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The Escape from Hunger and Premature Death, 1700–2100

Details

  • 19 b/w illus. 15 tables
  • Page extent: 216 pages
  • Size: 228 x 152 mm
  • Weight: 0.49 kg

Library of Congress

  • Dewey number: 304.6/4
  • Dewey version: 22
  • LC Classification: HD9000.5 .F544 2004
  • LC Subject headings:
    • Food supply--History
    • Malnutrition--History
    • Medical care--History
    • Mortality--History

Library of Congress Record

Hardback

 (ISBN-13: 9780521808781 | ISBN-10: 0521808782)





Index




agriculture

  Homo sapiens development and, 21

  productivity increases, in England, 42

  second revolution in, 21

anthropometric data, 145

“Atwater Factors,” 34

Atwater, Wilbur O., 44

auto-immune thyroiditis, 145


basal metabolic rate. See BMR

basal metabolism, 3, 12, 45

  definition, 145

  energy required for, 15, 44, 61

baseline maintenance, 10

  caloric needs, American males, 12

  role of energy in, 10

beriberi, 3, 44, 45, 145

biodemography, 145

biomedical data, 145

biomedical technologies, 37, 80

  chronic diseases, effect on, 80

  federal investments in, 37

  gains from, based on income, 37–38

BMI (body mass index), 15, 27, 34, 55, 59

  definition of, 15, 146

  demographics for, 29f

  height and, 27

  ideal, 27

  mortality risks and, 24f

  role in morbidity, 23

  “stunting” and, 65

  for Union Army veterans, 29

  upper income vs. lower income as factor for, 38

BMR (basal metabolic rate), 10, 70

  “stunting” and, 65, 135

body builds, 4, 17, 27, 41, 145

  adaptation of, 59–65

  data collection for, 4, 55

  food supply effect on, 16

  limitation of, 59

  low levels of energy and, 59, 60, 61

  region of efficiency for Norwegian males, 62

  as response to food supplies, 16–17

  secular increase in, 40–41

  socioeconomic conditions, effect on, 41

  standard setting for, 47

body mass, 145

“bribes,” 35

  wage rates, application of, 131–32


calories, 3, 44

  per capita consumption, sources for, 44

  secular trends (England/France), 9t

CDR (crude death rate)

