Cambridge Catalogue  
  • Help
Home > Catalogue > The Plains Sioux and U.S. Colonialism from Lewis and Clark to Wounded Knee
The Plains Sioux and U.S. Colonialism from Lewis and Clark to Wounded Knee

Details

  • 17 b/w illus. 6 maps
  • Page extent: 408 pages
  • Size: 228 x 152 mm
  • Weight: 0.77 kg

Library of Congress

  • Dewey number: 978.004/975243
  • Dewey version: 22
  • LC Classification: E99.D1 O85 2004
  • LC Subject headings:
    • Dakota Indians--History--19th century
    • Dakota Indians--Government relations
    • Indians, Treatment of--Great Plains--History
    • Ghost dance--History
    • United States--Race relations

Library of Congress Record

Hardback

 (ISBN-13: 9780521793469 | ISBN-10: 0521793467)




Index




Act of March 2, 1889. See treaties and agreements

Adams, David Wallace, 153

Adas, Michael, 250

Afraid of the Enemy, 348

Afraid of Hawk, 197n.12

Agard, Louis, 227n.28

agencies

   Indians’ perceptions of, 54

   purposes of, 54

   see also names of specific agencies

agency bands. See nonmilitants

Agency Council. See Pine Ridge Agency Council

agents

   colonial tools of, 159, 164, 166, 174–6, 177, 204, 278

   contradictory acts of, 196

   goals of, 54

   resistance to, 54

agriculture. See farming

alcohol

   Americans’ abuse of, 215

   and fur trade, 29–30

   Sioux fears of, 215

   at Wounded Knee, 336, 352

Allen, Alvaren, 214

Allison Commission, 61

Allison, William B., 61

allotment

   in Dawes Severalty Act, 221

   Sioux opposition to, 221–2, 231–2

   Sioux support for, 230–1

   see also Dawes Sioux Bill

Ambrose, Stephen, 92

American Fur Company, 28, 30, 31

American Horse, 110n.4, 110n.5, 139n.39, 364n.8

   at Carlisle, 155

   and Crazy Horse, 100, 101

   and 1889 agreement, 237, 238

   and Ghost Dance, 272, 310, 310n.62, 311

   and McGillycuddy, 204, 205

   and Red Cloud, 203, 205

   and Wounded Knee, 346, 365–6

American Horse, Robert, 152

American Indian Movement, 363n.5

Anderson, Gary, 121

Anderson, Harry H., 78

annuities

   control of, 204

   and Crook Commission, 234

   in 1868 Treaty, 50, 129

   problems with, 130

antelope. See small game

Apaches, 60

Apiatan, 254n.29

Arapahoes, 34, 45, 52, 59, 60, 69, 102

   and Ghost Dance, 243, 246, 279

Arikaras, 22, 25, 32

army officers

   attitude toward reformers of, 47, 120

   “mastery” of “savagery” by, 94

   and western army in 1880s, 304–5

   see also names of specific officers

Arrow Creek, battle of, 53

artifacts

   acquisition of, 146

Ash Hollow, 41, 42, 43

assimilation

   in American thought, 13, 15, 39, 127, 130, 149–50

   through education, 152–3

   failure of, 55–7, 153

   and farming, 137

   and Indian medicine, 183

   Indians’ rejection of, 117, 134, 156

   and Sioux political leadership, 194, 201–2

   and U.S. policy, 8, 193

   see also Indians, Americans’ ideas about; missionaries; United States Indian policy

Assiniboines, 22

Atkinson, Henry, 32


Baldwin, Frank D., 75, 346, 353

band. See tiyospaye

Bannocks, 251, 364n.6

baptism. See Christianity, Sioux conversion to

Bartlett, George, 296n.22

beadwork, 146

Bear Comes and Lies, 330

Beard, Dewey, 327, 330, 335–7, 350n.34

   and Wounded Knee, 340, 344, 348, 349–50

Bearface, Rosa, 143n.57

Bear’s Rib, 42

Beede, Aaron McGaffey, 192–3

beef distribution, 131–3, 234

Belknap, William W., 61

Bell, J. W., 185

Belt, R. V., 300

Benedictines, 57, 161, 190

Benton, Thomas Hart, 38

Big Foot

   army interception of, 335–6

   army perceptions of, 326, 332–4

   army surveillance of, 328–30

   arrival at Wounded Knee of, 336

   career of, 327

   disarming of, 338–43

   journey toward Pine Ridge of, 330, 335

   and Ghost Dance, 277–8, 316, 319

   in Great Sioux War, 68–9, 77, 327

   Pine Ridge Indians’ invitation to, 327, 330

   pneumonia of, 329, 330, 335

   and Sitting Bull refugees, 326, 327–8

   see also Wounded Knee

Big Foot Memorial Ride, 368

Big Head, 216, 234

Big Mane, 364n.8

Big Road, 110n.4, 110n.5, 364n.8

   and Big Foot, 327

   and Canada, 121

   and Crazy Horse, 83, 104

   diplomacy of (1890), 331

   and Hump, 328–30

   impact of Wounded Knee on, 357

   opposition to 1868 Treaty of, 51

   surrender of (1890), 316

Big Star, 197n.12

Big Turkey, 235, 317–18

Biolsi, Thomas, 174

bison

   bones of, 148

   decline of, 43, 53, 57–8

   impact of Oregon Trail on, 33

   “last hunt” of, 128

   return of, 268, 269–70, 364

   and trade, 28–9

   in Sioux culture, 26–7, 267–8

   Sioux dependence on, 22, 215

   see also White Buffalo Calf Woman

Bissonnette, Joseph, 34

Black Buffalo, 20

Black Coal, 110n.4

Black Coyote, 329, 348

Black Crow, 155

Black Elk

   and Ghost Dance, 253n.25, 270–1

   and ghost shirts, 280, 284, 285, 363

   performance of vision by, 267–9

   vision of, 266–7

   and Wounded Knee, 271, 284, 285, 361

Black Elk Speaks, 361

Blackfeet. See Sihasapas

Black Hair, Joseph, 341

Black Hills

   gold in, 58, 60

   miners in, 61

   Sioux efforts to regain, 70, 117, 365

   theft of, 8, 66–7

   U.S. policy toward, 59, 61–2

   value to Sioux of, 58–9

Black Hills (person), 324n.38

Black Horn, 197n.12

Black Moon, 51, 121

Black Road, 267

Black Shawl, 102

Black Shield, 72

Black Twin, 51

Bland, Cora, 208

Bland, Thomas Augustus, 207–9, 221

Blue Arm, Charlie, 341

Blue Horse, 100, 177, 204

Blue Whirlwind, 362 Illus. 16

Blunt Horn, John, 356

boarding schools

   impact of, 160

   limited benefits of, 158

   number of Sioux students at, 159

   on-reservation, 160–4, 234

   practices of, 152–3, 161–2

   Sioux objections to, 156, 158

   see also names of boarding schools

Board of Indian Commissioners, 220, 221

boosters, 217

Bordeaux, James, 33

Boucher, F. C., 110n.4

Bourke, John G., 81, 146, 173, 174

Box Elder, 70

Boxer Rebellion, 260

Bozeman Trail, 45–6, 50, 59

Bradley, Luther P., 98, 103, 104

Brave Bear, 37n.64, 40

   chosen as “head chief,” 37

Brave Bear (ghost dancer), 243n.2

Brave Bull, 197n.12

Brave Eagle, 234

Brave Wolf, 243n.2

Bray, Kingsley, 24, 84

Breaks the Pot on Him. See Mash the Kettle

Broken Arm, 243n.2

Brooke, John R.

