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The Cambridge History of the Romance Languages

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  • 115 tables
  • Page extent: 888 pages
  • Size: 228 x 152 mm
  • Weight: 1.5 kg

Library of Congress

  • Dewey number: 440.09
  • Dewey version: 22
  • LC Classification: PC45 .C245 2011
  • LC Subject headings:
    • Romance languages--History
    • LANGUAGE ARTS & DISCIPLINES / Linguistics / General--bisacsh

Library of Congress Record

Hardback

 (ISBN-13: 9780521800723)

The Cambridge History of the Romance Languages
Cambridge University Press
9780521800723 - The Cambridge History of the Romance Languages - Structures - Edited by Martin Maiden,, John Charles Smith and Adam Ledgeway
Index

Index

Abel 475

Abete 76

ablative

See case

-able 534

Abruzzese 142, 469

absolute participle construction 465–66, 650–51, 658

Abstand language 607, 608–09, 741

Accademia della Crusca 610

-accio 537, 538

accommodation 628, 630

accusative and infinitive constructions 368, , 372, , 373, 375, 384, 427–28, , 651–53

accusative

See case

-aceus 536

Acquati 98, 690

Acquaviva 298, 300, 301, 700

acrolectal varieties 69

acronyms 561–62, 563

active 514,

See also voice

active-stative syntax 407, 447–50, , 451–52, 452–67

actualization 313

Adam 480, 508

Adams, J. 113, 278, 650, 697, 716

address forms 334

addressee-orientation 325

adfunctionalization 268–69, , 295–306, 314, 317

adjectives 311, 570, 571

See also word order

adverbial subordinates 376

adverbs 311, 366, 486, 542, 552–56, 570, 571

deictic 486–89

Ætheriæ Peregrinatio 490, 491, 498

affixes 574

See also prefixes, suffixes

*afflare 258

affrication 143–50

Afro-Romance 147

agency 288, 519

agent 512, 515, 520, 740

agent reference 537

agglutinative morphology 157, 158

Agnone 132, 133

Agostiniani 101, 102

agreement 167, 173, 334, 339, 340, , , 341, 344, 353, 374

See also past participle

AIS 114

Alameda 280

Alarcos Llorach 684

Alboiu 505, 508

Alcuin 686

Alemannic 85

Alessio 632, 636

Alfonso X 613

Allen 51, 90, 98, 101, 103, 685

allomorphy 27, 155, , 156–59, 192, 206, 210, 211, 212, 216, 217, 218, 220, 221, 222, 235, 246, 261

Almeida 736

Alonso 171

Altamurano 701, 733

Alvar 713

Álvarez, R. 717

ambulare 254, , 290

amelioration 586

amplificatio verborum 654

Amsterdamski 46, 47

analogy 27–28, 31, , , 42, 156, 158, 183, 245–49, 274, , 303, 630

analogical generalization 231

analogical levelling 126, 214, 241, 266

analytic structures 330, 348, 381, 452, 549

See under see also synthetic

anaphora, anaphoric 325, 326, 328, 374, 473, 479–82, 489–95

zero 358

Andersen, H. 723

Anderson, S. 711

Andrade 95, 96, 125, 126, 140, 150

Anglade 284

Anglo-Norman 28, 30, 60

animacy 26, 167, 168, 169, 173, 174, , , 288, 519

anteriority 330, 331, 349, 350, , 351, 379

‘antiteleology’

See teleology

-ão 537

aorist 327, , 329

apocope 65–70, , 71, 92, 95, 152

Appendix Probi 58, 115, 694

Apulian

See Pugliese

Arabs 102, 613

Arabic 142, 152, 500, 640

Arabic invasion 102

Aragonese 151, 187, 189–90, 191, 192, 209, 249, 554

Araujo 552

arbitrariness 155

-ard 535–36

areal distribution 54, 566, 575–76

Aretine 122, , 123, 692

argot 560

Arias Cabal 693

Ariel 480

Aristotle 624, 625, 738

Arnal Purroy 211, 249

Aromanian

See Romanian

Aronoff 90, 175, 216, , 294, 717

arrhizotonic forms 204, 205, , 206, , 242

articles 171, 321, 388, 409–32, , 436–37

article salat 414, , 729, 730

definite 411–15, 475, 484, 490–93, 543, 729

definite, position 491–92

demonstrative (in Romanian) 417–18

enclitic (in Romanian) 415, 445, 730

indefinite 409–11

possessive (in Romanian) 417, 418–25, , 731

with proper names 413–14,

See also determiners

Ascoli 121, 125, 138, , 682

Ashby 722

Ashdowne 282, 288

Aski 254, 290

aspect 174, 192, 218, 310, 327–32,

assimilation 93, , 221

-aster 536

Asturian 66, 126, 171, 417, 607, 729

Asturo-Leonese 364, 693

asyndetic structures 549, , 550, 551

-ata 535

atlases 607

attenuation 535, 537, 557

attributive 371

-attus 535

Audollent 683

augmentatives 306, 533, 535, 536–41, , , , , 562

augments 209, 249–53, 260, 262, 265

Augustine 55, , , 113

Augustus 63

Ausbau languages 607, 608–09, 610, 611, 614, , 645, 655, , 656, 659

Ausonius 148

Austronesian 316

Auto de los Reyes Magos 621,

autonomy in morphology 156–215

auxiliaries 193, 194, 348, , 350, 356, 388–89, 418–25, , 446

decategorialization 422–23

desemanticization 420–22

generalizaton of habere 341, 456, 457, 468

morphophonological specialization 423, 424

perfective auxiliation 135

selection

See also split intransitivity)

