 28

   Heartfield, John (designer) 4

   Hindemith, Paul (composer) 4

   Neher, Caspar (designer) 4

   Otto, Teo (designer) 4

   Ottwalt, Ernst (writer) 41

   Palitzsch, Peter (dramaturg, director) 66

   Rülicke, Käthe (dramaturg, editor) 66–7, 84–5; see also Garbe;

   Steffin, Margarete (writer) 4

   Syberberg, Hans-Jürgen (film-maker) 75

   Von Appen, Karl (designer) 4

   Weill, Kurt (composer) 4

   Weisenborn, Günter (writer) 4

   see also actors, German

Brecht’s influence on:

   Walter Benjamin 20, 43–4, 48; Heiner Müller 17, 60–6; Athol Fugard 217–18, 239; Durban Workers’ Cultural Local 337–8; JACT 218, 256–61; theatre for development and education 340; see also individual entries

Brecht v.:

   Adorno 45–6

   Aristotle 71

   Becher, Johannes R. 41, 54–5

   Hegel, G. W. F. 43, 72

   Lukács 46–8, 54–5

   rapprochement with 55

   Piscator, Erwin 24–5

   Schiller, Friedrich 72

   Stanislavsky, Konstantin 52, 73; rapprochement with 64, 76–7; see also individual entries

Brecht: Works (in German alphabetical order)

   Aufhaltsame Aufstieg des Arturo Ui, Der (The Resistable Rise of Arturo Ui) 173, 192; and notes for “Horst-Wessel-Legende” 183

   Badener Lehrstück vom Einverständnis, Das (Baden Learning Play about Consent) 116

   Dreigroschenoper (Threepenny Opera) 40, 178, 191; in South Africa 271, 273, 276–7, 278

   Dreigroschenroman (Threepenny Novel) 273

   Fatzer, Der Untergang des Egoisten (Fall of the Egoist Fatzer) 27–8, 133–4; v. Böse Baal der asoziale (Bad Anti-social Baal) v. Garbe project 134, 146–7; v. Massnahme (Measures Taken) 145, 160–1; as revocation of measure 165; v. Mutter [Mother] Courage 153; see also Müller Fatzer, radio version

   Garbe project 83–92; v. Büsching 86, 87–92; v. Fatzer 86, 89; v. Katzgraben 87; v. Massnahme 87, 89

   Gute Mensch von Setzuan, Der (The Good Person of Setzuan) and racial stereotypes: 329; in South Africa 216

   Heilige Johanna der Schlachthöfe, die (St Joan of the Stockyards) 45, 176; in South Africa 260, 274

   Herr Puntila und sein Mann Matti (Mr Puntila and his Man Matti) 74–5

   Im Dickicht der Städte (Jungle of Cities) 328

   “In der Asphaltstadt bin ich daheim” (I’m at Home in Asphalt City) 177

   Jae Fleischhacker von Chikago 173, 176; and Die heilige Johanna 183–4

   Jasager und der Neinsager, der (He Who Says Yes, He Who Says No) 27–8

   Judith von Shimoda 173, 176

   Katzgraben 66–82; and Heiner Müller 95; v. Müller’s Umsiedlerin 104

   Katzgraben-Notate 65, 72

   Kaukasische Kreidekreis, der (The Caucasian Chalk Circle) 6, 109, 182; in South Africa 215–16, 217; Serpent Players 241, 243–4; University of Cape Town 238

   Keunergeschichten (Keuner Stories) 133

   Leben des Galilei (Life of Galileo) 62, 182; and a planned “life of Einstein”

   Lindberghflug/Flug der Lindberghs/ Ozeanflug (Flight of the Lindberghs/ Across the Ocean) 142–3, 193–4

   Mack the Knife (adapt. Marc Blitzstein) 171

   Mahagonny 24

   Manifest der kommunistischen Partei (Brecht’s adaption) 184–91; translation problems in 187–8

   Massnahme, Die (Measures Taken, a.k.a. The Expedient) 23, 27–38; Adorno’s critique of 45–6, 203–4; ambiguous translation of 29; and Brecht’s Garbe project 81, 87, 89; and Fatzer 160; and Marx’s Communist Manifesto 207–10; and radio Fatzer 168; as a Leninist Lehrstück 203; as a Schaustück 201–6

   Massnahme produced at the Akademie der Künste experiment (1990) 200–1; Berliner Arbeitertheater (BAT; 1998) 201; Berliner Ensemble (1997) 198–207; Berliner Philharmonie (1930) 34–9; as kitsch 207; commodification of 182; New Left reception of 200

   Messingkauf (Messingkauf Dialogues) 339

   Me-Ti: Book of Changes 184

   Die Mutter (The Mother) 27–8, 75, 176

   Mutter Courage und ihre Kinder (Mother Courage and Her Children) 182–3, 260

   Verhör des Lukullus, Der (Trial of Lucullus) 52–4, 182

“Brechtianism” without Brecht 17, 218–19, 221

British Drama League 220, 232

Büchner, Georg 107; Woyzeck in South Africa 240, 243

Bureau of State Security (BOSS; South Africa) 11, 306–7

capitalism: as analyzed in The Communist Manifesto 188–90; as object of critique 1–6, 12–15, 21–39, 60–6; as object of desire 50, 96; and post-apartheid 276; and post-socialist society 11, 132, 194–8, 210–14; in Fatzer 161–4; in commodification of Massnahme 207–8; in Randlords and Rotgut 259–60; in Love, Crime and Johannesburg 271–80

   see also: Alienation; Cold War; consumer culture; imperialism

Castorf, Frank: as actor 148; as director of Müller’s Bau 104; as director of the Volksbühne 175–6; cited in Massnahme program (1997) 208; directing Hauptmanns Weber 175, 195–7; v. Hauptmann’s play Die Weber 195

Cement (Fyodor Gladkov) 84

censorship, and Comintern; and the Brecht heirs 150–2, 199–200, 202–3; and Brecht publishers 207–8; and the drama of personal betrayal 285

censorship in the GDR 50, 73–81, 94, 103, 298–301; and GDR Sklavensprache 302–10; GDR Writers’ Union 104; SED’s Eleventh Plenum 50, 112; SED fear of Soviet liberalization 115, 123; SED media policy 135–6; surveillance of privacy 306; thaw in 39–40, 115–22, 136; underground self-censorship 319–20

   in South Africa 227–9, 237; and BOSS 239–45, 254–6

class: and Communist Manifesto 184–91, 209; conflict 28, 71–2, 76–7; enemy 51–3; see also: consciousness; worker