   attitude toward Ghost Dance of, 310

   and Big Foot, 332–4

   diplomacy of, 317–18

   and Drexel Mission fight, 358

   and McGillycuddy, 309

   willingness to use force of, 319–20

   and Wounded Knee, 351–2

Brown, Dee, 261n.51

Brughier, John, 78

Brulés

   as subdivision of Tetons, 22

Buchanan, James, 41

buffalo. See bison

Buffalo Bill. See Cody, William F.

buffalo soldiers, 358

Bull Bear, 30, 72n.27

Bull Dog, 317–18

Bull Eagle, 68, 121, 219n.7

Bull Ghost, 321

Bullhead, Henry, 235, 320–1, 323, 324

Bull Man, 172

Burke, Daniel W., 102

Burning Breast, 197n.12


Caddoes, 279

Calico, 49, 85, 327n.47

Calls on the People, 201

Camp, Walter, 324n.38

Campbell, Walter, 322, 324n.38

Canada. See Crazy Horse, Sitting Bull

capitalism, 14

   and destruction of bison, 57–8

Captain Dick, 249

Carignan, John, 323

Carlin, W. P., 174

Carlisle Indian Industrial School, 142, 149

   and assimilation, 152

   death of students at, 156–8

   founding of, 150

   number of Sioux students at, 159

   students’ travel to, 151–2

   visit of Sioux parents to, 155–6

   see also boarding schools

Carr, Eugene, 333

Casey, Edward, 160, 359

Catch the Bear, 321, 324–5

Catholics, 188–9

   rivalry with Protestants of, 189

   see also Benedictines; Jesuits

Catlin, George, 58, 181, 282

cattle

   Sioux ownership of, 139

   and Sioux values, 139

cattle hides. See hides

cattle raising

   agents’ attitudes toward, 138

   and non-Indian trespass, 140, 202

   growth of, 138

   Indians’ attitudes toward, 138

census

   Indians’ opposition to, 55

Chandler, Zachariah, 61

Chapman, Arthur, 249

Charger, 138, 142, 148, 272

Charging Horse, 77

Charging Thunder, 311

Chase, Horace R., 158

Chasing Crow, 235

Chatka, David, 278

Cheyennes, 34, 45, 52, 58–9, 60, 102, 220, 327

   and alliance with Sioux, 24, 25

   and Ghost Dance, 246, 251, 289–90

   in Great Sioux War, 69, 70–1, 78–80

   at Little Bighorn, 63

   removal to Indian Territory of, 88

Cheyenne River Agency, 57

   census of, 133

   establishment of, 54

Chicago, Milwaukee and Saint Paul Railroad, 217

Chicago and Northwestern Railroad, 217

Chief Joseph, 289

chiefs

   and Sioux political organization, 24

Chivington, John, 45

cholera, 33

Christianity

   Sioux conversion to, 57, 187, 189–92

Church, Louis K., 226

Clark, William. See Lewis and Clark expedition

Clark, William P. (army officer), 99, 103, 110, 117, 118–19

   career of, 93

   and Crazy Horse, 83, 91, 94–5, 96, 98, 99, 104

   and dog feast, 93–4

   and 1877 delegation, 112

Clear Blue Earth, 30, 37n.64

Cleveland, Grover, 209

Cleveland, William J., 198, 199

   and Pratt Commission, 223

Cloud Horse, 243n.2

Cloud Shield, 205

Clow, Richmond, 199, 363

Cody, William F., 144–6, 214, 215, 270, 300, 359, 360

   attempt to arrest Sitting Bull of, 313–16

Colby, Leonard W., 354

Collins, Mary, 131

   and Indian medicine, 183

   and Sitting Bull, 193, 215

colonialism

   definition of, 2

   and education, 158–9, 168

   as fact of U.S. history, 3, 17

   and Ghost Dance, 250, 261–2

   and Indian factionalism, 91, 139–40, 194, 201

   and killing of Crazy Horse, 86, 105

   and killing of Spotted Tail, 201

   and law, 202

   as political process, 3, 5

   possible end to, 369

   and treaties, 37, 54

   unacknowledged in U.S. political theory, 17

   and Wounded Knee, 350

   see also assimilation; United States Indian policy

colonization

   definition of, 2

   in U.S. history, 14–17

Comanches, 60

commissions. See names of specific commissions

Congregationalists, 57, 161, 188, 309

conquest, 14–17

   see also imperialism

Cook, 235

Cook, John, 175, 196–8, 199, 201–2

Council Fire, 207

courts. See Indian courts

Cowgill, T. G., 203, 206

Cox, Jacob, 51

Craft, Francis, 343

Crazy Horse

   arrest of, 103

   attitudes after surrendering of, 86–7, 88–9, 91–2

   body of, 119

   and Canada, 77, 91, 100

   and Clark, 94, 96, 98

   and Crook, 86–7, 90, 91

   and decision to go to Spotted Tail Agency, 102–3

   desire for northern agency of, 86–7, 91–2

   and Dull Knife’s people, 71

   and 1877 Sun Dance, 89–90

   in Great Sioux War, 70, 72, 75–6

   impact of Ash Hollow on, 42

   importance of 1877 buffalo hunt to, 91

   and invulnerability, 282

   killing of, 8, 85–6, 103–4

   opposition to 1868 Treaty of, 51

   and Red Cloud, 84, 92

   rejection of Washington trip by, 91

   and Sitting Bull, 76, 77

   as source of inspiration after death of, 120–1

   surrender of, 82, 83–4

   theories of conspiracies against, 85, 92–3

   use of akicita by, 75, 77

   as war leader, 52

Crazy in Lodge, 197n.12

Crazy Walking, 278

Crees, 28

Crook Commission, 229–38, 292n.11

Crook, George, 67

   and battle of Rosebud, 62, 68

   and Black Hills, 61

   and Crazy Horse, 81, 86, 87, 89, 90, 95–6, 98, 99, 100, 105

   death of, 289

   and disarming of Red Cloud and Red Leaf, 68–9

   and dog meat, 93–4

   and 1876 winter campaign, 69, 70

   and 1877 delegation, 111–12

   and 1889 land commission, 230, 231, 232–4

   after Little Bighorn, 64–5

   and negotiations in Great Sioux War, 80, 81–3

   and relocation of agencies to Missouri River, 120

   and removal of Cheyennes to Indian Territory, 88

   rivalry with Miles of, 67, 80, 81

   Sioux attitudes toward, 232–3

Crow Creek Agency

   establishment of, 54n.40

Crow Dog

   appointed police captain, 196

   background of, 194

   and Ghost Dance, 287

   and ghost shirts, 363n.4

   and killing of Spotted Tail, 198–9, 200–1

   and Spotted Tail, 197, 198, 200

   in Stronghold, 316–17, 318–19

   surrender of (1890), 319, 326

Crow Dog, Mary, 265

Crow Foot, 324–5

Crow King, 213

Crows (tribe), 22, 25, 42, 73, 243, 301n.35, 327

   and relationship with Sioux in early reservation period, 177, 178, 221–2

Cuny Table. See Stronghold

Custer, George Armstrong

   defeat at Little Bighorn of, 62, 63

   and discovery of gold in Black Hills, 60

   and 1873 expedition, 53

   and “Last Stand” myth, 300

   spirit of, 73–4

   and Wounded Knee, 351–2


Dakota (dialect), 1n.1, 21

Dakotas. See Sioux

Dakota Territory

   settlement of, 217

dances, social, 181–2, 234

Daniel, Z. T., 183–4

Dawes Committee, 219, 220, 221

Dawes, Henry L., 208, 219, 220

Dawes Severalty Act, 207, 221

Dawes Sioux Bill

   passage of, 207, 221

   revisions to, 228

   Sioux opposition to, 208, 222–3, 224–5, 226, 227–8

   terms of, 224

   see also Pratt Commission

day schools

   number of, 164

   Sioux attitudes toward, 165–7

   U.S. officials’ views of, 164–5

death rate, in 1880s, 187

deer. See small game

Deloria, Ella, 134, 162–3, 167, 191

Deloria, Francis, 189–90

Deloria, Vine, Jr., 190

Deloria, Vine, Sr., 189–90

DeMallie, Raymond J., 264, 269

Denig, Edwin, 31

Densmore, Frances, 184

De Smet, Pierre-Jean, 56

Digmann, Florentine, 162, 181, 189, 235

disease. See names of specific diseases

Dog Chief, 341

Draper, Julia, 206n.44

Drexel Mission fight, 357–8

Drum on His Back, 71–2, 73

Drum, William F., 325

Dull Knife, 70–1, 84

Dunn, John, 329–30

Dyer, Edward A., 254n.30


Eagle Hawk, 92

Eagle Man, 174

Eagle Pipe, 77

Eagle Shield, 76

Earnest, C. A., 296n.22

Eastman, Charles A., 162, 186, 310, 346, 349

Eastman, Elaine Goodale. See Goodale, Elaine

Edgar, J. G., 206n.44

Edmunds Agreement. See Edmunds Commission

Edmunds Commission, 218–19, 220–1

Edmunds, Newton, 218, 220

education

   in 1868 Treaty, 50

   Sioux perceptions of, 117, 158, 168

   see also boarding schools; Carlisle; day schools; Hampton

Episcopalians, 57n.48, 161, 188, 189, 192, 356

Evans, Jo, 249

Ewers, Ezra P., 316

Ex parte Crow Dog, 202n.32

extermination, 13, 15, 46


factionalism

   and colonialism, 86, 91, 194, 237–8

   between Crazy Horse and Red Cloud, 85, 89–90

   between Crow Dog and Spotted Tail, 194, 201

   and Ghost Dance, 311

   scholars’ interpretations of, 7, 194–5

   Sioux efforts to overcome, 116–17, 211, 237

   and Sioux strategies, 7, 212

   between Sitting Bull and Bullhead, 320–1

   and violence, 8

farming

   encouraged by 1868 Treaty, 50

   problems with, 56, 138, 239

   Sioux attitudes toward, 43, 137

   Sioux practices of, 137–8

   see also stockraising

Fast Thunder, 70, 104–5, 139n.39, 331, 364n.8

Fellows, Corabelle, 142

Fetterman, William J., 45

Few Tails, 359

Fire Lightning, 364n.8

Fire Thunder, 66–7, 311

Flat Iron, 243n.2

Fletcher, Alice, 149, 173, 220

Flood, Renée Sansom, 343n.13

Fool Bear, 73–5

Forsyth, James W., 344, 352

   arrival at Wounded Knee of, 336

   and Drexel Mission fight, 358

   Miles’s condemnation of, 353–4

   and disarming of Big Foot, 338–43

   investigation of, 353

Forts and posts

   Bennett, 326

   Bidwell, 248

   Buford, 51

   C. F. Smith, 48

   Hall, 251, 253

   Keogh, 289–90

   Laramie, 34, 36, 40, 41, 43, 48–51

   Leavenworth, 34, 41, 43, 301

   Logan, 301

   Meade, 320

   Niobrara, 301

   Omaha, 301

   Phil Kearny, 48

   Pierre, 36, 41

   Reno (cantonment), 67

   Rice, 48–51

   Riley, 301

   Robinson, 55, 103, 301

   Stevenson, 51

   Sully, 326

   Tongue River (cantonment), 67

   Totten, 51

   Wingate, 301

Foster, Charles, 230, 232, 235

   see also Crook Commission

Foucault, Michel, 153

Four Horns, 121

Four Robes, 323n.35, 325

Fox, Andrew, 321, 322

freighting, 141

Friday, 110n.4

“friends of the Indians.” See reformers

Frog, 339

fur trade, 8, 28–32, 135


Gall

   and 1889 agreement, 234

   and Ghost Dance, 272

   as leader in 1880s, 216

   and McLaughlin, 213, 234

   and Pratt Commission, 227

   as war leader, 52

Gallagher, Hugh D.