according to finiteness 457

according to modality 457

according to person 438, 456

according to tense 457

according to verb class 420, 437, 450, 452

Avolio 694

Ayres-Bennett 609, 612, 616, 619

Azaretti 205, 257, 260

-azzo 538

back-formation 297

background(ing) 734

background information 179

Badia i Margarit (= Badìa Margarit) 83, 96, 118, 146, 152, 714

Bailly 642

Baist 192, 195

Baja Ribagorza 211

Baldinger 588

Balkan Romance 251

Balkan Sprachbund 483

Banat 150

Banniard 69, 685

Barbato 112, 117, 118, , 119, , 132

Bari 691

Baroni 71

Bartoli 54, 114, 135, 554, 581

basilectal varieties 69

Basilicata 173

Basque 151, 552

Battaglia 648, 655

Battistella 277, 293

Battisti 138, 632, 636

Bauer 389, 475, 499, 547, 548, 549, 551, 552, , 555, 556, 735, 737

Baurens 665

Béarnais 151, 187,

Beaugendre 87, , 106

Beck 715

Bédier 282

Belardi 165, 624, 647, 649, 650

Bello 481

Belsetán 152

Belvedere Marittimo 76

benefactive 342

Benincà 165,

Benjamin, C. 656

Benjamin, W. 47

Benveniste 290

Berceo 187

Bergamasco 142

Berruto 507

Bertinetto 75, 99, 105, , 106, 312

Bertini 105

Bertoni 138

Bible: vernacular 615

vernacular, Castilian 614

vernacular, old French 612

Vulgate 475, 497, , 498, 499, 611, 620,

bilingualism 309

-bilis 533

Billington 723

Biondelli 664

Bisceglie 76

Bitonto 76

Blake 278, 718

Blank 587, , 589, 590, 593–94

Blasco Ferrer 274

Blatt 610, 639, 645, 646, 647, 648, 652, 658

bleaching 539

Bloomfield 608

blurred concepts 595

Boccaccio 610, 614, 624

Boecis Fragment 621,

Boethius 612–14, , 624–25

Bolelli 138

Bollée 557, 558

Bolognese 59, 74, 690

Bonfadini 142

Bonfante 57, 114, 691, 697

Bonnet 274

borrowing 83, 535, 552, 554, , 585, 601, 626

lexical 628

lexical, indirect 634–35

syntactic 643

Bortolini 281

Bossong 37

bottle shapes 715–16

Bourciez 120, 138, 271, 558, 692, 698

Bourguignon 234

Boyer 559

branching (right and left) 497, 547, 550, 554, 556, 557, 560, 562

Bréal 588,

Bresnan 388, 435

Breton 718

Brewer 259

Brontë 303

Brown, G. 735

Brown, R. 721

Brüch 53

Brunel 617

Brunet 714

Bruni 127

Brunot 624, 634, 641, , 648, 650, 651, 653

Buchholtz 200

Bühler 290

Bullock 79, 86

Burckhardt 610, 611

Burger 63

Buridant 282, 283, 288, 313, 719

Burke 611, 614, 615

Burzio 340, 689, 709

Bustin-Lekeu 721

Bustos Gibert 193, 194, , , 704,

Butt 656

Bybee 192, 241, 259, 277, 707, 708

Byck 166

Byzantine rule 134

Cæsar 278, 476, 497, 517, 518

Calabria, Calabrian 112, 142, 158, 240, 295, 329, 438, 591, 685

calques 541, 549, 558

Cameron-Faulkner 199

Camilli 273

Campania 205

Campbell 313

Campanile 154, 696

Campidanese 81, 112, 140, 141, 697, 712

Camus 488, 507

Canaes 737

Cantar de Mio Cid 613, 621

Capetian dynasty 612

Capidan 189

Caracausi 143

Cardona 660

Carmen Campidoctoris 621

Carolingian reforms 618

Carosella 695

Carstairs-McCarthy 199, , 716

case 156, 270–89, , 301, 312, 319, 334, 335, 484, 496, 630, 720

ablative 51, 319, 320

accusative 268, 270–89, , 311, 319, 322, 513,

accusative extended 341, 392, 459–61

dative 268, 270–81, 311, 319, 320, 321, 322, 339, 341, 513, 517

dative, ethic 717

erosion/loss 18–35, 382–83, 406, 436, 450, 461

genitive 319, 320, 335, , 336, , 339, 341, 513, 549

‘inherent’ 37

nominative 217, , 281–89, 319, 322, 339, , , 358, 513, 518

nominative vs. oblique 281–89, , 319, , 324, , 339

oblique 217, 320, 322, 336, , 342

retention of nominative-oblique system 18–35, 281–82, 312, 461–64,

‘structural’ 37

systems 18–35, 155, 217, 319–21, 520, 542

See also vocative

case grammar 510

Casella 68, 73, 76

Castellani 54, 55, 56, 57, 100, 101, 120, , 121, 123, 144, 145, 152, 692, , 696, 711

Castiglione 610, 627

Castilian

See Spanish

Catalan 67, 83, 87–89, , 95, , 96, , 118, 123, , 146, 180, 182, 203, 206, , 207, 208, 209, 222, 247, 248, 251, 254, 258, 301, 323, , , 325, 332, 333, 341, 349, 413–14, 424, 438, 468, 479, 493, , 506, 536, 548, 550, 551, 554, 581, 607, 610, 614, 632, 633, , , 640, 708, , 714

Alguerès 457

Balearic 80, 413, 457, 458, 489, 490

Costa Brava 489

Majorcan 80, 457, 730

northern dialects 445

Rossellonés 80, 714

Catalán 153

causal subordinate clauses 375

causative 349, 439

Celtic 138, , 147, 552, 591, 698

Cennamo 715

centralization 67, 243

Cervantes 481, 482, 654

chain shift 153

Chambers 269, 312

Chambon 683

Chang-Rodríguez 280

Chanson de Roland 26, 500, , 506, 621

Chanson de Sainte Foi 621

Charlemagne 70

Chaurand 626, 635, 643,

che (in Galician) 724

Chermignon d’en Haut 85

Cherubini 141

chez 9–10

child language 539, , , 540

Chitoran 82, , 83, 87, 89, 102

Chrestien de Troyes 742

Christianity, Christian linguistic features 36, 45, , 98, 145, 251, 338, 535, 548, , 613

Cicero 274, 279, 473, 513, 515, 735, 736

Cifuentes 736

Cinque 738

Clari 612

Clarke 585

Claudel 721

Claudius Terentianus 650

clitics, clitic pronouns 68, 80, 84, 268, 322, 325–27, 357, 359, 360, 363–65, , 366, , , 370, 374, 375

climbing 370, 420

clusters/groups 53, 81, 352

doubling/repetition 359, 435, 436, , 438–39, 450

object 435

partitive/genitive 338, 340

subject 322, 344, 355, 437, 449

cliticization 68, 78, 80, 484, 687

Clive 741

clusters

See clitics, consonants

Coco 64

code switching 617

cognitive grammar 511–12

cognitive semantics 588, , , , 589, 594

coherence 181–90, , 220, 267

Coleman 550

collectivities 172, 173

colloquial registers 520

comitative 323

comment 473, 495, 501–10

comparative 222, 337–38, 384, 446–57

comparative reconstruction 606

Compernolle 722

complement clauses 372

complementation 429, 431–32

complementizers 324, , 344, 367, 374, , 375–79, 425–32, , 438

dual finite variants 431, 438

compounds 82, 536, 541–49, 562

adjective–adjective 543

adjective–noun 543, 546

adverb–adjective 543

adverb–verb 544

bahuvrihi 536

dvandva 549

Latin 541–42

noun–adjective 543

noun–verb 544

order of elements 547–48, 563

preposition–verb 544

spelling 545

structural autonomy 546,

verbs 544

verb–noun 542, 543–44, , , 546–47

Comrie 341

concessives 376

conditional 179, 180, 251, 264–66, 331, , 332, , 333, 377, 725

clauses 377

configurationality 387–434, 435, 442

constituent structure 397–98

flat structure 395, 442

Latin 433–34

lexocentricity 432

scalar approach 433–34

tests 432–33

conjugation classes 176, 192, 201–15, 251, 533, 631

‘amplification’ 209

conjunctions 551, 556, 570

consecutive clauses 377

Consentius 55, , , , 56, , , , 57, 697

Consolatio Philosophiæ 612, 624–25

consonants 141–54

clusters 61, 91, 92, 93, 97, 98, 634, 640

clusters, muta cum liquida 102, 104, 107

degemination 60, 72, 76, 95, 102, 135, 136, 150–54, 628

devoicing 144

final 92, 93

geminate 52, 640

gemination 93, 99, , 100, , 101, 102, 144

lengthening 177

lenition 150–54

strength 94

voicing 144, , 153, 545

weakening 94, 640

construct state 9

contact 85, 86, 142, 274, 303, 319, 548

context 472

Contini 68, 141,

continuous/discontinuous 693

contrast 358

control constructions 339

conventional implicature 521, 523, 526, 739,

convergence 181, 190–201, 220, 240, 267

conversion 556–57, 563,

Corbacho 500

Corbett 693

Corblin 480, 736

core-to-core mapping 269, 281, 289, 290–95, , , , , , 297, , 302–03, 304, 311, 314, 315, 719

core words 638–39

coreference 526

Coresi 501

Cornilescu 508

Corominas 586, 616, 661–62

Corónicas navarras 613

Corpus del español 632

corpus planning 609–10

correptio iambica 51, 65

Corrèze 266

Corriente 94

Corsica 140, 142

Corsican 112, 117, , 118, 123, , 146, 153, 173, 240, 250, 253, 260

Cortegiano 610, 624

Cortonese 120

Cosenza 705

Coseriu 10, 13, 17–18, 42, 43–44, 45, 46, 48, 49, 587, 589

Costa 505, 509, 737, , 738

Council of Tours 70, , 615, 619

Coveney 722

Craddock 195

Cravens 153, 154, 698,

Cremona, J. xxii

cremonese 71, 76

creoles 381, 558

creolization 319, 699

Croatian 310–11

Croft 277, 280, , 293, 720

Crusades 612

Cruschina 363

Cuetos 280

culture-dependency 291, 519

cum inversum construction 646

cumulativeness 155, , 156–59

Cunha 481, 495

Curl 738

Cuzzolin 373

D’Imperio 72, 75,

D’Ovidio 21–23, , 35, 48, 682

Daco-Romance 54, , 97, 135, 150, 151, 684

Dalbera 84, 118

See also Romanian

Dalbera Stefanaggi 112, 117, 118,

Dalmatian 114, 115, 123, 148, 164, 180, 211, 250, 255, 554, 691, 710

Vegliote 114, 123, 148, 710

Daniliuc, L. 82

Daniliuc, R. 82

Dante 564, 567, 584, 608, 610, 614, 621, 639, 742

dare 256, 258, , 265, 294–95

Darmesteter 546, 588

Dasher 586, 605

Dauphinois 85

Dauzat 246, 637–38, 662, 664

Davis 99, 705

days (names of) 548–49, 563

De Blasi 116, 120

De Dardel 699

De Garis 703

De Mauro 281, 636

deaffrication 144

decimals 549

declaration of Paxia 152

declarative 372

declension 18–35

classes 159–74,

Decurtins 235

default form 277, 278, , 290, 311

definiteness 474, 508–10

deflectionalization 302

defunctionalization 269, 311–13, 314

degemination

See consonants

deictic expressions, deixis 325, 328, 473–95

See also social deixis

Delatte 278–79, , , 280, 569, 717

demonstratives

See determiners

Denison 723

Densusianu 483

depalatalization 95, , 96

dependent-marking

See head- and dependent-marking

deponent 345, 513, 515, 737

derivational morphology 532–41, 575, 585, 590, 600

derivational rule 181

Descartes 615

descriptive texts 291

determiners 170, 171, 323, 337, 388, 409–18, 436–37, 444–45

demonstratives 159, 323, 325, 416, 473–86

demonstrative article (in Romanian) 417–18, 731

demonstrative postnominal 416, 445

possessives 416–17,

possessive article (in Romanian) 417, 418–25,

See also articles, clitics

Devoto 642, 644, 650

Di Giovine 138, 698

dialect geography 606

diasystem 583–84

diathesis

See voice

Diccionario crítico etimológico castellano e hispánico 586

Diccionario crítico etimológico de la lengua castellana 586

dictionaries 285, 286, 287, 301, 302, 304, 308, , 309, 560, 568, 570, 632, , 638, 639, 641, 722,