Cold War 35–6; and Brecht 17; and German/German border 69–70, 135–6; as defense of “Western civilization” 6; as melodrama 4; in GDR drama 92–3, 106–9, 126;

collective: as agent of revolution 252–6; as dramatic chorus 28–34, 89; v. individual voices 152–70; in Fugard: 288–9

collectivization in the GDR 61, 66–9; and refugees 64; dramatic critique of 70–1

commitment: 1–2, 21–39; as “fighting realism” 39–48; as “realistic engagement” 281; in South African testimonial performance 217, 337; v. anarchic resistance 161–4

Communism 1–4; defined 3; against Weimar socialism 21; as dramatic subject 27–38; commodified 171; see also: anti-facism, Cold War; HUAC; socialism

   v. anti-communism 1–4, 35–8; see also apartheid

Communist Manifesto, see Marx, Karl

Communist Party, German (KPD) 3, 8, 16; and influence on Brecht 21, 34–7; and failure to combat Nazism 22–3; and martyred leader Ernst Thälmann 74; see also: Socialist Party; German (SPD; Socialist Unity Party (SED); Weimar Republic

Communist Party of South Africa (CPSA; 1919–50) 6–10, 14, 216; and culture 7, 220, 223–6, 234; suppression of 237; v. South African Communist Party (SACP; 1950– ) 7, 223–4; in the GDR 286–90; and GDR Fugard productions 312–13; leader Bram Fischer 313

consciousness: of class 28, 54; (defined); and black workers 264–6; and socialist state 73–81; and “theatre of waking life” 338–9; v. the unconscious 43, 59–60, 341–4; see also socialization; subjectivity; trauma

consumer culture: in GDR drama 118; and post-socialist society 131; rock and roll 121–2; see also capitalism; modernization; socialist icons

Cornelius, Hester and Johanna (GWU) 226–31

costume 116; and Cold War 117, 123–4; and gender 116–17, 204–5; and workers 117, 126; post-socialist 195; see also blackface

Death of a Salesman (Arthur Miller) 91

De Klerk, F[rederik] W[illem] (South Africa) 352; see also TRC

dis-illusion: an initial translation of Verfremdung 43; as de-enchantment 43–5; as estrangement not alienation 20, 39–43, 48; as farce of history 123–32; as heterophonous sound 153–7, 299; and laughter 234–6, 249; in the production play 69; of production play 116–22; of race 231, 232–3, 296–302, 303, 313–17, 328–9; of romance plot 109–12; of socialist relics 211–14; v. Brecht’s defense of ideal images 71–2; v. “Happy Ends” 82; v. “illusory solutions to real problems” 42–3, 69, 94–112; v. SED 73–81; see also alienation; empathy; estrangement; realism; Verfremdung

Distraction: defined 44; v. discipline 145; see also alienation; estrangement

Durban Workers’ Cultural Local (South Africa) 218, 237, 261–7; v. African National Theatre 264; and Brecht 338–9; and the Culture and Working Life Project (CWLP) 375; v. JATC 263; Ilanga Lisophumela abasebenzi (The Sun Shall Rise for the Workers) 261–4; Long March, The 264–7; v. concert format 265; v. Sizwe Bansi 266

East and South as critical foils to dominant North and West 11–12, 13–15, 16–18; in unified Berlin 210–14, 217; see also: Europe, provincialized; post-imperial; third world

Einstürzende Neubauten and radio music for Fatzer 139, 148; and estrangment 165–6; use of aural montage 154–7

Emmerich, Wolfgang 57–9

empathy 64; and comedy 66–82; and Stanislavsky 73; and theatre as therapy 341

Engels, 23; criticized by Korsch 23–4; Origin of the Family 163–4; see also Marx, Karl

enlightenment 21–39; and de-enchantment 43–5; through comedy 66–9; through production play 102–32; v. party discipline 140–6; sense v. sensation 342–3; v. trauma 337–74

epic theatre: against grand epic (epos) 27; as critical narrative 19; as political analysis 252–6, 299; Brecht’s retreat from 64; Müller’s revival of 95–100; radio techniques and 154–70; see also montage

epic verse 185, 188–90

Erpenbeck, Fritz 41, 183; and the notion of “anti-popular decadence” 47, 51–3

Es geht seinen Gang (Erich Loest) 121

Esslin, Martin, and Cold-War Brecht 4; and radio 165–7

estrangement 16; against alienation 20; and critical realism 39–48; and not quite dis-illusion 42–3, 259; Brecht’s retreat from 72; radio versions of 154–70; refunctioned as archeology 123–32; v. sentiment 244; v. sincerity and incommunicable suffering 342; v. theatre as therapy 341; in versified Communist Manifesto 184–91; in the Volksstück 74–7

Europe, glocalized 284–5; provincialized 11–12, 14–15 (defined); white savages in 221

expressionist debate 39–41; see also: modernism; popular; realism; socialist realism

Fanon, Frantz, Wretched of the Earth 244

Fascism, see anti-fascism; imperialism; Nazism; totalitarianism

Fiebach, Joachim (GDR) 288–90; as dramaturg 297

film: as institution 25, 48; subject to GDR censorship 115

films: Denk bloß nicht, ich heule (Frank Vogel) 112; Das Kaninchen bin ich (Kurt Maetzig) 112; Kuhle Wampe (Brecht, Dudow, Eisler) 5, 23, 27–8, 41; Schlösser und Katen (maetzig) 80; Spur der Steine (Frank Beyer) 113–14

Fischer, Ruth (HUAC) 35–6

Foucault, Michel, and archeology 124–6

Frau Flintz (Helmut Baierl) 65

Freud, Sigmund 60, 309

Fugard, Athol 10–12, 17, 217, 237; as gestic actor 241, 293–4, 310; and Brecht 239, 289; and censorship 239–45, 302–10; in the GDR 217, 281–319; v. South Africa and the USA 282–3; and Grotowski 247; as liberal 289; playwright of interiority 288–9; of solidarity 292; interiority v. solidarity 303; and Sartrean existentialism 289, 294

