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The Biomarker Guide

Details

  • 280 b/w illus. 20 tables
  • Page extent: 492 pages
  • Size: 246 x 189 mm
  • Weight: 0.87 kg

Paperback

 (ISBN-13: 9780521786973)




Contents




About the authors page ix
Preface xi
Purpose xvi
Acknowledgments xvii
PART I BIOMARKERS AND ISOTOPES IN THE ENVIRONMENT AND HUMAN HISTORY
1   Origin and preservation of organic matter 3
  Introduction to biomarkers 3
  Domains of life 3
  Primary productivity 5
  Secondary productivity 8
  Preservation of organic matter 9
  Organic components in rocks 9
  Oxic versus anoxic deposition 10
  Sedimentation rate and grain size 13
  Lacustrine versus marine depositional settings 16
  Temporal and regional distributions of source rocks 16
2   Organic chemistry 18
  Alkanes: the sigma bond 18
  Alkenes: the pi bond 18
  Aromatics: benzene 19
  Structure notation 20
  Three-dimensional projections to two-dimensional space 21
  Acyclic alkanes 21
  Acyclic alkenes 23
  Monocyclic alkanes 23
  Multi-ringed cycloalkanes 24
  The isoprene rule 24
  Aromatic hydrocarbons 30
  Heteroatomic molecules 31
  Stereochemistry and nomenclature 34
  Chirality 34
  Optical activity 36
  Naming asymmetric centers (R, S, α, and β) 36
  Stereoisomerization 40
  Stereochemistry of selected biomarkers 40
  Exercise 44
3   Biochemistry of biomarkers 45
  Lipid membranes 45
  Membrane lipids 47
  Lipid membrane fluidity 48
  Biosynthesis of terpenoids 52
  Hopanoids and sterols in the biosphere and geosphere 58
  Porphyrins and other biomarkers of photosynthesis 64
  Carotenoids 69
4   Geochemical screening 72
  Source-rock screening: quality and quantity 72
  Source-rock screening: thermal maturity 88
  Geochemical logs and source potential index 96
  Reconstruction of original source-rock generative potential 97
  Tests for indigenous bitumen 100
  Detection of petroleum in prospective reservoir rocks 102
  Crude oil screening 102
  Reservoir continuity and filling history 109
  Surface geochemical exploration using piston cores 111
  Sample quality, selection, and storage 113
  Geochemical rock and oil standards 116
  Appendix: derivation of mass-balance equations 117
5   Refinery oil assays 119
  Basic oil assays 120
  Advanced oil assays 127
  Petroleum refining 129
  Biomarkers in refinery products 134
6   Stable isotope ratios 136
  Standards and notation 136
  Stable carbon isotope measurements 137
  Stable carbon isotope fractionation 138
  Converting δ values using different standards 139
  Applications of stable carbon isotope ratios 140
  Compound-specific isotope analysis 148
  Sulfur and hydrogen isotopes 152
7   Ancillary geochemical methods 157
  Diamondoids 157
  C7 hydrocarbon analysis 162
  Compound-specific isotope analysis of light hydrocarbons 190
  Molecular modeling 192
  Fluid inclusions 194
8   Biomarker separation and analysis 198
  Organization of a biomarker laboratory 198
  Sample clean-up and separations 199
  Internal standards and preliminary analyses 200
  Zeolite molecular sieves 202
  Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry 208
  Mass spectra and compound identification 235
  Biomarker quantitation 240
9   Origin of petroleum 252
  Historical background 252
  Deep-earth gas hypothesis 253
  Abiogenic hydrocarbon gases 256
  Thermogenic hypothesis 259
10   Biomarkers in the environment 274
  Environmental markers 274
  Oil spills 276
  Processes affecting the fate of marine oil spills 279
  Mitigation of oil spills 282
  Modeling marine oil spills 283
  Oil spills on land 283
  Underground leakage 283
  Toxicity of petroleum 284
  Environmental chemistry field and laboratory procedures 287
  Chemical fingerprinting of oil spills 289
  Analysis of biomarkers and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in oil-spill studies 294
  Applications of biomarkers and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to oil-spill studies 298
  Biomarkers and the Exxon Valdez oil spill 305
  Gasoline and other light fuels as pollutants 312
  Natural gas as a pollutant 315
  Biomarkers in smoke 319
11   Biomarkers in archeology 322
  The ages of man 322
  Origins and transport of petroliferous materials in antiquity 322
  Archeological gums and resins 329
  Biomarkers in art 333
  Archeological wood tars (pitch) 334
  Paleodiets and agricultural practices 338
  Archeological beeswax 344
  Biomarkers and manuring practices 346
  Archeological DNA 347
  Ancient proteins 349
  Archeological narcotics 350
  Biomarkers and interdisciplinary studies 352
Appendix: geologic time charts 353
Glossary 355
References 399
Index 451

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