  mortality risk and, 25

Center for Demographic Studies, 83

  disability rates in, 83–84

China, 1

  age composition in, 94

  biomedical technology, improvements in, 93

  chronic diseases in, 90

  consumer durables in, 93

  demographic shifts in, 93

  gross domestic product in, 93

  health care costs in, 90, 93, 94–95

  health care costs, per capita, 98

  income elasticity in, 93

  life expectancy increases in, 90, 106

  population growth in, 94

  public policy, for health care, 95

cholera, 146

chronic diseases, 28, 80, 82

  among men, 28, 32

  annual rate of decline, 81

  average number (U.S. males), 91t

  curve shifts for, 86f

  epidemiological transition for, 32

  longitudinal studies for, 82

  Union Army veterans and, 31t

  Waaler surfaces and curves, 27–32

CMH (Commission on Macroeconomics and Health), 101

concentration ratio, 39, 146. See also Gini ratio

consumer durables, 71, 146

  in China, 93

consuming units, 10, 11, 146

  energy available for work per, 11t

consumption

  long term trends in, 89t

  structure of, 67

consumption surveys

  accuracy of, 44

  disadvantages of, 44–45

  household, 44

  individual, 44

coronary heart disease, 146

Costa, Dora, 20

crude death rate. See CDR


demography, 146

Denmark, cycles in mean heights, 13t

diet, 34

  thermodynamic efficiency as result of, 34

discretionary hours, 67, 70

  lifetime distribution of, 71t

  work hours vs., 67–68, 72

doubly labeled water method, 54, 65, 135n

drug distribution, 101

  infectious diseases and, 101

Dutch standard, 49, 59

  British stature, as measure for, 48

  technophysio evolution and, 138n


early childhood mortality, 82–83

“Early Indicators of Later Work Levels, Disease, and Death,” xix

  list of collaborators for, xix

earnwork, 70

  decline in hours for, 70, 73

  discretionary hours and, 70

economic growth, 20, 33, 35

  in Asia, 50

  disease development and, 35

  in Latin America, 50

  modern, development of, 50–51

  physiological aspects of, 20

  thermodynamic factors for, 20, 33–34

education

  self-financed programs for, 77

Emerging Market Economies, 50

energy requirements

  activities, 45

  basal metabolism, 45

  maintenance, 45

energy values (food), 8

  constraints for, 15

  dietary, 10, 15, 54

  in France (18th century), 8, 11

  work requirements, effect on, 11

England, 1, 3, 9, 34, 39, 41, 50

  adolescent trajectory growth in, 48, 48f

  BMI rates in, 59

  caloric consumption in (1750–1850), 9, 14–15

  cycles in mean heights, 13t, 55

  daily caloric supply trends in, 9t

  dietary energy values (18th century), 11, 14t

  energy available (per consuming unit), 11t, 34

  food consumption per capita (1750–1850), 15

  health care costs, per capita, 98

  height increases in, 18, 33, 40

  homelessness in, 42

  life expectancy, mean average increases in, 1, 36

  mortality rates in, 7t

  physiology changes in, 47–48

  public health programs in, 42

  total hospitals in, 102

  vs. U.S. (mean average height), 19

Environmental Epidemiological Unit of the British Medical Research Council, 82

epidemiological transition, 32

  chronic diseases within, 32

  infectious diseases within, 32

Europe

  sanitation technology in, 52

  technological advances in, 51


famine, 5, 6

  mortality and, 5

famines, 53–54

FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization), 43, 44

FAWOB, 43, 46, 47, 55

  chronic malnutrition, approach to, 46, 55–59

  standards setting for, 47, 54

Floud, Roderick, 151

food, 8

  availability of, in England (1700–1850), 8–9

  availability of, in France (1700–1850), 8–9

  consumption per capita for, 44

  production, dietary energy available for, 16, 21

Food and Agriculture Organization. See FAO

food diaries, 44

  accuracy of, 44

food production, 53–54

  agricultural advances for, 54

  in Asia, 53

  mortality declines as result of, 53

  per capita consumption and, 54

  World War II, effect on, 53

food supplies

  diversity of, 83

  economic factors and, 134n

  as factor in body builds, 12–13

  historical estimates of, 4

  mortality rates and, 3

France, 1, 3

  cycles in mean heights, 13t, 27, 55