   Bloodknot: detailed discussion 293–6; as Mit Haut und Haar in the GDR 283, 292, 295–6; in South Africa 294–5, 310; translations 295–6

   Boesman and Lena: as Buschmann und Lena in the GDR 302, 303

   Cure, The (from Niccolò Machiavelli’s La Mandragola) 240

   Dimetos 303

   Hello and Goodbye: as Hallo und Adieu 330; Turkish/German Merhaba und Tschüß 285, 324–36; in performance 330–6; plot changes in 333–5; translation of 331; translation in 332–6

   Island, The 6, 217, 245–6, 303; and Antigone 297–8; Die Insel in the GDR 283, 288, 296–302; in production 298–301, 310; refunctioned as code for GDR conditions 289, 298–301; v. Sizwe Bansi 251, 311

   Lesson from Aloes in South Africa 306–7; in the United States 307; as Aloen in the GDR 283, 303–4; detailed discussion 307–9; as Trauerspiel 309

   Master Harold and the Boys in the GDR 283

   No-Good Friday 240

   Nongogo 240

   Place with the Pigs, A: as Ein Stall voll Schweine in the GDR 283, 329

   Road to Mecca, The 303

   Sizwe Bansi Is Dead 6, 217, 303; and blackface 313–17; collective composition of 246; in the GDR 284–5, 311–20; and GDR blackface 313–17; v. Kani’s “concert” 314; GDR premiere 312–17; GDR underground 317; in South Africa 311–12; syncretic quality of 246, 288; in unified Germany

   Statements after Arrest under the Immorality Act in South Africa 304–5; as Aussagen in the GDR 283, 302, 303, 310; v. Die Insel 304

   Valley Song 330

      see also Serpent Players; actors: John Kani; theatre directors: Rolf Winkelgrund

Function 1–2, 24–6, 36–8; direct political action 254–6; functionlessness 24, 46

Functionality (Zweckmässigkeit) 36, 45–6

   refunctioning (Umfunktionierung) 41; of bourgeois institutions ; of radio 133–70; of Brecht’s texts 241; of Volksstück 64; see also artistic autonomy; commitment; production play

Garbe, Hans (GDR bricklayer; “hero of labor”) 61, 83; interviewed 84–5; presence at 17 June uprising 88; post-socialist references 211

Garbe in narrative: Hans Garbe erzählt 84, 93; Menschen an unsrer Seite (Eduard Claudius) 83–4; Vom schweren Anfang (Claudius) 83; Mann im feuerigen Ofen (Karl Grünberg) 83; compared to gangster Walter Gladow 124

Garment Workers’ Union 7, 221, 226–31; plays Eendrag (Unity) 227; Sklavin van Suid-Afrika, Die (Slave of South Africa) 227; at the Voortrekker centenary 229–31; v. Jewish Workers Group 227

gender: GDR masculine 80–2, 124; GDR feminine 77, 82, 161–4; post-GDR 204–5; critique of racialized patrarchy 332–6, 373–4; in South African Brechtian performance 260–1; see also body; genre; women in performance

genre

   African “concert” or vaudeville sketches 217, 218, 219, 240; African-American sources 233–4; influence on Fugard 247

   African storytelling 219, 240

   agit-prop 2, 7, 13; in South Africa 221, 245, 261–7; in Tanzania at the ANC school 288–9; Adorno’s critique of 45–6; v. African concert 265

   agroprop 64, 65

   black minstrelsy 248

   cabaret 116, 222

   comedy 64

   commedia dell’arte 240

   drama as literature 7, 219

   farce and history 60, 123–32

   history play 256–61, 267–80; and testimonial performance 257–9; and vaudeville

   living newspaper 220

   May Day pageants and parades 7, 227, 229, 231, 266

   melodrama 330–6; in Cold War discourse 4, 6

   musical 25, 256–61

   nationalist hymns 219

   romance 77–80, 104, 110, 161–4

   satire 67, 75, 76–7

   tragedy 83, 90–2; and farce 123–32; and state legitimation 151

   Trauerspiel (lit. “mourning play”), bourgeois 90–1; socialist 130–1; v. Freud’s concept of mourning 309

   Volksstück 48, 64, 74–7, 222; see also: blackface; Lehrstück; political songs; production play; testimonial performance

Germany, after unification (since 1990): 11, 17; and Berlin 177; and citizenship law ; and Cold War residue 56–9, 167–70; and commodification of leftist culture 171, 198; and deutsche Leitkultur (German dominant culture) 323–6; and Islam 325–6, 332–6;

Germany, East (German Democratic Republic, GDR or DDR: 1949–89) 1–4, 8–12, 56–61; demise of 172–3; and Fugard 17; and media policy; nostalgia for 173; and South Africa 13; and third world 9–10, 286–93; and South African liberation movements 286–90; v. West Germany 3; Weimar inheritance of 40–1, 48–55

Germany, Weimar Republic (1919–33) 21–38; GDR inheritance 92, 136–7; and West German left 148–9; exhibited at Akademie der Künste’s Brecht centenary 177–8

Germany, West (Federal Republic of Germany, FRG or BRD: 1949–90) 1–4; and apartheid 281–2; and Red Army Fraction 148–9; v. GDR 3, 48–50

gests 52; of agency v. abjectness 374–5; and corporeal comedy 75; and critique of apartheid power relations 217; critique of sentiment 92–4, 109; of disclosure at the TRC; of race 298–301, 310, 328–9; of subjectivity 95–6; as social attitude 61; v. anti-social attitude 153–4, 195

Golden fliesst der Stahl (Karl Grünberg) 119

Gordimer, Nadine, on Fugard’s Blood Knot 294

Gorki, Maxim

   Lower Depths 225

Gramsci, Antonio 102–3, 134

Greek mythic figures: Cadmus 111; Charon; Prometheus 126

Habermas, Jürgen; v. Alexander Kluge 141; see also public sphere

Hamlet, GDR allusions to 107, 118, 129

Handspring Puppet Company 362; directors Basil Jones and Adrian Kohler 364; see also TRC; theatre

