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The Biomarker Guide

Details

  • 280 b/w illus. 20 tables
  • Page extent: 492 pages
  • Size: 246 x 189 mm
  • Weight: 0.87 kg

Paperback

 (ISBN-13: 9780521786973)




Index




abelsonite 68

abietadiene 57

abietane-type acids 331, 334

abietic acid 320, 331, 332, 336, 337

ab initio 194, 208

abiogenic hydrocarbon gas 153, 256–9

abiogenic hypothesis 253

abiogenic methane see methane

abiogenic petroleum 263, 270

abiotic synthesis 36, 253

abnormal pressure see overpressure

Abu Dhabi 154

Abu Durba, Gulf of Suez 324–5

Abu Durba seep, Gulf of Suez 326

Acacia 329

accessory pigment see carotenoid

Accretionary Wedge oils, Angola 153

accuracy 125

acetate 152, 254

acetate fermentation 316

acetic acid 53, 195, 316

aceticlastic bacteria 316

acetoacetyl-ACP (acyl carrier protein) 48

Acetobacter 333

acetogenic bacteria (acetogens) 4

acetyl-CoA (acetyl-coenzyme A) 48

acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) 48

acetylene 253

Acholeplasma 47, 51

acidic clay minerals 157

acritarch fluorescence 95

acritarchs 81, 95

actinomycete 47

active source rock 72, 264

acute toxicity 286

acyclic isoprenoids see isoprenoids

acylation 212

acyl carrier protein (ACP) 48

adamantanes 157, 158, 162, 176

adduction efficiencies for n-alkanes 205

adipose fats 342, 343

Aegean Sea 305

aeration 282

aerobic 7, 10, 13

aerosol particles 318, 320

age-dating

   ceramics 332

   fuel spills 313–15

   gasoline 314

age-related biomarkers 205

ages of man 322, 323

aggregation 281

Akata-Agbada(!) 84

Akhmin, Egypt 324

Alabama Embayment, Gulf of Mexico 182

Alaska Peninsula 306, 307

Alberta 10

albertite 81

algae 47, 57, 61

algaenan 45, 76

algal 188

Algeria 192, 261–2, 263

alginite 75, 76, 89

Aliambata well, Indonesia 147

aliphatic hydrocarbon 19

alkaloid 352

alkane 18

   acyclic 21–2

   adduction efficiencies 205

   bimodal n-alkane distribution 104

   branched (see isoalkane)

   cyclic 202

   monocyclic 23–4

   normal (see normal alkane)

alkanoic acids 47, 344

alkene (olefin) 18–19, 20, 23, 128

   acyclic 23

alkenones 213, 215

alkylaromatics 334

alkylation 130, 132, 133

alkylbenzenes 31, 128, 206, 328

alkylbenzthiophenes 334

alkylcyclohexanes 206

alkylcyclopentanes 206

alkyldiamantanes 161

alkyldibenzothiophenes 81

alkylnaphthalenes 206, 304

alkylphenanthrene 206

alkyl pyrzaines 342

alkyltoluenes 206

alkylxylenes 206

Allen Hills meteorite (ALH84001), Antarctica 298

alloxanthin see carotenoid

Alondra Field, California 264, 265

Alsace-Lorraine 302

Altamont-Bluebell Field, Utah 84, 259, 260

alumina 199, 200

alumina/TOC 88

aluminosilicate 203

Alzheimer’s disease 51

Amazon Basin, South America 25

American Petroleum Institute (API) 120

American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM) 119

amino acid racemization 341

amino acids 79, 338, 340, 341

δ-aminolevulinate 65

ammonia 52

Amoco Cadiz 278

amphipathic 42

amplification 348

amplitude variation with offset (AVO) 111

amyrin 59

amyrone 335

Anacardiaceae trees 334

anaerobic 7, 10

   methane oxidation 59

   respiration 8, 10

Anammox 52

anammoxosome membrane 52

Anasazi 349

Andector Field, Texas 84

angiosperms 268, 321

anhydrite 80, 154, 156, 159

aniline point 127

animals 60, 61

anisic acid 346

annular depression 269

anode 216

anoxia 10–13, 16, 79–80, 88

anoxic see anoxia

anteisoheptane see 3-methylhexane

Antelope Shale, California

   oils 141, 152

Antes Shale see Utica Shale

anthracene 296

anthracene/phenanthrene 298

anthracite 91

anthropogenic markers 275

antiknock additives 314

antioxidant 71

Antrim Shale, USA 82

apatite 338, 341

API gravity 102, 120, 182

apocarotenoid 70

Appalachian Basin, USA 152

Appleton Field, Alabama 181, 189

Apsheron Peninsula, South Caspian 115

aqueous vapor extraction 280

aquifer 283

Aquinet Ouernine see Tanezzuft Shale

Aquitaine Basin, France 154, 303

Arabia 332

arachidic acid 49

arachidonic acid 49

aragonite 138

archaea 3, 4, 5, 6, 29, 71, 254

   lipids 46, 48, 49, 50, 60

archaebacteria see archaea

archeological gums and resins 329–32

archeology 322–52

Arcy-sur-Cure, France 348

Åre (Hitra) Formation, Norway 187

argillaceous source rock 264

Argo Merchant 276

aristolochene 57

aromatic hydrocarbon UCM see unresolved complex mixture

aromatic hydrocarbons (aromatics) 19–20, 30–1, 64, 112, 127, 128, 155, 199

aromaticity 172, 175

aromaticity ratio (B) 174

aromatics 200

aromatization 89–90

art 333–4

arteriosclerosis 51

Arun Field, Sumatra 84

aryl carotenoids 71

aryl isoprenoids (trimethylbenzenes) 149

asphalt 122, 269, 333

   deposits in Middle East 328

   floating blocks 324

   Valdez 307

asphaltene-poor oils 144

asphaltene pyrolysis 300

asphaltenes 34, 126, 128

asphaltic paint 333

Asphalt Ridge heavy oil, Utah 120

As-Sabiyah, Kuwait 329

Asuka-881458 see carbonaceous chondrite

asymmetric carbon atom 34, 35, 36–9, 40, 271

Athabasca heavy oil, Canada 120

Athabasca tar sand 205

Atlantic Empress 278

atmospheric bottoms 132

atmospheric distillation 122, 130, 133

atmospheric-equivalent boiling point 122

atmospheric gas oil 122

atmospheric residue 122

atomic C/N 76

atomic H/C 73, 74, 76–9, 93, 99

atomic H/C vs. O/C see van Krevelen diagram

atomic O/C 76–9

atomic orbitals 19

atomic S/C 79

authigenic carbonate 111

automated data inquiry for oil spills see oil spills

autotroph 4, 8

avenasterol 60

axial bond 37

azeotrope 199

Aztec 352

Bach Ho Field, Vietnam 261

backflush 200

background hydrocarbons 112, 115, 301–2, 308, 311, 312

background petrogenic hydrocarbons 308–12

background subtraction 244

bacteria 6

bacterial oxidation 317

bacterial sulfate reduction (BSR) 315

bacteriochlorophyll 8, 64–8

bacteriohopanepolyols 58

bacteriohopanes 42, 58

bacteriohopanetetrol 41, 42, 56, 58, 59

bacteriohopanoids, polyfunctional 58

bacteriophage 5

bacteriopheophytin 67

bacteriorhodopsin 64

bacterioruberin 71

Baghewala well, India 106

Bagnolo oil, Italy 142

Bakken Shale, USA 92, 166, 182, 184, 188

Baku, South Caspian 115

ball-and-stick projection see structural notation

Bampo-Peutu(!) 84

Baota Formation, China 100

Barents Sea, Norway 12

barley beer 346

baseline 104, 106, 242, 244

baseline separation (resolution) 167, 168

baseline threshold 251

basement rocks 260, 261–8

base peak 222

Base-ring Ware 350

Bazhenov Formation, Western Siberia 11, 14, 99, 143

Bazhenov-Neocomian(!) 84

Beatrice oil, North Sea 144, 235, 248

beerstone see calcium oxalate

beeswax 324, 333, 344–6

behenic acid 49

Belayim Formation, Gulf of Suez 325

belemnites 139

Belemnitella 137

benchtop quadrupole 227

benzene 19–20, 30, 91, 280, 291, 314, 315

benzo(a)anthracene/chrysene 298

benzo(a)pyrene 287, 298

benzocarbazoles 33, 128, 194, 199

benzo(e)pyrene/benzo(a)pyrene 298

benzo[g,h,i]perylene 311

benzohopanes 235

benzoperylene 248

benzopyrene 296

benzothiophenes 31–2, 266

Bercy (Paris), France 342

Bering River, Alaska 307, 308, 310, 311

Berkine Trend, Algeria 262, 263

Beryl Complex, North Sea 109, 170

Beryl kitchen, North Sea 109

betulins 337

B-F diagram 174–5, 176–7

bicadinanes 206, 207, 208, 307

bicarbonate 138

Big Escambia Creek Field, Alabama 181, 189

Big Horn Basin, Wyoming 141, 154

bilayer 45, 46

bile 305

bile acids 43, 347

bilins 64, 65

bioaccumulation 287, 305

bioavailability 287

biodegradation 9, 103, 104, 116, 174, 187, 263, 281–2, 294–5, 315

biodegraded oil 113, 115

biofacies 10

biogenic 252–3

biogenic hydrocarbons 301, 308

biogenic markers 275

biogeochemistry see organic geochemistry

biological configuration 41, 42

biological marker see biomarkers

biological oxygen demand (BOD) 10, 11, 12

biomacromolecule 10

biomarkers (biological markers, molecular or chemical fossils) 3, 9, 10, 252, 274, 304

   aerosol particles 318, 320

   art 333–4

   age-related 205

   concentrations in oil 64

   laboratory 198

   mass chromatograms 228, 229–30

   quantitation 240–2

   refinery products 134–5

   sulfur-bound biomarkers 80

   smoke 319–21

   wine 344

biomass 5, 9, 63

biomass burning 318

biopolymer 24, 45

bioremediation 282, 302–4

biosphere 67

biosynthesis 45–71

biotic see biogenic

bioturbation 10, 11, 12, 13, 16, 111

biphenyls 31, 296

biphytane (bisphytane) 25, 26–7, 28–9

biphytanyl isoprenoids 52

biphytanyl tetraether 48

birch bark tar 336–7

bisabolene 57, 330

28, 30-bisnorhopane (BNH, 28, 30-dinorhopane) 26–7, 28–9, 34, 142, 197, 245, 266, 305, 306