etymological 568, 586, , , , , 592, 597

Dictionnaire de l’Académie française 722

Dictionnaire étymologique et cognitif des langues romanes 592

dies 549,

Diez 20, 21–22, 37, 546, 602

Diez mandamentos 613

diglossia 351, 381, 722

diminutives 306, 533, , 535, , 536, 537–41, , 543, 557, 562

abstractionist approaches 538

homonymic approaches 538

D’Introno 480

diphthong 260

hardened 96

diphthongization 53, 54, 61, 64, 73, , 76, , , , 77, 104, 116, 118, 221, 243, , 633

open syllable diphthongization 61

direct object 340, 341, 365, , 366, , 374

direction of change 539

discourse analysis 472

discourse organization 495–510,

discourse prominence: high 512

low 512

dislocation 359, 360, 495, 509

dissimilation 639, 640

Divina Commedia 621

Paradiso 622

Dixon 288, 290

Dobrovie–Sorin 508, 738

Dominici 81

Don Quijote 654

donare 258, , 265, 294–95

Donnellan 495

Donohue 316

doublets 268, 269, , 297, 306, 643, 644

Douglas 716

D’Ovidio 272, 273

Dresser 715

Dressler 106, 131, 245, 306, 540

Du Bellay 627

dubitative 333, 372

Dufter 688

Duraffour 85, 139

Durand 86

Dworkin 2, 599–603

dynamicity 520

E-language 2

Eberenz 601

economy 711

Egido Fernández 195, 704

Ekblom 184, 187

Elcock 151, 272, 613, 699, 714

ellipsis 556

Elvira 237, 241

Elwert 165, 252

Emilia 64

Emilia-Romagna 59, 137

Emilian 60, 64, 67, 71, , 72, 138, 147, 153

emotion 579–80

emotionally marked concepts 595

emphasis 473, 495

empty formatives 155

enclisis 273

endearment 536, 538, 540

endophora 475,

Engadine 37, 46, 137, 205, 207, 208, 322, 705

English 107, , 419, 511, 541, 562, 628, 658, 722, 723, 736

African-American 722

-ent 558

enunciation 475–79

epenthesis 81

epithesis 81, , 152

ergative, ergativity 287–88, 341,

ergative-absolutive 341

Ernout 440, 475, 476, 479, 516, 517, 592, 735

Ernst 597

Espinosa 238

Espinosa Elorza 589, 595

ethic dative

See case

-et(te) 540

Etienne 187

etymology 306, 598, 606

Eulalia Sequence 67, 138, 282, 583, 620, 640, 718

euphemism 562

evaluatives 562

eventive 360, 361

Everaert 738

-evole 534

evolutionary biology 268

Ewert 616

exaptation 268, 270, 304–05, 315,

exophora 475–79, 489–95

experiencer 505, 513, 740

explanations 42–43

expletive pronominal subject 340, 362

expressive variants 579

extrametricality 89, , , 90,

-ezza 534

Fabra 118

facere 258

factitive 515

factives 372, , 378

Faingold 490, , 735, 737

Fait des Romains 612

Fanciullo 93, 98, 113, 116, 126, 131, , 147, 241, , , 690, 694

Farnetani 75

Fassa 165, 208

Fava 75

Fazienda de Ultramar 613

Felixberger 138

feminine

See gender

Ferguson, T. 131, 134, 690

Ferguson, C. 722

feria 548

Fernández Ordóñez 693

Fernando III 613

Fertig 711

figurative meaning 296–304

figure/ground alignment 514–21,

Fillmore 305

finiteness 365

Finno-Ugric 736

Fiorenzuola 68, 72, 76

Fishman 722

Fleischman 37, 46, 684

Flobert 59, 518, 521, 522, , , , 739,

Florentine 120, 121, 146, 344, 351

Flutre 139

focus/focalization 326, 335, 352, 353, 354, 355, , 357, , , , , , 358, 359, 362, , 363, , , , 364, 366, 406, 425–28, 429–32, 473, 474, 495, 501, 524, 732

informational 363

sentence 496

foot-binarity-constraint 71

foreground(ing) 473, 486, 490, 734, 735

form vs. function 20–21

Formentin 123, 693

Forner 700

Forum Iudicum 613

Fosdinovo 146

Fouché 184, 187, 192, 195, 197, 210, 234, 236, 689

Foulet 283, , 721

frame relations 595

français avancé 340

France 70, 612

Francescato 71

Franceschi 58, 111, 117, 689

Francien 612

Franco-Provençal 81, 84, , 85, 139, 140, 153, 203, , 206, 320

Frankish 53, 218

Französisches Etymologisches Wörterbuch 586

Frei 557

Fredegar 490

French 9, 18–32, , 53, 59, 60, 61, , , 64, , 67, , , 69, , 73, 74, , 86, , 95, 96, 98, 99, 104, 106, , , , 107, 115, 120, 125, 136, 138, 139, 140, , , 141, , 142, 148, 163, 164, 165, 184, 185, 187, 195–97, , , 203, , , 206, 207, 208, 210, 211, , 222, 231, , 234, 236, 246, 265, 269, , , 270, 281–89, , 290, 293, 295, , 300, 301, 307–08, , 312, , , 319–20, , 322, 323, , , , 324, 325, 326, 332, , 333, , 334, , , 336, 337, 339, 340, 341, 344, , 345, 349, 351, 353, 354, , 355, , 359, 362, 364, 366, , 367, 370, 371, , , 380, 417, 439, 458, 474, , 478, 479, 486, 491, 493, , 494, 496, 499, 505, 507, 524, 536, 537, 538, 540, , 543, 544, , 546, , , 547, 548, 549, 550, , , , 551, , 552, , , 553, 554, 556, , 557, , , 558, 559–61, , , 562, 566, 576, 578, 581, 583, , 607, 608, 621, 628, 632, 633, , , 637–38, 639, , 640, 649, 651, 652, 656, 657, 663, 695, 714, 720, 735, , 738, 740

Acadian 150

Burgundian 686

Montréal 309

Montréal, northern 282

regional varieties 86

frequency 212, 259, 277–81, , , 283, 290, 311, 566, 570, 571, 574, 629

Fretheim 480

Friesner 309

Friulian 71, , 72, 123, 165, , 166, 203, , 204, 242, 323, 607, 693

Froissart 502, 647,

fronting

See vowels

fruits (names of) 172, 173

Fullana 548

functional categories 409–32, 435, 436–40, 441

functionalization 269, 306–11, 314

fusional morphology 155

future 44–46, 155, 180, 264–66, 327, 330, 331, , 332, 379, 384, 556, 725

anterior 328

in the past 379

Gaatone 524

Galician 66, , 211, , 260, 271, 323, 338, 607, 610, 613, 687, 724

Galician-Portuguese 129, 131, 329, 356, 364, 621

Galileo 614

Gallo-Romance 53, 54, 61, 64, , 67, 69, 86, 92, 102, 158, 164, 165, , 170, 224, 225, 250, 254, 281–89, 407, 436, 437, 445, 461, , 462, 583

Gallurese 112

Galves 360

Gamillscheg 180, 702

García Arias 693

García Bellido 80

García de Diego 271

Garde 315

Gardenese 207

Gardner, D. 569

Gardner, R. 282

Gardner-Chloros 721

Garfagnana 143

Gartmann 690

Gascon 140, 151, 158, 179, 209, , 251, 287, 490, 602, 720, 732

Gaßner 195

Gaudino-Fallegger 736

Gauger 564

Gaul 154, 736

Gaulish 107, 138, 552

Geeraerts 588–89

geminate, gemination

See consonants

gender 23, 126, , 163, 167–74, 296–304, 334, 335, 496, 545, 550, , 557, 560, 562, 630

feminine 296–304

formal cues 168–69

neuter 166, 168–74, , 268, 295–304, 340, 521

semantic cues 168–69

generative grammar 7, 42

generative phonology 90

genitive

See case

Genoese 234

Genušienė 738

gergo 669

German 107, 419, 562, 724, 736

Austrian 302

Bavarian 302

old High 53

south 302

Germanic 53, , 142, 147, 302, 535, 548, 549, 591, 739

gerund, gerundive 203, 209, , 339, 370–71, , , 657–58

Giacomelli 664

Gilliéron 312, 586, 602

Gilman 721

gíria 561

Giurescu 544, 548

Giusti 647, 736

givenness hierarchy 480

Givón 511

Glessgen 587

glide hardening 87, 102

Glosas Emilianenses 648

Glossarium Ansileubi 300

Glover 723

Goldbach 693

Golopenţia 738

Góngora 653

Gonzalo de Berceo 622

Google 291–93

Gossen 271, 284,

Gougenheim 635, 636, 643,

Gould 268, 305

government phonology 95

Grabe 105, 106

Gràcia 548

grammarians 57, 110, 120, 144, 656, 685,

grammaticalization 9, 15, 37, 46, 374, 387, 419, 454, , 456, 473, 539, 540, 552, 555, , 556, 563

