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Women as Scribes
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Details

  • Page extent: 214 pages
  • Size: 247 x 174 mm
  • Weight: 0.54 kg

Library of Congress

  • Dewey number: 745.6/1
  • Dewey version: 21
  • LC Classification: Z801.B3 B43 2004
  • LC Subject headings:
    • Scriptoria--Germany--Bavaria--History--To 1500
    • Scribes--Germany--Bavaria--History--To 1500
    • Women in Christianity--History--Middle Ages, 600-1500
    • Books--Germany--History--400-1400
    • Manuscripts, Medieval--Germany--Bavaria--History

Library of Congress Record

Hardback

 (ISBN-13: 9780521792431 | ISBN-10: 0521792436)

Index




The following abbreviations are used in the index: ab. = abbess, abp. = archbishop, abt. = abbot, bp. = bishop, dk. = duke, emp. = emperor, k = king, St. = saint, pr. = prior. In some cases, supplementary information is included to assist in identification.

Aachen, Council of (816) 18, 20, 27–28

Abirhilt, scribe 15–17

Adalbero I, pr. and abt. of Wessobrunn 33, 34

Adalbero II, abt. of Wessobrunn 34

Adalbert of Mammendorf 35

Adalbert, scribe of Schäftlarn 106, 117–124, 126

Adelheid, daughter of Otto II and Theophanu 20

Adelheid of Wessobrunn 35

Adelheid, scribe of Schäftlarn 108, 119–120

Adlheit, librarian of Admont 79–80

Admont, monastery 2, 62, 65–103

   biblical exegesis by nuns 70, 71, 72–74

   Chronicle 75

   education and intellectual life 70–72, 126, 132

   fire of 1152 68, 77, 99

   fire of 1865 77

   images of women 83

   Lectio divina 69, 110, 115

   letter collections 75–77

   library 77–84, 131; reconstruction of nuns’ twelfth-century library 79–84; booklists of Peter of Arbon 81–82

   necrology 75, 79, 84, 85

   scribes see also individual names

      anonymous Nun-Scribe A 93, 94, 97, 99, 100; description of hand 90

      anonymous Nun-Scribe B 93, 94, 99, 100; description of hand 90–91

      anonymous Nun-Scribe C 97

      anonymous Nun-Scribe D 97

      anonymous Nun-Scribe E 97

      anonymous Nun-Scribe F 97

      anonymous Nun-Scribe G 97

      anonymous Nun-Scribe H 98

      anonymous Nun-Scribe I 98

      Diemut 85

      Irmingart 86, 88–89, 90, 93, 94, 96, 97, 99, 100

      Johannes 82

      Mathilt 85

      Regilind 86–88, 89–91, 94, 97, 98, 99, 100

      Udalricus 82

Admont, Stiftsbibliothek

   MS 16 83, 88, 89, 90, 98–100

   MS 17 86–87, 88, 89, 90, 103

   MS 18 67, 82, 86

   MS 58 73, 83

   MS 62 73, 83

   MS 232 83, 84

   MS 243 82

   MS 376 82

   MS 579 83

   MS 638 83–84

   MS 650 87, 88, 89, 93–94, 97, 100

   MS 651 88, 89, 90, 99, 100

   MS 682 87, 88, 89, 90–93, 94–97, 99, 100

Adrian IV, pope 110

Agius, biographer of Hathumoda 13

Agnes of Wolfratshausen 62

Aldhelm, abt. of Malmsbury and bp. of Sherborne 11; De virginitate 11

Altfrid, bp. of Hildesheim 22n

Altmanus, scribe of Schäftlarn 117

Ambrose, St., 43, 79, 81, 106

anonymity of scribes 1–2, 46, 108

anonymous Nun-Scribe A of Admont 93, 94, 97, 100; description of hand 90

anonymous Nun-Scribe B of Admont 93, 94, 99, 100; description of hand 90–91

anonymous Nun-Scribe C of Admont 97

anonymous Nun-Scribe D of Admont 97

anonymous Nun-Scribe E of Admont 97

anonymous Nun-Scribe F of Admont 97

anonymous Nun-Scribe G of Admont 97

anonymous Nun-Scribe H of Admont 98

anonymous Nun-Scribe I of Admont 98

anonymous Nun-Scribe 1 of Wessobrunn 51; description of hand 57

anonymous Nun-Scribe 2 of Wessobrunn 50, 53–55, 57–58, 60; description of hand 57–58

