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Symbolism and Modern Urban Society

Details

  • 110 b/w illus. 8 colour illus.
  • Page extent: 384 pages
  • Size: 246 x 189 mm
  • Weight: 1.009 kg

Library of Congress

  • Dewey number: 709/.03/47
  • Dewey version: 22
  • LC Classification: N6465.S9 H57 2004
  • LC Subject headings:
    • Symbolism (Art movement)
    • Art, European--19th century--Social aspects
    • Cities and towns in art
    • Europe--Social life and customs--19th century

Library of Congress Record

Hardback

 (ISBN-13: 9780521810968 | ISBN-10: 0521810965)




INDEX




abortion, 164, 167, 178–180, 190–195, 206–209, 276, 312

Acton, William, 181

Adam, Paul, 196–197

“Aesthetic of Human Contact”, 72

Aestheticism, See Arts and Crafts

agoraphobia, 81–83, 95–96, 292

   and claustrophobia, 82, 95–96, 152

Albert, Prince of England, 268

Amiel, J. Fréderic, 44–45, 58

Amsterdam, 25, 163–164, 209

anarchy, 46–47, 287

antiques, 228–229

Anvers, 228–229

Arles, 25–27

L’Art moderne, 15, 19–22, 56, 72, 75, 104, 201–203, 217, 221, 222, 224, 228, 261, 273

Art Nouveau, 4, 227, 234, 250

Arts and Crafts, 227–228

Ashcan School, 85

Asnières, 25

Aurier, G.-Albert, 28, 31

   on Van Gogh, 34–37, 60


Babel, 101

Baedeker guide, 98

Bahr, Hermann, 34

Bakhtin, Mikhail, 90, 214, 255, 293

Bal, Mieke, xviii

Ballard, Thomas, 136–137

Balzac

   Jesus Christ in Flanders, 41

Barrows, Susanna, 39, 42

Barthes, Roland, 11

Basoche, La (Amsterdam), 211

Baudelaire, Charles, 33, 142, 167

   Correspondences, 1, 12, 22, 61, 218, 235, 281

   Fleurs du Mal, 167, 208–209

   Painter of Modern Life, 63

   A Une Passante, 65–67, 97

Beard, George Miller, 81

Beardsley, Aubrey, 131–132

Belgium, 19–22, 192, 222, 294

   “Belgica-Morbus”, 104

Benjamin, Walter, 66–67

Benner, Jean, 131

Bergh, Richard, 258–259

Berlin, 71–72, 81–82, 92, 94, 150, 185

Berman, Patricia, 90, 92

Bern, 123–124

Bernard, Valère, 131–132

Besnard, Albert, 139–140, 311

   Death in the Crowd, 107

   La Femme, 189–190

Biedermann, K., 246

Biermé, Maria, 212, 251–253, 285

biography, xiii

Bocarmé, Count Visart, 269

Bon Marché. See also department stores, 40

Bordo, Susan, 205

boulevards. See streets

Bourget, Paul, 59

   “Essay on Contemporary Society”, 33

Bouten, Charlotte, 203–204

Bouvier, Gustavus Arthur, 231–232

Braekeleer, Henri de, 248

Brandes, George, 44

   Essay on the Aristocratic Radicalism of Friedrich Nietzsche, 44

Bruges, 42, 47, 219, 223, 229, 258–277, 322

   history, 264–265, 325

   Port-la-Mer (See-Brugge, Zeehaven), 266–272, 274–276, 324

Brussels, 19–22, 71–72, 75, 103, 120, 130, 159, 163–164, 174, 190, 194, 197, 202, 208–210, 224, 226, 228, 250, 267