Heimat (home) as ideological conceit 308; Hitler’s version of 308, 309

Helden wie wir (Thomas Brüssig) 174–5

Hitler, Adolf 10, 36, 126

Honecker, Erich I 44, 136

House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC, USA) 4, 5; and Brecht 35–6, 37, 184–5; reading of Massnahme 35–6, 198

imperialism 12–13, 21 (defined); Cold-War slogan 49–54; v. anti-imperialism 1–6, 27–8; Afrikaner 227–9; GDR claims to 56–132, 135–6

institution: as concept 15–16; of culture 19, 23–39; v. Apparat 24, 140–5; v. formation 19–20, 25–6 (defined); see also function

Jameson, Frederic 56

Jarry, Alfred 259; and Ubu and the Truth Commission 362

Jews: in the GDR 319–20; in South Africa 224

Johannesburg 220–37; as dramatic subject 259–61, 267–80; and post-apartheid capitalism 274–6

Junction Avenue Theatre Company (JATC) 7, 218, 222, 237, 256–61, 262; and Peter Brook’s direction of Marat/Sade (Peter Weiss) 000; and Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation 369; and Jarry 259; and Johannesburg 267–80; v. Market Theatre 257; and Oh What a Lovely War! (Theatre Workshop) 260; and Workshop 71 259; women in 260–1

   Dikitsheneng (In the Kitchen) 261

   Fantastical History of a Useless Man 257–9; v. DWCL 261

   Love, Crime and Johannesburg 257, 271–80; and critique of “people’s poet” Mzwakhe Mbuli 272; v. Randlords and Rotgut 273; v. Sophiatown 274; v. St. Joan of the Stockyards 274; v. Threepenny Novel 273; v. Threepenny Opera 271, 273, 276–7, 278

   Randlords and Rotgut 257, 259–61; v. DWCL 261; v. Survival 260

   Sophiatown 218, 267–71; and ANC history 269–71

Jünger, Ernst, Im Stahlgewittern (Storm of Steel) 156–7; Die totale Mobilmachung (Total Mobilization); Brecht’s view 157–8; Müller’s view 149–50

Kafka, Franz, and GDR censorship 107; influence on Heiner Müller 106–7, 129–30; translation problems in 106

Kentridge, William (actor, artist, director, designer) and Ubu 362, 364; as actor 260

Khrushchev, Nikita 39–48

Khulumani! (Survivors Support Network) 369–72; video 370; and The Story I Am About to Tell 370–2; and international lawsuits against apartheid era firms 369; see also TRC survivors

kitsch; and “illusory solutions” 54; and socialist pathos 58, 67, 81; v. post-socialist irony 207

   Blick auf Stalinstadt (Bernard Kretzschmer) 67

Kluge, Alexander 122; v. Habermas 141; see also public sphere

Komar, Vitaly, and Alexander Melamid 173–4, 206

Korsch, Karl 16; and Marxist Workers’ School 23; and versification of The Communist Manifesto 184

KPD: see Communist Party, German

Kracauer, Siegfried 44, 145

Krog, Antjie (TRC commentator) 351, 359

Kurella, Alfred 34–5

La Guma, Alex 286–7

Lehrstück (learning/teaching play) 2, 5; and abolishing the spectator 28, 48, 217, 231; and anti-fascism 20, 21–39; in the GDR 63–4, 83–102; post-socialist 198; and radio 140–6; in South Africa 217–18, 221, 231, 261–7; translation of 27; v. Bildungsdrama (drama of formation) 63; v. Bildungsroman (novel of formation) 83–5, 87; v. Schaustück (showpiece) 30, 37, 38, 198; v. (South) African concert 261–7; see also Brecht; enlightenment; estrangement; genre; Müller; pedagogy

Lenin (Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov) 23; and Brecht’s politics 26–8; and Brecht’s radio theory 143–6; and GDR 54; v. Luxemburg 203–7; and Marx 184 and Stalin 100–2; allusion in Fatzer

Lenin School and South African communists 224

liberalism, and South African contradictions 294–5; see also Fugard as liberal

The London Merchant (George Lillo) 91

Luxemburg, Rosa 16; anti-fascist martyr 23, 148–50; critic of imperialism 22; of Leninism 52, 184; Luxemburg Day (GDR) 123

Lukács, Georg 13, 16, 20; and defense of Stalinist realism 40–2, 46–8; v. critique; v. Henselmann 180–1

Malamud, Bernard, in the GDR 319

Mandela, Nelson 220, 234; bridge 277; inauguration of 272; v. SACP leader Bram Fischer 313; and Youth League of the ANC 224

Marx, Karl 23, 60; and analysis of alienation (Entfremdung) 43; and history as farce 130; commodified 172–3, 206; utopian views of 143

   Communist Manifesto (and Frederick Engels), anniversary of 171–2; and Johannesburg 274–6; as 1997 Massnahme program; translation of 186–91; v. versification of 184–91

marxism 21–5 and German New Left 148–50, 199–200; see also Brecht; Communism; Lenin; Socialism; Stalin

Marxist Workers’ School 23, 184

Mayakovsky, Vladimir 113; Mystery Bouffe 111

Mbembe, Achille, on the post-colony 276

Memmi, Albert, and colonial alienation 294; and GDR misrecognition of race: 321

Meyerhold, Vsevolod: influence in South Africa 220–1, 226

Mhlophe, Gcina 373–4; Have You Seen Zandile? 373; and poems performed at the TRC’s Gender Commission hearings 373

modern architecture: Akademie der Künste exhibit 179–80; and GDR-Modern 139; Johannesburg 271–80; Henselmann, Hermann 179–81, 182; Mies van der Rohe, Ludwig 180, 211; Scharoun, Hans 179–81; see also Stalinallee

modernism 39–41, 48 (defined); decadent 39–41; popular 46–8; Brecht on 54–5; West German ideology of 56; see also Expressionist debate; montage

modernization and anticapitalism 49–52; and collectivization 61; v. post-modern 131–2; v. pre-modern 56; see also consumer culture; production play

montage 41; Brecht’s critique of 48; Castorf’s use of 119; Müller’s use of 95–100; in radio 154–7; v. stage picture 76–7; see also syncretic

Moritz Tasso (Peter Hacks)