bison bones 350

bisphytane see biphytane

bitomarosite 81

bitosite 82

bitumen 10, 73, 75, 199, 252

   archeological 322, 327, 329, 351

   indigenous 100–1

   mastic 328

bitumen network 100

bitumen/TOC 73, 74, 101

bituminites 76, 81, 82, 83

bivalves 305

Black Hawk Coal, Utah 77, 79

Black Sea 11, 12, 14, 215

black shale facies see Green River Formation

Blacksher Field, Alabama 189

bleaching 111

Bligh Reef, Prince William Sound, Alaska 305, 306

BNH see 28, 30-Bisnorhopane

boat, oldest 329

boat conformation 24

BOD see biological oxygen demand

boghead coal 78

bone 138, 338, 341, 350

   extracts 331

Boscan Field, Venezuela 84

Bosphorus 11

Boswellia 329, 332

boswellic acids 332

Botneheia Formation, Spitsbergen 116

botryococcanes 26–7, 28–9, 104

Botryococcus 78, 81, 82, 83, 104

bottled oils 116

bottoms 132, 133

bottom-simulating reflector (BSR) 111

Brantley Jackson Field, Alabama 189

Brassica (cabbage) 343

brassicasterol 60

Brazeau River Field, Canada 155, 156

breccia 266

Brent Formation, North Sea 83

bronze (copper–tin) 322

Bronze Age 322, 323

brown algae, macrophytic 65

Brown Limestone, Gulf of Suez 325

brucite 259

Bryan Mills Field, Alabama 189

BSR see bacterial sulfate reduction or bottom-simulating reflector

BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes) 286, 314, 315

bubble point 132

Buckner Anhydrite, Gulf of Mexico 159

Bucomazi Formation, West Africa 11, 84, 154

Bucomazi-Vermelha(!) 84

Bunker C 122

burning products

   cellulose 319

   lignin 320

butane 20, 21, 22

butanoyloxyfucoxanthin see carotenoid

1-butene 20

butene, cis and trans 23

Buzzard’s Bay, Massachusetts 274, 276

14C 317, 318, 332

C3 plant (Calvin pathway) 138, 139, 338, 339, 343, 344, 345

C3-dibenzothiophenes/C3-chrysenes 297

C3-naphthalenes/C3-phenanthrenes 297

C4 plant (Hatch–Slack pathway) 138, 139, 338, 339, 341, 344

C7 hydrocarbon analysis 162–92

C7 hydrocarbon classes 190

C7 hydrocarbons 168, 169, 190, 212

   maturity-sensitive, 171

C7 oil correlation star diagram (C7-OCSD) 178, 179, 181

C7 oil transformation star diagram (C7-OTSD) 178, 181

C7 quaternary/(quaternary + tertiary) 170

C27–C28–C29 distribution see ternary diagram

C30 ent-isocopalane see tricyclohexaprenane

C30 tetracyclic polyprenoids see tetracyclic polyprenoids

cabbage see Brassica

cacao (cocoa) 352

cadinanes 208, 331

cadinene 55, 57, 330

caffeine 352

calcite 138, 264

calcium carbide 255

calcium naphthenates 126

calcium oxalate (beerstone) 346

calibration of mass scale 220

California, offshore 278

Calvin pathway see C3

CAM (crassulacean acid metabolism pathway) 139

Camamu-Almada Basin, Brazil 151

Cambay-Hazad(!) 84

Cambrian-Ordovician 145

Campeche, Mexico 279

campestane 62

campestanol 342

campesterol 60, 342, 346

camphene 56, 330

Canaan, Middle East 328

Canadian Shield 257, 259

Cannabis 351

cannel coal 81, 82, 83, 329

cannibalism 349–50

canonical variable (CV) 147

Canyon Diablo Troilite (CD) 137

Cape Yakataga, Alaska 308

capillary column 210

capillary gas chromatography 210

capric acid 49

carbazole 33

carbocation 40, 160, 161, 163, 170

carbohydrates 6, 45, 256

carbon 18, 124

   quaternary 163, 170

   secondary 163

   tertiary 163, 170

carbonaceous chondrite 253, 272

carbonado 157

carbonate 138

   carbon 74

   evaporite 264

   marine 189

Carbonate Platform oils, Angola 153

carbonate source rock see source rock

Carbon County, Utah 79

carbon cycle 8–9

carbon dendrites 216

carbon dioxide (CO2) 8, 138, 139, 158, 195, 253, 316, 317

   reduction 316

carbon isotope ratio (δ13C) 338, 339, 343

carbon isotopes 137

carbonium ion see carbocation

carbon preference index (CPI) 104, 294, 308

carbon residue 125

carboxyl 152

carboxylic acids 34, 63, 151–2

28-carboxyursen-12-enol 346

carcinogen 287

carene 330

Carnarvon Basin, Australia 162

Carneros oil, California 201, 227, 229–30, 268

carnivore 339, 340

β-carotane (perhydro-β-carotene) 26–7, 28–9, 149, 236–7, 238–9, 259

carotene 69, 71, 149

carotenoid 8, 29, 47, 51–2, 54, 55, 64, 69–71

Carribbean Sea 278

carrier bed 264

carrier gas 208

caryophyllene 330

casing 92

Caspian Sea 13, 278

Castillo de Bellver 278

catabolism 346

catagenesis 9, 275

Catalan oil shale, Spain 80

catalysis 166

catalyst 132

   platinum-carbon 44

catalytic cracking 130, 133

catalytic isomerization 133

catalytic reforming 130, 133

catechin 344

cathode 216

cation exchange capacity 204

cave bear 340

caving 89, 90, 92, 94

12C–12C 140

12C–13C 140

13C enrichment with decreasing age 144–7

C2-dibenzothiophene/C2-phenanthrene versus C3-dibenzothiophene/C3-phenanthrene (C2-D/C2-P versus C3-D/C3-P) 296

C2-dibenzothiophene/C2-phenanthrene (DPI or C2-D/C2-P) 309, 310, 311

CDT (see Canyon Diablo Troilite)

cell membrane 6, 46

cellulose 10, 47, 319

cell wall 47

Celtic oppidum 338

centifolia rose 55

centipoise (cP) 121

Central Appalachian Basin, USA 141

Central Graben, North Sea 83

Central Kansas uplift 268

Cerro Negro, Venezuela 102

   heavy oil 120

Cerro Prieto, Mexico 140

cerumen (earwax) 352

Chad’s Creek Well, Canada 95

chain-of-custody 287

chair conformation 24

Chalain, France 329

Chalk Group, North Sea 83

channeling contrast microscopy (CCM) 195

charcoal 93, 323

Chatom Field, Alabama 84, 189

Chattanooga Shale, USA 82

cheilanthanes see tricyclic terpanes

chelate 34, 68

chemical fossil see biomarker

chemical ionization (CI) see ionization

chemoautotroph 4, 6

chemocline 11

chemoheterotroph 4

chemosynthesis 7

chemosynthetic communities 278

chemotroph 4, 253

chert 86

chewing gum 336

chirality 11, 34–6, 39

chiral stationary phase 36

chitin 321

chloramphenicol 6

chlorin 67

chlorobactene 71

Chlorobiaceae (green sulfur bacteria) 11, 56, 67, 68, 149

Chlorobium 80

chloroform 199, 200

chloroform/methanol 199

Chlorogloeopsis 63

chlorophyll 8, 64–8, 71, 252

   chlorophyll a 28, 33, 65, 66, 67, 68, 271

   chlorophyll b 29, 65

Chlorophyta 82

chloroplast 3, 6, 46

CHN analyses 123

cholane 62, 201, 202, 241

5β-cholestan-3β-ol see coprostanol

cholestane 25, 26–7, 28–9, 34, 36, 37, 38, 62, 135, 235, 236–7, 238–9

5α-cholest-5-en-3β-ol see cholesterol

cholest-8(9)-en-3ß-ol 63

cholesterol (5α-Cholest-5-en-3β-ol) 6, 42, 51, 60, 61, 63, 275, 276, 320, 321, 341, 346

   %cholesterol/total lipids 276

choline 48

chondrillasterol 346

C35 hopane index see hopanes

Chromatiaceae (purple sulfur bacteria) 67

chromatogram see gas chromatogram

chromatography see gas or liquid chromatography

chromosome 6

chronostratigraphic unit 15

chrysenes 31, 280, 296, 297

Chrysophyte algae 254

Chunchula Field, Alabama 189

ciliate, marine 56

cineol 56

cinnabar 316

cis-butene 23

cis,cis,cis-5, 8, 11, 24-eicosatetraenoic acid see arachidonic acid

cis,cis,cis-9, 12, 15-octadecanoic acid see linoleic acid

cis,cis-9, 12-octadecanoic acid see linoleic acid

cis-configuration 23

cis-9-hexadecanoic see palmitoleic acid

cis-9-octadecanoic see oleic acid

citroneliol 55, 58

Cleistosphaeridium 82

Cleopatra 324, 327

cloud point 121

coal 78, 81, 82, 138, 252, 255, 258, 298, 308, 311

coalbed methane 153

coal-source hypothesis 308–10

coal tar 298

coal versus seep hypotheses, Alaska 308–12

coaly shale 81, 82

Coast Guard Marine Safety Laboratory 299

cocaine 351–2

coccolithophorid (coccolithophore) 149

Coccus 329

cocoa tree see Theobroma

Code of Hammurabi 328

codeine 350

co-elution 148, 203, 233, 240

coenzyme Q see ubiquinone

coffee 352

Cogollo Formation, Venezuela 267

co-injection 240

coke 125, 133

coker 134

coking 130, 133

Cold Creek Field, Alabama 189

Cold Lake heavy oil, Canada 120

cold spot 248, 249

cold trapping 209

collagen 338, 341

   carnivores 338

   herbivores 338, 341

   human 339

   Neanderthal 341

   omnivores 338

collinite 89, 90

collision-activated decomposition (CAD) 227, 233

collision cell quadrupole (Q2) 218, 227, 231

collision gas 227

Columbia River basalt 254

column bleed 244

column chromatography 198, 199–200

column overload 244, 245

column temperature 251

combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometer (combustion-IRMS) 138

commingled fluids 106–9

Commiphora 329

Como Field, Alabama 189

compartmentalization, reservoir 109

%compound depleted 295

compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) 148–52, 155, 190–2, 203

   alkanes 151

   archeology 345

   correlation 150–1, 272, 291, 300–1

   fatty acids 342

   gasoline 315

   paleoenvironment 149–50

   sediments 301

computational chemistry 208

Conception Bay, Newfoundland 300

condensate-associated gas 153

condensates 116, 120, 151, 203, 205, 255

condensate-to-gas ratio (CGR) 159

condensed interval 86

configurational isomerization see stereoisomerization

confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM) 195

conformation 24, 193, 207, 212

Congo copal 329, 334

congressane see diamantane

conifers (gymnosperms) 321

conifer resins 324, 329, 331, 332

conjugation 5

conodont alteration index (CAI) 95

Conradson carbon residue 125

conservation of hopane 294–5

contamination 113

   archeology 349, 350, 351

   bitumen and oil 100, 101, 107, 143, 203

   environmental 274

   rock 92, 94, 95, 115

   sediment or water 113, 294

Cook Inlet, Alaska 174, 306

coorongite 78

Copper Glacier, Alaska 311

coprecipitation 144

coprolites 347, 349–50

coporphyrinogen 65, 66

coprostanone 275

coprostanol (5β-cholestan-3β-ol) 275–6, 346

coprostanol/epicoprostanol (cop/e-cop) 276

cordaites see gymnosperms

core 113

corg see total organic carbon

Coriolis 8

coronene 31

correlation, stable carbon isotopes 141–4, 150–1

   see also oil–oil and oil–source rock correlation

co-sources, oil 144

cotinine 351

covalent (sigma) bond 18, 19, 20, 34

Cowboy Wash, Colorado 349

CPI see carbon preference index

Crassulacean acid metabolism pathway see CAM

Crenarchaeota 50

creosote 298, 302, 336

cresol 346

Cretaceous black shale, Cape Verde Rise 88

Cretaceous mass extinction see Cretaceous–Tertiary (K–T) boundary

Cretaceous–Tertiary (K–T) boundary 146

Crete 345

C-ring monoaromatic steroids see monoaromatic steroids

crocetane 60

Cro-Magnon 349

Crosby Creek Field, Alabama 189

cryptophyte 65

β-cryptoxanthin see carotenoid

crystallographic free diameter 204

CSIA see compound-specific isotope analysis

°Ctemp see temperature of generation

C29Ts, 325

cutinite 76, 89

cuttings, drill 113

cyanobacteria 7, 59, 67

Cycladic Islands 345

cycloalkane (naphthene, cycloparaffin) 23, 24, 128, 172

cycloalkanoporphyrin (CAP) 68

cycloartenol 56–8, 59, 60

cyclobutane 52

cyclodextrin 211–12

cyclohexamantane 157

cyclohexane 23, 24, 91, 192

cycloparaffin see cycloalkane

cyclopentane 23

cyclopropyl intermediate 166

Cypress Creek Field, Alabama 189

cytoplasmic membrane 47

cytosine 59

Czech Republic 268–9

dairy practice 343–4

Dakhleh Oasis, Western Desert 325

Dala granites 269

Dalbergia 332

Dalton 222

damascenone 58

Damborice well, Czech Republic 268, 269

dammaradienone 335

dammaranes 333, 334

dammarane-type molecules 335

dammarenolic acid 334, 335

dammar resin 55, 61, 207, 329, 334

Daphnia 286

darmarenolic acid 331

Darwinian threshold 53

data processing 220–2

data system overload 245, 246

daughter ion 218, 229, 231

daughter mode (in GCMS/MS) 227, 234

daughter quadrupole (Q3) 227, 232

DB-1 stationary phase 211, 244

DB-5 stationary phase 211

Dead Sea, Eastern Mediterranean 328, 341

Dead Sea asphalt 324–5, 326, 328, 334

Dean’s splitter 212

deasphalting 133

decane 21

decision tree 287

Decorah Formation, USA 80, 105

deep-Earth gas hypothesis 253–6

deep hot biosphere hypothesis 254

deep induction log 195

Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP; later called Ocean Drilling Program, ODP) 74