   Allee Verte, 98

   Avenue Louise, 98

   Bois de Cambre, 99, 249–250, 269

   Boulevard Regent, 98

   Free University, 103

   Maison des Peuples, 14, 60, 184

   Le Parc, 98

   Quartier Léopold, 98

   rebuilding, late nineteenth century, 98–99

Bryson, Norman, xviii

Burne-Jones, Edward, 56–57, 126, 155


Caillebotte, Gustave, 79–80, 83

   Paris Street: Rainy Day, 63–68, 79, 98

   Pont de l’Europe, 79

   A Traffic Island, Boulevard Haussmann, 79

Cambre, Bois de. See Brussels

Canning, Susan, 106, 228, 246

capital cities, 19

Carlyle, Thomas

   Past and Present, 9

Carrière, Eugene, 202

Cassagne, Armand, 63–65

Cassatt, Mary, 88

Casteras, Susan, 180–182

Caume, Pierre, 168, 307

Cerdá, Ildefonso, 292

Cézanne, Paul, 235–236

Chadwick, Edwin, 116

Chainaye, Hecot, 226

Charcot, Jean-Martin, 81, 82

children, abandoned

   versus “love child”, 195–199

cholera, 127–128, 297

Christiania. See Oslo

Christiania-Bohème. See Oslo

city

   Enlightenment City, 73–74

   Garden and Linear, 220

   ideal, 257

   Industrial City, 73

   medieval, 258–259, 264–265

   plan and skyline, 84–86

   planning, 73–76, 118–120

   studies of health, 116–118

   water systems, 118–120

Cleaver, Reginald, 55–56

Coiseau, Louis, 267, 268, 270, 276

Comte, Auguste, 48

Contagious Diseases Prevention Acts, 129

Corn, Wanda, 85

Cousin, Jean, 267, 268, 270, 276

Crane, Walter, 184

cretinism, 146

criminality, 145–146, 167

“crowd, the”

   as Symbolist subject, 38–42, 160


Darwin, Charles, 116, 142, 148, 173, 178, 198, 201

Daudet, Léon, Les Morticoles, 144

Dauthendey, Max, 28

Decadence, 58, 59, 62

   theory and definitions, 28–38, 284

De Coster, Charles, 222

Degas, Hilaire-Germain-Edgar

   At the Milliners, 50–51

Degeneration. See also Nordau, Max 9, 81–82

   artists and, 147–155, 304

   as body code, 121

   degenerates in streets, 51–52

   identifying characteristics, 146–147, 159–162

   medical construct, 103

   as underlying disease, 144–147, 303

De Goncourt, Edmond and Jules, 47–48, 151, 243–245

De Vigne, 223, 254

Denis, Maurice, 31–33

department stores, 40–41, 67

Destrée, Jules, 163, 226

Diable au Corps (Brussels), 75, 76, 119

Diablotin, Le (Brussels), 108, 130

De Piles, Roger, 59

Dickens, Charles, 72, 180

Dicksee, Frank, 185, 310

Diday, P., 137

disease. See also agoraphobia, cholera, degeneration, neurasthenia, puerperal insanity, syphilis, or tuberculosis299

   as body image codes, 120–121

   class consciousness, 115–116, 127, 136, 302

   epidemics, 108

   and germs, 108–109

   in home, 218, 233

   international congresses, 106

   knowledge in late nineteenth century, 106–110, 276

   mental health, 304

Doré, Gustave, 180, 236–237

Draguet, Michel, 155–156

drawing, 3–4, 281

Dubos, Rene and Jean, 127

Duffin, Lorna, 127

Duncan, Carol, 171

Duncan, Thomas, 271–272

Durkheim, Emile, 18, 48, 91

   De la division du travail social, 48


Eastlake, Charles, 227

Eggermont, Armand, 208

electricity. See technology

Engels, Friedrich, 73, 85

Ensor, James, 17–18, 25, 39–41, 99, 103–107, 155, 157, 167, 197, 220, 229, 236–238, 246, 273–275, 294