Müller, Heiner 5, 17; Brecht’s influence on 60–6; critique of Brecht 62–3, 65; and GDR thaw 115–22; and Lenin 167–70; and the Stasi 138–9

   Der Auftrag (The Mission) 119

   Der Bau (Construction Site) 64, 82, 192; detailed analysis of 102–2; Kafka in 106–7; performance of 104, 116–22; v. source text Spur der Steine 103; women in 92

   Fatzer (for radio): 133–70; as anti-Lehrstück 154–70; production conditions 147–8; v. Berliner Ensemble version 137–8, 150–2, 164; v. Duell Traktor Fatzer 170; v. Hamburg stage version; v. Lindberghflug and Brecht’s radio theory 167–70; v. Massnahme 168, 192; v. Müller’s Lohndrücker production 152–3

   Der Horatier in Müller’s 1988 Lohndrücker production 128

   Hamletmaschine 92, 119

   Lohndrücker, Der (The Wage Buster) 60, 61, 92, 104–5; as epic theatre 95–100; and Nazi residue in the GDR 123–4; in 1956 production 93–4, 128; in 1988 production 123–30; v. Der Bau 124, 129

   Mauser 192

   Philoktet 115

   Die Schlacht (The Battle) 115, 116, 119

   Die Umsiedlerin (The Female Resettler a.k.a. Die Bauern) 64, 65; censored 104; Marquardt’s 1976 production of 115; Tragelehn’s 1961 production of 120; women in 82

   Wolokolamsker Chaussee (Volokolamsk Highway) 170; in 1988 Lohndrücker 129–30

Müller, Inge 92–4; Die Korrektur (Correction) 63, 93–5

National Socialist Workers [Nazi] Party (NSDAP) 3; imitating the KPD 21; in power 39; and Charles Lindbergh 142

Nazism 21–3, 63, 103; Brecht’s critique of 149–50, 157–8, 183; cultural policy; residues in the GDR 48–50

neo-Nazism: East German attribution to West 113; West German attribution to East 56; in South Africa 227–31

   see also SED, Nazi residue in

Nkosi, Lewis (South African writer) 268

O’Neill, Eugene 8; The Dreamy Kid 233; Hairy Ape 8, 220, 232–3

opera 24, 29; and the aria 74

Optimistic Tragedy (Vsevolod Vishnevsky) 317–18

Ostalgie 173; in Castorf’s work 195; and Helden der Arbeit event 211–14; and Massnahme revival 176, 204

Özdamar, Emine Sevgi 327–9; Karagöz in Alemania (Black Eye in Germany) 327–8; Keloglan in Alemania (Keloglan in Germany) 327–9; and Volksbühne 328

Pan-Africanist Congress 216; banned 293

Party (as subject of drama) 1, 28–34; betrayal of 30, 31–4; consent to (Einverständnis mit) 34; discipline 26–7, 126, 140–6, 198; infallibility 100–1; as father 80–2; as mother 106, 112; Parteidiktatur (one-party tyranny) 51; see also socialist realism; socialist types

pathos: in Fugard 289; as lapse of dis-illusion 72; and socialist kitsch 74; of tragic proletarian 90–2

pedagogy 13, 21–48, 140–6, 231; anti-apartheid 241–5; of the oppressed 221; and Sklavensprache in GDR Fugard 302–10; and trauma 337–74; and TRC 344–61; see also Lehrstück; enlightenment

performative act (J. L. Austin): defined; TRC perpetrator disclosure as 360–1

Piscator, Ernst (director) 5, 20; Brecht’s critique of 24–5; influence in South Africa 220–1, 226

Pit, The (Frank Norris ) 183

Plenzdorf, Ulrich 121; Legende vom Glück ohne Ende 301; Legende von Paul und Paula 301

political organizations other than parties

   Central Intelligence Agency (CIA; USA) 1

   Comintern (Communist International) 9, 39, 187–8, 191

   Free German Union Federation (FDGB: Freies Deutsches Gewerkschaftsbund) 50; literary prize 94

   Free German Youth (FDJ: Freie deutsche Jugend) 50, 66; and race 310; and women 76

   International Writers’ Congress (1935) 39, 123

   LPG (Landproduktionsgenossenschaften, Agricultural Cooperatives) 104

   Soviet Writers’ Congress (1934) 39

   United Democratic Front (UDF; South Africa) 256, 266–7

   Writers Union (GDR) 49, 104–5

political and other periodicals

   African Communist, The 288–9, 313

   Encounter (Britain) 1

   Inkululeko (Freedom; South Africa) 223, 234, 236

   Die Linkskurve (Curve to the Left; Weimar Germany) 41–2

   Der Monat (The Month; FRG) 1

   Neues Deutschland (New Germany) 53, 115

   Die Rote Fahne (Red Flag; Weimar Germany) 34, 37

   Sinn und Form (Sense and Form; GDR) 45, 103, 112

   Sputnik (Soviet Union/GDR)

   Theater der Zeit (GDR) 92–3, 117, 295, 296, 308–9

   Umweltblätter (GDR) 319

   Das Wort (The Word; German exiles/Soviet Union) 40, 185

   Umsebenzi (The Worker; South Africa) 223–5

political songs

   Auferstanden aus Ruinen (Arisen from the Ruins; GDR) 3, 121

   Deutschland, Deutschland über alles (Germany Above All; FRG) 3

   Fritz der Traktorist (Fritz the Tractor Driver; GDR) 67–9

   Internationale 225; in Afrikaans 227

   Izinyembezi Zabantu (The Tears of the People) 271

   Jetzt bist du in der LPG 104

   La Paloma (The Dove; Spanish Civil War) 121

   Die Partei hat immer Recht (a.k.a. Song of the Party; GDR ) 101, 121, 174, 196

   The Red Flag

   Sarie-Marais (South Africa) 227

   Die Stem van Suid-Afrika (Voice of South Africa) 227

popular (volkstümlich) 47–8; Popular Front against Fascism 39; as avant-garde 41; v. anti-popular decadence (volksfremde Dekadenz) 39–40, 51–2, 113; racism of 47; racist populism in South Africa 227–31

post-imperial 12–15 (defined); v. anti-imperial 21; v. inter-imperial 27–8; v. post-colonial 285–6; v. post-colony 276; post-socialism as 131–2; see also: imperialism, third world