   and Agency Council, 211

   appointment of, 211

   and 1889 agreement, 236–7

   and Ghost Dance, 273, 274–5

   and Spirit Keeping Ceremony, 180–1

Garnett, William, 89, 92, 97, 99, 110n.4, 178–9, 204

Garnier, Baptiste, 318

Genoa Indian Industrial School, 158, 159

genocide, 5, 15, 39, 308, 359–60

   cultural, 168

   see also extermination

Gentles, William, 104

Geronimo, 289

Ghost Dance, 1

   as anticolonial movement, 250, 261–2

   apocalyptic dimension of, 247–9, 261

   and Christianity, 254–5

   flexibility of, 260–1, 279

   and Mormonism, 255n.31

   persistence of, 364

   as revitalization movement, 262

   scholars’ interpretations of, 244–7

   Sioux responses to, 264, 271–3

   tribes’ names for, 251n.18

   U.S. response to, 278–9

   see also Ghost Dance, Sioux; Wovoka

Ghost Dance, Sioux

   apocalyptic dimension of, 255–6, 261

   and Christianity, 193, 253–5

   assessments of

     by Indian agents, 291, 292

     by U.S. officials, 292–3

   circular form of, 265

   conditions for emergence of, 238–9

   continued hope in, 331–2

   description of, 256–60

   and deviation from Wovoka, 260–1, 263, 287–8

   divisions within, 318–19

   ghost shirts and dresses in, 280, 283–5, 363

   growth of, 274

   inauguration of, 256

   invulnerability in, 261, 280–8, 343, 349, 363

   and Lakota culture, 264–71, 280–2

   and “outbreak,” 293, 294–7

   persistence of, 363

   and raids against nonghost dancers, 311–12

   repression of, 273–8

   scholars’ interpretations of, 1–2, 260, 285

   songs in, 257

   visions in, 258–9, 265–6, 280

   see also Wovoka

Ghost Dance (Sioux), military campaign against

   and Big Foot

     army focus on, 326, 328–30, 332–4

     interception of, 335–6

     orders to disarm, 334

   conclusion of, 360

   diplomacy in

     by army, 313–19, 360

     by Sioux leaders, 331, 360

   effect of

     on agency employees, 309

     on missionaries, 308, 309

     on settlers, 306–8

     on Sioux, 310–12

   impact of Wounded Knee on, 356–9

   and killing of Sitting Bull, 320, 326

   massiveness of, 288, 301

     reasons for, 302–6

   orders for, 293

   problems with, 312, 326

   rashness of, 300

   reasons for, 298–300

   and role of settlers, 217–18, 298, 306–8

   strategies of, 312, 313, 319–20

   U.S. justifications for, 293–7

   as violation of 1868 Treaty, 300

   see also Wounded Knee

ghost shirts. See Ghost Dance, Sioux; Wounded Knee

Godfrey, Edward S., 345, 346n.25

Godfrey, William J., 237

Gonzalez, Mario, 343n.13, 368

Good Back, 311

Good Boy, 139

Goodale, Elaine, 130, 143, 222

   and day schools, 166, 167

   and Ghost Dance, 254, 259, 311

   on hunting expedition, 136

Good Thunder, 243n.2, 254, 255, 258n.41, 274, 342n.12

Good Voice, 110n.4, 110n.5, 197n.12

Grandfather (Tunkasila)

   as Lakota name for President, 112

Grand Partisan, 37n.64

Grand River Agency, 56, 57

Grant, Ulysses S.

   and Black Hills, 60, 61–2

   and peace policy, 48, 188

Grass Dance. See Omaha Dance

Grass, John, 364n.8

   and Ghost Dance, 272

   as leader in 1880s, 216

   and Pratt Commission, 224–6, 227–8

   and Sioux Commission, 231, 236

Grattan, John L., 40

Gray Eagle, 323n.35

Gray Horse, 243n.2

Greasy Grass. See Little Bighorn

“Great Father.” See Grandfather

Great Sioux Reserve. See Sioux reservation(s)