defocusing 248

dehydroabietic acid 320, 329, 331, 332, 334, 336, 337

delta log R 83–6

Delta National Wildlife Refuge, Mississippi 289

delta-value, isotope 136

demethylated hopanes see norhopanes, 28,30-bisnorhopane, 25,28,30-trisnorhopane

dendrogram, HCA 107

density 120, 129

   floatation 75

Denver Basin, Colorado 174

deoxophylloerythroetioporphyrin (DPEP) 67, 68

deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) 5, 347–9

   sequencing 60

Derdere Formation, Turkey 100

desalting 130

10-desmethylhopanes see norhopanes

desmethylsteranes 254

Desulfosarcina 316

Desulfovibrio 79

detection limit 125

deuterated standards 202

deuterium 138

Dexsil 211

dextral see R configuration

dextrorotatory 36, 271

diacholestanes 26–7, 28–9, 236–7, 238–9

diadinoxanthin see carotenoid

diagenesis 9, 79

diahopanes (C29*–C34*) 24, 206, 207

dialkylthiacyclopentane 81

diamantane (congressane) 157, 158

diamond 138, 157

diamondoids 157–62

   biodegradation 162

   maturity parameters 162

   source parameters 161–2

diapocarotenoid 70

diasterane index see diasteranes/steranes

diasteranes (rearranged steranes) 40, 266, 324, 325

diastereomer 35, 38, 39

diatomaceous 13

diatoms 8, 65, 252, 254, 268

diazotroph 4

dibenzofuran 33

dibenzothiophene/phenanthrene 12

dibenzothiophenes 32, 81, 296, 299, 308

dichloromethane see methylene chloride

dicot see angiosperm

Di-DPEP porphyrin 68

diesel 122, 132, 133, 134, 213, 214, 299

diet see paleodiet

dietary lipids 342–3

diether lipids 48

dihydro-ar-curcumene 236–7, 238–9

dihydro-bacteriochlorophyll 65

Dillinger Ranch Field, Wyoming 104

dimethylalkyl pyrophosphate (DMAPP) 53–5

dimethylallyl alcohol 55

2, 2-dimethylbutane/2, 3-dimethylbutane

4, 4-dimethylcholestene 63

dimethylcyclopentanes 23, 188

dimethyldiamantane facies ratios 161

2, 6-dimethylheptane 21

3, 4-dimethylhexane 206

dimethylnaphthalenes 311

2, 6-dimethyloctane 25, 26–7, 28–9, 30, 271

2, 4-dimethylpentane/2, 3- dimethylpentane (2, 4-DMP/2, 3-DMP) 179–83

dimethylpentanes 22

dimethylphenanthrenes 200, 207

2, 2-dimethylpropane 22

4, 4-dimethylsterols 63

Dingo Claystone, Australia 81

dinoflagellates 65, 81

   cysts (hystrichospheres) 150

28, 30-dinorhopane (DNH) see 28, 30-bisnorhopane

dinosaur bones 350

dipentene see limonene

diphtheria 6

diploptene 56, 59, 60, 61

diplopterol 56, 59, 60

α,ω-dipolar carotenoid 51

Dipterocarpaceae 207, 332, 334

direct injection see injection

dispersant 282

dispersion 280

disproportionation 143

dissociation constant 126

dissolution 280

distillation 122–3

   cuts 122, 127

   simulated 123, 129

   tower 132, 134

distributed source-rock sampling 151, 272

disulfides 31, 32, 80

diterpanes 25, 211

diterpenoid 55, 57

Djedoler 324, 327

DNA see deoxyribonucleic acid

dodecane 21

Dolni Lomna well, Czech Republic 268, 269

dolomite 258–9, 315

domains of life 3–5, 6, 46, 48, 49, 52, 64

Dominguez Field, California 265

Douala Basin, Cameroon 89

double bond 19

double-focusing mass spectrometer 217, 229

Doushantuo Formation, China 100

downstream 119

DPEP see deoxophylloerythroetioporphyrin

Draupne Shale, North Sea 83

drill-bit metamorphism 255

drilling fluid contamination 107

drilling mud 115, 255

drill stem test (DST) 107, 110

drimane 206

dry gas 166, 317

drying and sweetening 130

Dry Piney Field, Wyoming 104

dry valley 4

Dukthoth River, Alaska 311

Dunaliella 71

Duperow Formation, USA 182

Duri Field, Sumatra 84

Duvernay Formation, Canada 156, 162

dwell time 227

dyes 313

dynamic combustion 137

dysaerobic 10

dysoxic see suboxic

earwax see cerumen

East Midland Field, UK 263

Eel River Basin, California 240, 242, 248, 316

effective source rock 9, 16, 17, 72

Egemba Field, Niger Delta 84

Egret Member, Rankin Formation, Newfoundland 83, 146, 233

eicosane 21

Ekofisk Field, North Sea 84

Ekofisk Formation, North Sea 83

eladic acid 346

elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA) 195

Eldfisk Field, North Sea 84

electric sector field strength (E) 229

electron 137

   impact (EI) see ionization

   multiplier (discrete dynode) 209, 216, 217, 218, 220, 227

   transport 65

   trap 215

electrostatic mass analyzer 217

electrostatic sector 217

elemental analysis 123–4

El Segundo Field, California 264, 265

embalming resin 345

Emiliania 149

emitter 216

empirical force field 193

emulsification 281

emulsified 122

emulsion 281

enantiomer 34, 35, 36, 39

endosymbiosis 5

energy consumption 10

engine knock (pre-ignition) 132

environmental chemistry procedures 287–9

environmental markers 274–6

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 274, 285, 312

   Center for Subsurface Modeling Support (CSMoS) 315

   ECOTOX (ECOTOXicology) AQUIRE (aquatic life) database 286

Environmental Technology Center 299

EPA see Environmental Protection Agency

epi-cedrol 57

epicoprostanol 276

epi-cubenol 57

epicuticular wax 47, 104

epimer see diastereomer

epoxy 89

equation of state (EOS) 120

equatorial bond 37

equatorial carbonate source rocks 146

equilibrium exchange 138

ergostane 25, 26–7, 28–9, 62

ergosterol 60

Erika 300, 301

eroded section 95

Eromanga Basin, Australia 207

error 251

Erthroxylon 351

Erwinia 71

Escherichia 63

essential amino acids 338, 340

estimated ultimate recovery (EUR) 260

ethane 21, 158

ethane/ethene 113

ethanol 313

ether:hexane 200

ethyl see functional group

ethyladamantane ratio 161

ethylbenzene 291, 314

24-ethylcholestane see stigmastane

24-ethyl-5β-cholestan-3β-ol 347

ethylene 19

ethylene dibromide 313, 314

ethylene dichloride 313, 314

3-ethylpentane 22

etioporphyrin 67, 68

ETR (extended tricyclic terpane ratio) see tricycylic terpanes

eubacteria 3, 4, 46, 49

eudesmane 26–7, 28–9

Eugene Island, Gulf of Mexico 110, 185

eukarya see eukaryote

eukaryote 3, 4, 6, 43, 46, 49

euphol 59

Euphorbiaceae 25

Euphrates River, Iraq 326

Europa 254

eutrophic 8

euxinic 12, 80

evaporation 103, 280

evaporative fractionation 173–6

evaporative lithofacies 16

evaporite 189

even-carbon preference see carbon preference index

evolution 53

exinite 75, 89

expelled petroleum (S1) 98–100

expulsion 264

expulsion efficiency (ExEf) 98–100

Exshaw Formation, Alberta 10

extended hopanes see hopanes

extended tricyclic terpane ratio (ETR) see tricyclic terpanes

extractor plate 216

Exxon Valdez 142, 276, 278, 282, 295, 296, 297, 298, 303, 305–12

faculative aerobe 4

faculative anaerobe 4

farnesane 25, 26–7, 28–9, 271

farnesene 57, 330

farnesol 54, 55

farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) 54, 57

Farsund Formation, North Sea 83

fatty acids 30, 46, 47–8, 49, 342

   biosynthesis 48

   C4–C14 343

   C16:0 343

   C18:0 343

   milk 343, 344

faujasite 204

faults 107, 110–11, 112–13

   migration 110

   pemeability 110

   sealing capacity 110

FC-43 see perfluorotributylamine

fecal pellets 281

fecal pollution 275–6

Fedorov Field, West Siberia 84

feedstock 119, 130, 134

fenchol 56

fennel 346

Fennoscandian Shield 257, 259

Fergana Valley, Uzbekistan 278, 279

fermentation 8, 316, 317, 344

fernenes 61

ferns 60

fertilizer 302

fichtelite 26–7, 28–9

FID see flame ionization detector

field ionization (FI) see ionization

field ionization mass spectrometry (FIMS) 129

filament 215, 217

fingerprint 9, 272, 288

fingerprinting of oil spills 289–5

   non-specific methods 290–1

   source-specific methods 291

fire point 121

Fischer–Tropsch 253, 257, 258, 259, 272

fixation, carbon 7

fixation, nitrogen 7

fjord 12

flame ionization detection 220

flame ionization detector (FID) 77

flamingo 71

flash point 121

flavanol 344

flight tube 217

floral scents 58

flowering plants see angiosperms

fluctuating profundal lithofacies 16

fluid catalytic cracker (FCC) 134

fluid catalytic cracking 133

fluid inclusion 194–7, 258

fluid inclusion stratigraphy (FIS) 196

fluid inclusion volatiles (FIV) 195, 196

fluoranthene/pyrene 298

fluoranthenes 301, 308, 328

fluorenes 296

fluorenones 33

fluorescence intensity (Imax) 95

fluvial-lacustrine lithofacies 16

focusing plates 215

forensic environmental chemistry 313

Forties Field, North Sea 84

fossil fuel 8–9

   burning 344

Four Corners area, USA 349

Fourier transform infrared analysis (FTIR) 195, 291

Fourier transform-ion cyclotron resonance-mass spectrometry (FT/ICR/MS) 129

fractional conversion (f) 98–100, 117, 118, 158

fragment ion 216

fragmentogram see mass chromatogram

fragrance 55

   see also odor

framework density 204

frankincense 329, 332

freesias 55

freezing-point depression 194

friedelane 26–7, 28–9

FTIR see Fourier transform infrared analysis

fucosterol 43

fucoxanthin see carotenoid

full-scan GCMS 221, 227

functional group 20

fungus 61

furan 33

furfural extraction 130

fused silica capillary column 210

fusinite 76

Galicia Coast, Spain 305

gallic acid (3, 4, 5-trihydroxybenzoic acid) 344

gammacerane 26–7, 28–9, 36, 39, 56, 146, 147, 211, 271, 324, 325, 334

gammacer-3β-ol see tetrahymanol

gamma-ray response 195

gamma-ray spectral log 86, 97, 255

Gandhar Field, India 84

Gardena well, Los Angeles Basin 265, 266

gas chimney 111

gas chromatogram 30, 104, 105, 180, 211

gas chromatograph 209

gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer 209

gas chromatography (GC) 103–9, 112–13, 208–15, 290

   chiral 211–12

   comprehensive two-dimensional GC 212–13

   correlation 105–6

   extended hold-time 212

   high-temperature 127, 342

   two-dimensional (GC × GC) 169, 212–14, 215

gas chromatography/mass spectrometry see GCMS

gas chromatography/mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry see GCMS/MS