Gran diccionari de la llengua catalana 632

Grand Robert 560

Grandgent 443

Graur 166, , , 174, 312, 492

Greek 62, , 78, 98, , 142, 148, 251, 535, 558, 559, 627, , 628, 643, 685, 736

Byzantine 116

Greenberg 277, 290, 291, 293, 550, 551

Green 714

Greene 282

Gregory of Tours 274

Grevisse 714, 717

Grice 739

Griffith 614

Grimaldi 133, 134

Griva 205

Gsell 61, 684, 685, 686

Guillaume 491, 510, 518

Guillot 735

Guiraud 633, 635, 636, 641, 644, 662, 664

Gundel 480,

h aspiré 87

/h/ 141, 142,

Haase 652, 653, 654

haber 193,

habere 256

See also auxiliaries

Hadrumetum 34, 35

Haiman 165

Hajek 96, 695

Hale 432

Hall 693, 718, 720

Halmøy 721

Hanssen 191, 192, 193

Harris, M. 401, 439

Harris, A. 313

Harris, J. 742

Harris, W. 722

Harris-Northall 686

Harvey 698

Haute Maurienne 85

Hauteville 81, 153

Havet 79

head 335

head (directionality) parameter 386, 440–47

head law 97, 99

head- and dependent-marking 434–40

Heath 314, 316, 317

heavy penult constraint

See stress

Hebrew 500, 613

Heinemann 597

Herman 3, , 4–6, , 11, 33–35, 48, 51, 56, 57, , 58, , 69, , 70, 98, 112, 113, 114, 138, 139, 144, 145, , 154, , 155, 282, 381, 387, 391, 392, 396, 402, 406, 683, 685, , 686, 691, 699

Hernández Campoy 96, 142, 698

heterosyllabicity

See syllable

Hewson 739

highlighting 514, 523, 524, 526

Hilty 67, 85, 125, 126

Historia Roderici 621

historical texts 645

Hjelmslev 718

Hobjilă 735

Hock 720

Hoenigswald 6, 98

Hofmann 281

homonymy 538, 599, 602–03, , 605

homonymic clash

See homophonic clash

homophonic clash 643

homophony 184, 199,

Houston 722

Hualde 71, 693

Huber 193

Hughson 721

human (and non-human) 341, 346

human body 590–92

Humphrey 276–77, 716

Hungarian 142, 501

Hunt 721

hyperbaton 653

hypercoristic usage 306

hypercorrection 145, 240

hypothetical sentences 334

I-language 2,

-ia 534, 535

Iberian Peninsula 54, 612–14, 624–25

Ibero-Romance 6, 39–41, 54, , , 81, 83, 98, 102, 135, 150, 164, 173, 177, 179, 210, 214, 224, 410, 445, 468, 550, 581, , , 582, , 583, 639

-ible 534

-iculus 534

Iliescu 705, 736

Imbs 281, 285, 286, 287, 304, 308, 309

immigrants 560, 561

‘impact’ 218

imperative 262, 332, , , 333, 352, 365, 439, 546, 558

Imperatore 120

imperfect indicative 207, 305, 329

impersonals 345–51, , 514, 515, 516, 521, 523, 525

See also verb

‘impetus’ 218, 219

inalienable possession

See possession

inanimacy

See animacy

inchoative 515, 737

indefinite reference 170

indefinite subject 351–52, 362

indefiniteness 508–10, 517

indicative 332, 372, 375–79

indirect object 339, 341, 358, 375

Indo-European 263, 302, 496, 517, 541, 549, 552

individuation 298–301

infectum tenses 350,

infinitive 204, , 208, 209, , 260, 368, 370, 556, 629, 724

constructions 368–70

inflecting type 380

inflectional morphology 155–215, 216–67

information (structure) 473

ingressive 251

inherent se 526

-ino 537,

intensifiers 476,

internal diathesis 518

interpersonal texts 291

‘inter-Romance’ distribution 566

interrogative(s) 354–56

indirect questions 377

inversion 355

phrase 367

wh- 354, 363, 373, 374

yes/no questions 354, , 355, 360, 364, 373

-inus 537

invariance 164, 210

‘invisible hand’ 588

Iordan 736

ire 254, , 261, 265, 290

irregularity 580, 595

Isidore of Seville 103

isomorphism 219

-ista 535

Istrian 209, 250, 253

Istro-Romanian

See Romanian

Italian 22, 52, 53, 72, 73, , 75, , 77, 78, , 79, , 90, 94, 95, , 97, 99, , 100, 101, 102, 106, 107, 146, 157, 158, , 166, 173, 187, 188–89, 202–03, 211, 243, 260, 265, 266, 271, 272–73, 281, 290, 291–93, , 294, 295, , 300, 306, 307, 312, 323, , , , 324, 325, 333, , 334, 337, 341, 349, , 355, , 359, 368, 417, 458, 479, , 487, 492, 493, 494, 506, 507, 524, 536, 537, 539–40, , , 541, 542, 543, 544, , 545–46, , , 547, 549, 550, , , 554, , 558, 559, 562, 581, 583, , 597, 607, 608, 612, 628, 633, , 635, 636–37, 639–40, , , 651, 652, 714, , 717, 718, 739

Sardinian regional 127

See also Tuscan

Italian dialects

See Italo-Romance

Italo-Romance 39–41, 75, 81, 104, 135, 146, , 149, 150, 164, , 165, 166, 171, 173, , , 176, 177, 180, 197–200, 206, 220, 224, 225, 238, 246, 248, , 251, , 260, 334, 338, 344, 464, 558, 639

central 65, 151, 163, 170, 172, 323, 438, 458

northern 67, , 71, 72, 74, 76, 97, 123, 124, 149, 152, , 182, 254, 255, 322, 323, 325, 333, , 339, 353, 354, 370, 492, 545, 558, 561

southern 65, , 74, 80, 93, 98, 114, 132, 136, 144, 151, 163, 170, 172, 323, 330, 331, 332, 337, 341, 349, 363, 373, 380, 399, 429, 438, , 457, 458, , 468, 489, 493, 551, 554, 565, 669, 713, 724, 729

Italy 614–15

-iter 553,

iteration 557–58, 563,

Itinerarium Egeriæ

See Ætheriæ Peregrinatio

-ittus 535

Ivănescu 180, 189

-izia 534

/j/

See yod

Jackson 138, 698

Jakobson 603

Jaszczolt 739

Jaume I 614

javanais 560

Jennings 38–39

Jensen 173, 282, , , 283, 285, 288, 700

Jersey (Norman) French 86, 703

Jespersen 721

Jews 613

Joffre 518

Johnson 304

Joinville 657

Johnson 589, 596

Jonah Fragment 619, 620

Jones, Michael 274, 717

Joseph 269, 720

Juilland 280, 281,

Jurafsky 306, 538, 539, , , 540

jussive 360, 361

Karlsson 553, , , 554, 555

‘karstification’ 36

Kaye 98, 99, 689

Kayne 324, 737

Keller 588

Kemmer 511–12, 739

Kennedy 721

Kincaid 715

Kiparsky 131

Kirwan 738

Kiss 92, 98, 375,

Klare 736

Kleiber 480, , 487

Klein 574

Klein Andreu 179

Kloss 607, 609

Koch 588, 589–90, , , 592, 593

König 735

Kori 75

Kovačec 309, 707

Kramer 98

Krefeld 127, 694

Kuen 138

Kühner 281

L-pattern 223–41

La Fauci 341, 447, , 456, 469

La Fontaine 654

La Mort le roi Artur 501

Labov 315

Lacheret-Dujour 87, , 106

Ladin 138, 165, 166, 247, 250, 323, 332, 333, 334, 355, 359, 724

Lahiri 63, 79

Lakoff, G. 304, 589, 596, 737

Lambrecht 495, 737

Lambrior 129

Lancelot 612

Lang, H. 235

Lang, M. 539

Lang, R. H. 275

Langacker 313, 511, 514,

Langobardic: conquest 133

documents 698

Italy 154

Languedocien 182, 333

Lapesa 613, 614, 621, 622

LaPolla 715

Laredo 259

largonji 560

laryngeal 142, , 690

Lass 109, 268, , 270–72, 275, 304, 311, 314, 316, 716, 723,

lateral areas 54, 135

Lathrop 193

Latin 268, , 518, 606–59

African 34, 55, , , , , , 56, , , , , 57, , , , 98, 113, 146

central-southern Italian 145

Dacian 115,

in the Church 69, 611, 612, 614, 615,

of Rome 56, 57, , , ,

orthographic representation xxi

varieties 394–95, 402, 405–06, 443, xxi–xxii

‘Vulgar Latin’ 607

Latinisms 601–02

stylistic 658

Lausberg 65, 66, 92, 93, 98, 111, 113, , 114, 116, , 117, 118, 125, 127, 131, , 144, 145, 146, 147, 180, 252, 272, 692, 694