Anselm of Canterbury, abp. 79, 81, 83, 106

Arbeo 106

armaria 79–80; see also Adlheit, librarian of Admont

armarius, duties according to Constitutiones Hirsaugienses 79

Arnold, pr. of Schäftlarn 120, 123

Arnulf, dk. of Bavaria 33, 104

Augustine, St., 28n, 43, 44, 45, 46, 48, 79, 81, 105, 106, 120, 121, 122, 123

Aurelia of St. Emmeram 62

Bange, E. F. 49

Barking, monastery 11

Barnwell Customal 119n

Bede 56, 79, 81, 105

Bela II, k. of Hungary 67

Bell, David 79

Benediktbeuren, monastery 22, 33n, 106, 119

Bergen, monastery 98

Bernard of Clairvaux 79, 81, 106

Bernried, monastery 35–37, 39, 62

Bertha of Leoben 84

Bertila, ab. of Chelles 14

Beuerberg 37n

biblical exegesis 72, 73–76, 128, 133

Bischoff, Bernhard 16, 46

Bischofsheim, monastery 15

Blasius, St. 67n

Boniface, St.

   books sent by nuns 14–17

   Life by Willibald 13

   relationship to Lioba 11

   role of women in mission 8

Bodarwé, Katrinette 23

Boelzl, abt of Wessobrunn 32, 62, 63

Bonœil, monastery 109

Bradley, John 63

Braun, Johann Wilhelm 97

Burchard, librarian of Michelsberg 30

Caesarius of Arles 9

Camaldoli 37n

canonesses 18–21; legislation from the Council of Aachen 18; education for 20–21

canons, regular

   Augustinian 104

   Premonstratensian 104

canons, secular 104

Caroline Minuscule 85

Cassiodorus 45, 46, 55, 79n

Celestine II, pope 110

Celtes, Conrad 5n

censuales 107

Charlemagne 21

Charles the Bald 21

Chelles, monastery 9, 14; book production at 14

Christina, daughter of Liudolf of Saxony 19n

Cirencester, monastery 119n

Cistercian Order and Cistercians 28n, 104; Carta caritatis 28n

claustration 11, 29; at Admont 68–69, 103; at Schäftlarn 111–112, 113, 121–122, 123, 125, 126–127

clerical reform 104

Cluny, monastery 26n

collaboration, scribal 6–7

   Admont 91, 96, 103

   Schäftlarn 118–119, 121–122, 123–124, 125, 126–127

   Wessobrunn 48, 50, 51–53, 57

colophons 1n, 87n, 106, 117, 119, 124–125, 129

Columbanus, St. 9

composite manuscript 91, 93, 94, 102

Confraternity of the Mother of Beautiful Love 32n

Conrad I, abp. of Salzburg 66

Conrad II, emp. 67

Conrad I, abt. of Wessobrunn 34

Constable, Giles 113

conversa 35, 111–112, 121–122, 129

conversus 72, 111

cura monialium 29, 132–133

Cuthswitha, ab of Inkberrow 15

Darmstadt, Hessische Landesbibliothek MS 1640 22; see also Hitda of Meschede

Dengler-Schreiber, Karin 25

dictation 70, 86, 103

Diemut, scribe of Wessobrunn 7

   as recluse 35, 36–39, 61–62

   as scribe 38–39

   booklists 43–45, 131

   description of hand 47–48, 50

   Group 1 manuscripts 48–50

   Group 2 manuscripts 50

   preservation of work 2

   remembrance at Wessobrunn 60–63

Diemut, scribe of Admont 85

Divine Office 82, 113, 115

Donatus’ rule for nuns 10

double monastery 3n, 4n, 10, 11

   preservation of scribal names from 3–4

   scribal activity at 132–133

   within Hirsau reform 27, 69

   within Premonstratensian Order 105, 115, 118, 127

Eadburga, ab. of Minster-in-Thanet teacher of Lioba 11; books for mission of St. Boniface 14–15