   The Bad Doctors, 112–114, 296, 297

   Baths at Ostend, 130

   Carnival in Brussels, 96

   Cathedral, 41

   Christ’s Entry into Brussels in 1889, 41, 89–90, 96–97

   as degenerate, 158–162

   Ensor and Death, 104

   Exterminating Angel, 128

   Garden of Love, 105

   The Good Judges, 248

   Haunted Furniture, 236–238, 243

   home, 218, 247–250

   My Favorite Room, 247–250, 254–255

   My Sad and Splendid Portrait, 236

   My Self-Portrait in 1960, 155

   Plague Here, Plague There, Plague Everywhere, 105–108, 116, 128, 136, 297

   The Players. Point of Bankruptcy, 55–56

   The Pisser, 120

   Rooftops of Ostend, 96

   Self-Portrait 1883–8, 103

   Self-Portrait with Masks 32, 103, 107, 159–162

   Sketch, 12/25/1887, 104–105

   Somber Lady, 232

   Temptation of St. Anthony, 157–158

   Two Skeletons Fighting over a Herring, 248

L’Essor, 97

Esthétique des Villes (Brussels), 98

eugenics, 116, 144, 155, 157, 166, 194

Expressionism, 1, 29, 114, 156, 181


Faunce, Sarah, 226

Fauvism, 234

Feininger, Lyonel, 184–185, 310

feminism, 157

femme fatale, 130–132

Ferri, Enrico, 145

Feure, Georges Le, 229, 313, 318, 322

flaneur, 18, 51–52, 63, 88, 99, 162, 217

Flint, Kate, 206–207

Fournier, Alfred, 137, 145–147

Foucault, Michel, 218

   The Eye of Power, 79

   history of sex, 145, 191, 312

   study of medical profession, 103

Frédéric, Léon, 201

Freud, Sigmund, 8, 217, 219, 282

Friedman, Donald, 3, 218–219


Galassi, Peter, 63–64

Galton, Sir Francis. See also eugenics, 116

gambling, 52–56, 89–90, 288

Gand, 271

Garnier, Charles, 74

Gauguin, Paul, 2–3, 11–12, 17, 28, 100, 120, 176, 197, 222

   Barbarian Tales, 148–149

   Manao Tupapau, 31, 171–172

   Vision after the Sermon, 5, 35

   Who are we? Where do we come from? Where are we going?, 12

Gay, Peter, 286

Gazette des Beaux-Arts (Paris), 208

gender. See also man, woman

   differences at fin de siècle, 6, 2

   feminizing Symbolists, 245–247

Geneva, 73–74, 118–120, 122–124, 164, 196, 275

   1896 Swiss National Exposition, 119–120, 125, 233, 298

Genevois (Geneva), 122

Gilbert, J., 268–269

Le Globe Illustrée (Brussels), 21, 22, 75, 228–229, 254, 269

Godefroy [pseud. de Georgina], 74