Lausberg zone 93

laws 14–15, , 42–43

Lazio 458,

Le Maistre 703

learnèd forms 83, 84, 532, 534, 559, 567

See also semi-learnèd forms

Lebsanft 587

Ledgeway 189, 283, 373, 496, 498, 555, 653, 701, 705, 734, 736

left periphery,

legal documents 615–19, 645

Lehmann 6, 7

Lejeune 689

length

See under see vowel quantity; consonants

lenition

See consonants

Leone 258

Leonese 66, 126, 195, 249

Lepschy 736

Leumann 61, 62, 101

Levinson 739

lexicalization 54, 284–89, 308, 558, 719–20

lexicon, lexical: change 585–605

loss 598–604, 605

motivation 605

typology 605

liaison 399

Liber glossarum 300

Liber Regum 613

Lightfoot 2, 8, 609

Liguria 67, 137

Ligurian 67, 71, 72, 123, 150, 205

Limoges 621

Limone 258, 295

literature 555

Livigno 147

Livro de Linhagens 613

Lizzano in Belvedere 59

Llibre dels feyts del Rey Jaume 613

Lloyd 192, 193, 271, 704

Llull 614

loans, loanwords 54, 95, 147, , 152, 687

locative 325

Löfstedt, B. 38

Löfstedt, E. 275

Löfstedt, L. 736,

Lognon 313

Logudorese 65, 81, 112, 127, 130, 148, 204, 263

Lombard dialect 124, 137, 139, 141, 153

Longobardi 2, 8–10

Lope de Rueda 654

López Palma 736

Loporcaro 58, 67, 72, 77, 81, 93, 97, 103, 130, 133, 135, 142, 174, 686, 690, 691, 694, 695, , , 698, 701

Loreto Aprutino 136

Lorrain 271

louchébem 666

Low 105, 106

Lowenstamm 95

Lucania, Lucanian 113, 114, 158, 250, 253

Lucilius 63

Lucretius 103

Lüdtke 114, 116, 122, 127, 128, 139, 633, 634, 689, 690, 691, , 694, 696, 711

Luján 738

lunfardo 561

Lunigiana 143

Lupinu 113

Lutz’s Law 107

Lyons 388, 714, 734

Mac Cormac 303

Macedo-Romanian

See Romanian, Aromanian

Machado 632

Mackenzie 742

Macrea 150

magis 338

Magni 197

Magno 75

Maiden 126, 163, , 164, 165, 166, 173, 188, 189, 190, , 199, 211, 212, 217, 233, 241, 255, 264, 267, 290, 294, , 295, 296, 298, 309, 328, 481, 486, 489, 546, 547, 631, 640, 692, , , 704, 705, 716–17, 718, 720, 721, 730

Maldonado 524–26, 740

Maley 721

Malherbe 653

Malkiel 2, 3–4, 7, 48, 49, 193, 194, 195, 235, 238, 239, 586, 603–04, , 606, 707, 736

Mallinson 718

Mancini 685, 689, 690

Mańczak 283, 720

Manoliu(-Manea) 291, 476, 480, 486, 490, 491, 492, 516, 519, 523, 700, 735, 736, , , 737, , , 738,

Maragatería 249

Marcato 664

March 275

Marchello-Nizia 282, 313, 611, 612, 615, 626, 636, 735, 737, ,

Marchigiano 466

Marcus 307, 717

Marie de France 621

markedness 37, 43, 182, 258–59, 277, , 290–95, 297, 311

Marotta 72, 93, 99

Marouzeau 546, 737,

Marshall 660

Martin 85

Martín Zorraquino 40

Martinet 81, 139, 151, 152, 153, 609, 698

Martínez Gil 66, 90, 104, 687

Mason 721

mass reference 170–71, 693, 720

Matera 76

Mateus 95, 96, 126, 140, 150

Matisoff 592

Matte 106, , 107

Matthews 11

Mattoso Câmara 271

Maupassant 508

Mauriac 514

Mayerthaler 557, 558

Mazzocco 608

McCartney 555

McCrary 695

meaning change

See semantic change

medio-passive 513, 514–21,

See also voice

Médoc 187

Megleno-Romanian

See Romanian

Meillet 387, 516, 517, 592, 683, 737

Meiser 51, 62, 63

Méla 560

Melander 271, 273, 364

Mendes da Luz 495,

Ménard 283, 288

Menéndez Pidal 39, 64, 66, 146, 191, 193, 236, 697, 713

mens 553

-mente 552–56, 563,

mergers 315

Merlini Barbaresi 306, , 540

Merlo 54, 143

Mester 62, 63, , , , , 90

mester de clerecía 622

metaphony 66, 77, 113, 184, 185, 191, , , 194, , 221–22, 233, 685,

sabino/ciociaresco type 132

metaphor 303–04, 538, 547, 587, , , , 588, 589, 590–92, , , , 593, 594, 596, ,

metathesis 102

metonymy 285, 286, 297, 547, 587, , 588, 591, 592, 596

metrical evidence 57

metrical inscriptions 56

Meun, Jean de 612, 624–25

Meyer-Lübke 16, 20, 30, , 52, 53, , 61, 91, , 92, , 125, 138, 142, 144, 149, 239, 546, 553, 568, 586, 682

middle 345, 517–19, 739

See also voice

middle/active 515

middle/reflexive 515

Migliorini 614, , , 622, 635

Mihăescu 736

Milanese 68, 71, , 72, , 137

Millar 716

Millardet 143

Milner 522

Minerbio 255

mini- 541

Miranda do Douro 691

Mistral 286

Mittelzone 113, 694

modality 331

mode croissant 106

mode décroissant 106

Moignet 30, 32, 180, 271, 280

Molinu 153

Momigliano 47

Monachesi 81

monosyllables 580

Montaigne 611

Montes de Pas 200–01

Montgomery 704

Montreuil 71, 86

mood 293, 327, 332, 496

Moore 567, 568, 570, 571, , 579

Morani 63

Morford 721

Morin 61, 72–87, , 136, , 557, 686, , 688

morphemes 89, 90,

morphology, morphological 560, 630

complexity 599

marking 545

processes 560, 561

morphologization 126, 131, 218

morphomes, morphomic 175, 215, 217, 220, 264, 267, 294, 716

morphophonology 302, 706

Morris 472

Morsiglia 117, 118

Morwood 737

Motapanyane 373

Mourin 705

Mozarabic 39, 94, 697

Muljačić 115

Müller 568, 584

multiple causation 599

Muntenia 735

Muras 256

Murray 99

Mussafia 129

mutual intelligibility 69

Myhill 722

Mystère d’Adam 621

N-pattern 223–63, , 294–95, 312

Nandriş 54, 129

Náñez Fernández 306

Naples, Neapolitan 36, 117, 132, , 465

Bay of 240

Napoli 705, 738

Naro 738

narratives 291

nasalization

See vowels

nasals 96

Natural Morphology 267

naturalness 43

Navarro Tomás 80

near-mergers 315

Nebrija 194

negation, negatives 344, 352–53, 355, , 375, 445–46

Neira Martínez 126, 693

Neogrammarians 5, 91, 586,

neologisms 174, 212, 252, 585, 590, 628

Nerlich 585

Nespor 82, 272

neuter

See gender

New Latin Dictionary 570

Nice 261

Nichols 434

Nicholson 721

Niedermann 300

No Blur Principle 199

nominal derivation 533–34

nominal system 319–22

nominalization 556

nominative

See case

nominative–accusative alignment 341, 447–50, , , 468–71

nominativus pendens 358

Norberg 274

Nordinger 435

Norman dialect 60, 308, 698

See also Anglo-Norman

See under Jersey

noun phrase 334–37

nouns 570

See also case, declension, word order

Novellara 59

Nübling 711

number 126, 156–59, 163–67, 293, 304, 305, 334, 335, 496, 545, , 546, 693

plural 157, 158, 171–74, 295–304, 546, 557, 558

plural, in verb 158

singular 295–304

numerals 82, 310, 549–52, 556, 563

in Latin 549–50

order of elements within 550–51

teens 549, 550, 551

Nunes 83

Nuorese 147, 209

Nykrog 610, 639, 650, 651, 657

Nyrop 282, 283, 285, 306, 720, 721

-o, -onem 536, 538

object

See case, word order

oblique

See case

Occitan 69, 84, , 86, 95, 135, 146, 158, 180, 182, 183, , 187, 203, 207, 208, 229, 246, 258, , 260, 261, , 262, 264, 265, 266, 271, 281–89, 301, 311, 322, 323, 325, , , 332, 333, 338, 353, 410, 458, 490, 493, 499, 550, , 551, 558, , 583, 607, 612, 700, 714, 720