gas composition in soil 317

gas hydrate 111

gas/liquid chromatography see gas chromatography

gas maturity 140

gasohol 314

gas oil 132

gas oil feed (GOF) 134

gas–oil ratio (GOR) 102, 158, 159, 175

gasoline 122, 132, 133, 163, 312–13, 314, 315

   modeling leakage 315

gasoline-naphtha (C4–C11) hydrocarbons 163

gasoline-range hydrocarbons 156

Gas Processors Association (GPA) 83

gas-prone 79

gas wetness 113, 153

GC see gas chromatography

GC/FID see gas chromatography

GC × GC see gas chromatography

GC × GCMS 214

GC/combustion/IRMS (also called CSIA) 138

GCMS 195, 208–15, 222, 291

   data problems 242–51

GCMS/MS 221, 227–9

Gebel Zeit, Gulf of Suez 324–5, 326

gelatin 333

gel-permeation chromatography 127

gene 5, 53, 60

genetic potential (S1 + S2) 96

geochemical fossil see biomarker

geochemical log 96–7, 98

geological configuration 41, 42

geometric isomer 23

geometry optimization 193

geoporphyrin see porphyrin

geosphere 63

geothermal gradient 94

geraniol 55, 58

geranyl diphosphate 56

geranyl pyrophosphate (GPP) 54, 56

geranylfarnesol 55

geranylgeraniol 55

geranylgeranyl diphosphate 57, 69

geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP) 54

germacrene 57

Ghareb Formation, Jordan 324, 325

Ghawar Field, Saudi Arabia 84, 179

gilsonite 149

Gin Creek Field, Alabama 189

Gippsland Basin, Australia, 162

glial cell 51

global positioning satellite (GPS) 111

Gloeocapsomorpha 80, 81, 82, 105

glucose 6, 256

glue, oldest 341

glutamate 65

glyceraldehyde 36

glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate 53

glyceride 6

glycerol 48

glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) 50

glycerolipid 49

glycine 65

glycolipid 46, 47, 48, 49

glycoprotein 45, 47

GOR see gas–oil ratio

Gordion, Turkey 345

Gorgostane 62

Goslar, Germany 351

Gotlandien Shale see Tanezzuft Shale

gouge zone 110

Gough’s Cave, UK 339

gracilicutes see Gram-negative bacteria

grain size 13

Graminaeae (grasses) 321

Gram-negative bacteria 47, 59

Gram-positive bacteria 47, 59, 316

Gram stain 47

graphite 3, 90, 91

grasses see graminaeae

Gravberg well, Sweden 253, 255, 256

gravimetric measurement 290, 291

gravity segregation 107

grease 133

grease compounding 130

Great Alaska Earthquake 306

Greenhorn Shale, USA 149

greenhouse gases 315–16

Green River(!) 84

Green River Formation, USA 11, 16, 68, 78, 81, 82, 149, 206, 240, 259, 261, 262

Green River paleolake 149

Green River-type oil shale see lacosite

greenschist facies (memorphism) 9

green non-sulfur bacteria 67

Green sulfur bacteria see Chlorobiaceae

Green well, Iowa 104

groundwater modeling 315

group-type fractionation (SARA or PARA) 128–9

Grugan Field, Pennsylvania 152

guanine 59

guard column 200, 201

Guayuta Group oils, Venezuela 103

Gulf of California 12, 13

Gulf Coast oils 105

Gulf of Mexico 278

Gulf War, 1991 278

Gullfaks Field, North Sea 107

gum arabic 329

gum, archeological 329–32, 336

gutta-percha 52, 55

Guttenberg Member, Decorah Formation 80, 105

gymnosperm see conifers

gypsum 80

Hafkenscheid Collection 333

hafting (adhesive) 329

hair, human 338

Hajji Firuz, Iran 332

half-life 317

Hall Creek Field, Alabama 181, 189

halobacteria 64

halocline 11

halophile 5, 71

halophilic bacteria see halobacteria

Halpern parameters 177–9, 181, 187, 191

Haltenbanken area, Norway 110

Hamilton Dome, Wyoming 64, 201, 211, 227, 228, 232, 234–5, 250

Hanging Gardens of Babylon 322, 328

Hanifa-Arab(!) 84

Hanifa-Hadriya, Saudi Arabia 94

hardground 86

Harz Mountains, Germany 336, 337

hashish (tetrahydrocannabinol) 351

Hassi Messaoud Field, Algeria 192, 262, 263

Hassi R-Mel, Algeria 262

Hatch–Slack pathway see C4

Hatter’s Pond Field, Alabama 84, 189

Haven 278, 282, 297

HBI see highly branched isoprenoids

H/C see atomic H/C

Headlee Field, Texas 84

head-to-head isoprenoids 25, 26–7, 28–9

head-to-tail isoprenoids 25, 26–7, 28–9

heart cutting 212

Heather Formation, North Sea 109, 170, 173, 181

heating oils 122

heavy coker 134

heavy oil 120

Hebron Field, Newfoundland 84

Helicobacteria 67

helium 255

Helminthoides 12

hemar 322

hematite 110–11

heme 65, 67, 68

hemipelagic sediments 14

hemiterpane 25, 26–7, 28–9, 55

hemiterpenoid 55

hen-bane 351

heptane 21, 22, 132, 164, 188

heptane ratio 171–3, 187, 188

heptylbenzene 31

herbivore 339, 340

Hercynian unconformity 262, 263

Hertfordshire, UK 347

heteroatomic molecules 31–4

   see also NSO compounds

heterotroph 4

Hevea 25

hexachlorodisilane 150

hexamantanes 157, 158

hexane 21, 167, 199, 200

hexanoyloxyfucoxanthin see carotenoid

HI see hydrogen index

Hibernia Field, Newfoundland 84

high-acid oil 126

higher hydrocarbons 167

higher plants 7, 57

High Island, Gulf of Mexico 175

high-latitude siliciclastic source rocks 146

highly branched isoprenoids (HBI) 30

   C25 HBI 26–7, 28–9, 232

high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) 68, 102, 148, 198, 200, 201

highstand systems tract (HST) 87

high-sulfur oil 80

high-temperature gas chromatography 127

histogram, reflectance 89

histone 6

Hitra Formation see Åre Formation

Hit-Ramadi-Abu Jir, Iraq 326, 328

homocadinanes 208

Homo erectus 347, 348

homogenization temperature 194

homohopanes see hopanes

homohopanoic acids 60

homolog 21, 25

homologous oils 164, 165

homologous series see homolog

Homo sapiens 347

hopane isomerization [22S/(22S + 22R)] 268

hopanes 34, 41–2, 64, 149, 206, 207, 211, 240, 268, 334

   C28 αβ-hopanes 271

   C30 hopane 24, 26–7, 28–9

   C35 hopanes 193, 325

   17α, 21β(H)-hopanes (αα-hopanes) 303

   17β, 21α(H)-hopanes (βα-hopanes) see moretanes

   22S and 22R 207, 208

hopanoic (hopanoid) acids

   C32 hopanoid acid 63

hopanoids 42, 49, 51, 52, 55, 58–61, 63–4

hopanols 51

Hopea 61

hop-17(21)-enes 61

hop-21-ene 61

horizontal drilling 102

horizontal gene transfer (HGT) 5, 53, 71

hormones 61, 63

hot shale 255

HPLC see high-performance liquid chromatography

human hair 338

humic coal 79, 81, 82

Hummal, Syria 326–8

hump see unresolved complex mixture

humulene 57

Hunt parameters 170

Huqf Formation, Oman 147

Huron Shale, USA 141, 153

Huxford Field, Alabama 181, 189

hybrid mass spectrometer 228

hydrazine 52

hydride abstraction 216

hydride ion 40

hydrocarbon 73

   biogenic 301, 308

   input to marine environment 276

   petrogenic 301, 308

   pyrogenic 302

hydrocarbon gases 140–1, 152

hydrocarbon/TOC 101

hydrocracker 134

hydrocracking 130, 133

hydrodesulfurization 130, 133

hydrofiner 134

hydrofinishing 134

hydrogen 124, 253

hydrogen index (HI) 73, 77, 78

   original quality (HI°) 97–100, 117

hydrogen index vs. oxygen index see van Krevelen diagram, modified

hydrogen isotopes 150, 152–3, 317

hydrogenosome 5

hydrogen radical 40

hydrogen steam reforming 130

hydrogen sulfide (H2S) 11, 12, 79–80, 155, 158, 195, 315

hydrolysis, acid 74

hydrolysis constant 126

hydromethylbilane 65

hydrophilic 45

hydrophobic 45

hydroprocessing 132

hydrostatic 264

hydrothermal circulation 264, 265

hydrothermal methane 259

hydrothermal vent 6

hydrotreating 130, 132, 133

hydrotroilite 80

hydrous pyrolysis 101, 259, 261, 262

hydroxyapatite 350

hydroxyl see functional group

hydroxylamine 52

hydroxyl wax esters 344

hydroxyoleanonic acid 333

hyodeoxycholic acid 346

Hyperion Field, California 264, 265, 266

Hyperion sewage treatment plant 276

hyperthermophile 50

hyphae 60

hystrichospheres see dinoflagellate cysts

Iabe-Landana source rock, Angola 153

Iatroscan 102, 103, 128, 290

Ice Man 336

ichnofossil see trace fossil

Idlube 255

Ill River, Alsace-Lorraine 302

illite 16

Imax see fluorescence intensity

immature 73

immunological detection assay (ELISA) 349

Indian Ocean 278

incense 329, 332

incorrect mass range 247

indeno[1, 2, 3-cd]pyrene/benzo [ghi]perylene 298

indole 33

indoline 33

inertinite 75, 76

inertodetrinite 76

infauna 13

infrared (IR) 74, 203, 290

injection 209–10

   port 209

insects 55

in situ burning 282

inspissation (evaporation) 102

interfering peaks 245

internal standard 200–2, 240

International Atomic Energy Agency 136

International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry see IUPAC

intramolecular equilibrium isotope effect 139

ionization

   chemical ionization (CI) 216

   electron impact (EI) 215–16

   field ionization (FI) 216–17

ionizing chamber see ion source

ionizing voltage 215

ionoluminescence (IL) 195

β-ionone 55, 58

ion sampling frequency 243–4

ion source (ionizing chamber) 209, 215, 216, 217, 248

ion volume 248

Iraq oils 177

IRM/GCMS 148

Iron Age 322, 323

iron/sulfur 87

isoalkane 21, 128, 172, 202

isobutadiene see isoprene

isobutane see 2-methylpropane

isofucosterol 60

isoheptane see 2-methylhexane

isoheptane abundances 164

isoheptane invariance 164, 183–4, 194

isoheptane ratio see K1

isohexane see 2-methylpentane

isolimonene 330

isomasticadienoic acid 333

isomer 21

   abundance 271

isomerization 130, 132

isooctane (2, 2, 4-trimethylpentane) 132

isoparaffin see isoalkane

isopentane see 2-methylbutane

isopentane/n-pentane 163

isopentenoid see terpenoid

isopentyl pyrophosphate (IPP) (also called isoprene pyrophosphate) 53–5

isopimaric acid 320, 331, 332

isoprene (methylbutadiene or isopentadiene) 24, 26–7, 28–9

isoprene rule 24–30, 271

isoprenoids 24, 206, 329

   acyclic 41, 271

   biosynthesis 54–5

   regular 30

isorenieratane 149

isorenieratene 11, 71, 149, 193

isotope 136

   see also stable isotopes

isotope fractionation 138–9, 203, 252

isotopic-age trend 146

isotopic reference samples 344

isotopic reference standards 137

isotope ratio monitoring/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry see IRM/GCMS

Isthmia, Greece 345

IUPAC (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry) 22, 204

Ixtoc well, Gulf of Mexico 278, 279

jasmine 55

Jauf Reservoir, Ghawar Field, Saudi Arabia 179

Jay Field, Alabama 189

Jebel Bichri, Syria 328

jet fuel 132, 133, 134

Jet Rock, Yorkshire, UK 116, 329

Jianghan Basin, China 68, 100, 150

Jianghan oil shale, China 150

Jobo heavy oil, Venezuela 120

Junggar (Zhungeer) Basin, China 16, 197

K1 (Mango parameter) 156, 164, 171–3, 183–4, 187, 188

K2 (Mango parameter) 165, 183–4, 185

K3 (Mango parameter) 165

K4 (Mango parameter) 165

Karababa Formation, Turkey 100

Karabogaz Formation, Turkey 100

Karalian shungite, Russia 81

Kareem Formation, Gulf of Suez 325

Katalla Beach, Alaska 307, 311

Katalla oil seep, Alaska 297, 308, 309, 310–11

kaurane 26–7, 28–9, 57

Kauri copal 329, 334

Kellis Tomb, Western Desert 325

kerogen 9, 10, 63, 75, 89, 145, 166, 167, 252, 264, 271

   kerogen 73, 76–80, 86

     see also type I, II, IIS, II/III, III, IV

kerosene 122, 132, 133

ketones 213, 342

ketonic decarboxylation 342

Khibina intrusion, Russia 258

Khuzestan, Iran 325

Kidd Creek Mine, Ontario, Canada 258

Kimmeridge-Brent(!) 83, 84

Kimmeridge Clay (Kimmeridge) Formation, North Sea 11, 86, 106, 109, 170, 181, 255