Goldwater, Robert, 12

Gonzales, Eva, 88

Gothic, 6

Grand, Sarah, 138, 173

Graphic, The (London), 183, 195

Grien, Hans Baldung, 134–135

Gsell, Paul, 122


Haan, Meyer de, 148–149

Haeckel, Ernst, 133–135, 178

Hague, The, 163

Hamburg, 118

Hamsun, Knut

   Hunger, 22–23, 88, 99–100, 151, 155, 243, 292

Hansen, George, 116–117

Harrison, Frederick

   The Meaning of History, 46, 78

Haussmann, Baron von. See Paris

Haverman, H.J., 202–203

Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich, 234

Heiberg, Gunnar, 92

Heller, Reinhold, 28

Henry, Charles, 5

heredity, 135–138, 144, 149, 168–170, 211

Hevesi, Ludwig, 216

Hille, F., after Fifteen Cases of Twisted Umbilical Cord, 179

Hodler, Ferdinand, 17, 157, 247, 250–251, 275

   The Consecrated One, 121–127, 129, 196, 298

   Night, 107

Hoffmann, Josef, 247, 250

Hofmannsthal, Hugo von, 1

Holl, Frank, 183, 195–196

Hood, Thomas, 180

Hoornick, Sien, 182–184

Horta, Victor, 250

Howe, Jeffrey, 250

Hugo, Victor, 47

Hunt, Holman

   Awakening Conscience, 9

Huysmans, J.K., 167–170

   Against the Grain (A Rebours), 22, 41, 142–144, 192–194, 243–245, 250–251

   and illness, 153–154

   on Moreau, 61


Ibsen, Henrik, 138, 144, 151

Illica, Luigi, 206

illness. See disease

Illustrated London News, 183

Impressionism 2, 5, 7, 25, 33, 38, 50–51

   gender depictions, 173–174

   street scenes, 63–65, 88

individualism 5, 28, 43–48

Industrial Revolution, 73, 80, 116

infanticide, 32, 166–167, 184, 190–195, 206–209

interiors, domestic, 217–256, 317, 319, 321

   of artists, 247–255

   changes late 19th century, 218, 230–233

   design, 227–230

   as metaphor for interiority, 233–238

   plants, 229–230

   as refuge, 220–221


Jaeger, Hans, 91–92

Jameson, Frederic, xix

Jardin, Jules, 263–264

Jayne, Kristie, 177–179

Jeune Belgique, La (Brussels), 226–227

Jews, xviii, 159, 305

Jordanova, Ludmilla, 214

Journal de Bruges (Bruges), 276–277

Journal des mères (Brussels), 197


Kahn, Gustave, 28

   definitions of decadence and symbolism, 29

Katwijk by the Sea, 210

Kerr, John, 231

Kestner, Joseph, 185

Khnopff, Fernand, 9, 13–14, 18, 28, 33–34, 58–61, 78, 110, 126, 197, 220, 229, 254–255, 271–272, 276–277