Oïl dialects 86

Ojeda 171, , , 298

Oltenia 150

-ón 537

-one 537

onomasiology 585, 589, 590,

opacification, opacity 126, 156, 162, 243, 547, 562, 689

opinion verbs 378,

optative 333

Optimality Theory 86, 512, 684, 695, 709

Ordonnance de Villers-Cotterêts 612

Oresme 624, 625

Organyà Homilies 619

ornithonyms 286

Orr 312

orthography 100, 309, 618

-os 559

Oscan 697

Osco-Umbrian 111

-osus 534

-ottus 535

Oxford English Dictionary 301, 302, 722

oxytones

See stress

Padrón 623

Pádua, M. de 737

Pagliaro 610, 624, 647, 648, 650

palatal consonants 218

alternation of 220, 221

palatalization 143–50, 164, 165, 210, 220, 223, 228–30, 630, 633, 705

before /a/ 149

before palatal glides and vowels 150, 629

of dentals 150

of labials 150,

of velars 147–48

Palay 287

Palermo, J. 106

Pantelleria 142

Panther 302

Panticosa 190

Papa 77, 85

Papahagi 189

parameters 7, 8, , 9, 10

Pardo 241, 707

Paris 612

Paris, G. 30–31

Parlangeli 117, 133, 136

Part-Of-Speech (POS) tagging 645

part/whole relation 504

partitives 339

Pascual 616, 661–62

Passion du Christ 620

passive 155, , 345–51, 515, 516, 655–56

Latin perfective 389

See also voice

past participle 205–06, 208, 209, 348, 356, 371–72, 560

agreement 135, 340, 341, 437, 450, 454, 457–58, 468–69

past tense: compound 311

simple 311

patient 512, 515,

Pavese 510

Pays de Seyne 261

Peeters 721

Pei 274

pejoration, pejoratives 306, 484–85, 536, , 537, , 540, 586, 587, 591

Pellegrini 152

Pellis 664, 665–66

Penny 171, 193, 200, 211, 237, 271, 275, 461, 703, 714, 717, 720

Pensado 61, 95, 99, 100, 102, 152, , 686

Pepin 69, 70

perception, perceptual verbs 368, , 369,

Peregrinatio Ætheriæ

See Ætheriæ Peregrinatio

perfect 379

perfective 351

perfective forms 174–201, 253

‘perfecto y tiempos afines’

See PYTA

perfectum tenses 350,

periodizations 5,

periphery of clause 357

left 356, 357, 358, 359, 425–32, 509

right 356, 360

periphrases, periphrastic structures 329, 330, 331, , , 348, 349, , 351, 540–41

Pernicone 648, 655

person 126, 290–93, 327, 334

and number marking 340

petit(e) 540,

Petit Robert 308

Petrarch 610, 614

Petronius 278

Pfister 597

phonemic change 75

phonetic erosion 599

phonetic modification of borrowings 628–30

phonetic reduction 735

phonological change 156, 216–67

phonological conditioning of alternation 240–41, 259

phonological structure of borrowings 639–40

phonological word 81

phonosymbolism 603–04

phonotactic unacceptability 599

Piandelagotti 140

Picard 139, 271, 284, 301, 308, 698

Picoche 611, 612, 615, 626, 636, 638

Piedmont 137, 208

Piedmontese 60, 124, 180, 205, 260, 438, 465

Pike 105

Pinkster 279, , 719

Piras 142, 690

Pirrelli 216, 217, , 241, 259, 267, 713

Pirson 715

placenames 548

Placiti cassinesi 616

Plautus 63, 278, 479, 515, , 517, 520, 522

Plénat 665

pluperfect 328, 330, 331, 334, 379

plural

See number

plus 338

poder 193

poetry 555

Poghirc 270

Poletto 344

Politzer, R. 92, 142, 151, 154, , 698,

Politzer, F.R. 142, 154, 698

polysemy 538, 539, 573, 599, 602

Pompeii, Pompeian Latin 93, 145, 691

Pompeius 685

Pope, M. 26, 79, 282, , 284, 306, 308, 313, 629

Portuguese 66, 79, 83, 95, 96, 97, 102, 125, 139, 140, , , 144, 179, 183, 190, 191, 193, 195, , 204, 205, , 206, 209, 211, 214, 221, 232, 233, 235, 236, 246, 251, 253, 271, 294, 301, 323, , , 324, 325, , 330, 332, 333, , , 334, 337, 338, 341, 349, 355, 356, 359, 361, 365, 366, , 367, 371, 479, 481, 487, 493, 506, 509, 524, 537, 539, 548, 550, , 551, , , 554, , 558, , 562, 581, 607, 633, 640, 648, 691, 717

Brazilian 81, 106, 150, 344, 354, 359, 364, 370, 417, 433, 436, 495

European 60, , 96, 106, 417, 492, 495

Posner 657

possession: inalienable 504

possessive: adjectives 159, , , 337,

construction 439, 456

See also (determiners)

dative 342

possessor 505

posteriority 329, , 331, , 379

postpositions 338

potential 372,

Pottier 491, 713

Pounder 562, 563,

Pountain 307, 608, 609, 610, 611, 634, 643, 646, 648, 651, 652, 654, 657, 722, 742,

Pozzuoli 76, 695

pragmatics 472, 498, 538, 539, 594, 605

Prague School 6, 15, 17, 46, 48

predicative 371

adjectives 170

complement 343,

marker 320

prefixes 532–33, 562, 641

prepositions 156, 321, 323, 336, 358, 360, 369, 532, , 541, 542, 545, 546, 551, 570

a 336, 341,

ad 339

de/di 335, 336, , , 338, 341

de 339, 357

e 553

la 342

prepositional accusative, prepositional object 35–42, 435–36, 449, 470–71

prepositional complement 375

prepositional phrase 324, 338–39, 501

prepositional uses of gerund 371

present 327, 330, 379

present participle 368, 369, , 371

presentative 360, 361

preterite 157, 158, 206, 207

Price 308, , 481, 550

Prieto 71

principles 42–43

pro-drop: object 432–33

subject 432, 480, 508

Procopius 148

prohibitive 333

pronominal systems 322–24

pronouns 38–40, 159, , 170, 171, 270–81, 301, 305, 311, 341, 345, 366, 474, , 480, 489–90, 556, 570

conjunctive 268

disjunctive 268

free 319

polite 493–95

See also social deixis)

relative

stressed subject 344

subject 344

unstressed 344

See also clitics

See relative, pronouns)

pronunciation 312, 618

proparoxytones

See stress

proper names 285, , , 286

prosody 50

prosthesis 98, 98–99, , 621, 629

‘proto-French Latinity’ 581

prototypes, prototypicality 538, 588–89, 595

Provençal 22, 30, 71, 125, 173, 319, , 323, , 325, 344, 536, 553, 554, 591, 617, 657, 660, 662, 683, 693

psycho-mechanics 510–11

Puglia 174

Pugliese 74, 423

Pulgram 57, 86, 112, 685, , 689

pupation 315–16

Puşcariu 478, 707

Puter 83

PYTA 180–201,

quality

See vowels

quantifiers 735

quantitative trochee 63

que/che 338, 340, 373, 374

Queneau 484–85

questions

See interrogatives

Quicoli 126, 693

Quinn 721

Quintilian 388, 391

Quirk 694

Rabelais 636

raddoppiamento fonosintattico 93, 687

radial hypothesis 538

‘radical changing verbs’ 249

Raeto-Romance 74, 96, 102, 137, 146, 147, 149, , 164, 165, 170, 173, 222, 246, 281, 321, 332, 333, 334, 351, 353, 355, 359, 437, 461, , 554, 581, 724, , 733

Radden 302

Raimundo (Archbishop of Toledo) 613

raising

See vowels

Ramat 296

Ramsden 272, 273

Ramus 105, , 106

Randgebiet der Nordzone 116

Rasero Machón 600

Rasmussen 627

reanalysis 313, 357

Recasens 96, 146

Reconquest 613

reduplication 176, , 557–58

Reenen 282, 738

referential distance 512

reflexive 346–49, 513, 521–27, 739

pronouns 159

refunctionalization 268, 269, 270–95, 301, 304–05, 314, 316

‘regional Romance’ distribution 566

register 555, 559, 563,

Reichenkron 40, 552,

Reinheimer Rîpeanu 635

relatinization 635

relative 374, 647–49

phrase 367

pronouns 324, 374

pronouns, active–stative split 464–65

relativization 374

resumptive 656

religious texts 619–20

Renaissance 627

Renzi 380, 381, 412, 490, 736

repetition 355

Repetti 71

resultative verbs 350

‘resuscitation’ 16

retroflex consonants 142

Rey 662

rhematic constituent 363

rhematic sentence 496, 506–08

rhematic subjects 505–06

rhetoric 716

rhizotonic forms 205, 206, , , 209, 242

rhythm 105–08

rhythmical compensation 72

Richter 67, 69, 92, 101, 106, 120, 151, 692

Rickard 612, 636

Riddiford 316

right periphery

See periphery of clause

Rini 102, 193, , , 194, 703, 704, 717

Ripoll 614

Rizzi 652

Robinson, J. 716

Robinson, L. 87

Robson 312

Robustelli 481, 486, 489

Roca 80, , 81, 82, , 83, , 87, 89, 90,

Roché 701

Rohlfs 76, 77, 116, , 123, 124, 145, 146, 151, 152, 163, 167, 198, 271, 272, 273, , , 287, 312, 548, 550, 552, 555, 558, 579, 581, 695, 714, 717, 720