Great Sioux War

   assessment of, 84

   historians’ interpretations of, 63, 75

Gresham, John C., 347

Grinnell, Fordyce, 206n.44

Grouard, Frank, 97–8


Hairy Dog Bear, 142

Halsey, William, 227n.28

Hampton Institute, 143

   number of Sioux students at, 159

   and Pratt, 150

   see also boarding schools

Handsome Lake, 262n.53

Hare, William H., 155

Harney, William S., 41–2

Harrison, Benjamin, 230, 238

   and Ghost Dance, 292, 293, 299

   and Wounded Knee, 300–1, 353

Harrison, William Henry, 299

Harvey, Thomas H., 32

Haskell Institute, 158

Haslan, Robert, 314

Haworth, J. M., 125

Hayes, Lucy, 113

Hayes, Rutherford B., 88

   and 1877 Sioux delegation to Washington, 112, 113–14, 115–16

Hayt, Ezra A., 112, 124, 125

He Crow, 139

He Dog, 83, 91, 92, 110, 110n.4, 110n.5, 205, 243n.2, 364n.8

Help Them, 348, 349

Henry, Guy V., 333

Heyoka Ceremony, 191

Hidatsas, 22

hides (of animals), 132–3, 135

High Bald Eagle, 282

High Bear, 201

High Dog, 283

Higheagle, Robert, 137

High Forehead, 40

High Hawk, 232, 234, 364n.8

High Horse, 364n.8

High Pipe, 317–18, 364n.8

Hinman, Samuel, 221

   see also Pratt Commission

Hodgkiss, Joe, 234

Hollow Horn Bear, 110n.4, 272, 364n.8

Holman, William S., 209–11

Holy Rosary Mission, 161, 317

   see also Drexel Mission fight

Horn Cloud, Joseph, 327n.47, 330, 348, 350n.34

   and Wounded Knee, 339–40, 341, 342, 349–50

Horned Cloud, 337

horses

   in early reservation period, 140

   Sioux acquisition of, 22

Horse Creek Treaty. See treaties and agreements, 1851

Hotchkiss guns, 335, 336, 338, 343–4, 356, 367

houses, 133–4

   and tuberculosis, 187

Howard, Oliver O., 95–6

Howard, Scott, 192

Howe, Oscar, 366–7

“humanitarians.” See reformers

Hump, 79, 80n.49, 326, 364n.8

   and Big Foot, 328

   and Ghost Dance, 278, 292

   opposition to 1868 Treaty of, 51

   and Sitting Bull refugees, 326, 327–8

   surrender of (1890), 316, 319

Hunkpapas, 22

Hunts the Enemy. See Sword, George

Hurst, Joseph H., 328

Hyde, George, 33, 91, 155, 189, 199, 201, 202, 219, 233, 235


Ice. See White Bull

imperialism

   Americans’ ideas about, 13–17, 27

   definition of, 2

   in 1840s, 35, 38

   and nationalism, 14–15

   and the Plains, 35, 217–18

   and Wild West shows, 145

   see also colonialism

Important Man, 73–5

Indian agents. See agents

Indian Bureau. See Indian Office

Indian courts, 175–6

Indian Office, operation of, 175

Indian George, 248–9

Indian police, 140, 166, 174–5, 234

   and Ghost Dance, 274–5, 277, 278

   and killing of Sitting Bull, 320, 321, 324–5, 326

   struggle for control over, 196–7

Indian Peace Commission (1867–68), 48

Indian Rights Association, 207, 220

Indian Sam, 249

Indian Territory, 36

   as possible site for removal of Sioux, 70, 82, 87, 101, 109, 116

   removal of Cheyennes to, 88

Indians, Americans’ ideas about, 13, 15–17, 39, 128, 299–300, 361

influenza, 167, 187, 239, 265, 266

intancan. See chiefs

Interior Department

   and control over Indian affairs, 47, 290, 305–6

   see also Indian Office

Iowas (tribe), 22

Iron Crow, 110n.4, 110n.5

Iron Hail. See Dewey Beard

Iron Hawk, 81

Iron Horse, 174

Iron Shell, 41

Iron Wing, 155

Irwin, James

   and Crazy Horse, 88, 90, 91, 101

   and 1877 delegation, 110, 111–12

   and relocation of agencies to Missouri River, 119, 120, 122, 126

Itazipcos. See Sans Arcs

Iverson, Peter, 138


Janis, Antoine, 110n.4

Jefferson, Thomas

   and Louisiana Purchase, 13–18

   as theorist of empire, 13–17, 35

Jesuits, 56–7, 189

Josephy, Alvin, 96, 98

Jumping Shield, 104

Jutz, John, 237, 317–18


Kadlecek, Edward, 119

Kadlecek, Mabell, 119

Kagama decision. See United States v. Kagama

Kearny, Stephen W., 34–5

Kelley, William, 351

Kennington, James, 103

Kent, J. Ford, 353

Kicking Bear, 243n.2

   and Crazy Horse, 102

   as Ghost Dance organizer, 274, 278

   and Ghost Dance teachings, 254, 255–6

   impact of Wounded Knee on, 356–7

   in Stronghold, 316–17, 331

   surrender of (1890), 331–2, 334

Kicks Back, 244n.2

Killdeer Mountain, 44

Kills Close to Lodge, Bertha, 341

Kills Plenty. See Standing Bear, Luther

King, Mathew, 104

Kiowas, 22, 60, 279

Kuwapi, 256, 297n.23


labor. See Sioux; women

La Flesche, Susette, 334n.70

Lakota (dialect), 1n.1, 20, 21, 167

Lakotas. See Sioux; Tetons

Lamar, L. Q. C., 211

Lame Deer, 72, 80n.49

Laravie, Helen, 92

Larson, Robert, 113

Leavenworth, Henry, 32

Lee, Jesse M., 98–9, 102, 103, 117, 118, 123, 248–9

Lewis and Clark expedition, 2, 19–21, 334

Lewis, Meriwether. See Lewis and Clark expedition

Lincoln Institute, 159

Ling-Vannerus, Ragnar, 345

Little, 293, 310

Little Assiniboine, 325

Little Bear, 31

Little Bighorn, battle of, 62, 63, 89, 222, 313, 351–2, 358

Little Big Man, 83, 104, 110n.4, 110n.5, 113

Little Finger, John, 346n.24, 347–8

Little Hawk, 83, 110n.4, 110n.5

Little Killer, 92

Little No Heart, 232–3, 364n.8

Little Scout, 155

Little Thunder, 41, 43

Little Wolf, 77, 79n.48

Little Wound, 72n.27, 91, 110n.4, 110n.5, 219, 364n.8

   at Carlisle, 155

   and Crazy Horse, 100

   and day schools, 167

   diplomacy of (1890), 331

   and 1889 agreement, 236

   and establishment of Pine Ridge Agency, 127

   and Ghost Dance, 258n.41, 259n.44, 284, 291, 311

   impact of Wounded Knee on, 357

   and McGillycuddy, 204

   and Spirit Keeping, 180

   and Sun Dance, 170, 177

   surrender of (1890), 316

Lone Horn, 327

Loneman, John, 324

Long Hair (medicine man), 73–5

Long Holy, 283

Looking Horse, Arvol, 368

Lost Bird, 354–6

Louisiana Purchase, 13–18

Lower Brulé Agency, 54n.40


Mackenzie, Ranald S., 70–1, 84, 88

Mad Bear, 216, 234, 364n.8

Maji Maji Rebellion, 250

Major Crimes Act (1885), 202n.32

Make Them Stand Up, 77

Man Afraid of His Horses, 88

Mandans, 22, 31

manifest destiny, 5, 27, 38–9, 62, 105

   and race, 38–9

Mann, James D., 341

Manypenny Commission, 66, 227

Manypenny, George, 66

Martin, Marty M., 190

Mash the Kettle, 244n.2

Mason, Julius W., 80

Mayhugh, John, 248

McChesney, Charles, 182, 222

McGillycuddy, Julia, 161, 179–81

McGillycuddy, Valentine, 161, 219

   and Bland, 208–9

   business ventures of, 309

   dismissal of, 210–11

   and Ghost Dance, 309–10

   investigations of, 209–10

   and social dances, 182

   and Red Cloud, 203–7, 209, 210, 211

   reappointment of, 209

   and Sun Dance, 173, 176–9

McLaughlin, James, 128, 144, 168, 222

   career of, 212–13

   and Crook Commission, 234

   and Dawes Sioux Bill, 226

   and Ghost Dance, 278, 284, 292, 294, 322

   and missionaries, 189

   and Sitting Bull, 213–16, 292

     arrest of, 314–16, 320, 321–4

     killing of, 325–6

McLaughlin, Mary, 213

measles, 33, 187, 266

Medicine Bear, 199

Medicine, Beatrice, 7, 30

Medicine Bull, 364n.8

medicine, Indian, 186

   American views of, 183–4

   see also war medicine

Mellette, Arthur C., 298

Merivale, James, 110n.4

Merriam, Henry C., 326, 328, 333

Mexican War, 38

“middle ground,” 4

Miles, Mary, 67, 353, 359

Miles, Nelson A.

   attack on Crazy Horse by, 75–6

   attitude toward Ghost Dance of

     before military action, 272–3, 289–91, 302

     after military action, 295, 302–3, 305

   as critic of Indian Office, 290, 302, 303, 306

   early career of, 67

   later career of, 289

   and negotiations in Great Sioux War, 68–9, 78–9

   rivalry with Crook of, 67, 80

   and Royer, 291, 333

   in Sioux Ghost Dance campaign

     attitude toward Big Foot of, 326, 332–4, 354

     broader goals of, 303–6, 360

     and Cody, 313

     and decision to disarm Big Foot, 334, 354

     diplomacy of, 316, 360

     at Pine Ridge, 358–9

     punitive impulses of, 312, 326, 334

     role in forming strategy of, 302

     strategies of, 312, 313, 319–20

   and Wounded Knee, 351–2, 353–4, 360

militants

   anger at signers of 1876 agreement of, 117, 195

   decision to surrender of, 77–8, 81–2, 84

   debates among, 71–3

   flight to Canada of (1877), 119, 121

   political organization of, 52

   strategies of, 42–3, 44–5, 52–3

   see also non-militants

Milk, 149

Mills, Anson, 64

Minneconjous

   origins of name of, 137

   as subdivision of Tetons, 22

   and peace with Crows, 25

missionaries

   and boarding schools, 161

   in 1870s, 56–7

   in 1880s, 187–93

   and Ghost Dance, 308, 309

Missouri Fur Company, 28

Missouri River

   as possible location for Oglalas and Brulés, 82, 87, 101, 109, 113–16

   move of Oglalas and Brulés to, 117

Missouris (tribe), 22

Mitchell, David D., 30, 37

Modocs, 60

Mooney, James, 244–7, 260, 262, 295–6

Morgan, Lewis Henry, 246n.5

Morgan, Thisba Hutson, 163

Morgan, Thomas Jefferson, 194, 365

Mormons, 32, 40

   and Ghost Dance, 255n.31, 285n.61, 304n.42


Narcelle, Narcisse, 328

National Indian Defence Association, 207, 221, 222, 292n.11

Neihardt, John, 268, 271, 361

Neolin, 248–9

Newell, Cicero, 198

“new Indian history,” 4–5

New Zealand, 250

Nez Percés, 95–6, 298

Nicholson, W. J., 347

Nicollet, Joseph N., 25

Noble, John, 238, 292

No Flesh, 178–9, 204

No Neck, 318–19

nonmilitants

   strategies of, 43–4, 53–4, 84

   see also militants

“nonprogressives,” 147, 207, 212

   see also “progressives”