   Abandoned City, 38, 265–266, 268–272, 276

   Across the Ages, 9

   “altar of art”, 13

   Angel, 39, 212

   A Beguiling I, 130

   and Bruges, 260, 262, 265–266, 268, 273, 275

   on Burne-Jones, 56–57

   En Passant [Regent Boulevard], 97–99

   on “Fashion in Art”, 59–60

   I Lock the Door Upon Myself, 14, 238–242, 250, 252, 254–255

   Isolation, 219

   Listening to Schumann, 9–10, 221, 230–232, 254–255

   Memories, 4, 5, 14, 101

   Memories of Flanders: A Canal, 260–261

   on Morris, 228

   My Heart Weeps for Other Times, 9, 11, 156

   Portrait of Germaine Wiener, 155–156

   Portrait of Marguerite Khnopff, 174–175

   Portrait of Marie Monnom, 232

   and regeneration, 155–156

   role of past, 100

   Silence, 219

   speech for Maison des Peuples, 60

   Villa/studio, 100, 218, 250–253, 274, 321

   White, Black and Gold (1901 replica, Blue Wing), 251

   Who Shall Deliver Me?, 183–185, 240–241

Klimt, Gustav, 214–216

Klinger, Max, 185–189, 233–234, 310

   Death at the Grave, 186, 311

   Dramas, 185–186

   A Life, 185–187

   A Love, 186–188

Kloos, Willem, 164

Koch, Robert, 109, 128, 300

Kornhaug Sanatorium. See Munch

Krell, Alan, 67, 181

Krogh, Christian, 92

Kropotkin, Peter, 174

Kubin, Alfred, 144


Laermans, Eugene, 207–209

Laforgue, Jules, 28, 46–47

Lancet (London), 191

Larson, Barbara, 108

Lears, T.J., 237–238

Le Bon, Gustave, 72

   Les Foules, 42

Leighton, Lord Frederick, 250

Lemonnier, Camille, 201–202, 222–225, 275

Léopold II, King of Belgium, 90, 267–268, 271

Le Roy, Grégoire, 9

Les Vingt (Les XX), 4, 15, 19, 38, 56, 104–106, 163–165, 190, 224, 226, 228, 240

Lévy-Dhurmer, Lucien, 276

La Libre Esthétique, 15, 203, 226

Lipps, Theodore, 235

literature 22, 22–23, 107, 142, 164

Lombroso, Cesare, 147–148, 150, 159–162, 167, 306

   Types of Delinquents, 161, 305

   Criminal Woman, The, 207

London, 46, 73, 107, 116, 261, 276, 298

Longstaff, G.B., 117–118

Lowenthal, David, 9


Madrid, 118

Maere, Auguste de, 266–267, 269, 270

Maeterlinck, Maurice, 28, 275

   The Intruder, 112

   Serre chaudes, 235

Magazine of Art (London), 59

Mallarmé, Stephan, 13, 147

man, image of, 276

   defensive as Symbolists, 2

   New Man, 176

   paternal role, 176

Manet, Edouard, 63, 89, 158, 172, 182

Mann, Thomas, 260

Mannerism, 6

Marees, Hans von, 157

Marken, 222–224

Marx, Karl, 14–15

Mathews, Patricia, 24, 150–151, 171, 176, 246, 288

Matisse, Henri, 234, 255–256

Matthews, Nancy Mowl, 202

Maurin, Charles

   The Dawn of Work, 34, 204

   Maternity, 204–205

   The Serum Treatment, 157

Maus, Octave, 41, 104, 165, 226

Mayhew, Henry, 190–191

Mellery, Xavier, 220, 229, 236, 247

   “The Bedroom”, 217–219, 256

   biography, 222–225, 230

   Bruges, 263–264

   My Vestibule. Effect of the Light, 253–254

   Kitchen Interior, 225

   The Life of Things [The Soul of Things], 4, 217–218, 226–227, 234, 250, 254–256

   The Staircase, 36, 225–226

Memling, Hans, 270

memory, 99–101

Mendes, Catulle, 41, 286

Menzel, Adolf von, 63

Meuriot, Paul, 42

“Michelet”

   Bruxelles la Nuit, 71

Michelet, Jules, 183–184

Milan, 197

Millais, John Everett, 180

Millet, François, 201–202

monism, 133–135, 138, 143

Monte Carlo, 53–56, 84, 89

Montesquiou-Fezensec, Comte de, 34, 244–245

Moreas, Jean, 12, 16, 28

   “Symbolist Manifesto”, 28–29, 33, 49

Moreau, Gustave, 6, 61, 131

Morel, Bénédict-Augustin, 145–146, 150, 161

Morhardt, Mathias, 122

Morris, William, 14–15, 163, 184, 227–228, 250

   Art and Socialism, 15

   News from Nowhere, 15, 239–240

Moss, George, 175–176

Munch, Edvard, 26, 17, 25, 38, 56, 80–84, 99–101, 126, 149–150, 157–158, 176, 197, 218, 220, 247, 282, 288, 290, 296, 311

   agoraphobic space in, 81–82

   approach to cityscape, 85–90

   Anxiety, 49–50, 92

   Ashes, 94

   Berlin 1892, 1892–3 exhibits, 95, 150, 293

   Berlin 1902 exhibit, 92–95

   Dance of Life, 143–144

   Dead Mother and Child, 110–112

   “Eighteen Motifs from the Modern Life of the Soul”, 95

   Evening on Karl Johan Street, 6, 63–73, 80–81, 87–88, 90–92, 99, 102, 241, 289, 291