Rokseth 118

Roldán 738

Romaine 609

Romanesco 694, 696

Romania 182

Romània submersa 54

Romanian 53, 81–83, 87, 89, 113, 128, , 129, 141, 142, 147, , 148, 152, 158, 159, 164, 166, 172, 173, , 174, , 180, 184, 197, 204, 210, 212, 220, 221, 223, 225, 229, 231, 234, 236, 242, 246, 250, 251, 252, 262, , 270, 294, 312, 319, , 321, , 322, , 323, , , 324, 325, 330, 332, , 333, , 335, 336, , , 337, , 338, 341, , , 342, 349, , 351, 356, 373, 376, 378, 380, , 381, 410, 415, , 417–18, , 423, 424, 438, 439, 445, , 461, 478, 479, 482, 483–84, 485, 487, 490, 491, 494, 499, 500, 505, 506, , 508, 524, 544–45, , , 547, 549, 550, , 551, 552, 554, , 556, 558, 565, 567, 576, 581, , , 582, 584, 591, 592, 607, 656, 657, 685, 699, 705, 718, 724, 729, 730, 731, 732, 733, 735, , , , 736, , 737, , 739

Aromanian 128, 150, 180, 187, 189, 197, 733

Istro-Romanian 150, 180, 182, 231, 269, 309–11, 702, 705, 707

Megleno-Romanian 150, 197, 705, 733

‘Romanian’ vowel system

See vowel systems

Romanisches Etymologisches Wörterbuch 568, 586, 597

Romansh 66, 69, 73, 83–84, 86, 203, , 222, 235, 247, , 251, 254, 256, 260, 607, 711

Ronjat 151, 187, , , 261, 282, 285, , , 286, 714, 720

roots 162, 560, 707

Rosenthall 72, 75

Rosetti 737

Rossini 76

Roullet 153

Rovegno 123

Rovigotto 121

Rovinelli 664

Rudes 710

Ruhlen 696

rules of the road 715

Russo 701

Ruwet 738

-s (final) 93

Safarewicz 139

Sainéan 662, 664

Sala 97, 129, , 153, 567

Salento 133, 134, 142, 240, 493, 685,

Sallust 278, 497,

Saltarelli 689, 738

Salvador 587

Salverda de Grave 99

Salvi 272, 653, 734, 736

Salvioni 139

Sampson 67, 139, , , 141, , 695, 696

San Clemente inscription 696

San Giovanni in Fiore 141

San Leucio del Sannio 187

Sánchez Miret 125, , 127, 129, , 130

Sanfratello 146

Sanga 141

Sankoff 307

Santa Teresa 653

Santangelo 701

Santerre 139

Santos Domínguez 589, 595

sapere 257, 258

Sapir 216

Sardinia 140, 147, 249

Sardinian 52, 54, 56, 58, 65, 73, 75, 81, , 93, 112, 113, 125, 127, 130, 135, 142, 147, 148, 158, 173, , 180, 187, 205, 206, 221, 230, 235, 251, 253, 263, 270, 273–74, 323, , 330, 331, 333, 337, 338, 363, 424, 429, 457, 489, 490, 547, 548, 558, 568, 581, , 584, 704, 712, 717

See also vowel systems

Sassarese 119, 203, 690

See also vowel systems

Saussure 11–17, , 32–33, 46, 47, 48

SAVI Project 741

Savognin 711

Savoia 131, 690

Savoyard 551

scalar topicality 512

scenic strategies 514

Schaechtelin 657,

Schane 86, 140

Scheer 79, 104

Schiaffini 624, 654

Schiffman 722

Schmid, H. 258

Schmid, S. 108, 149

Schmidt 302

Schmitt 662

Schoch 721

Schøsler 282, , 288, 313, 738,

Schroeder 125

Schroten 738

Schuchardt 21, 22–23, 28, 32, 35, 48, , 53, 55

Schürr 54, , , 55, 121, 122, , 127, 129, 130, 131, , , 134, , 135, , 685

Schwegler 384

Searle 303

Ségéral 79, 104

Seidl 58

Selig 412

Sells 512–13, 514, 515

semantics 472

semantic change 536–37, 565–66, 585–605

extension 565

generalization 586, 587

modification of borrowings 632

specialization 586, 587

unidirectionality 587, 593, 594

vertical dimension 596–97

semasiology 589, 590

semi-learnèd forms 565, 576–77, 633–34, 722

Semitic 9

Sent 147

sentence 339–80, 472

See also word order

sentence focus

See focus

sequence of tenses 379–80

Serbian 501

Serianni 122, 736

Serra 87–89,

Servigliano 132

Servius 685, 689

sets 172

shortness 562

si 373

sibilants 96

Sicilian 36, 127, 142, 198, 205, 258, 262, , 295, 329, 363, 429, 552

See also vowel systems

Sicily 142, 143, 685

Siena 685,

Sienese 119, 240

Siervo libre de amor 623

Silverstein 287–88, 290

Silvestri 138

simplicity (in form–meaning relationships) 155, , , 699

simultaneity 379

singular

See number

Skårup 282

skeuomorphy 275–77, 311, 315, 317, 715–16,

slang: criminal associations 676–79

cryptic 664–65

dating 663–66

functions 663–66, 675–76

identificatory 664

lexicon 672–75, , 679–80

literary 666–67, 668

morphological features 667, 669–71

phonological features 665–66, 667–69

semantic features 672–74

syntactic features 671–72

terminology 660–63

youth code 664, 665–66

Slav influence 53, 81, 82, 83, 141, 349

Slavic, Slavonic 142, 286, 500, 551, 591, 736

small clauses 717

Smith, C. 621

Smith, J. C. 269, 275, 277, 282, 288, 303, 316, , 487, 717

Smits 657

social deixis 305

socio-cultural diversity 577

sociolinguistics 309–11, 312, 472, 717

Somiedo 173

Sørensen 658

Sornicola 36, 714, 737

Sorso 690

sound change 577

sound symbolism 704

Spagnoletti 81

Spain 151

Visigothic 154

Spanish 22, 64, 66, , , 79, 80, 83, 90, , 95, , 96, 97, 102, 106, 107, 120, 121, 123, 131, , 144, 146, 148, 152, , 153, 157, 158, 171, 179, 180, 183, 187, 190, 191–95, , 204, 205, , 206, 208, 211, 213, 236, 237, 238, 249, 251, 253, 259, 260, 261, 271, 280, 290, 293, 294, 295, , 299, 301, 306, 322, 323, , 324, 325, 330, , 331, 332, 333, , , 334, 337, 341, , 359, 361, 365, 371, 479, 480, 481, 483, 487, 494, 495, 506, 524, , 536, 537, 538, , , 539, 540, , , , 541, 544, 545–46, 549, 550, , 551, , 553, 554, , , 556, 557, 558, 559, , , 562, 581, , 587, 589, 591, 594, 596–97, , 598–604, 607, 608, 616, 627, 633, , , , , 634, 639, 640, , , 648, 651, 652, 657–58, 713, 714, 717, 720, 729