Earcongota of Brie 10

Earconberht, k. of Kent 10

Eberhard, abp. of Salzburg 68, 77

Eberhard, pr. of Schäftlarn 107n, 120, 123

Eckenstein, Lina 63

Edigna of Puch, recluse 37, 38

Eigenkloster 66

Einsiedeln, monastery 24n

Emma of Gurk, patron of Admont 66

Emo, abt. of Wittewerun 118

Engilbert of St. Castulus 108

Erintrude, St. 84

Essen, monastery 19, 23–24, 128

Eucherius of Lyon 56

Eugenius II, pope 110

Eusebius 45, 46, 54, 79

Eve of Wilton, recluse 38n

Faremoutiers, monastery 9, 10

Frankfurt-am-Main, Stadt- und Universitätsbibliothek MS Barth 42 129n

Friedenweiler, monastery 27n

Gandersheim, monastery 13, 18–19, 23; Hrotsvit 19; female scribes at 23, 128

Gebhard, abp. of Salzburg 66, 75

Geisa, nun of St. Peter in Metz 21

Gerberga, ab. of Gandersheim 19

Gerberga II, ab. of Gandersheim 19

Gerhoch of Reichersberg 76, 83

Gertrude, nun of Admont 69–71, 75

Gertrude, wife of Pilgrim of Pasing 111

Gisla, countess 13

Godfrey, abt. of Admont 67, 68, 77, 84

Gorze, monastery 26n

Gorze reform movement 24n, 33, 131; Regensburg filiation 17n, 33; at Wessobrunn 38, 39, 44–45, 63, 131; at Niederaltaich 37