   Frieze of Life [Frieze: Cycle of Moments of Life], 92–95, 189–190, 293

   Golgotha [Last Hour], 92, 94, 293

   and illness, 107–108, 110–114, 296

   Inheritance, 31–33, 35, 137–138, 302

   Jealousy, 75–76

   Karl Johan Street in the Rain, 83–84

   Kiss,The, 94, 293

   Kornhaug Sanatorium, 92, 247

   “Life Anxiety” 19, 91–97

   Lust, 41, 92

   Madonna, 164, 177–180, 302

   Melancholy, 94, 232

   Melancholy (Laura), 232

   Mrs. Heiberg (Millie Thaulow), 91

   Night, 29–30, 32

   Puberty, 187–189

   Red Virginia Creeper, 92, 94–95

   The Roulette (series), 53–56, 89–90, 288

   The Scream, 89, 92, 93, 96, 293

   Self-Portrait with Skeletal Arm, 155

   Three Stages of Women, 176–177

   Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil, 96

   Vampire, 154

   Women in Hospital, 115

   Young Woman and Death, 133–135, 137, 179

Myrbach, Felician von, 68–70


Nabi, the, 234

nationalism, 8, 80, 289

Naturalism, 29, 43

Neo-Impressionism, 3, 5, 25, 87, 226–227

neurasthenia, 81, 82, 106–107, 152–153, 277, 295

New Objectivity, 114

Nietzsche, Friedrich, 44, 76, 189, 322

   Schopenhauer as Educator, 57–58

Nieuwe Gids, De (Amsterdam), 164

Nochlin, Linda, 180, 314

Nordau, Max, 45–46, 103, 117, 146, 170, 287

   Conventional Lies of Our Civilization, 45, 173–174

   Degeneration, 45–46, 147–148, 150, 155, 159–160

Norway, 192

nostalgia, 8–10, 156, 281

Nuncques, William Degouve de

   The Canal, 259, 262

Nye, Robert, 145


Omond, George, 47, 265

Oslo, 22, 63, 80

   Christiania-Bohème, 91

   Christian Krogh Street, 87

   Karl Johan Street, 80–84, 98

Ostend, 41, 90, 130, 267

   casinos in, 41, 56

   Hygiene Exposition, 103


Panizza, Oscar, 139, 302

Parent-Duchâtelet, Alexandre-Jean-Baptise, 181, 309

Paris, 25–26, 38, 46, 47, 61, 63–65, 71–73, 86, 122–125, 137, 151–153, 190, 208–215, 243, 247, 259, 261, 267

   Haussmannization, 73–74, 78, 98

     ban on balconies, 83

past. See also nostalgia, 100–101

Pasteur, Louis, 109, 157, 204

Patrie, La (Bruges), 268

Peladan, Sar Joséphin, 77–78, 126, 164, 170

Pelseneer, Edouard, 250

Pfioster, Joel, 237

photography, 101

Picard, Edmond, 15–16, 56, 164, 228

Pickery, Gustav, 269–270, 324

Pissarro, Camille, 25, 311

Pius IX, Pope, 191–192

Plume, La (Paris), 168–170

Poe, Edgar Allen, 247

Pollock, Griselda, 88, 171–172, 203

population, 18–19, 39, 80, 119, 294

Pre-Raphaelites, 56, 126, 221

problem painting, 184–185

prostitution, 39, 133–135, 139–142, 146, 150, 167, 169, 180

Proudon, J.P., 170

Prybyszewski, Stanislaw, 38, 42, 92, 180

psychology, 2

puerperal insanity, 166, 306

Pugin, A.W.

   A Christian City in 1440 and 1840 [Contrasts], 85–86


Quétel, Claude, 129


Rambert, 138–139

Realism, 6, 33, 57, 58, 61, 129, 138

Redon, Odilon, 4, 108–109

   Les Origines, 108

Reforme, La (Brussels), 109–110

regeneration, 155–158

Reid, Donald, 118

Rembrandt van Rijn, 161

Remouchamps, Victor, 219

Renaissance, 172

Renoir, Auguste, 88

Revue Blanche (Paris), 196

Revue des Deux Mondes (Paris), 71

Revue de Genève (Geneva), 164

Revue Independante, La (Paris), 41

Revue Parisienne, La (Paris), 122

Ricord, Philippe, 129

Rilke, Rainer Maria, 16

   The Notebooks of Malte Laurids Brigge, 23

     masks, 91

     death, 107, 151–152

     and degeneracy, 151, 159, 162

     on illness, 114–115

     on things, 235–236

     on interiors, 242–243, 247

Robert, Eugène, 196

Robinson, Henry Peach, 107, 126, 299

Rodenbach, Georges, 22, 271–272, 275–276, 325

   L’Arbre, 324

   L’Art en Exil, 262

   Bruges-la-Morte, 118, 260–262, 264–265, 267, 271–272, 275–276

   Le Carillonneur (The Bell Ringer), 272–275, 324

   The Enclosed Lives, 241–242

   Le Mirage, 262

   The Reign of Silence, 217, 219, 230

   La Voile, 267

Romanticism, 8, 14, 28–29, 43, 61, 85, 126–127, 162

Rops, Félicien, 140, 142, 164, 208, 301, 302

   Satan Sowing Weeds, 167–171

Rose + Croix, Salon de la. See also Peladan, 4, 38, 77–78, 121–122, 124–125, 164, 307