Andalusian 142, 694

Latin American 96, 329, 561

Chilean 104

Cuban 538

Dominican 538

Mexican 538

Sephardic 39

spatial expressions 593, , 594, 597

spelling

See orthography

Spence 283, 720

Spevak 735

Spitzer 660, 661

split intransitivity 448, 454–55, 459–60, 464–67,

spoken language 607–09, 645

Sponsus 621

Spore 689

stabiese 80

stability (in the lexicon) 564

Stampe 78

standardization 607

stare 256

Steadman 275–76

Stéfanini 738

Stefenelli 381, 567, 569, , 570, 571, 575, 582, 599, 638–39

Stegmann 281

Stephens 718

Steriade 79, 82, 92, 104

Steven 602

Stimm 37, 46

Straka 54, 58, 61, 62, 64, 67, 110, 111, 120, 686, 698

Strasbourg Oaths 64, 70, 615–17

stress 50–53, 59, 62, 138, 211, , 217, 242, 259–63, 307–08, 326, 545, 629

alignment in verb 252

assignment 67, 77

columnar in verb 251

heavy penult constraint 52, 77, 79, 83, 90

lexical nature in Romance 87–91

oxytonic 71, 73

paroxytonic 59, 71

preantepenultimate 82

primary 61

proparoxytonic 53, 58, 61, 64, 73, , 639–40, 695

proparoxytonic, reduction 633

secondary 59, , 82, 273

timing 60, 105, 106, , 107, , 108

three syllable window (3SW) 53, 61, 64, 77, 80

two syllable window (2SW) 73

Stricker 85

strong rhyme constraint 71

Studer 85

Stump 216

Stussi 123

style 658

subject–predicate 359

subject–predicate agreement 353–54

subject 339, , 360, 366, 520

See also case, word order

subjunctive 331, , 332, 333, 334, 352, 372, 375–79, , 380, 724,

future 179, 332

imperfect 157, 158, 179, 207, 334, 377, 379

pluperfect 377

present 203

subordinate clauses 366

finite 372–75

subordination 375, 378, 646–47

See also complementation, accusative and infinitive constructions

substratum 108, 111, 143, 151, 697, , 698

suffixes 533–41, 553, 561, 562, , 629, 641

individualizing 536–37,

morphological spread of 535–36

Suñer 738

superstratum 116

suppletion 157, 158, 159, , 223, 254–58, 269, 284, 290–95, 708

Surmiran 322

Surselvan 147, 165, 170, 173, 205, 207, 208, 247, , 320, 333, 380, 550, 693

SV. . . (subject–verb. . .) order 355

SVO order (subject–verb–object) 359

Sweetser 587,

syllabification shifts 99–105

syllable, syllabic 559–60

closed 51, 52, 60, 62, 76

coda law 94, 96, 99

coda weakening 92–97,

contact law 99, , 100, 101

contacts 99–105

CV 256, 257, 557

CVCV 153

heads 97–99

heavy 51

heterosyllabicity 79, 94, 98, 100, , 101, , 102, 103, 104, , 107,

onset 97–99

open 60

‘open syllable drift’ 92

quantity 51

resyllabification 91, , 92

reversal 559–61, 563,

structure 91–105, 128, 138

superheavy 51

timing 105, 106, , , 107

trapped 63

See also diphthongization, vowels

synchrony vs. diachrony 6–18,

syncope 58–64, 92, 95, 97, 640

syncretism 27, 155, 162, 302, 720,

synonyms 571–72, 642

syntax 472

synthetic expressions 381

synthetic(ity)-analytic(ity) continuum 383–87, , 409, 441, 725

problems 384–87

scalar interpretation 385–86

Szantyr 281

-t (final) 93

taboo 591, 595, 600

Tagliavini 271, 569

Taravese 118, 119

Tasmowski-De Ryck 480, 736

Tavetsch 73, 147

teens

See numerals

Tekavčić 79, 200, 239, 272, 306, , 312

teleology 14, 16, 21, 31,

telicity 523

temporal: adverbs 344, 366

expressions 586, 593,

subordinate clauses 378,

tener 193

tense 293, 327, 328, 330, 496, 657, 734

tense harmony 379

Terence 291, 498, , 517, , 518

Ternes 138, 698

Tessitore 47

Teyssier 325

Thaon, Philippe de 626

thematic stems 541

thematic vowels 159, 201

theme, thematic, thematization 326, 357, , 358, 359, 363, 365, , , 737

Thesaurus Linguae Latinae 568

‘third stem’ 216

Thomas, F. 440, 475, 476, 479, 516, 735

Thornton 81

Tiersma 298

Timberlake 313

Timpanaro 103

Tiwi 316

Tobler–Mussafia Law 352, 363, 364, 430–31

verbal group 388–400

V2 406–07, 426–27, 428, 430, 447–50, ,

Todoran 708

Togeby 179, 180, 540

Toledo 621

Tollemache 546

topic(alization) 406, 412, 425–28, 429–32, 473, , 481, 495, , 501–10, 520, 737

topic marker 474

topic persistence 512

-tor (suffix) 536

Touratier 512, 516

Tovar 698

tradition 17–18

traer 190

transitivity 439, 454

translation 612, 613, 624–27, 650

transparency 155, , 157, 252, , 641

Traugott 586, 587, 605

Traversa 281

trees (names of) 172

Trésor de la langue française 285, 286, 287, 304, 308, 309, 632, 638, 639, 641

trochaic foot 86, , 87

Trotter 30, 32

troubadours 613

*trovare 258

Trudgill 96, 142, 269, 312

Truman 316

Trumper 108

truncation 559, 563,

truth value 476

Tuaillon 85

Tully 316

Tuscan 36, 66, 67, 98, , 104, 119, 120, 145, 225, 240, 260, 271, 272–73, 437, 479, 492, 538, 608, 610, 614, 685

typology 38, 42, 318

uadere 254, 261, 290

Ulivi 82

Ullmann 586–87, 588

Umbria 120, 173, 240

Umbrian 241

unaccusative 340, 345–51, 362

uniformitarian principle 609

unintelligibility 70

Universal Grammar 7, 9

unstressed inflections 198

unus 550

utterance 472

prominence 52

Väänänen 57, 62, 93, 111, 144, 145, , , 147, 281, 284, , 296, 393, 699, 713, 718

Val Fassa 252

Val Gardena 165, 705

Valais 85, 203

Valdés 627

Valdman 664

Valencian 325, 493, 714

valency 516

Vallader 165

Valle d’Istria 207, 208

Valtellinese 147

Vanelli 71, , 165, 344, 363, 736

variation 606

Varro 661

Varvaro 154

Vasiliu, E. 129, 738,

Vasmer 286

Vásquez Cuesta 495,

Vaugelas 652

Vaux 139

Veland 735

Vendryes 516, 517, 737

Vegliote

See Dalmatian

Vékás 105

velarization 96

velars 149, 240

See also palatalization

Venetan 250

Venetian 121, 123, 152, 163, 253

Veneto 67

venir 186

Vennemann 94, , 97, 99, , , , 107

Ventimigliese 257, 260,

verb 90, 156, 174–214, 327–34, 533, 560, 570, 649–53

impersonal 513

non-finite forms 649

verb-final order 497, 737

verb inflection 53, 78, 83

verb-initial order 357, 360, 361, 508

verb-second (V2) 356, 359, 361, 363, 365, 366, 367,

See also Tobler–Mussafia

Vergil 101, 103

verlan 559–61, 665–66, 667–69

Veroli 174, 188

Veru 153

veul 560

Vic 614

Vicentino 149

Videsott 71

Vie de Saint Léger 282, 620, 718

vigesimals 549, 551–52,

Vignoli 174

Vignuzzi 694

Vikings 552

Villar 40

Villehardouin 503, 612

Villon 313

Vincent 245, 278, 305, 385, 387, 392, 394, 395, 412, 426–27, 435, 623, 644, 654, 723, 734, 741

Vincenz 738

Vineis 57

Viparelli 103

Virdis 690

Virgil 278, 516, 522, 739

vocalization of obstruents 104

vocative 283, 284, 319, 321, 718,

Vogel 82, 272

voice (diathesis) 327, , 472, 473, 496, 510–27

voicing

See consonants

Voiture 653

volitive 372, , 375

vowels 110–41

colouring 76,

contrasts 70–77, 91

differentiation of 243

final 66, , 67, 68, 70, 86

final stressed 74

fronting 137–39

harmony 96

intertonic 59

lengthening in open syllables 52, 53–58, 70–77, 91, 104, 111, 115, 120, 135–37,

merger 65

nasalization 96, 139–41

palatalization of 115

quality 58, 91, 135, 217

quantity 34, 50–58, , , 110–16, , 139, 176, 689

raising 62, 192, 243

reduction 62, , 64, 65–69,

reduction, pretonic 60

shortening 51,

See also apocope, diphthongization, metaphony, stress, syllable, syncope

vowel systems: common Romance 115, ,

Romanian 114

Sassarese 690

Sardinian 119, 164, 225

Sicilian 116, 117

Vrba 268, 305

Vulgate

See Bible

Wackernagel’s law 363

Wagner 113, 187, 204, 270, 274, 690

Wahlgren 184, 187

Wallon 121, 271

Walpiri 433–34

Wanner 274, 654

Ward 79

Wartburg 53, 56, 120, 121, 122, 128, 138, , 586, 660, 689, 694

Watkins 391

Waugh 603

Weber 715

Weinrich 52, 53, 56, 77, 93, 98, 113, 154

Werner 711

Wheeler 248

Wilkinson 168, 172, 173, 701

Williams, E. 717

Williams, L. 722

Wilmet 312

Winter 278, , 279, 283

Woledge 26–27, 28, 32, 741

Wolf, H.-J. 251

Woodcock 737

word formation 532–63

word order 38, 356–63, 472, 473, 495, 496–501

LATIN 389–95, 401–05, 443, 496, 497–99

adjectival position 391–92, 497, 727–28

discontinuous structures 393–95, 403–05, 407, 653–55, 726

late Latin 405–06

left periphery 425–28

nominal group 389–95

verbal group 389–95

verb position 392, 402, 425–28, 726

Wackernagel effects 405, 430

LATIN TO ROMANCE CHANGES 382–83, 385–86, 401–09, , 446–47, 449, 728

nominal group 388–400

ROMANCE 396–400, 438–39, 442, 464, 469–70, 499–501

adjectival position 398–400, 444, 654–55, 727–28

left periphery 428–32, 447,

nominal group 396–400

object position 470, 501,

object position, indirect object position 502

subject position 407, 419, 469–70, 729, 734

verbal group 396–400

verb positions 424–25, 731

SENTENCE 401–09, 464

Classical Latin 401–05, 425–28

See also head (directionality) parameter

Wright 616, 618, 686, 692, 705

writing, written language 69, 319, , 607–09, 645

Wüest 61, 699

Wunderli 87

Wurzel 267

yod 100–02, 214, 228, 230, 237

yod-effect 223

yod-induced palatalization 148, 223, 230, 231

Yule 735

Zacharski 480

Zamboni 152, 251, 412, 447, 710

Zamora Vicente 126

Zentrallexeme

See core words

zero anaphora 480, 736

zero morphology 557

Zink 86, 98, 120, 125, 138, 149, 282, , , 283, 308, 698

Zörner 258

Zribi-Hertz 738

Zubizarreta 737

Zygmunt 738




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