Gothic Textura 88, 89, 90

Gratian 108

Gregory I, pope 43, 44, 45, 48, 49, 73, 79, 81, 105, 106, 131

Gregory of Wetterfeld, patron of Admont 68

Gretser, Jacob 62

Grimlaic, Regula solitariorum 36, 38–39n

Grundmann, Herbert 109

Guntza, female scribe 15–17

Guda, female scribe 129

Guta, scribe of Schwarzenthann 129

Hademut, widow 44

Haimo of Auxerre 106

haplography errors 117–118

Hathumoda, ab. of Gandersheim 13, 19n

Heidenheim, monastery 13, 15; see also Hugeberc, ab. of Heidenheim

Heloise 133

Henry I, dk. of Bavaria 19n

Henry IV, emp. 66

Henry, hermit of Baumburg 37n

Henry, hermit near Beuerberg 37n

Henry, hermit near Starnbergersee 37n

Henry, pr. of Schäftlarn 1–8, 106, 108, 116, 117, 120, 125

Henry, son of Conrad II 67

Henry the Fowler 19

Henry the Quarrelsome, dk. of Bavaria 24

Herford, monastery 13, 19

Herluca, recluse of Bernried 37, 39, 62; Vita Herlucae by Paul of Bernried 62

Herman of Tournai 29

Herrad of Hohenbourg 5, 129–130

Herrenchiemsee, monastery 106–107, 119

Hersfeld, monastery 24n

Hildebert of Lavardin 56

Hildegard of Bingen 5, 129

Hirsau, monastery 26–28; Constitutiones Hirsaugienses 29n, 71–72, 79

Hirsau reform 27n, 130, 131, 132–134

   at Admont 67, 68, 74, 79, 103, 128

   at Wessobrunn 33, 35–36, 37, 39, 45

Hitda, ab. of Meschede 22

Hohenwart, monastery 62

Honorius Augustodunensis 79, 81, 83, 106, 131

Hrotsvit of Gandersheim 5n, 19, 21

Hugeburc, ab. of Heidenheim 13

Hugh of Fouilloy 106

Hugh of St. Victor 79, 81, 131

Idung of Prüfening 25, 129

Ilsung, abt. of Wessobrunn 35n

Inclusa see recluse

inclusus 37n

Innocent II, pope 110

Innocent III, pope 109

Innocent IV, pope 109

investiture conflict 66

Irimbert, abt. of Admont 67, 84, 98

   account of fire 68–69, 99

   biblical commentaries 72

      Joshua 72, 97, 98

      Judges 72, 86, 87, 89, 91, 93, 94, 97

      Kings 72, 83, 85, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100

      Ruth 72, 86, 87, 91, 93, 94, 97

      Song of Songs 72, 96, 97

   collaboration with Admont’s nuns 85–87, 100

Irish monastic tradition 9–10

Irmingart, scribe of Admont 86–89, 90, 93, 94, 96, 97, 99, 100

   description of hand 88–89

Irmingart, scribe of Schäftlarn 1, 2, 106, 108, 118, 124–126; description of hand 125

Isidore of Seville 46n, 56, 79, 81

Ivo of Chartres 46n, 107

Jacques de Vitry 109

Jerome, St. 8, 20, 27–28, 43, 45, 46, 56, 59, 79, 81, 105, 131

Johannes, scribe of Admont 82

John, abt. of Stams 46n

John Beleth 106

John Cassian 81

John of Gorze 20–21, 26, 39, 43–45

Josephus 53, 59

Jouarre, monastery 9

Judith, recluse of Niederaltaich 37, 38, 62

Karpp, Gerhard 24

Klemm, Elisabeth 50, 55, 58, 108, 123

Laeta 8–9, 20, 27–28

Lanfranc of Bec 45

Laon, Notre Dame de, monastery 9

Leclercq, Jean 131

Lectio divina 20, 30, 44; at Admont 69, 79, 84, 128; at Schäftlarn 106, 115, 116; at Wessobrunn 44–45, 131, 133