   oil 173

Kimmeridge-Hibernia(!) 83, 84

kinetic fractionation 138

kinetosome 5

King Midas 345

Kirkuk, Iraq 326, 328

Kockatea Shale, Australia 81

Kodiak, Alaska 306, 307

Kogolym oil, West Siberia 143

   isotope type-curve 143–4

KOH see potassium hydroxide

Kola Peninsula, Russia 258

Kreyenhagen Formation, California

   oils 141, 152

Kuche Depression, Tarim Basin, China 197

kukersite 82, 83, 105

Kulthieth Formation, Gulf of Alaska 310

Kuparuk Field, Alaska 177

labdane 26–7, 28–9

laccol-based lacquer film 334

Lachine Canal, Quebec, Canada 299

lacquer films 334

lactone 334

lacosite 81–2, 83

   Green River-type 82

   Rundle-type 82

lactic acid 35, 36

lacustrine 16

   oils 187

ladderanes 52

Lagoa Feia-Carapebus(!) 84

Lagoa Feia Formation, Brazil 11

Lake Hoare, Victoria Land, Antarctica 4

Lakes 16

Lake Siljan, Sweden 269

Lake Tanganyika, East Africa 11

La Luna Formation, Venezuela 267

La Luna-Misoa(!) 84

Lama Field, Venezuela 84

lamalginite 81, 82

Lambeosaurus 350

laminae 264

lamination 10, 12, 13

lamosite 81

lampblack 333

lamps 344, 345

Landana Formation see Iabe-Landana source rock

land plants 47, 61, 138

lanolin 338

lanosterol 6, 56–8, 59, 60

La Paz Field, Venezuela 267

laser Raman spectroscopy 195

Latouche mine, Alaska 307

Latrobe Formation, Australia 148

lauric acid 49

Lawndale Field, California 264, 265

LC50 286

LD50 286

leaching see solubilization

leaded gasoline 313, 314

lead isotopes 314

leaf wax 302, 303, 343

least-squares fingerprint matching 288

LECO 74

Leduc Reef, Canada 195

Leiosphaeridia 95

lentil 346

levopimeric acid 331, 336

levorotatory 36, 271

Lidy Hot Springs, Idaho 253

light aromatics 286

lightered 282

light hydrocarbons 162–92

light oils 151, 203, 205

lignin 189

lignite 329

   additive 92, 94

lignoceric acid 49

like dissolves like 199

limestone 267, 324, 325

limonene 56, 329, 330

linalool 58

Lincoln Creek Formation, USA 60

Linde 5A 202, 205, 206

Linde type A zeolite 204, 206

Lindow Man 341

linearity 125

linked-scan mode 227, 229

linoleic acid 49

lipid bilayer 46

lipid membranes 45–52

lipids 45, 49, 256

lipopolysaccharide 47

lipoprotein 47

   high-density (HDL) 51

   low-density (LDL) 51

liptinite 75, 76, 89

liptodetrinite 76

liquefied natural gas 122

liquid chromatography (LC) 128

liquid petroleum gas (LPG) 133

lithoautotrophic 253

lithofacies 86

litigation 287, 288

liverwort see non-vascular plant

Lodgepole Formation, USA 184

Lodgepole Mound oil, Williston Basin 184

Lokbatan mud volcano, South Caspian 115

Long Beach Field, California 265

longifolene 57, 324, 329, 331

Los Angeles Basin, California 264–7

Louanne Salt, Gulf of Mexico 159

Louvre Museum 328

Lovozero intrusion, Russia 258

low-sulfur oil 80

lowstand systems tract 87

Lubna well, Czech Republic 268, 269

lubricating oil 132, 133

lubricating stock 122

lupane 206, 208, 337, 342

lupenol 59, 337

lupenone 337

lurestan, Iran 325

lutein see carotenoid

lycopa-14(E), 18(E)-diene see lycopadiene

lycopane 25, 26–7, 28–9

lycopene 69

maceral group 75, 76

macerals 9, 75–6, 91, 94

maceration 75

macrinite 76

Madison Group, USA 182, 188

Madre de Dios Basin, Bolivia 98

magnesium 67

magnetic mass spectrometer 217

magnetic sector field strength (B) 229

magnetite 255, 258, 259

Mahakam Delta, Borneo 13

Mahogany Member see Green River Formation

Maiella oil, Italy 141

Maillard condensation 342

Main Pass Field, Gulf of Mexico 108

maize 339

Majiagou Formation, China 162

malaria 54

Malaspina Glacier, Alaska 307, 311

malonyl-CoA (malonyl-coenzyme A) 48

Malossa Field, Italy 141

MA(I)/MA(I + II) see monoaromatic steroids

mammoth 340

Manching, Germany 338

Mandal-Ekofisk(!) 83, 84

Mandal Formation, North Sea 83

mandrake 351

manganese oxide 111

Mango parameters 156, 179–87

Mango reactions 167

Manila copal 329, 334

mantle outgassing 9

manure 347

manuring practices 346–7

Maoming Shale, China 150

Maracaibo Basin, Venezuela 267–8

Marillac, France 339

marine oils 147

marine organic matter 147–8

Marlim Field, Brazil 84

marobitosite 81

marosite 81–2, 83

Mars 254, 298

marsh gas 138

Mary Ann Field, Alabama 84, 158

Mary Rose 336, 337

mass analysis 217–20

mass analyzer 209, 216

   see also quadrupole rods

mass balance 100, 117–18

mass/charge (m/z) 216, 217, 219, 222, 223–4, 225–6, 235

mass chromatogram (mass fragmentogram) 211, 217, 219, 222–7, 228, 229–30, 232

   isotope peaks 235, 248

mass discrimination 210, 220

mass fragmentogram see mass chromatogram

mass range 245, 247

mass resolution 217

mass spectrometer 217, 218

mass spectrometric fragmentations 223–4, 225–6

mass spectrometry (MS) 215–22

mass spectrum 216, 217, 219, 220, 235–7, 238–9, 240, 241, 244

MA-steroid see monoaromatic steroids

mastic resin 329, 334

masticadienonic acid 333

matrix-assisted laser desorption/ ionization (MALDI) 127

mature 73

maximum flooding surface (MFS) 97, 98

Maya 25, 352

McArthur River Field, Cook Inlet 84

mead 346

meat 346

Mediterranean Sea 11, 332

Mega Borg 281

meiosis 6

melting points 159

Menilitic Shale, Europe 268

mercaptan 31

mercury 316

Mesolithic Period 322, 323

mesophile 5

Mesopotamia 325

meso-pristane 38, 39

mesopyrophaeophorbide-a 68

mesotrophic 8

Messel Shale, Germany 68, 148

Messinian source rocks, Mediterranean Sea 150

metagenesis 9

metallic carbides 253

metalloporphyrin see porphyrins

metal catalyst 166, 167

metals 80

metamorphism 258–9

metastable reaction monitoring see MRM/GCMS

metaxylene see xylenes

metazoa 10, 11, 13

meteor impact 270

methane 3, 8, 18, 19, 21, 140, 158, 195, 315

   abiogenic 254, 272

   δ13C 153, 257, 317

   δD 153, 317

   geothermal 140, 259

   microbial 316, 317

   soils 317–19

   thermogenic 316, 317

methanesulfonic acid 150

methanogen 4, 8, 59, 253, 316

methanogenic bacteria see methanogen

methanogenesis 316, 319

Methanosarcinales 316

methionine 6

methoxyphenols 320

methyl see functional group

methyladamantane index 162

methyladamantane/adamantane 162

methylalkanes 206

methylalkylcyclohexanes 206

methylbutadiene see isoprene

2-methylbutane 22, 26–7, 28–9, 39

24-methylcholestane see ergostane

methylcyclohexane 187, 188–90, 192

2-methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) 313, 314

methylcyclopentane 192

methyldehydroabietate 332, 336, 337

methyldiamantane index 162

methyldiamantanes 160

2-methyldocosane 201

methylene chloride 199, 200

methyl-erthritol phosphate (MEP) pathway 53, 54

2-methyl-3-ethylheptane 25, 30, 38, 40, 271

3-methyl-3-ethylheptane 26–7, 28–9

3-methylheptadecane 201

2-methylhexane 22, 164

3-methylhexane 22, 164

2-methylhopanoids 63

methylmercury 316

methylnaphthalenes 206, 311

3-methylnonadecane 201

Methylococcus 6, 63, 150

2-methyloctadecane 45, 271

Methylosphaera 63, 150

methylotroph 4, 8, 316

methylotrophic bacteria see methylotroph

2-methylpentane 22

methylphenanthrenes 207, 299

2-methylpropane 22

methyl radical 19

4-methylsteranes 146, 150, 234, 246

methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE) 313, 314

methylxanthines 352

Meurhe River, Alsace-Lorraine 302

Meuse River, Alsace-Lorraine 302, 303

mevalonate (MEV) pathway 53, 54

mevalonic acid 53

micelle 282

micrinite 76

microbial gas 153

microbial methane 153, 316

microfractures 264

microscopy 75–6

Mid-Atlantic Ridge 259

Middle Ob Region, West Siberian 143

mid-ocean ridge 259

Midland Basin, USA 164, 183

migrated oil 100, 102, 112, 113, 143

migration 110

   distance 194

Mikulov marls 268

milk 343

   fluidity 48–52

   lipids 343

Minas Field, Sumatra 84, 104, 148

Mingbulak well, Uzbekistan 278, 279

Minimata disease 274

Minoan lamps 344

Minoan settlements 345

Mississippi Delta 13

Mississippi Salt Basin, Gulf of Mexico 182

Mississippi Valley-type ore deposits 262

mitigation of oil spills 282

mitochondrial DNA (mDNA) 348, 349

mitochondrial Eve 348

mitochondrion 3, 5, 6, 46

mitosis 6

mixed oils 108, 144, 160, 177

mixing, intra-reservoir 107

mixing curve 108

Moab fault 110

Moa bones 350

Moab Tongue Sandstone 110

Mobile Bay, Alabama 158, 176

mobile phase 209, 210

modeling gasoline leakage 315

modeling marine oil spills 283

modulation (slicing) 213

modulator 212

Mokattam Shale see Tanezzuft Shale

MOLART 334

molecular class plots see ring-preference plots

molecular dynamics (MD) 194

molecular fossil see biological marker

molecular ion (M+.) 215, 231

molecular mechanics 192–3, 268

molecular modeling 192–4

molecular sieve 128, 200

molecular weight 127–8

monoaromatic hydrocarbons 212

monoaromatic steroids (MA-steroids) 64, 201, 202, 229–30, 241, 246, 248, 334

monocot see angiosperm

monolayer biphytanyls 46

monomethylalkane 206

monoterpane 25, 26–7, 28–9, 55

monoterpene 329

monoterpenoid 55, 163, 336

monoterpenoid biosynthesis 55

Monte Alpi oil, Italy 142

Monterey Formation, California 150, 252

   oils 141, 142, 184

   Phosphatic Member 79

   tars 306

Moravia, Czech Republic 269

Moray Firth, UK 248

mordenite 204, 205, 206

moretanes 41, 149, 207, 300

Morichal heavy oil, Venezuela 120

morolic acid 333

moronic acid 333

morphine 350

Morro do Barro Formation, Brazil 151

mortality 286

Moselle River, Alsace-Lorraine 302

mosses 60

Mount Carmel Field, Alabama 189

Mount Sorrel granodiorite, UK 262, 264

mousse 281

Movico Field, Alabama 189

Mowry Shale, USA 11

MRM/GCMS 221, 229–31, 234–5

mtDNA see mitochondrial DNA

mud log 92, 93

mud volcano 115

multidimensional chromatography see gas chromatography

multiple ion detection (MID) see selected ion monitoring

multiregional evolution hypothesis 347–9

multisector mass spectrometer 227

mummia 351

mummies 323–5, 327, 329, 333, 347, 350–1

mummification 323, 351

Murchison meteorite 257, 272

murein 6, 47

mussels 289, 294, 305, 306, 308, 309

mutagen 287

Mycobacterium 47, 63

mycoplasma 6, 47

myoglobin 349

myrcene 56, 330

myristic acid 49

myrrh 329

myrrhoric acid 329

mystery oils 299–300, 301

m/z see mass/charge

m/z 191 see terpanes

m/z 217 see steranes

Nahal Heimar Cave, Israel 341

Nancy Field, Alabama 189

Nannocystis 6, 63, 150

naphtha 122

naphthalenes 31, 296, 297, 304, 311

naphthene see cycloalkane

   branching 172

naphthenoaromatic 31

narcotics 350–2

National Bureau of Standards see NBS

National Institute of Standards and Technology 136

natural gas 122, 138, 315–16

   microbial 316–17

   thermogenic 316–17

natural gas liquid (NGL) 17

natural gas plot 194

natural product chemistry 198

Navajo Sandstone, Utah 110

NaX (13X) molecular sieve 205–6

NBS-19 137, 139

NBS-22 140

n-decanoic see capric acid

n-d-M method 128

n-docosanoic see behenic acid

n-dodecanoic see lauric acid

Neanderthal 336, 339, 348, 349

Neanderthal 1856 Feldhofer type specimen 348

neat (unspiked) sample 240

negative ion electrospray (ESI) 129

negative picking 116

n-eicosanoic see arachidic acid

neoabietic acid 331, 336

neohop-13(18)-ene 61

Neolithic Period 322, 323

neopentane see 2, 2-dimethylpropane

neoxanthin see carotenoid

nerol 55

nerolidol 58

neuron 51

neurosporene 69

neutral loss mode (in GCMS/MS) 227, 234

neutron 136, 137

New Albany Shale, USA 136

Newtonian fluid 121

New York City 284

n-hexadecanoic see palmitic acid

nickel 103, 125

nickel ion 68

nickel/vanadium 88, 103

Nicotiana 351

nicotine 351–2

Niger Delta, Nigeria 96, 173

nightshade 351

Nipisi, Alberta, Canada 303–4

Nisku Formation, Alberta, Canada 155, 162

nitrate 7, 8, 10, 11, 52

nitrogen 124

   compounds 32–4

   isotopes (δ15N) 338, 340, 346

NMR see nuclear magnetic resonance

Nocardia 47

Nodular Shale, Los Angeles Basin 91, 265–7

nomenclature (structural) 21, 34

   acyclic isoprenoids 41

   steranes 34, 42–4

   terpanes 41–2

   triterpanes 34

n-nonacosane 343

nonacosan-15-ol 343

nonacosan-15-one 343

nonane 21

non-associated gas 153

non-essential amino acids 340

non-hydrocarbon gas

non-Newtonian fluid 121

non-waxy oil 148

24-nordiacholestanes 268

norhopanes

   α,β-norhopane 241

   norhopane (C29 norhopane) 207

   25-norhopanes (10-desmethylhopanes) 240

   30-norhopanes 236–7, 238–9

normal alkane (n-alkane, n-paraffin) 21, 30, 104, 105, 106, 113, 128, 172, 200, 202, 205, 206, 211, 248, 253, 258, 308