Northern Pacific Railroad, 50, 52–3

No Water, 205, 208, 327

Nowland, Henry J., 345


Oahe Mission, 161

O’Beirne, James, 127

Oberly, John N., 165

Oglalas

   as subdivision of Tetons, 22

Oklahoma. See Indian Territory

Old Clown, 234

Oldham, James F., 206n.44

Olson, James, 207

Omaha Dance, 181

One Bull, 52, 213, 254n.26, 323, 324–5n.38

One Side, 268, 269

Ooehununpas. See Two Kettles

Oregon Trail, 32–4, 45–6, 48

Osages, 25

Otis, Elwell S., 68

Otoes, 22

oyate

   and Sioux political organization, 23, 37


Pai Mairire movement, 250

Painter, Charles, 220

Paiutes, 248n.13, 243–51, 253, 278

Palliday, Leon, 110n.4

Palmer, Perain, 277–8, 292, 294–5, 297–8, 316

panic of 1873, 59, 60

Parker, Mrs. Z. A., 272

Parkman, Francis, 30, 34, 58

Partisan, 20–1, 22

Pawnees, 22, 25, 34, 69

peace policy, 54, 188, 220

   beginnings of, 48

   retreat from, 60

Pearman, James, 234

Perrig, Emil, 308

Pettigrew, Richard F., 159, 218, 275n.33

Philip, James, 296n.21, 306

Phister, Nathaniel P., 248–9

Pine Ridge Agency

   censuses of, 133

   establishment of, 126

Pine Ridge Agency Council, 177–9, 207, 211

Pipe on Head, James, 368

Plains Sioux. See Sioux

Plenty Horses, 160, 359

Plenty Lice, 53

police. See Indian police

Pollock, William J., 124, 206, 236

Poncas, 22, 25, 220

Pontiac, 303

Porcupine, 254n.29, 261n.50, 289

Pourier, Baptiste, 99

Powell, Frank, 314

Powell, John Wesley, 150, 246n.5

Powers, William K., 264, 272

Prather, W. H., 358n.56

Pratt Commission, 223–8

   see also Dawes Sioux Bill

Pratt, Richard Henry, 154

   and defense of Carlisle, 155

   and extension of students’ term, 156

   educational theories of, 150, 151

   and 1888 land commission, 223, 225, 228, 230

   and founding of Carlisle, 150

   and Hampton, 150

   recruitment of students by, 149, 151, 156

Pressler, Larry, 368

Pretty Camp, 200

Pretty Eagle, 280

Pretty Enemy, 172

Pretty Owl, 237

Price, Catherine, 35

Price, Hiram, 183

Primeau, Jennie, 139n.39

Primeau, Louis, 315

“progressives,” 147, 205, 212

   see also “non-progressives”

Prophet. See Tenskwatawa

Pumpkin Seed, 270n.19


Quick Bear, 197


race, Americans’ ideas about, 6, 15

railroads. See specific names

ranching. See cattle raising

rations

   in 1868 Treaty, 50

   in 1876 agreement, 129–30

   problems with, 131, 133

   reduction of (1889), 237–8

   as weapon, 133, 159, 164, 166, 177, 277

   see also beef distribution

Red Bear, 110n.4, 110n.5

Red Cloud, 219

   and Big Foot, 327

   and Bland, 208

   at Carlisle, 155

   and Crazy Horse, 85, 90, 91, 92, 100, 105

   deposed as “head chief,” 69, 203

   disarming and dismounting of (1876), 69, 140, 229, 238, 310

   and 1868 Treaty, 48, 51

   and 1876 agreement, 66

   and 1877 delegation, 110n.4, 110n.5, 111, 113, 115

   and 1889 agreement, 236–37

   and establishment of Pine Ridge Agency, 127

   and Ghost Dance, 272–3, 290–1, 297n.23, 310–11, 317

   on history of U.S.-Sioux relations, 124–5

   and location of Red Cloud Agency, 125

   and McGillycuddy, 203–7, 209, 211

   and missionaries, 188–9

   and move to Missouri River, 119

   and negotiations in Great Sioux War, 83

   opposition to census of, 55

   and Spirit Keeping, 180

   and Sun Dance, 177

   western clothing of, 210

   and Young Man Afraid of His Horses, 211–12

Red Cloud Agency, 57, 58

   becomes Pine Ridge Agency, 126

   censuses of, 55

   establishment of, 54

   and flagpole incident, 54–5

   move to Missouri River of, 118, 119

   problems establishing a location for, 56, 88, 109, 113–16, 122–3, 125–6

   and surrender of Crazy Horse, 83

Red Cloud, Jack, 272, 317, 331

Red Dog, 100, 155, 174, 267–8

Red Fish, 197n.12

Red Hawk, 286 Illus. 12

Red Horse, 77

Red Leaf, 69, 229, 238, 295

red road

   in Black Elk’s vision, 267

   metaphor of, 28, 362

Red Shirt, 155

Red Skirt, 68

Red Whirlwind, 170

reformers

   and Black Hills, 60

   and Edmunds agreement, 219–20

   ideas of, 45–6, 48, 150

   see also peace policy

removal policy, 18, 35–6

republicanism

   and empire, 13–15

reservations

   origins of, 35–6

   see also Sioux reservation(s)