letters and the ars dictaminis 75–76

Leoben 84

Leukardis, scribe of Mallersdorf 129

Leuttner, Cölestin 62

Liber traditionum at Admont 75, 84; at Schäftlarn 116; at Wessobrunn 34

liberal arts 20–21, 69, 128

Lioba 11–13, 129–130

literacy

   and the Constitutions of Hirsa 71–72

   and the Rule of St. Benedict 69

   definitions 65–66

   within the Premonstratensian Order 127

Liudolf, margrave of Saxony 19n

Liutbirga 13, 20

Liutkart, countess 37n

Liutold of Hirsau, abt. of Wessobrunn 33, 34

Liutold, abt. of Admont 67

Liutold, pr. of Mondsee 76

Lodevicus, scribe of Wessobrunn 53, 59–60

Lowe, E. A. 16, 17

Ludwig I, k. of Bavaria 104n

Lul, St. 8

Luxeuil, monastery 9

Mabillon, Jean 62

magister 71, 116

magistra at Admont 69–70; at Schäftlarn 109; in Hirsau reform 27–28

Magyars 32, 104

Mahtilt of Nifen, scribe of Zwiefalten 129

Mallersdorf, monastery 129; see also Leukardis, scribe of Mallersdorf

manuscript illumination at Admont 86; at Schäftlarn 126; at Wessobrunn 49–50

manual labor and the Rule of St. Benedict 39; at Schäftlarn 113, 114, 115, 127

Marchwardus, scribe at Schäftlarn 123

Martha see Mary of Bethany

Martin, St. 84

Mary, mother of Jesus 83, 96

Mary of Bethany 113–114, 133

   and Martha 113–114, 133

Mathilde of Moorenweis, conversa at Schäftlarn 111

Mathilt, scribe at Admont 85

Matilda, daughter of Otto I and Adelheid 20

Matilda of Saxony 19, 20

Mechtild of Weilheim 35

Mews, Constant 131

Michelsburg, monastery 25n, 30

Migne, Jacques-Paul 73

Millstäter Psalter 83–84

ministeriales at Schäftlarn 107, 111; at Wessobrunn 34

Minster-in-Thanet, monastery 11

Miracles of the Blessed Virgin 83

monastic theology 133

Mondsee, monastery 76

monacha 111

monialis 111

Munich 116

Munich, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek

   Clm 13601 22

   Clm 17036 126

   Clm 17037 126

   Clm 17052 117, 120–122, 123, 126

   Clm 17053 117, 120–122, 123, 126

   Clm 17054 120, 122, 124

   Clm 17087 124, 125

   Clm 17116 118, 124, 125

   Clm 22001d 43

   Clm 22002 47, 50–51

   Clm 22003 47, 50–51

   Clm 22004 53–54, 59

   Clm 22005 47, 51–53

   Clm 22006 47, 51–53

   Clm 22007 48, 49

   Clm 22008 48–49

   Clm 22009 49

   Clm 22010 49

   Clm 22011 49

   Clm 22012 49

   Clm 22014 53, 54–55

   Clm 22015 55–56

   Clm 22016 55–56

   Clm 22034 59

   Clm 22044 49–50

   Clm 22059 43

Napoleon 77

necrologies

   Admont 75, 79, 84

   Baumburg 37n

   Essen 23

   Gandersheim 23

   Nonnberg 38

   Nordhausen 23

   Quedlinburg 23

   St. Rupert and St. Florian 38

   Schäftlarn 38, 111–112, 117, 119, 120, 124, 126

   scribal names in 7

neumes 83

Neustift, monastery 105n

Niederaltaich, monastery 24n, 37, 38, 62

Niedermünster, Regensburg, monastery 24n, 128, 129

Nonnberg, monastery 38, 67

Norbert of Xanten, St. 28, 113; vita 106

Norbert, abt. of Wessobrunn 34

Nordhausen, monastery 23

Obermünster, Regensburg, monastery 24n

Origen 44, 81, 105, 131

Otloh of Regensburg, scribe 22, 24n, 59n

Otto, bp. of Freising 104

Otto I, emp. 19n, 26

Otto III, emp. 21

papal reform 30, 62

Paschasius Radbertus 45, 106

patronage, books 22, 107–108

Paul of Bernried 37n, 62

Paula 8

Peter Abelard 79, 113, 131, 132

Peter Lombard 79, 131

Peter of Arbon 81–82

Pez, Bernard 62, 63

Philo 106

Pilgrim of Pasing 111

Pozzo, Conrad 45–46, 60–61, 63

Prémontré, monastery 28, 109

praeposita 28n

Premonstratensian Order 1, 27–29, 113–114, 130, 131, 133

   education of men 115–116

   education of women 115

   female saints 113–114

   inclusion of women 127, 132–133

   scriptoria 30, 105–107, 109

   1134 Statutes 28n, 112–113, 114, 115–116, 117, 121–122

prioress 109–110

private devotion 83

Pseudo-Dionysius 105

Pseudo-Jerome 56

Quedlinburg, monastery 18, 19–20, 23

Ramwold 17n

Raymond of Clastres, count 113

recluse 35–39, 58, 61–62, 67

Regilind, scribe at Admont 86–88, 90–91, 94, 97, 98, 99, 100; description of hand 89–90