post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD): defined 354–5; and perpetrator testimony 352–6, 361; v. survivor legal challenges 352–6, 361; and survivor testimony 341–2; as symptom of history 361

production; as social goal 60–6; and Brecht’s critique of reflection theory 46–8; and post-socialist lack 212–13

production play (Geschichte aus der Produktion) 83–132; dis-illusion of 106–22, 211–14; v. “productivity simulator” 212–13

proletarian, see worker

public sphere 10, 11 (defined); proletarian 23, 37, 141; in South Africa 255–6; of consumption 122; and radio 140–2; intrusion into private sphere 95–6, 304, 306; and secret speech 309–11; underground 317

race 6, 8, 10, 17; dis-illusioned 231; German race law, history 290; Nazi racist policy 47; South African race and class struggle 221; racism as apartheid policy 227–9; in the FRG 290–3; in the GDR 284–5, 290–3, 317, 320–1; in unified Germany 284–5, 322–4, 327–9

   see also blackface; see also Afro-Germans; apartheid; anti-apartheid. For anti-racism, see also anti-fascism; solidarity; socialism, international

racial masquerade 293–4, 296; and racial spectacle 295, 302; v. gestic performance of race 298–301, 310; and Turkish-German theatre 327–9

Radebe, Gaur 220; and the CPSA 234; influence on Mandela 225, 234; v. 1980s agit-prop 264; Rude Cruminal 220, 225, 234–6

radio, as institution 25; Adorno’s theory of 167; Brecht’s theory of 140–5; GDR policy on 135–6; Müller’s critique of 138–40, 166–9; and the TRC 348–50

realism; and interventional thinking (Eingreifendes Denken) 20; and modernism 39–48; and policy in the GDR 56–132; and the surreal 43, 60

realism and formalism debates: authority of Lukács 42–3; authority of the SED 53–5; Brecht’s critique of Lukács 46–8, 54–5; of the “Moscow group” 47; Brecht’s converse critique of modernist formalism 48; Henselmann on architectural realism 180–1

realism, socialist 5, 34–5, 38, 56–132; and defense of bourgeois tradition 39, 47, 51–3; as censorship 115; and “illusory solutions” 54–5; and Lukács 38; unrealistic character of 42–3, 54–5; see also kitsch; Party; socialist character types; socialist icons

reconciliation 337–4; and Christian tradition 347; and concept of ubuntu (humanity) 365–7

reconciliation, translation of 365–8; Afrikaans (versoening) 365; English 365; Hegelian Versöhnung (metaphysical reconciliation) v. Schlichtung (legal settlement) 362–4; Xhosa uxolo (peace) v. uxolweno (coming to peace) 365–7, 375

Red Army Fraction 149–50; in Karge and Langhoff’s Fatzer 148–9; in the 1997 Massnahme reception 200; and Ulrike Meinhof: 149; compared to Rosa Luxemburg 148–50

Red Rand (Lewis Sowdon; South Africa) 226

Reich, Wilhelm; and defining class consciousness 22

RUR (Karel Čapek) 226

Sachs, Albie (South Africa) 359

Sachs, E. S. (“Solly” South Africa) 224, 226–9

Scarry, Elaine and The Body in Pain 342

SED (Sozialistische Einheitspartei Deutschlands; Socialist Unity Party, GDR) 2–5, 8, 34–5; and artistic policy 38, 48–55; and Brecht 59, 73; and Castorf 119–20; and Lehrstück 63–4, 86; and Müller 94–127; as Parteidiktatur 51; demise of 123; media policy 135–6; Nazi residue in 84–5, 126

Seghers, Anna (writer) 49, 85, 112; and “Party mother” 106

Şenocak, Zafer (Germany) 325–6

Serpent Players (New Brighton/Port Elizabeth) 6–7, 217–18, 222, 237; as political activists 244; and censorship 239–45; Antigone 243; Caucasian Chalk Circle 241, 243–4; The Just (Albert Camus) 245; Woyzeck 240, 243

   The Coat 6, 217, 247, 251, 257; and dis-illusion of apartheid experience 241–5

socialism: as utopia 3, 7–15, 22, 130; in the Lehrstück 27; and the subjunctive index of possibilty 27; and the state, see SED; SPD

socialism, international 7–15; in Brecht’s drama 27–8; and anti-apartheid solidarity 286–93; in South Africa 220–37

socialist character 71–2; and positive hero 77–83, 151, 158–9, 167; v. asocial egoist 87–92, 124, 133–70; bourgeois expert (or engineer) 96–8, 102, 118; as woman 116–17; capitalist 76–7; Nazi 81, 96–9; Party leader or secretary 80–2, 95–6, 117, 128–30; saboteur 96–130, 152–3

   worker, alienated 87–92; and Kafka 106–7; and Prometheus 126; and socialist state 128–9

   worker, model 61–6, 83–99, 102, 130; as beast of burden; Soviet Stakhanovite 63, 126

   youth (esp. women) 77–80

socialist icons and topoi: Baustelle (construction site) 60–2, 66; beer v. schnapps 128; Bitterfeld and Bitterfelder Weg 65, 103; in the production play 83–132; unified Berlin 177; HO (Handelsorganisation: state-run shop) 96, 122, 127; Leuna 103, 107; May Day 7, 128, 225, 227, 229, 231, 266; red flag 173; tractor 67–9, 74, 81

socialization of “new socialist” 83–5; v. asocial character 87–92; v. psychology 87–8; v. subjectivity 92

solidarity, as principle of international socialism 8–12, 220–7, 286–93; anti-capitalist 97–8; v. egoist 136–7, 159–64; v. interiority 309; in South Africa 226–31, 241–5, 261–7; limits of 281; v. racial prejudice 285–91, 293, 296, 312; “seeing through race” 290–3, 302, 310–11; v. tribal affiliations 266–7

Solidarity Committee (GDR) 9, 281–3, 286–91; and GDR promotion of Fugard 286–91, 312–13

South Africa 6, 215, 216–79, 304–5, 306–7; Jewish population 224; truth and reconciliation in 337–74

Soviet Union and Bolshevik revolution 21, 26–8, 152–3; and GDR 49–52, 63, 69, 83; and GDR reparations 90; and German exiles 39–41