resistance, 7, 17

Reynolds, E. B., 275–6, 277, 292, 294

Ricker, Eli S., 350n.34

Riggs, Louisa, 309

Riggs, Thomas L., 57

Ring Thunder, 110n.4, 110n.5

ritual, theories of, 268–9

Rock, 110

Rocky Bear, 169, 171

Rosebud Agency

   censuses of, 133

   establishment of, 124

Rosebud, battle of, 62

Rough Feather, 344

Royer, Daniel F., 300

   appointment of, 275n.33, 291

   McGillycuddy’s assessment of, 291

   response to Ghost Dance of, 291, 293–4

Ruger, Thomas H., 305, 326

   Ghost Dance investigation of, 293

Running Antelope, 174, 183


Sahlins, Marshall, 270

Salaway, Frank, 41

Sanborn, John B., 49

Sand Creek, 45, 63

Sandoz, Mari, 74, 77, 96

Sans Arcs

   coming of White Buffalo Calf Woman to, 26

   as subdivision of Tetons, 22

Santees

   as subdivision of Sioux, 22n.17, 24

Saones

   as subdivision of Tetons, 22

Saville, J. J., 54–5

Scare Them, 243n.2

Scarlet Whirlwind, 325

Scatter, 243n.2

schools. See education

Schurz, Carl, 111, 112, 114–15, 116, 120, 124, 125, 197

Scott, Hugh L., 279

scouts, Indian

   in Great Sioux War, 69–70, 73

Seen by the Nation, 323n.35

Selwyn, William, 243, 297n.23

settlers

   attitudes after Wounded Knee of, 359

   and Ghost Dance, 297, 306–8

   and opening of Sioux reservation, 217–18, 298

Seven Council Fires, 21–2

   see also Sioux

Seventh Cavalry

   and interception of Big Foot, 335–6

   and Little Bighorn, 63, 65, 351–2

   in Ghost Dance campaign, 320

   see also Wounded Knee

Shaggy Feather, 330

Shangrau, John, 335, 340, 351

Shangrau, Louis, 318–19, 335

Shannon, Peter C., 218

Sharp Nose, 110n.4

Shell Boy, 102

Sheridan, Phil

   and Black Hills, 60, 61

   and Great Sioux War, 67, 69

   and removal of Sioux, 87, 120

Sherman, William Tecumseh, 47

   and genocide, 45, 359

   and Miles, 67

   and removal of Sioux, 87, 119–20

shirtwearers, 212, 266

Shooter, 186

Shoots Walking, 324

Short Bull

   in Ghost Dance, 259, 273

   Ghost Dance “sermon” of, 295–7, 303

   impact of Wounded Knee on, 356–7

   and negotiations with Brooke, 317–18

   and soldiers, 311

   in Stronghold, 316–17, 318–19

   surrender of (1890), 330, 331–2, 334

   visit to Wovoka of, 243n.2, 251–3, 254, 256

Shoshones, 22, 69, 70, 243, 251, 359, 364n.6

Sibley, Henry H., 44

Sicangus. See Brulés

Sickels, Emma S., 253n.23

Sihasapas

   as subdivision of Tetons, 22

Sioux

   adaptability of, 134

   after Wounded Knee, 361–2

   alliance with Cheyennes, 24, 25

   American views of, 299–300

   attitudes in early reservation period, 109, 117, 127, 129, 172–3

   attitudes toward education, 151

   and bison, 22

   and cattle, 138–40

   and Christianity, 187, 189–93

   and colonialism, 54, 109

   cultural pluralism of, 174

   diet of, 131, 132, 136

   diplomatic abilities of, 117

   and economic dependency, 57, 58, 129n.3, 133, 148–235

   expansion of, compared to U.S., 23, 27–8

   and farming, 138

   history of, 20–1, 22, 124–5

   and horses, 22, 140

   humor of, 111, 189, 214–15

   ideas about disease of, 33–4

   and invulnerability, 282–3

   labor of, 141–4, 146–8

   meaning of “civilization” to, 117

   medical practices of, 184–5, 186

   as middlemen, 19

   and Lewis and Clark, 19–21

   name of, 21

   name for President of, 112

   perceptions of Americans, 33–5, 37, 124n.39, 144

   perceptions of treaties, 49, 224–5

   political organization of, 21–2, 23, 37, 194, 202–3, 212

   population of, 24

   and relationship with Crows in 1880s, 178

   strategies of in 1880s, 193, 238–9

   subdivisions of, 1n.1, 22n.17, 23n.21

   survival of, 369

   religion of, 25–7

   value of Black Hills to, 58–9

Sioux reservation(s)