  daily caloric supply trends in, 9

  dietary energy levels in (18th century), 11

  energy available (per consuming unit), 11t

  food-supply estimates in, 3, 27

  health care costs, per capita, 98

  life expectancy, mean average increases in, 1

  mortality rates in, 7t


GDP (gross domestic product), 146

Germany, health care costs, per capita, 98

Gini ratio, 39, 40

  definition of, 39, 146

  height and, 135n

Girls Clubs of America, 105

Great Bengal Famine, 53

Great Depression, 37

growth standards

  Dutch, 49

  U.S./English, 46


Harris, Bernard, 127n

  on nutrition research, 127n

“health capital,” 61

health care, xvi–xvii, 37, 80–88, 96

  annual cost index, 87f

  burden (by age), 85f

  crises in, xvi

  death as part of, 84

  distribution of, 96

  economic growth potential of, xvii

  environmental improvements, effect on, 80, 82

  “essential,” xvii, 97, 100, 103

  European vs. U.S., use of, 102

  expansion in, 73, 74

  extra services as part of, 103

  forecasting costs for, 90–95, 97

  forecasting trends for, 88–90

  government policies for, xvii, 89–90, 95

  HMOs as part of, 103

  medical advances, effect on, 73–74, 80, 82

  physician’s role in, 102

  ratio of income to, 92

  rational, 97

  risk attitudes and, 104

  self-financed programs for, 77

  social investment in, 37

  in “third world” countries, costs for, 98

  universal, xvii, 104

health care reform, 104–7

  HIV/AIDS and, 106–7

  improved education as part of, 105

  insurance role in, 105–6

  Medicaid and, 105–6

  municipal sanitation as part of, 106

  outreach programs and, 105

  prenatal care and, 104

  public clinic establishment, 105

  research and development increases for, 107, 113

  screening programs and, 105

height, 4, 13, 18, 34, 40, 55

  current mean averages, American males, 12f, 17

  cycles in (18th–19th century), 13t, 18

  data collection for, 4

  in Europe, 18

  mean averages (universal), 63f

  mean averages over time (France), 27

  predictive power (for mortality), 23–24, 130n

  relative risks and, 28f

  by social class (England), 40

  trends over time for, 17

  U.S. vs. England/Sweden, 19

  for white males (1800), 15–16

hernia, 147

heterosis (hybrid vigor), 41, 147

HIV/AIDS

  in Africa, 107

  decline in U.S. of, 107

  health care reform and, 107

Holland, 41

homelessness, 41, 42

  chronic malnutrition and, 42

  in England, 41, 42

Homo sapiens, 21

  body builds, changes in, 21

  evolutionary development for, 21–22

  life expectancy, changes in, 21

HPAEs (high performing Asian economies), 51

human development index, 135

  life expectancy and, 134–35

humoral antibodies, 46, 147

Hungary

  cycles in mean heights, 13t

  height increases in, 18

Hunger and History, 12

  infectious diseases in, 12

  nutrition tables in, 12

hypertension, 147


immune systems, 12, 58

  improvements in, 58–59

impaired cell-mediated immunity, 46

in utero, 147

  chronic diseases, 83

  environmental insults, 83

income distribution, 39–40

  in England, 39

income elasticity, 89, 147

incomes, 2

  elasticity of, 89

  inequality of distribution, 39–40

  leisure time and, 38–39

  redistribution, 79

  rise in, 3

India, 1, 48–49

  food consumption in, 54

  health care costs, per capita, 98

  malnutrition in, 48

industrial revolution, 8, 19

  effect of, 8

  life expectancy changes during, 36

  role in social organization, 8

inequality

  in economic growth, 36

  economic/biomedical measures of, 34–39

  homelessness and, 41

  in income distribution, 39–40

  life expectancy, as factor of, 36

  reduction in, during 20th century, 39–42

  retirement, effect on, 79

infant mortality, 57, 58f

  birth weight as factor in, 57

  in “third world” nations, 137n

influenza, malnutrition and, 59

Institut national d’études démographiques, 6

institutional food allowances, 44

intergenerational equity, 78

  for health care, 100

iso-mortality surface, 25

  relative risks, 26f

Italy

  health care costs, per capita, 98


Japan, 1, 50

  gross domestic product increase in, 50

  rise of incomes in, 5


Kim, John, 29, 61

Kuznets, Simon, 36, 38, 51


labor