normal isotopic trend, hydrocarbon gases 140, 256, 272

30-normoretane 236–7, 238–9

18α-norneohopane 206, 207

Norphlet Formation, Gulf of Mexico 157, 158, 159, 161

norpristane (2, 6, 10-trimethylpentadecane) 25, 26–7, 28–9

North Lincolnshire, UK 341

North Sea 278

   oils 170

North Viking Graben 165

Norwegian geochemical standards (NGS) 116

Nowruz Field, Iran 278

NSO compounds (resins) 31

n-tetracosanoic see lignoceric acid

n-tetradecanoic see myristic acid

Nubian mummy 347

nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) 124, 198, 203, 235

nuclear membrane 6, 46

Nugget Sandstone, Wyoming 250

nutrients 16

obligate aerobe 4

obligate anaerobe 4

O/C see atomic O/C

ocean

   coastal 8

   open 8

ocimene 330

ocotillone-type side chain 334

n-octadecanoic see stearic acid

octane 21

   rating or number 132, 313

odd-carbon preference see carbon preference index

odor 126

   see also fragrance

Odyssey 278

Oguta Field, Niger Delta 84

OI see oxygen index

oil 138

   assays

     advanced 127–9

     basic 120–7

oil-associated gas 153

oil cracking 159

oil deadline 158, 159

oil density 120

%oil depleted 295

oil layer thickness 288, 289

oil–oil correlation 233

oil quality, prediction 102

oil sample see sample quality, selection, storage

oil shales 81–3, 256

oil slick 280, 289

   sampling 288

oil–source rock correlation 100, 184, 233, 272–3

Oil Spill Health Taskforce 305

oil spills 276–84

   amounts 276, 278

   Automated Data Inquiry for Oil Spills (ADIOS) 283, 284, 285

   compound-specific isotope analysis 148, 151, 300–1

   diagnostic ratios 299

   fingerprinting 289–95, 300

   internal standards 292

   land 283

   largest 278

   mitigation 282

   modeling 283

   PAH parameters 295–8

   quality assurance and control (QA/QC) 291–4

   Nipisi pipeline 303–4

   rate of removal from sea surface 283

   removal from sediment 295

   surrogates 292

   tanker 279

   target compounds 292

   tiered approach for identification 288

   underground 283–4

   weathering 280, 294–5

oil standards 116–17

oil-to-gas conversion based on diamondoids (OTGd) 161

oil-to-gas cracking 158–61

oil transport tonnage 279

oil–water contact (OWC) 282

Okpai Field, Niger Delta 84

Old Masters paintings 334

oleanane 26–7, 28–9, 142, 153, 196, 203, 206, 208, 240, 254, 268, 306, 307, 308, 311, 325, 334, 342

oleanane/hopane see oleanane index

oleanane index [(oleanane/(oleanane + hopane)] 309, 310

18α/(18α + 18β)-oleananes 268

oleanane-type molecules 335

oleanonic acid 333

oleic acid 49

oligotrophic 8

olive oil 345, 346

olivine 259

Olmeda Formation, Argentina 185

omnivore 339, 340

on-column injection see injection

online combustion 138

OPEC 17

opium 350

optical activity 36, 252, 270–1

organelle 6

organic acids 125

organic carbon see total organic carbon

organic facies (organofacies) 13

organic geochemistry 68

organic-lean rocks 101–2, 115

organic matter

   amorphous 76

   classification 75

   gas-prone 75, 77

   marine 147–8

   non-source 75

   oil-prone 75, 77

   primary 9

   recent 294

   terrigenous 147–8

   type 77

Orgueil meteorite see carbonaceous chondrite

Orinoco Heavy Oil (Tar) Belt, Venezuela 103

Orkney, UK 346

orthoxylene see xylene

Oseberg Field oil, Norwegian North Sea 84, 116

osteocalcin 350

Otztal Alps 336

outcrop 113

“Out of Africa hypothesis” see recent replacement hypothesis

overload 210

overmature see postmature

overpressure 264

oxic 10–13, 16, 88, 107

   water column 10

oxidant 7

oxidation 9, 94, 134, 152, 281

oxidation–reduction reaction see redox

oxidosqualene 56, 61, 63

oxidosqualene cyclase 58

oxo-dehydroabietic acid 329

oxygen 124

   compounds 33

   free 53, 55, 57, 63

oxygenates 313, 314

oxygen index (OI) 77, 78

Pabdeh Formation, Iran 325

Pachuta Creek Field, Alabama 189

Pachyrhinosaurus 350

packed column GC 210

PAH see polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

PAH-RI see refractory PAH index

Palace of Knossos, Crete 350

paleodiet 338–44

Paleo DNA Laboratory, Lakehead University 349

paleoenvironment 149–50

paleo-fluid contact 196

Paleogene-Neogene 145

paleogeothermal gradient 95

paleolatitude 145–6

Paleolithic Period 322, 323

paleo-pressure 195

palmitic acid 49, 342

palmitic wax esters 344

palmitoleic acid 49

palustric acid 331, 336

palynomorph 95

Pando well, Bolivia 96, 98

Papaver 350

Parachute Creek Member 68

paraffin, normal see alkane

paraffin branching 172

n-paraffins see alkane

paraffinicity 172

   ratio (F) 174

paraxylene see xylene

parent ion 216, 218, 229, 231

parent–daughter ratio plots (C7 hydrocarbons) 184–6, 227

parent–daughter transition (selected compounds) 231, 233

parent mode (in GCMS/MS) 227, 231–4

parent quadrupole (Q1) 227, 232

partitioning, chromatographic 148

Pasenhor 324, 327

Pasteur, Louis 35

Pathfinder well, Gulf of Mexico 110

pay zone 196

PCR see polymerase chain reaction

PDB standard 137, 139

peak–area ratios 105

peak–height ratios 105, 108

peat 350

Peco Field, Canada 156

Peedee belemnite see PBD standard

Peedee Formation, South Carolina 137, 139

pelagic sediments 14

pelagic tars 281

Pematang-Sihapas(!) 84

pentane 21, 39, 199

pentane/dichloromethane 199

pentamantane 157

2,6,10,15,19-pentamethylicosane (PMI) 8

pepidoglycan see murein

perfluorotributylamine (FC-43) 222

perhydro-β-carotane see β-carotane

peridinin see carotenoid

periodic acid 58

permeability 264, 266

perylene 31, 112, 275, 296, 308

petrogenic hydrocarbons 301, 308

petroleum 10

   in basement rocks 261–8

   contamination 294

   markers 275

   origin 252–3

   production 17

   province 17

   refining 129–34

   system 17

   toxicity 284–7, 304–5

petroleum systems 83, 84, 112, 272

   Gulf of Mexico 112

   modeling see thermal modeling

phase separation 173

phellandrene 330

phenanthrene/methylphenanthrene 298

phenanthrenes 31, 206, 207, 296

phenol 33, 34

   extraction 130

pheophytin 67

phorbide 67

Phormidium 63

phosphate 7, 8

Phosphatic Member see Monterey Formation

phosphoglycolipid 47, 49

phospholipid 46, 47, 48, 49, 136

Phosphoria Formation, USA 8, 64, 79, 104, 105

phosphosulfoglycolipid 49

phosphorite 8, 86

photic zone 7, 8, 10, 11

   anoxia 149

photoautotroph 4

photoheterotroph 4

photometer 89

photooxidation 281

photophosphorylation 64

photosynthesis 5, 71, 139

   anoxic photosynthetic bacteria 64

photosystems I and II 64, 65

phototroph 4, 7, 8

phthalates 116

phycobilin 64

phytane (Ph) 25–7, 28–2, 30, 34, 40, 41, 67, 104, 150, 206, 211, 271

phytane/nC18 106, 107, 295

phytoclast 75, 89

phytoene 54, 55, 69

phytofluene 69

phytol 28, 39, 41, 65

phytoplankton 8

pi (π) bond 18–20

PI see production index

pimarane 26–7, 28–9

   -type acids 331

pimaric acid 320, 331

Pinaceae 334, 337

Pinda Formation, Angola 153

Pine Hill anhydrite 159

pinene 56, 329, 330

pine resins 331, 332, 336

Pineview Field, Wyoming 250

Pinus 329

Pistacia 329, 332, 334

piston (seabottom) cores 111–13, 115

pitch 334–8

plane-polarized light 270

plankton 138, 256

plasmid 5

plastid 5

Platform A, Santa Barbara Channel, California 276

Playa del Rey-Alondra Trend 265, 266

Playa del Rey Field, California 264, 265

plumes 313

PMI see 2,6,10,15,19- pentamethylicosane

Point Barrow, Alaska 154

poise 121

Pokachev well, West Siberia 143

polar compound 34, 200

pollen 95

pollutant 274, 275, 291, 315–16

pollution 111, 275–6, 277, 278, 312–13

Polyangium 150

polycadinenes 55, 331

polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH, PNA) 31, 248, 275, 286, 291, 295–8, 300, 305, 308–12

   carbon isotopes 301

   pyrogenic (pyrosynthetic) 298, 301, 308

   source ratios 296, 297

   weathering ratios 296, 297

polyphenols 344

polymerase chain reaction (PCR) 348, 349

polymerization

   methane 140, 256, 257, 258, 268

   refinery 130, 133

polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons see polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

polynuclear thiophenes 32

polysaccharide 7

polysiloxane stationary phases 210–11

polystyrene 127

polysulfides 79, 80

polyterpanes 25, 26–7, 28–9

Ponca City, Oklahoma 30, 271

Pool Creek Field, Alabama 189

Porifera (sponges) 61, 254

poriferastane 62

porosity 264, 265, 266

porphobilinogen 65

porphyrins 33, 34, 64–8, 200, 211, 252, 254, 271

   C31 and C32 DPEP 150

porphyrin-polar fraction 199, 200

Port Ashton, Alaska 307

Posidonia Shale, Europe 171

positive picking 116

postmature 73, 100

potassium hydroxide 126

potential source rock 72

potsherds 342, 343, 344

pour point 120–1

Powder River Basin, Wyoming 174

prasinophyte algae 97

prasinoxanthin see carotenoid

Precambrian organic matter 146

Precambrian oils and source rocks 173

precision 125, 250

precolumn 210

preservation 9, 10, 12, 13, 14, 16

primary migration 264

primary pathway for carbon flow 149

primary production 138

primesum 186–7, 188, 189

Prince William Sound, Alaska 142, 289, 295, 296, 297, 305–12

Prinos Field, Greece 104

priority pollutants 291

pristane (Pr) 25–7, 28–9, 30, 38, 40, 41, 67, 104, 150, 206, 211, 271, 314

pristane/nC17 106, 107, 294

pristane/phytane, pristane/(pristane + phytane) 106, 142, 266

processed streams 134

process models, refinery 119

producibility 121

production allocation 107

production index (PI) 73, 78, 88, 101

production string 158

productivity 12

   Antarctica 12

primary 5–8, 9, 12, 13, 14, 16

   secondary 8

programmed temperature vaporizing injection (PTV) see injection

prokaryotes (bacteria) 3–5, 46, 63

propane 21

propyl see functional group

24-n-propylcholestanes 26–7, 28–9, 203

proteins 10, 256

   ancient 349–50

   marine 338

proteobacteria 59, 316

protochlorophyllide 65, 66

proton 136, 137

   -induced gamma-ray emission (PIGE) 195

   -induced X-ray emission (PIXE) 195

   transfer 216

protoporphyrin 65, 66

proximity to pay 196

Prudhoe Bay Field, Alaska 154

pseudohomologous series 220

psychrophile 4, 5, 50

PTV see injection

Puente Formation Schist-Conglomerate, California 265, 266–7

purity and fit 220

purple non-sulfur bacteria 67

purple sulfur bacteria see Chromatiaceae

purpurin 67

pycnometer 120

pyrenes 31, 308, 328

pyridine 33

pyrite 80, 87

pyrobitumen 158

Pyrococcus 54

pyrogenic hydrocarbon 302

pyrogenic index 298, 300, 301

pyrogenic PAH 298, 308

pyrogenic PAH/fossil PAH ratio 298

pyrograms see Rock-Eval programs

pyrolysis 336, 337

pyrolysis/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (py/GCMS) 329, 334