Soviet allies: and destalinization 102; and glasnost 123; underdevelopment of 132; Czechoslovakia 49, 123; and Soviet invasion 50; Hungary 50, 123; and uprising 94; Poland 49, 50, 69; resistance to collectivization 69–70

SPD (Sozialistiche Partei Deutschlands: Socialist Party of Germany) 3, 21, 22–3, 103; v. KPD

Spur der Steine (Neutsch) 82, 103, 109; see also films

stage design: Bau (Müller) 118–19; Island (Fugard) 298–301; Lohndrücker (Müller) 126–8; Massnahme (Brecht) 201–6; v. radio space 166

Stalin (Josif Vissaronovitch Dzhugashvili) 10; image on program 182; image on stage 126

Stalinism 21, 34–5; and the “Moscow group” of German exiles 40–1, 47, 49; in the GDR 81–2, 100–1; Gorbachev’s critique of 123

Stalinallee (later Karl-Marx-Allee, now Frankfurter Allee; Berlin) 88, 178–82, 211; see also Berlin; modern architecture

Stasi (Ministry of State Security: GDR) 50, 88, 128, 306; and Müller 138–9; and Wekwerth 137–8; v. BOSS 11

Strittmatter, Erwin 61; and defense of collectivization 71; Szenen aus dem Bauernleben 66–9, 74

subjectivity: allegedly bourgeois in Fugard 288–9; critiqued by socialization 92; disengaged 153–4; and GDR modernity 118–19; proletarian 73–4

subjunctive, as index of utopian possibility 27, 375; v. indicative fact 337–9; opposition defined 339

Survival (Workshop’ 71) 218, 236, 288; and creating a majority public sphere 255–6; v. The Island 254; v. Sizwe Bansi 255

syncretic theatre (in South Africa) 219, 222, 243–4; see also genre; Lehrstück; testimonial performance

Szondi, Peter 90–1

testimony 18; disclosure v. acting out 361; as deception 351–64; as enlightenment 339; gestic 352;

testimonial performance 7, 243–4, 252–6, 259; v. art 338–9; and Boal 339; and puppets 362–3; and “theatre of waking life” 338–9

“theatre as moral institution” (Friedrich Schiller)

theatre of instruction, see Brecht, Bertolt

theatre of the oppressed, see Boal, Augusto

Theatre and therapy, see trauma

theatre companies and venues, Germany (Berlin, unless otherwise indicated)

   Akademie der Künste (AdK); and Brecht’s centenary 179–80, 182–3, 200–1; and Massnahme experiment 201

   Berliner Afrika-Ensemble 322

   Berliner Arbeitertheater/Berlin Workers Theater (BAT) 201

   Berliner Philharmonie 29–30, 35, 37

   Berliner Rundfunk 137, 147–8

   Deutsches Schauspielhaus (Hamburg) 148–50

   Deutsches Theater: in the GDR 67, 112; and Fugard 282, 297, 304; in united Germany 175

   Großes Schauspielhaus

   Hans-Otto-Theater, Potsdam 303

   Maxim-Gorki Theater 93, 303

   Mecklenburgisches Landtheater (Schwerin) 312–17

   Theater am Schiffbauerdamm 178, 191

   Tiyatron (Turkish–German Theatre) 331

   Volksbühne 52, 134; and Castorf 175–6, 194–8, 328; and Marquardt 116–19

   Volkstheater Rostock 295–6

   See also Berliner Ensemble

theatre companies and venues, South Africa (Johannesburg, unless otherwise indicated)

   African National Theatre (ANT) 7, 220, 225, 231, 234; v. Unity Theatre model

   Bantu Dramatic Society (BDS) 220

   Bantu Men’s Social Centre 223

   Bantu Peoples’ Theatre 220, 221, 231; v. GWU 231; v. BDS 232

   Jewish Workers Club 225–6

   Johannesburg Art Theatre 8

   Market Laboratory Theatre 340, 370

   Market Theatre 7, 220, 243, 256; and Fugard 306–7

   National Arts Festival (Grahamstown) 371

   Performing Arts Council of the Transvaal (PACT; Pretoria) 6, 215–16

   Space (Cape Town) 220, 252, 253, 256; and Fugard 245, 246, 304–5

   University of Cape Town (UCT) 216, 238

   University of the Witwatersrand (Wits) 253; Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation 369; History Workshop 257, 259–60, 369

   Workshop ’71 7, 252–6

   see also Durban Workers’ Cultural Union; Garment Workers’ Union; Junction Avenue Theatre Company; Serpent Players

theatre companies and venues, worldwide:

   Proletbühne (Berlin/New York) 236

   Unity Theatres (Britain and North America) 232

theatre directors, GDR

   Emmerich, Klaus (Massuahme) 193

   Erforth, Klaus, and Alexander Stillmark (Insel) 297, 301

   Karge, Manfred, and Matthias Langhoff (Fatzer) 133, 137, 148–50

   Klier, Freya 123, 284–5; Pässe Parolen 319; Steinschlag 319; and Fugard 317–19

   Lautenbach, Konstanze 310

   Marquardt, Fritz (Bau) 104, 116–19; v. Castorf 50

   Peymann, Claus (BE) 176, 200

   Schleef, Einar 208–9

   Tragelehn, B. K. (Lohndrücker) 66, 120; and Müller 138

   Wekwerth, Manfred: and Katzgraben 73, 80–1; and Fatzer: 137–8, 150–2; and the Stasi 137–8

   Winkelgrund, Rolf (Fugard) 302–10

   Zillmer, G. Elisabeth (Sizue Bansi) 312–17

   see also Brecht; Castorf

theatre directors, German-language

   Reinhardt, Max (Austria, Germany, USA) 29

   Szeiler, Josef (Austria) 200–1

theatre directors, South Africa

   Baum, Kurt Joachim 8, 13, 220, 226

   Linda, Bongani (TRC and theatre) 343

   MacLaren, Robert (a.k.a Mshengu, Robert Kavanagh) 252, 255; critique of Fugard 288–9, 313; see also Workshop ’71

   Purkey, Malcolm 257, 263, 269, 340, 343; as critic 219; see also Junction Avenue Theatre Company