Rosenblum, Robert, 131

Rossetti, Christina242

Rossetti, Dante Gabriel, 72, 300

   Found, 181–182, 310

Rousseau, Charles, 271

Rousseau, Ernst, 17, 103, 295, 297

Rousseau, Jean-Jacques, 73, 78, 172

Rubens, Peter Paul, 161

Ruskin, John, 9, 15, 220–221

Ryan, William, 191


Sager-Nelson, Olof, 322

Salome, 8, 130–132

Salpetrière, 107, 137

Sartre, Jean Paul, 44

Sauer, Robert, 191

Schiff, Richard, 43

Schloesser, Stephen, xix

Schnog, Nancy, 237

Schopenhauer, Arthur, 43–44, 57, 75–76, 126, 286–288

   The World as Will and Representation, 43–44

Schorske, Carl

   The Idea of the City in European Thought, 73, 76

Schwabe, Carlos, 122–123

   Rose + Croix Esthétique poster, 121, 123

Segantini, Giovanni, 40, 120, 197–199, 201

   Consolation through Faith, 111–112, 200

   The Evil Mothers, 206–208, 314

   Fruit of Love, 128–129, 198–199

   mother images, 199–201, 206–208, 314

   Punishment of Lust, 206

   Vanity [Source of Evil], 128

Semaine Littéraire, La (Paris), 122

Sennett, Richard, 74, 317

Séon, Alexander, 122, 124

Seurat, Georges, 25, 226–227

sewer. See also city water systems, 118, 180–182, 184, 295, 298, 310

Shaw, George Bernard, 147, 155

Sheon, Aaron, 150

Siebelhoff, Robert, 165, 212–213

Sighele, Scipio, 116

silence, 100

Silverman, Debora, xix, 2, 35, 43, 234, 280

Simmel, Georg, xvi–xviii, 14–15, 18, 71, 72, 78, 83–84, 90, 101–102, 229

   close to Symbolism, 49–56

   on market economy, 49–52

   “Metropolis and Modern Life”, 67, 88–89, 100, 260, 277

   On Money, 52

   Sociology of Spaces, 82–83

   “The Stranger”, xvii–xviii

Sizeranne, Robert de la, 71–72

Slatkin, Wendy, 177–179

Smet, Gustaaf de, 271–273

Smith, Bonnie, 172

Sobry, J.F.