   boundaries of

     in 1851, 37n.62

     in 1868, 37n.62, 50

     in 1876, 66, 224–5

     in 1889, 229 Map 4

   and Dawes Sioux Bill, 207

   illegal trespassing on, 140, 234

   pressures for opening of, 217–18

Sitting Bull

   attitudes in early reservation period of, 129, 215–16

   attitudes toward Americans of, 214–15

   and Bullhead, 320

   in Canada, 77, 120–1

   and Christianity, 192

   and Cody’s attempt to arrest, 315

   and Crazy Horse, 76, 77

   and 1876 agreement, 66

   and 1889 agreement, 235, 237

   and Ghost Dance, 278, 303, 319, 322

   killing of, 320–6

   as leader in 1880s, 216

   and McLaughlin, 213–16, 292, 322

   and Miles, 68

   and missionaries, 189

   opposition to land cessions of, 221–2, 223

   and Pratt Commission, 227

   prophesies of, 62

   return to U.S. of, 213

   visit to Crow reservation of, 221–2

   as war leader, 51

   war shield of, 282

   and Weldon, 292n.11

   in Wild West shows, 144, 214

Sitting Bull (Arapahoe), 254n.29

Sitting Bull refugees, 326, 327–8, 332

Slim Buttes, battle of, 64–5

Small Bear, 68

small game, 135–6

smallpox, 22, 31

Smith, John Q., 112

Smohalla, 250

Smoke, 30, 72n.27

Smutty Bear, 37n.64

Spirit Keeping Ceremony, 119, 157, 179–81

Spotted Eagle, 51, 52, 72, 219n.7

Spotted Elk. See Big Foot

Spotted Elk (member of 1891 delegation), 364n.8

Spotted Horse, 311, 364n.8

Spotted Tail, 49

   appointed “head chief,” 69

   attitudes toward Americans of, 149

   as Brulé leader, 195, 196, 198

   Brulé opposition to, 196, 197, 199–200

   at Carlisle, 155, 197

   and Crazy Horse, 81–2, 90–1, 102

   and Crow Dog, 194, 198–9

   and 1876 agreement, 66

   impact of Ash Hollow on, 43

   killing of, 199, 200–1

   as member of 1877 delegation, 110, 110n.4, 110n.5, 111, 113, 114–15

   and missionaries, 188–9, 198

   and negotiations in Great Sioux War, 79, 80, 81–2

   opposition to living on Missouri River of, 124

   and political battles with agents, 196–8

   response to Sand Creek of, 45

Spotted Tail Agency, 57, 58

   becomes Rosebud Agency, 124

   establishment of, 54

   move to Missouri River of, 118, 119

   problems establishing a location for, 56, 109, 113–16, 123–4

Spotted Tail, Jr. See Young Spotted Tail

St. Francis Mission, 143, 161, 162

St. John’s boarding school, 161

St. Mary’s boarding school, 161

Standing Bear, 197n.12, 230, 235

Standing Bear, Luther, 146, 151, 153, 156, 160

   at Carlisle, 152–3

   life after Carlisle of, 160

Standing Rock Agency, 56, 57

   census of, 133

   establishment of, 54

Stand, Peter, 337

Stanley, David S., 52, 124

Stansbury, 33

Stephan, Joseph A., 174

stockraising, 56

Stronghold, 316–17, 318–19, 326, 332, 333

Sully, Alfred, 44

Sumner, Edwin V., 326, 328–30, 332–3, 351, 353

Sun Dance, 31

   compared to Ghost Dance, 265

   at Pine Ridge (1881), 169–74

   sponsored by Crazy Horse (1877), 89–90

   U.S. suppression of, 174–9

Sundstrom, Linea, 58–9

Swan, Madonna, 136n.29

Swan, William, 181–2

sweat lodge, 178, 179

Sweet Taste Woman, 78, 79

Swift Bear, 110n.4, 110n.5, 140, 198

Swift Bear, Maud, 157

Swift Bird, 142, 231

Sword Bearer revolt, 301n.35

Sword, George, 364n.8

   favors allotment, 230–1

   in Great Sioux War, 80–1

   and military intervention against Ghost Dance, 310n.62

   as source for Ghost Dance, 253, 257n.39, 274


Tackett, Charles, 155

Tanzania, 250

Tavivo, 244

Tecumseh, 250, 299, 303

Teller, Henry M., 208–9, 218

Teller, James C., 218

Tenskwatawa, 250, 299

Terry, Alfred H., 64

Tetons

   as subdivision of Sioux, 22

   see also Lakotas

Thayer, John M., 298, 307

They Chased After Him. See Kuwapi

Three Bears, 70, 100, 110n.4

Thunder Hawk, 196–7

Thunder Horse, 243n.2

tiyospaye

   instability of, 24

   and Sioux political organization, 23

Tongue River Agency, 289–90

Torn Belly, 276, 311

Touch the Clouds, 96, 97, 98–9, 102, 104, 110n.4, 110n.5, 121

Trager, George, 356, 366

treaties and agreements

   and Congress, 228

   1825, 32

   1851, 36–8

   1868, 8, 48–50, 60, 66, 129, 224

     and Black Hills, 59, 61, 117

     and military action against Ghost Dance, 300

     and three-fourths provision, 66, 218, 220

   1876, 66–7, 129–30, 224–5

   1889, 229, 320–1, 327

     Sioux opposition to, 231–2

treaty bands. See nonmilitants

Truteau, Jean Baptiste, 21, 25

tuberculosis, 187

Tunkasila. See President

Turning Bear, 317–18

Turning Hawk, 310, 364n.8

Turn Over Back, 243n.2

Twiss, Thomas, 41

Twist Back, 243n.2

Two Bears, 216

Two Kettles

   as subdivision of Tetons, 22

Two Moons, 79, 80, 290

Two Strike, 155, 162, 191, 198, 364n.8

   and Ghost Dance, 311

   and negotiations with Brooke, 317–18

   in Stronghold, 316–17, 318, 326

   surrender of (1890), 319


Uintah Agency, 243–51, 253

Union Pacific Railroad, 46, 50, 123n.35

United States Indian policy