   Routh, Guy 8, 220, 233; v. 1980s 264; Patriot’s Pie 233; The Word and the Act 233

   Simon, Barney 7, 343; see also Market Theatre

   Sitas, Ari 261, 263–4; as actor 260

   van Gyseghem, André 8, 220, 232–3

   von Kotze, Astrid 237, 263–4; as actor 261; see also JATC; DWCL

theory 19–55; institutional determination of 20, 24–6

third world 9; v. second world 9–10, 17, 286–93; see also East and South; post-imperial; solidarity

Tolstoy, Leo 40

torture: and the law 353; methods 357–8, 359; South Africa v. Argentine “Dirty War” 357–8; as spectacle 358–9; and testimony 352–61

totalitarianism 10, 21, 23

translation: from German 19, 27, 42–5, 169, 186–91; from South African languages 232–3, 345–6, 348–9, 365–8; Turkish–German code-switching 332–6; see also individual titles and theoretical terms

trauma: challenge to Brechtian theatre of enlightenment 341–4; and history 361, 367, 375; and incommunicable pain 342; narrativization and performance as therapy 371, 374–5; reliving rather than representing 341–2

trauma and theatre: and Boal 368; v. Brecht 338–44, 375; as effective therapy 341, 343–4, 364–75; as “erotics of injury” 342, 364–5; v. “the lie of the literal” 342; v. pedagogy of the oppressed 343–4; as “theatre of waking life” 364–72, 375

Trotsky (Lev Bronstein) 184

truth: forensic v. subjective 347; and full disclosure 350–64; and legitimacy 361; and sincerity 342, 356–61; and story-telling 347; of the unconscious 352–61;

Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) 340–75; basic description 340–1; TRC and audience 343–4; v. Christian church 345, 346; v. courtroom 345, 346; as “moral institution” 344–61; limits of 361–4; opposition to 344–5, 348, 366; and social rituals 345–7; survivors v. victims in 345; syncretic form of 345–6; as theatre 348; and translation 345–6, 348–9; see also TRC, theatre derived from ; Amnesty Committee 341, 346–7; controversial decisions of 360–1; Gender Equality Commission 349–50, 357, 373–4; Human Rights Violations Committee 341, 347

TRC and South African languages 348–9, 365–8; English 372; Sotho 351, 372; Zulu 372

TRC v. truth commissions in Chile and Guatemala 346

TRC perpetrators: acting out and full disclosure 361; v. Argentine “Dirty War” 355; and inventing procedure 346–7; media stereotypes 350; problem of deception 351–64; v. sincere remorse 342, 356–61

   Benzien, Jeffrey 346, 352–61; amnesty decision 354; biographical information 354

   De Kock, Eugene 352–3; biographical information 350–1; as “Prime Evil” 350

TRC survivors and inventing procedure 347; media typing of 350–1; problem of incommunicable pain 342; sincerity of 352

   Henry, Yazir 360; critique of TRC reporting 351, 360

   Khumalo, Duma 370, 371, 372

   Mlangeni, Caroline 370, 372

   Narkedien, Zayra 349–50

   Shezi, Thandi 370, 372–3; and Khulumani! 371, 372; testimony before TRC Gender Commission 374–5

   Yengeni, Tony 357–9

TRC survivors and South African non-governmental organizations 367; and NGO critique of TRC 366; Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation 368–9; Direct Action Centre for Peace and Memory (Cape Town) 349–50, 360; Healing of Memories Institute 368; see also Khulumani!

TRC, theatre derived from 343; Truth Omissions (Pieter-Dirk Uys) 362; and television docu-drama 371; and theatre for development and education 339–40; and therapy for survivors 364–75; see also separate entries: Khulumani; Ubu and the Truth Commission 362–4

Tutu, Desmond (Archbishop and TRC Chair) 341; on translation 348

Ubu and the Truth Commission 362–4; actors v. puppets in 362–3; v. Brechtian critique 363–4; and De Kock 363; v. Jarry’s Ubu roi 362; see also Handspring Puppet Company; Kentridge, William

Ulbricht, Walter (SED) 2; attack on Brecht 52–4; on Lehrstück 121; on modern architecture 180–1

uprisings

   1953 June 17 (GDR) 52, 67; as crisis of GDR legitimacy 83; and the Stalinallee 178–80, 182; in drama 88–90, 129

   Soweto Uprising (June 16 1976) 220, 282; as crisis of legitimacy 215; honored in the GDR 298, 313

Verfremdung 20, 36, 39–48; analysis and translation 42; v. Befremdung 41; Brecht’s first use 43; v. socialist realism 53–5; in South African theatre 232–3; see also alienation; dis-illusion; epic theatre; estrangement

Weber, Max 43–5

Weigel, Helene 4; acting in Massnahme premiere (1930) 32, 33–4; in the GDR 65; in Katzgraben 75, 76–7; managing the Berliner Ensemble 105–6; “Party mother” 112

Weimann, Robert (GDR) 281, 282, 285–6, 309

Wilson, Robert (directing Brecht) 193–4, 198

With Strings (Kuldip Sondhi) in Berlin 322

Wolf, Friedrich (writer) 52

women in performance 33–4, 260–1, 306; and critique of beauty 77–80, 82, 204; and critique of patriarchy 332–6, 373–4; and critique of socialist masculinity 74–7, 116–17

worker: as exemplary citizen 60–6; v. Nazi machine 63; v. Stalinist machine 63; Helden der Arbeit (Heroes of Labor commemoration, 2002) 211–14

worker institutions: defined 19–20; proletarian theatre and other Weimar institutions 23, 37; post-socialist lack 177–8; union theatres in South Africa 218, 261–7, 338–9

“worker-and-peasant state” (Arbeiter-und-Bauern-Staat; SED slogan) 61–3, 88–90, 96

worker-players 29, 37, 48; v. bourgeois amateurs 20; v. professionals 215, 240–1, 338–9; see also genre; Lehrstück; political organizations; theatre companies and venues

Woza, Albert (Percy Mtwa, Mbongeni Ngema, Barney Simon) 218

Zhdanov, Andrei (Soviet Minister for Propaganda) 5; and SED 59; and socialist realism 39–41

Žižek, Slavoj, and the Party as “sublime object of ideology” 81–2


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