  caloric energy available for (1700–1800), adult workers, 15, 16

  for food production, 16

  increases in intensity for, 33

  participation in (U.S. males), 92t

  participation rates in, 16, 33

  physiological factors for, 33

  role of women in, 69, 72

  wage compensation and, 35

Lee, Ronald, 6, 152

leisure, 38

  gains in, 38, 134–35

  growth in hours for, 38

  growth industries in, 73

  vs. work, 70

“leisure class,” 69, 147

  misperceptions of, 69

life expectancy, 1, 2, 34, 36–37, 40

  current mean averages, American males, 17f

  economic inequality as factor in, 36

  in England, mean average increases in, 1, 36

  factors for, 99

  in France, mean average increases in, 1

  public health programs and, 99

  rates of increase for, 1, 2t, 17

  in U.S., mean average increases in, 1, 36

longevity, xvi, 100

  early life events, effect on, 100

  in lower income brackets, 40

  social gap in, 40


malaria, 53

  postwar eradication programs, 53

malnutrition

  adaptation to, 61

  caloric boundaries for, 54–55, 136n

  chronic, 6, 12, 43, 54

  effect on mortality, 6

  FAWOB and, 47, 55

  in India, 48

  infectious diseases, effect on, 12, 17, 46, 82

  international demographics for, 54

  intraindividual variance in, 55

  NIPA and, 17

  organ degradation as effect of, 59

  standards for, 59

  threshold overestimation for, 46

Malthus, Thomas Robert, 27, 41, 147

  on subsistence, 27

McArthur Lectures, 8

  human physiology in, xvi

  productive technology in, xvi

  summary of, 9

McKeown, Thomas, 5

  on nutrition, 5

metabolism, 147

Meuvret, Jean, 5, 153

migration, 35

  internal, 35

misery, 8, 18

  factors for, 19

morbidity, 12, 35, 147

  BMI predictive power for, 23

  rates, for children, 46

  technophysio evolution, effects on, 21

mortality

  BMI predictive power for, 23

  cycling (18th–19th century), 18

  declines in, England (17th century), 1–2

  definition, 147

  early childhood mortality, 82–83

  famines and, 5

  height predictive power for, 23

  living standards increases and, 5

  medical advances and, 5

  “natural factors” and, 5

  personal hygiene and, 5

  public health reform advances and, 5

  secular declines in, 5

  unmeasured cost of, 35

  variability of, 6

mortality rates, 6, 12, 35, 57

  for children, 46

  food supply as factor for, 3

  infectious diseases as factors in, 99–100

  national impact of, 6

  relative risks, 114t

  relative risks table (Norwegian males, BMI/height), 123t–25t

  relative risks table (Norwegian males, weight/height), 116t–22t

  role of computers in analyzing, 3

  secular trends in, 7f

  time series, 3

mortality risks, 23

  CDR and, 25

  height and, 23

  Norwegian males, 23f

  Union Army veterans, 23f

  Waaler curves for, 64f


National Bureau of Economic Research. See NBER

“National Food Balance Sheets,” 4, 44, 45, 54

  disadvantages of, 46

  vs. dietary interviews, 54

national income, 148

National Long-Term Care Surveys, 83

NBER (National Bureau of Economic Research), 90

NHIS (National Health Interview Surveys), 28, 29

Ninth International Classification of Diseases, 45

NIPA (national income and product account), 9, 10, 16, 38

  creation of, 10

  nonmarket activities as part of, 10, 16–17

nonmarket work

  market work vs., 10

Norway, 24–25

  BMI rates vs. risk of death, 24

  cycles in mean heights, 13t, 23

nutritional deficiencies, 3, 44

nutritional diseases, early research on, 45

nutritional science, 3, 44

  development of, 3, 44

  improvements in, 5

  infection and, 5

  role of physiology in, 3


OECD nations (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development), 1, 66, 67, 97

  consumption and, 67, 88

  economic mediation by, 74

  health care systems of, 84

  leisure time, forecasts for, 74

  provident funds and, 77

  real national income and, 4

Orr, John Boyd, 127n

overnutrition, 57


pathogens, 148

pellagra, 3, 44, 45, 148

PEM (protein-energy malnutrition), 45, 82

  anthropometric indicators of, 45

  concept development of, 45–46

  manifestations of (extreme), 136n

  nervous system effects of, 82

phagocytosis, 46, 148

physiology (human)