pyrolysis/MSMS 334

pyrolyzate

   isotope profiling 143

pyrrole 33, 329

pyruvate 53

Qasr Ibrîm, Nubian Egypt 332, 340, 342

Qiongdongnan Basin, China 162

Qixia Formation, China 100

quadratic coefficient (QC) 148

quadrupole mass filter see quadrupole mass spectrometer

quadrupole mass spectrometer 214

quadrupole rods 209

quality, organic matter 73

quantitation, biomarker 240–2

quantitation limit 125

quantitative structure–activity relationships (QSAR) 208

quantity 73

quantum mechanical tunneling 217

quantum mechanics 192–3

quasi-anaerobic 10

Queen Vein Coal, Alaska 307, 310

quinoline 33

Qusaiba Member, Qalibah Formation, Saudi Arabia 179

racemic 36, 271

radiogenic carbon isotopic analysis 317

   see also 14C

raffinate 133

rail conformation 193, 208

Rainbow Hydrothermal Field, Atlantic Ocean 259

Ramsbottom residue 125

raney nickel 80

range 125

rank see thermal maturity

Rastrites Shale, Sweden 270

Ratawai Shale, Iraq 176

R configuration 38

reagent gas 216

rearranged hopanes see diahopanes

rearranged sterane see diasteranes

recent replacement hypothesis 347–9

reconstructed ion chromatogram (RIC, total ion chromatogram) 220

recovery see estimated ultimate recovery

recycled organic matter 115

Red Desert Oil, Wyoming 148

red/green quotient (Q) 95

redox potential (oxidoreduction potential) 7, 10, 12

Red River Formation, USA 182, 184

reducing 107

reductant 7

Redwash Field, Utah 84

refinery processes 130

refinery simulator 127

   see also process simulator

reflectance see vitrinite reflectance

refractive index (RI) 126, 128, 199, 200

refractory PAH index (PAH-RI) 296, 310

remediation 284, 318

repeat formation test (RFT) 107, 110

repeller 215

reserve growth 17

reservoir alteration vectors 174

reservoir compartments 110

reservoir continuity 105, 107, 109–10, 212

reservoir delineation 196

reservoir filling history 109–10

reservoir maturity 159

reservoir rock 10, 272

   detecting petroleum 102

reservoir temperature 182

residual fuel oils 133

residual salt

residuum 122, 134

resin 34, 80, 128, 252

   archeological 329–32, 333

resinate wines 332

resinite 76, 89

resistivity curve 83

resolution 218, 242

resorcinol 105

respiration 7, 8

response factor 241, 294

retene 296, 331

retention gap technique 210

retrograde condensate 173

reversed isotopic trend, hydrocarbon gases 152, 256, 257, 272

reverse methanogenesis see anaerobic methane oxidation

Rhine River, Germany 302

Rhodobacter 71

Rhodoccoccus 47

rhodo-DPEP porphyrin 68

rhodo-etio porphyrin 68

ribosomal RNA (rRNA) 5

ribosome 6

RIC see reconstructed ion chromatogram

ring-preference plots 187–90

Río Desaguadero, Bolivia 280

Ro see vitrinite reflectance

road asphalt 302, 303

road runoff 302

roasted pitch 333

robustness 125

rock-eval programs 74, 77

rock-eval pyrolysis 74, 77–8, 88–9

Rock-Eval Expert System Advisor (REESA) 96

rock sample see sample quality, selection, storage

   size 115

rock standards 116–17

rosin 329

Rospo Mare Oil, Italy 141

Rothamsted Experimental Station, UK 347

rotoevaporation 142

Rozel Point, Utah 30, 80

rRNA see ribosomal RNA

rubber 25, 26–7, 28–9, 52, 55

Rudeis Formation, Gulf of Suez 325

ruminant 343

Rundle Oil Shale, Australia 82

Rundle-type oil shale see lacosite

ruthenium tetroxide (RuO4) 105

S1 73, 77

S2 73, 77

S3 77, 78

Saanich Inlet, British Columbia 12

Sabine Parish, Gulf of Mexico 164, 165, 185

sabinene 330

   hydrate 56

Sabine Pass, Gulf of Mexico 183

Sable Island, Scotian Shelf, Canada 178, 179, 180, 181, 183, 187, 191

Sagalassos, Turkey 345

Saint John’s Harbor, Newfoundland 300

Saint Lawrence River, Quebec, Canada 299, 300

salinity 194

salt in oil 122

salt dome 112

Salym Field, West Siberia 84, 99

Salym Oil, West Siberia 143

sample clean-up and separations 199–200

sample dilution 210

sample probe 217

sample quality, selection, storage 113–16

   distributed source-rock sampling 151, 272

   oil 113, 116

   rock 113–16

sandarach resin 329

sandaracopimaric acid 329, 331

San Joaquin Basin, California 152

San Joaquin heavy oil 134

Santa Barbara Basin, California

Santa Barbara, California 79

Santa Barbara Channel, California 274, 276, 305

Santa Maria Basin, California 79

Santa Monica Basin, California 276

sapropelic coal 81, 82

saprophyte 4

Saratoga Chalk Formation, Louisiana 164

sargasterol see fucosterol

Sargelu Formation, Iran 325

saturate-aromatic fraction 199, 200

saturated hydrocarbons (saturates) 18, 64, 128, 155, 199

saturates 200, 202, 205

saturated hydrocarbon UCM see unresolved complex mixture

Saxony Basin, Europe 171

S/C see atomic S/C

S configuration 38

scan analysis 219–20

scan mode 227

scanning 217

scan number 219, 240

scan rate 243, 244

scan run see scan analysis

Schaefer parameters 171

schist 264, 266

Schulz–Flory distribution 258

Scladina Cave, Belgium 339

sclerotinite 76

scorpion conformation 193, 208

Scotian Shelf, Canada 170, 171, 177, 179, 181, 182, 183

screening

   crude oil 102–9

   source rock (quality and quantity) 72–88

   source rock (thermal maturity) 73, 88–96

Sea Empress 280

Sea Island, Kuwait 278

seal integrity 196

seal rock (cap rock) 154

sealed-tube combustion 137

seawater 10

8, 14-secohopanes 34

secondary building unit (SBU) 204

secondary cracking 9

secondary migration 263, 264

secondary pathway for carbon flow 149

secondary porosity 151

secondary processes 105, 106

sediment

   contaminated 300

   emulsified in oil 122

   extracts 302

   Prince William Sound 309, 311, 312

   uncontaminated 113

sedimentary rock 260

sedimentation rate 13–16

   Baltic Sea 14

   Central Pacific 14

   Namibia, Africa 14

   Oregon 14

   Peru 14

seep hypothesis 310

seep oil 112

seeps 111, 269, 311

seismic amplitude anomalies 111

selected ion monitoring (SIM, multiple ion detection, MID) 221, 222, 233

selected metastable ion monitoring (SMIM) 229

selinene 57, 330

semifusinite 76

semipermeable membrane devices (SPMD) 289

Senonian Limestone, Dead Sea see Ghareb Formation

Senonian Bituminous Chalk, Dead Sea 328

separator 215

Sergipe-Alagoas Basin, Brazil 63

serine 48

serpentine 259

serpentinization 253, 257, 258–9

sesquiterpane 25

sesquiterpene 329

sesquiterpenoid 55, 57, 336

   biosynthesis 55

sesterterpane 25, 26–7, 28–9

sesterterpenoid 55

sewage pollution 275–6

Shakespeare, William 351

shale 311

Shanganning Basin, China 162

shear rate 121

shear stress 121

shellac 329

shipwrecks 336

short-column chromatography 200

shungite see Karalian Shungite

siderite 253

signal-to-noise 227, 232, 242–3, 248

Silent Spring 274

silica 264

silica gel 199

silicalite see ZSM-5

silicon tetrahedron 203

Siljan Ring, Sweden 253, 255, 257, 270

Silphium 351

SIM see selected ion monitoring

Simpson-Ellenburger(.), USA 84

simulated distillation see distillation

Sinai, Egypt 328

single bond 18

single focusing mass spectrometer 217

single quadrupole mass spectrometer 218

sinister see S configuration

sinking and sedimentation 281

sitosterol 60, 61, 342, 346

size-exclusion chromatography 127

skimmer 282

SLAP (Standard Light Antarctic Precipitation) 137

Sleipner area, North Sea 196

Smackover Formation, Gulf of Mexico 146, 154, 158, 159, 160, 161, 162, 170, 173, 176, 181, 182

Smackover-Tamman(!) 84

smectite 16

Smith Island, Alaska 289

smoke 319–21

Sm⊘rbukk North Field, Norway 109, 110

sodium borohydride 58

soft ionization 129, 216

soft-rot fungus 346

soil gas methane 317

solubilization 255, 268

solvent deasphalting 130

solvent dewaxing 130, 133

solvent extraction 130

solvent-split injection see injection

Somalia 332

sonar 111

Songliao Basin, China 11

soot 333

Soter 324, 327

source potential index (SPI) 96–7

   Niger Delta, Tertiary 96

   North Sea, Upper Jurassic 96

   Saudi Arabia, Upper Jurassic 96

source rocks 10, 72, 272

   carbonate 72–4, 264

   carbonate versus shale 74

   density 97

   quantity and quality 72–88

   screening 72–88

   shale 72–4

sour gas 154, 155

South Caspian region, Azerbaijan 115

South Cypress Creek Field, Alabama 189

South Pennine Orefield, UK 263

Soxhlet extraction 199

space-filled projection see structural notation

specific gravity 102, 120

Spekk Formation, Norway 187

sphingolipids 49

spiking 240

spirotriterpane 208, 240

Spirulina 71

split-flow injector 210

split injection see injection

splitless injection see injection

sponges see Porifera

spore coloration index see thermal alteration index

spores 95, 96

sporinite 76, 89

Sprayberry Formation, Texas 164

spreading 280

squalane (2,6,10,15,19,23-hexamethyltetracosane) 8, 26–7, 28–9

squalene 54, 55–8, 59, 61, 211

squalene-hopene cyclase (squalene cyclase) 55, 58

stable carbon isotope ratios 271–2, 306

   C1–C5 hydrocarbon gases 140

   ethane 257

   lipids 339, 344

   methane 153, 257, 317

   oils 138, 142, 145, 146, 147

   propane 257

stable carbon isotope type-curve 143–4

stable isotopes 137, 235, 338–42

Standard Light Antarctic Precipitation see SLAP

standard temperature and pressure (STP)