   and allotment, 221

   contradictions within, 6, 18, 46–8, 194, 210

   in 1870s, 220

   goals of, 8, 13, 15–17

   and Indian medicine, 183, 185–6

   and killing of Crazy Horse, 86

   and removal, 18, 35–6

   and reservations, 35–6

   and Sioux Ghost Dance, 288, 293, 300

   see also assimilation; Black Hills; colonialism; education; Indian Office; Interior Department; peace policy; reformers; treaties; War Department

United States v. Kagama, 228

Utes, 220, 243

Utley, Robert, 51, 121, 260n.49, 296


Van Solen, Maria L., 153n.57

Varnum, Charles A., 340, 341, 343

Vecsey, Christopher, 190

Vilas, William, 228

Viola, Herman, 112

visions, 27n.33, 265–7, 283

   performance of, 267–9, 283

   see also Ghost Dance, Sioux


Wagon Box fight, 46

Walker, James R., 185

Wallace, Anthony F. C., 262

Wallace, George D., 340, 343

Walsh, James W., 120

Wanka Tanka

   concept of, 26

   and Ghost Dance, 253

War Department

   and control over Indian affairs, 47, 290, 305–6

war medicine, 282–3, 285

Ward, Henry, 209

Warner, William, 230

   see also Crook Commission

wasicun, meanings of, 117n.21, 251n.20

Wazazas, 25

Weldon, Catherine, 292n.11

Wells, Philip

   and Ghost Dance, 274–5, 298n.25

   and Wounded Knee, 338, 340, 342–3, 343n.13, 349

Welsh, Herbert, 220, 221

Welsh, William, 111–12, 113, 120, 220

West, Elliott, 27

Whipple, Henry B., 67, 113

Whirlwind, 283

whiskey. See alcohol

White Bird, 364n.8

White Buffalo Calf Woman, 26–7, 28, 129, 269

White Bull (Cheyenne), 78, 79, 80, 290

White Bull (Sioux), 283

White Crane Walking, 197n.12

White Eagle, 77

White Ghost, 182, 364n.8

White Hawk, 80n.49

White Horse, 139

White Lance. See Horn Cloud, Joseph

White Plume, Alex, 368

White, Richard, 23

Whitestone Hill, 44

White Tail, 110n.4

White Thunder, 102, 149, 155, 197n.12, 198

White Thunder, Ernest, 157

White Swan, 138, 231–2, 272

Whitside, Samuel M.

   and disarming of Big Foot, 338–9, 341

   and interception of Big Foot, 335–6

Whittlesey, Eliphalet, 220

whooping cough, 167, 187, 239, 266

Wicasa Yatanpi. See shirtwearers

Wild West shows, 144–6, 214, 270, 300, 313

Wilson, David, 255n.31

Wilson, Jack. See Wovoka

Wind River Agency, 243–51, 253

winkte, 99n.39

Winyan, Elizabeth, 191

Wiping of Tears Ceremony, 368

   see also Spirit Keeping Ceremony

Wodziwob, 244, 250

Wolf Mountains, battle of, 76

Woman’s Dress, 99–100

women

   in Ghost Dance, 266

   labor of, 29, 137, 143, 146, 257

   views on war of, 72–3

   visions of, 265, 266

   and Wounded Knee, 341–2

Wood, W. H., 73

Woodburn, J. M., 184–5, 186

Wooden Leg, 79

wotawe. See war medicine

Wounded Bear, 181

Wounded Knee

   alcohol at, 336, 352

   atrocities at, 346

   and burial of the dead, 356

   centennial of, 1, 9, 368–9

   and colonialism, 350

   compensation for, 354, 367–8

   and court of inquiry, 346, 353

   and disarming of Big Foot, 338–43, 350

   and 1891 delegation, 364–6

   firing of first shot at, 343, 347–50

   and ghost shirts, 347, 349, 356

   impact on Wovoka of, 246, 254

   inexperience of troops at, 352–3

   and killing of Sitting Bull, 320

   as massacre, 343–6, 350

   and medals of honor, 366

   medicine man’s actions at, 342–3, 349

   and military intervention, 288, 300–1, 350

   1973 occupation, 363n.5

   and orders to disarm Big Foot, 334

   relics of, 354–6

   responsibility for, 350, 353

   as revenge for Little Bighorn, 351–2

   Sioux fighting at, 344–5

   Sioux interpretations of, 347–8, 349–50, 365–7

   Sioux nation after, 361–2

   survivors of, 354, 361–2, 367–8

   women and children at, 341–2, 345

Wovoka, 1

   biography of, 244

   Christian influences on, 255n.31

   and invulnerability, 285–7, 363

   prophesies and teachings of, 9, 244, 246–50, 251–3, 254, 262–3, 364

   Sioux rumors about, 243

   see also Ghost Dance

Wright, J. George

   and Ghost Dance, 273, 276–7

Wright, James

   and Sun Dance, 175–6

Wright, John V., 223, 225, 227

   see also Pratt Commission


Yanktonais

   as subdivision of Sioux, 22

Yanktons

   as subdivision of Sioux, 22

Young Skunk, Henry, 258–9

Young Spotted Tail, 110n.4

Yellow Bear, 100, 110n.4, 110n.5

Yellow Bird, 342n.12

Yellow Breast, 243n.2

Yellow Ears, 37n.64

Yellow Hair, 219n.7

Yellow Hawk, 235

Yellow Knife, 243n.2

Yellowstone, battle of, 53

Young Man Afraid of His Horses, 90, 101, 110n.4, 139n.39, 327n.47, 364n.8

   and Crazy Horse, 100

   and 1876 agreement, 66–7

   and 1889 agreement, 236

   in flagpole incident, 55

   and Ghost Dance, 272, 275, 310n.62, 317

   and McGillycuddy, 204

   as peacemaker, 212

   and Red Cloud, 211–12

   and Spirit Keeping, 180

   and Sun Dance, 177–8

   after Wounded Knee, 360

Young Skunk, Henry, 331–2

Young Spotted Tail, 110n.4


Zitkala-Ša, 152, 153



printer iconPrinter friendly version AddThis