   De L’architecture, 73, 75

sociology, urban, 43, 48–56

Soir, Le (Brussels), 275

Sontag, Susan, 126

Sorollay Bastida, Joaquin, 135–136

Sparrow, Walter Shaw, 165, 285

Spengler, Oswald, 49

Steinberg, Leo, 214

Stewart, Susan, 254

Stevens, Alfred, 201–202

streets, 10, 63–73

   based on old ramparts, 98

   crowded, 46–47, 65–67

   on the street, 63, 65–66, 80–81, 83, 96–97, 290

   seen from above, 25–26, 79–80, 83, 96–97, 255

   sensory overload on, 68–70

Strindberg, August, 154

Studio, The (London), 184, 250

Surrealism, 29

Switzerland, 116, 119

Symbolism

   social goal, 56–62

   style, 2–8

   theory and definitions, 4, 1–3, 14–16, 28–33, 219–220, 234–235, 254, 316

syphilis, 32, 106, 108, 151, 303

   body code, 121, 159

   and children, 135–136, 196

   in Huysmans, 153–154

   as “moral disease”, 129

   public issue, 129–130


Taine, Hippolyte, 42, 72, 115

Tarde, Gabriel, 115

technology, 74–76, 210

Thoreau, 75

Thorn Prikker, Johan, 164

   Epic Monk, 6–8

Tiffany, Louis Comfort, 252

Tissot, James

   La Femme à Paris, 52

   The Sales Clerk, 51–52

Tönnies, Ferdinand

   Gemeinschaft und Gesellschaft, 48–49

Toorop, Jan, 27, 6, 39, 77, 203, 209, 285

   Aurora, Marriage, 213

   biography, 163–165, 209–210

   Disintegration of Faith, 77

   In des Nes, 209

   Katwijk, 210

   Motherhood, 210

   mural, Netherlands and Dutch Indies, 211–212

   Shakuntala, 210–211, 213

   The Three Brides, 33, 4–5, 163–166, 176–177, 211–216, 315

   Tramps in the Dunes, 210

   Vil Animal, 140–142, 167, 303

   The Young Generation, 39, 77–78, 210

Tourette, Giles de la, 82

tourism, 10, 297

Trachsel, Albert, 58, 116, 118–120, 124–125, 297

   Fêtes Réeles, 120, 158, 215–216

   project for Geneva, 120

tuberculosis, 149, 157, 297, 299, 300

   as body code, 121–129, 300

Tweemaandelijksch Tijdschrift (Amsterdam), 164


Ury, Lesser

   At the Friedrichstrasse Station, 70–71


Van der Schalk, Henriette, 164

Van der Stappen, Charles, 203

Van de Velde, Henry, 228

   on social art, 60

Van Eyck, Jan, 270

Van Gogh, Vincent, 2–3, 25–27, 33, 60, 164, 176

   Boulevard de Clichy, 30, 25–27, 283

   as Decadent, 34–37

   and fallen woman, 182–184

   and illness, 150

   Sorrow, 182–184

   The Sower, 35–37

   as Symbolist, 34–37, 285

   unable to work on street, 26, 283

Varnedoe, Kirk, 63–64

Vers L’Art (Belgium), 268

Verhaeren, Emile, 12, 28, 39, 56, 107, 163–164, 226–227, 275–276

   Les Aubes, xvii

   Les Campagnes hallucinées, xvii

   on Khnopff, 33–34, 58–59, 78, 99, 130, 185, 221–222, 240

   Midnight Stories, 242

   The Monks, 6

   on the symbol, 101

   Les Villes tentaculaires, xvii

Verheyen, Isidore, 247–248

Verlaine, Paul, 164

Verola, Paul, 143–144

Verwey, Alfred, 164

Vico, Giambattista, 237

Vidler, Anthony, 82

Vienna, 68–70, 157

Villari, Luigi, 128–129, 301

Villemin, Jean-François, 128

Vischer, Robert, 229, 234–236

visions, 2

Voss, George, 150


Wagner, Richard, 222

Waste (drama), 201

Watts, George Frederick, 181–182

Weber, Adna Ferrin, 117–118, 170, 297, 307

Weber, Max, 18, 25

Weininger, Otto, 215–216

Weiss, Wojciech

   Obsession, 41–42

West, Shearer, 147

Westphal, Carl Otto, 81–82, 96

Whistler, James McNeill, 250

Wilde, Oscar, 131–132, 308

Woestijne, Gustave van de, 197–198

Woman, image of, xv, 39

   as “evil mothers”, 206–209

   as “fallen”, 180–190, 309

   figure types, 205

   in home, 220, 245–247

   as ill, 127–128

   in Impressionism, 88, 173–174

   Madonna del Latte, 200

   as modern Madonna, 199–202, 205, 210, 212–213

   New Woman, 2, 165–166, 170, 173, 175–176, 276, 308

   nursing, 202–203

   prostitute. See prostitution

   puberty, 187–189, 311

   in Renaissance, 172

   as “should-be mother”, 163–216, 220

   Symbolist, in interiors, 174–175

   and syphilis, 132–135

Wordsworth, William

   The Prelude, 73

World’s Fairs, 10

Wuarin, Louis, 42


Zemel, Carol, 183–184

Zille, Heinrich, 190

Zola, Emile, 29


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