stanols 43, 346, 347

star diagram 107

State Line Field, Mississippi 176, 189

Statfjord Field, North Sea 84

stationary phase 36, 209, 210

   achiral 36

steady-state kinetics 165

steady-state metal-catalysis 164

steady-state metal-catalyzed reactions 164

steam cracking 130

stearic acid 49, 342

Stenberg well, Sweden 253

stepwise aqueous oxidation 152

sterane isomerization, 20S/(20S + 20R) 40, 242

steranes 25, 42–4, 64, 206, 211, 233, 234–5, 245, 268

   C27 233

   C27/C29 146

   fingerprint 326

   parent ion transitions 229, 233

   regular (4-desmethyl) 234

steranes/hopanes 146

steranes/hopanes (regular steranes/17α-hopanes) 146

stereochemical assignment 37, 38

stereochemistry 21, 34, 35, 37, 40–4

stereoisomer 35, 39, 42

stereoisomerization 40

steric energy 207

steroid 36, 49, 55, 61

sterols 42–4, 46, 51, 62, 63–4, 150, 254

   3β-hydroxy 63

stick projection see structural notation

stigmastanes (24-ethylcholestanes) 25, 26–7, 28–9, 62, 160

stigmastanol 342, 346

stigmasterol 60, 61

Stockholm tar 336, 337

Stone Age 322, 323

STP see standard temperature and pressure

straight-run products 132

straight-run stream 134

Strange Lake, Canada 258

stratification (stratified water) 11

Streptomyces 47, 60

streptomycin 5, 6

string tubing leak 108

strontium isotopes 109–10

structural isomer 39

structural notation 20–1

sublimate 158

suboxic 10, 12

succinate 65

succinyl co-enzyme A 65

Sugar Ridge Field, Alabama 189

Sulaiy Formation, Iraq 176

sulfate 10, 11, 13, 16

   -reducing bacteria 12, 79, 316

   reduction 11, 16, 79

sulfides 79

sulfoglycolipids 49

sulfolipids 49

sulfur 79–81, 124, 142

   bacteria 7

   compounds 31–2

     aromatic 32

   sulfur isotopes 152–6

sulfurization 162

Sunnyside heavy oil, Utah 120

superacid 157

supercritical fluid chromatography 128

superoxide dimutase 4

surface geochemical exploration 111–13

surfactant 282

Susa, Iran 328

Susian culture 325

Svalbard Rock, Spitsbergen 116

Swan Hills Field, Alberta, Canada 158, 162

Swanson River Field, Cook Inlet 84

sweet crude see low-sulfur oil

sweetening 130

sylvestrene 330

symbiont 5

synapse 51

synthetic fuels 78

synthetic oil 78

synthetic petroleum 258

syringe 208, 209

systems tracts 86

TAI see thermal alteration index

tailing 242, 244

tail-to-tail 25, 26–7, 28–9

TA/(MA + TA) see monoaromatic steroid aromatization

tandem mass spectrometry 68, 227–8, 233

   see also GCMS/MS

Tanezzuft Shale, North Africa 262, 263

tannins 10, 344

TAPH see total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

taraxastanes 208, 307

taraxerenes 11

tar ball 142, 281, 306

tar, birch bark 336–7

tar coals 333

target compounds for oil spill studies 292

Tarim Basin, China 162, 197

tar sands 81, 82, 120

tartaric acid 333, 344, 346

Tasmanite oil shale, Tasmania 82, 83

Tasmanites 75, 78, 81, 97

tasmanitid cysts 82

T-atom 204

TBR see trimethylnaphthalene ratio

TCI see transmittance color index

tea 352

teeth 338

Teflon 116

TEHRGC see thermal extraction high-reolustion gas chromatogram

telalginite 81, 82

telinite 89, 90

Tell el-Ajjul, Gaza, Palestine 350

Tell el’Oueili, Iraq 325, 328

telosite 82

temperature of generation (oCtemp) 179–83

Tenax trap 128

terebinth resin 332–3

ternary diagram (C27–C28–C29) 134

   C7 hydrocarbons 190

   steranes 134, 269, 270

terpane m/z 191 fingerprint 306, 309, 326

terpanes 41–2, 211, 250

terpenoids (isopentenoids) 24, 36, 329

   acids 329

   biosynthesis 52–3, 54, 59

   classes 26–7, 28–9, 55

terpinene 330

terpineol 56, 346

turpinolene 330

Terqa, Syria 323, 328

Terra Nova Field, Newfoundland 84

terrigenous oils 147, 187

terrigenous organic matter 16, 147–8, 188

terrigenous versus marine 187

tetracyclic polyprenoids (TPP) 26–7, 28–9

tetracyclic sesterterpane 26–7, 28–9

tetracyclic triterpanes 26–7, 28–9

tetraethyl lead 313, 314

tetrahymanol (gammaceran-3β-ol) 56, 59

Tetrahymena 56

tetrakishomohopanes 207

tetramantane 157

2,6,10,14-tetramethylhexadecane see phytane

tetramethyl-lead 313

tetramethylnaphthalenes 206

2,6,10,14-tetramethylpentadecane see pristane

tetrapyrrole 8, 65, 66, 67

tetraterpane 25, 26–7, 28–9

tetraterpenoid 55

TFE-fluorocarbon polymer net (tetrafluoroethylene polymer, Teflon) 288, 289

Thebes, Egypt 324

Theobroma 352

theobromine 352

theophylline 352

thermal alteration index (TAI) 77, 94–6

thermal conductivity detector (TCD) 74, 78

thermal cracking 133, 163

thermal extraction high-reolustion gas chromatogram (TEHRGC) 102, 184

thermal maturity 73, 89, 90, 103, 174

   effect on gas chromatogram 105, 106

thermal modulator 213

thermoacidophile 5

thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR) 80, 154–6, 159, 161, 162, 172, 173, 176, 179, 187, 315

thermocline 11

thermogenic hypothesis 259–73

thermogenic methane 153, 316

thermophile 5

thermotaxis 67

thiaadamantanes 162

thiaalkanes 31, 32

thiacycloalkanes 32

thin-layer chromatography/flame ionization detection (TLC/FID) see iatroscan

Thiobacillus 79, 80

thiols 31, 32

thiophenes 32

   polynuclear 32

Thioploca 63

thitsiol-based lacquer film 334

Thompson B-F diagram see B-F diagram

Thompson parameters 159, 171–7, 188

thorium/uranium 86–7

three-dimensional ion trap mass spectrometer 218

Thumb Bay, Alaska 307

Thur River, Alsace-Lorraine 302

thylakoid membrane 64, 71

Tia Juana Field, Venezuela 84

TIC see reconstructed ion chromatogram

Tilje Formation, Norway 109

Timan-Pechora Basin, Russia 144

time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF/MS) 214

TLC see thin-layer chromatography

TMI see 2,6,15,19-tetramethylicosane

Tmax 73, 77, 88–9

   converting to reflectance 89

   vs. Ro, Douala Basin, Cameroon 89

TNH see 25,28,30-trisnorhopane

TNR see trimethylnaphthalene ratio

TNS see 25,28,30-trinorhopane

tobacco 352

TOC see total organic carbon

tocopherols 29

Tofts Ness, Scotland 346

toluene 20, 188–90, 199, 208, 280, 291, 314

TOM see total organic matter

Tomachi Formation, Bolivia 96, 98

topped 142

torbanites 78, 82, 83, 329

Toro sandstones, Papua New Guinea 196

Torque Trim 255

Torrance Field, California 265

Torrey Canyon 274, 276

total acid number (TAN) 125–6

total base number (TBN) 126

total carbon 74

total ion chromatogram see reconstructed ion chromatogram

total organic carbon (TOC, Corg) 13, 15, 16, 72–5, 78, 83–8

   Bazhenov Formation, West Siberia 14

   Black Sea sediments 13, 213

   Caspian Sea sediments, Russia 13, 73

   High TOC at the base, decreasing upward (HTB) 86

   measurement 74–5

   minimum TOC 72–4

   North Sea, Jurassic 13

   original quantity (TOCo) 97–100, 117, 118

   Paris Basin, Toarcian and Hettangian/Sinemurian 13

   Tyumen Formation, West Siberia 15

   versus uranium 87

   West Siberia, Lower-Middle Jurassic 13

   West Siberia, Upper Jurassic 13

total organic matter (TOM) 72

total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (TPAH) 296, 312

total petroleum hydrocarbons 290–1, 301

total scanning fluorescence (TSF) 112, 113

Tower of Babel 322

toxicity of petroleum 284–7

toxicological indicators 304–5

toxicology 274

TPP see tetracyclic polyprenoids

trace fossils (ichnofossils) 12

trace metals 125

tracers

   in aerosol particles 318

   in smoke 320

Traict du Croizic, France 301

Tramutola oil, Italy 142

trans-butene 23

trans-configuration 23

transcription 6

transfer 209, 215, 248

transformation ratio 101

transgression 16, 86, 87, 97

transgressive systems tract (TST) 87

transient cavity 269

transit-time curve 83

transmission electron microscopy (TEM) 10, 75

transmittance color index (TCI) 95

transportation fuels 132

trap 111

Treibs, Alfred 68

Treibs Award 69

Treibs Medalists 69

Tretaspis Shale, Sweden 269–70

triacontane 21

triacylglycerol (TAG) 47, 343, 345

triamantane 157

triaromatic (TA) steroids 31, 64, 201, 202, 232, 241, 246

Triassic–Jurassic boundary 145

Triassic mudrocks, Barents Sea 12, 87, 88

trichodiene 57

tricyclic diterpenoid acids 332

tricyclics/17α-hopanes 98

tricyclic terpanes (cheilanthanes) 26–7, 28–9, 206, 211, 271

   C30 tricyclic terpane 236–7, 238–9

tricyclohexaprenane 26–7, 28–9

3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid see gallic acid

2,2,3-trimethylbutane 165

2,6,10-trimethyldodecane (see farnesane)

2,6,10-trimethyl-7-(3-methylbutyl)-dodecane 26–7, 28–9, 30

1,2,7-trimethylnaphthalene 196

2,6,10-trimethylpentadecane see norpristane

2,2,3-trimethylpentane 22

Trinidad oils 105

triple quadrupole mass spectrometer 218, 227, 229

triple-sector mass spectrometer see triple quadrupole mass spectrometer

25,28,30-trisnorhopane (TNH) 142

triterpane 25, 26–7, 28–9

triterpanoid palmitate 342

triterpene, pentacyclic 55

triterpenoid 55

troilite 80

tropane alkaloids 351

trophic level 8

true boiling point (TBP) distributions 122

TSF see total scanning fluorescence

Ts/Tm see Ts/(Ts + Tm)

Tumulus Mount, Turkey 345

turbidity current 13

Turkey Creek Field, Alabama 189

turpentine 336

   tree see Pistacia

Tuscaloosa Formation, USA 161, 170, 173, 182

Tuxedni-Hemlock(!) 84

twisted conformation 24

two-dimensional GC see gas chromatography

two-dimensional NMR see nuclear magnetic resonance

TXL Field, Texas 84

Tynec well, Austria 269

type I 76, 77, 78, 259

type IS 78

type II 76, 77, 78–9, 107

type IIS 31, 79, 80

type II/III 79, 107

type III 76, 77, 79, 107, 189

type IV 76, 79

type curve see stable carbon isotope type-curve

Tyumen Formation, West Siberia 15, 143

ubiquinone 26–7, 28–9, 55

UCM see unresolved complex mixture

Udang oil, Borneo 148

Uinta Basin, Utah 149, 260

UK 262–4

ultralaminae 10, 75

ultramafic 253, 259

ultrastable-Y (US-Y) zeolite 148, 206, 207, 208

ultraviolet (UV) 199

   fluorescence 195, 290

Ulu Burun, Turkey 332

Umm El Tiel, Syria 326–8

unconformity 93, 262, 263, 264

undecane 21

underground leakage see oil spills

underground storage tanks (USTs) 283–4

unit cell 204

unresolved complex mixture (UCM) 104, 106, 112, 113, 115, 294, 300

   aromatic hydrocarbon UCM 294

   saturated hydrocarbon UCM 294

unsaturated 19, 49

upstream 119

upwelling 8

   Peru 8

uranium 86–7

urea adduction 200, 201

uroporphyrinogen 65, 66

ursanes 334

urushiol-based lacquer film 334

US-Y molecular sieve see ultrastable-Y

Utica Shale, USA 141, 152, 153

vacuum distillation 122, 130, 133

vacuum gas oil (VGO) 132, 134

vacuum residuum or residue 122, 132

vadose zone modeling 315

Valdez, Alaska 306, 307

Valhal Field, North Sea 84

vanadium 103, 125, 295

vanadium/nickel [V/(Ni + V)] 88, 103

vanadyl ion 68

Van-Egan Field, West Siberia 84

Van der Waals force 205

van Krevelen diagram 76, 77, 93

   maturation lines 93

   modified 77, 78

   oil shales 83

vapor extraction 318

vaporizing injection see injection

varnish 329, 334, 344

   yellowing 334

varve 12

Vendel, Uppland, Sweden 347

Venture well, Canada 177

Verrill Canyon Shale, Canada 170, 173

vetispiradiene 57

Victoria Land, Austrialia 5

Vienna PDB see VPDB

Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water see VSMOW

Vietnam 187

Viking Graben, North Sea 83, 109, 170

Vindija Cave, Croatia 339, 340, 341

violaxanthin see carotenoid

virus 5

visbreaking 130, 133

viscometer 121

viscosity 120, 121–2, 128

   dynamic 121

   kinematic 121, 127

   relative 121

vitamin A 71

vitrinite 75, 76, 89

   bituminous 91

   indigenous 90

   misidentification 93

   oxidation 93

   oxidation rims 93

   recycled 90, 94

vitrinite reflectance (Ro in oil, Rr random, or Rm mean) 73, 89–94, 96

   histogram 89, 90

   interpretive problems 94

   profile (Ro vs. depth) 89, 92, 94

   suppression 91, 92

   van Krevelen diagram 77

   versus stable carbon isotope differences among hydrocarbon gases 141

   versus Schaefer parameters 171

Vocation Field, Alabama 189

Volga River, Russia 316

Volga-Ural Basin, Russia

Vosges Mountains, Alsace-Lorraine 302

VPDB standard 137, 138

VPDB (Vienna PDB) 139

VSMOW (Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water) standard 137

Wabasca heavy oil, Canada 120

Walkers Creek Field, Alabama 189

walnut hulls 116

water, emulsified in oil 122

water injection 266

water washing 174

wax 104, 120, 121, 126–7, 133

waxy oil 148, 201

weathering 103, 294–5, 308–12

weight-loss correction factor 117

Western Canada Basin 154

West Sak oils, North Slope, Alaska 177

wet gas 88, 166

whales 341

Whitby Mudstone Formation, Port Mulgrave area, Yorkshire, UK 116

white spirits 122

White Tiger Field, Vietnam see Bach Ho Field

wildcat 260

Wilmington Field, California 264, 265, 266

Williston Basin, North America 177, 182, 183, 184, 188, 190

Winborne Field, Canada 156

wine, biomarkers 344

Winnipegosis Formation, North America 182, 184

Wiriagar well, Indonesia 147

wire-frame projection see structural notation

wood 138, 298

Woodford Shale, USA 100

wood tar see pitch

wool oil 338

workover (well maintainance) 116

World War II 305

10X zeolite 206

13X zeolite 206

Xanten-Wardt, Germany 329

xanthophyll 8, 69

X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) 81

X-ray diffraction or crystallography 198, 203, 240

xylenes 280, 291, 314

Yacoraite Formation, Argentina 183, 185

Yakataga oil seep 297, 307, 309, 310–11

Yallourn lignite, Australia 63

Yellowstone National Park 140

Yem-Yegov well, West Siberia 143

Yinggehai Basin, China 162

Yorkshire, UK 346

Yusho incident 274

Zagros Mountains, Iran 332

Zdanice Well, Czech Republic 268, 269

zeaxanthin see carotenoid

Zechstein Basin, Germany 154, 176

Zemlet Field, Algeria 192

zeolite molecular sieves 202–6, 208

   adsorption of methanol 208

   concentrate compounds 205–8

   remove n-alkanes 205

   structural codes 204

zeolite structures 203–5

Zhungeer Basin, China see Junggar Basin

zig zag projection see structural notation

zingiberene 330

Zoroastrian religion 115

ZSM-5 203, 204, 205, 206

ZSM-23 206

Zymomonas 58, 61


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