  organ development and, 32

  role in technophysio evolution, 20

population growth, agricultural development and, 21, 35

poverty programs, in England, 41, 42

PPP (purchasing-power parity), 94

present value, 148

provident funds, 75, 77

  in Asia, 75

  in Latin America, 75

  in U.S., establishment of, 78

public clinics, health care reform, 105

public health, industrial progress, effect on, 51

  urbanization and, 51–53


real national income, 4

real terms, 148

real wages, 4

retirement, xvi, 73

  early, 74–75

  life expectancy, effect on, 77

  options for, 75

  programs, modernization of, 77–78

  self-financed programs, 77

  standards of living, effect on, 77

rickets, 3, 44, 45, 149

risk of death. See also mortality risks

  definition of, 25

  vs. BMI (Norway), 24

Rwanda, 8


Schofield, Roger Snowden, 6

Schultz, Theodore W., 51, 153

scurvy, 149

self-realization, 74–79, 80

  early conceptions of, 73, 74

  leisure and, 79

  requirements for, 79

Shaw, George Bernard, 69

“small-but-healthy,” 25, 46

smallpox, malnutrition and, 59

Spain, health care costs, per capita, 98

standards of living

  per capita income and, 34

  real wage index and, 34

  retirement, effect on, 77

stroke, 149

“stunting,” 28, 46, 60, 61, 65

  adaptation and, 60

  BMI and, 29

  BMI requirements, 65

  combined with low BMI, 29

  human capital depreciation and, 60

subsistence, 27

Sukhatme, P.V., 54

Sweden

  cycles in mean heights, 13t

  height increases in, 18

  vs. U.S. (mean height averages), 19


technology

  acceleration of, 50–51

  chemistry and, 51

  future of, 50

  major events of, 22f

  modern, 50

  physiological change as result of, 50

  productive, 50

  role in technophysio evolution, 20, 21

  water purification, effects of, 51

  water removal, effects of, 51

technophysio evolution, 43, 67, 79

  chronic malnutrition assessment and, 47, 54–55

  crises as result of, 67

  definition of, 20, 129–30

  factors for, 21

  historical parameters of, 20

  overnutrition and, 57

  public policy and, 21

  role in morbidity trends, 21

  role of production technology in, xv

The Theory of the Leisure Class (Veblen), 147

thermodynamics

  efficiency increases, 34

  energy cost accounting applications for, 33

  growth rates applications, in England, 33

  shelter improvement, effects on, 34

“third world” nations, 1, 51, 53

  food supplementation programs in, 53

  life expectancy increases in, 1

  technological improvements in, 51

  urbanization, effect of, 53

TIAA/CREF (Teacher’s Insurance and Annuity Association/College Retirement Equities Fund), 75, 78

time use, secular trends in, 68t

type II diabetes, 149

typhoid, malnutrition and, 59


Union Army veterans

  BMI studies, 29

  musculoskeletal diseases for, 31

  respiratory infections for, 31

United Nations, 4, 6

  food surveys by, 44

  mortality trends, four categories for, 5

United States, xv, 17, 101

  BMI rates, 59

  chronic malnutrition in, 17

  energy available (per consuming unit), 11t

  “essential” health care in, 101, 103

  health care costs, per capita, 93, 98

  health care options in, 103

  height increases in, 18

  homelessness rates in, 41

  manual labor, participation in, 92

  rise of incomes in, 4

  total hospitals in, 102

  trends in stature in, 17

  vs. England /Sweden (mean height averages), 19

urbanization

  public health and, 51–52

  sanitation programs and, 52

U.S. social security government program, 76

  disadvantages of, 76–77

  establishment of, 77

  vs. TIAA/CREF, 76


Veblen, Thorstein, 69, 70, 147

volwork, 70, 73

  future projections for, 74


Waaler curves and surfaces, 29, 32, 55, 59, 61

  changes over time for, 57

  chronic disease predictions and, 27–32

  health improvements, 30f

  “health production,” 61

  methodology for, 114

  relative risks (Norwegian males), 56f

  risk-height-weight relationship estimation, 107, 113

Waaler, Hans, 23, 24–25, 154

“wasting,” 46, 60

weight, 4, 40

  current mean averages, American males, 12

  data collection for, 4

  income as factor in, 40

  mean averages (universal), 63f

  mean averages over time (France), 27

  predictive power of, 130n

WHO (World Health Organization), 40, 43, 45, 84, 97, 101

  health care principles of, 97

women, 68–69

  workplace role of, 69, 72

work, 70. See also labor

  corporate views of, 72–73

  nontraditional arrangements, 72

  vs. leisure, 70

World Bank, 8, 43, 84

World Health Organization. See WHO

Wrigley, Sir Edward Anthony, 6, 154

WTO (World Trade Organization), 94

  China as part of, 94



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