Reinhardsbrunn, monastery 129

Rhabanus Maurus 81, 105

Richild of Hohenwart 62

Richinsa, conversa of Wessobrunn 35

Ricwera, bl. 113–114

Roth, monastery 29

Rudolph of Fulda 12–13

Ruf, Paul 59, 122–123

Rule of St. Augustine 28, 112, 119

Rule of St. Benedict and Benedictines 128

   chronicles and annals 75n

   in Gorze reform circle 26

   in Hirsau reform 26, 71

   Lenten reading 69n

   recluses connected to Benedictine houses 35–36

   Rule copied with feminine forms 24–25

Rupert, St. 84

Rupert of Deutz 79, 81, 106, 113, 124, 131, 132

St. Castulus, monastery 108

St. Emmeram, Regensburg, monastery 17n, 19, 24n, 33, 37, 59n, 62, 77, 85n

St. George in the Black Forest, monastery 67

St. George on the Langsee, monastery 99

St. John, Arles monastery 9

St. Martin, Tournai, monastery 67n

St. Maximin, Trier, monastery 17n, 26

St. Peter, Metz, monastery 20

St. Peter, Salzburg, monastery 66

St. Rupert and St. Florian, Salzburg, monastery 38

St. Trudperter Hohelied 73

St. Zeno and St. Isen, monastery 105n

Salome, recluse of Niederaltaich 37, 38, 62

Schäftlarn 1, 104–127

   Annales scheftlarienses maiores 116

   apostolic preaching 132–133

   intellectual interests of 115

   library 105–106, 107, 131

   scribes see also individual names

      Adalbertus 106, 117–124, 126

      Adelheid 108, 119–120

      Altmanus 117

      Irmingart 1, 2, 106, 108, 118, 124–126

      Marchwardus 123

   scriptorium 105–107

   women at 109–114, 115–116, 133

Schlehdorf, monastery 105n

Schliersee, monastery 105n

scholastic theology 73–74, 106, 133

schools, cathedral 130, 131

schools, monastery 130, 131

Schrägoval see Tilting Oval

Schwarzenthann, monastery 129; see also Guta, scribe of Schwarzenthann 129

scriba 7

scriptrix 7

Seeberg, Stefanie 86

Sighard, abt. of Wessobrunn 34

Sigibald, abt. of Wessobrunn 34

silence 70, 113

Sintram, scribe of Marbach 129

Soissons, Notre Dame de, monastery 9

Sophia, daughter of k. Bela II of Hungary 67

Sophia, scribe of Schäftlarn 108, 117–118, 120–124, 125, 126; description of hand 120

Sophie, daughter of Otto II 19

soror 111, 121–122, 124

Stams, monastery 46, 61

Starnbergersee 37n

Stephen Leopold 34, 35n, 59, 61

Stephen of Tournai 108

Strasbourg, Bibliothèque du Grand Séminaire Codex 78 129

Sulpicius Severus 106

Tassilo III, dk. of Bavaria 33n

Tegernsee, monastery 22, 24n, 77, 85n, 106

Thomas of Canterbury, vita 106

Tilting Oval (Schrägoval or Slanting Oval) script; early development 22, 31

tributales 107, 111

Udalricus, scribe of Admont 82

Ulrich V, abt. of Admont 61

Ursberg, monastery 105

Urspring, monastery 27n

Uta, ab. of Regensburg Niedermünster 22, 24

Uta Codex, see Munich, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek Clm 13601

Vallombrosa 37n

Van Engen, John 132

vita activa 29, 114, 132–133

vita apostolica 29, 104, 133

vita contemplativa 29, 114, 132–133

von Hefner, Josef 63

Vorau, Stiftsbibliothek MS 193 87–94, 100

Walburga 13n

Waldebert, Rule for Women’s Community 10

Waltho, abt. of Wessobrunn 34

Waltrich, f. Schäftlarn 104

Wattenbach, Wilhelm 63

wax tablets 85–86

Wendhausen, monastery 13, 20

Werden, monastery 22n, 24

Wessobrunn 32–64

   biblical study at 133

   library 39–45

   scribes see also individual names

      anonymous Nun-Scribe 1 51, 57

      anonymous Nun-Scribe 2 50, 53–55, 57–58, 60

      Diemut see Diemut, scribe of Wessobrunn

      Lodevicus 53, 59–60

Wessobrunner Gebiet 39n

Wichner, Jakob 81–82

William, hermit of Bogen 37n

Willibald 13; vita of St. Boniface 13

Wimborne, monastery 11

Windberg, monastery 37n

Wittewerun, monastery 118

Wolfgang, bp. of Regensburg 17n, 24

Wolfhold, abt. of Admont 66, 67, 71

Würzburg, Universitätsbibliothek

   M.p.th.f. 13 16

   M.p.th.f. 17 16

   M.p.th.f. 45 16–17

   M.p.th.f. 69 17

   M.p.th.f. 78 16

   M.p.th.q. 2 15

   M.p.th.q. 28a 16

Wynnebald 13n

Zwiefalten, monastery 67n, 131; see also Mahtilt of Nifen, scribe of Zwiefalten



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