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Too Smart for our Own Good

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Too Smart for Our Own Good
Cambridge University Press
9780521764360 - Too Smart for Our Own Good - The Ecological Predicament of Humankind - By Craig Dilworth
Index

Index

Abernethy, V. 138, 152, 332, 395

Abipone hunter-gatherers 75

Aborigines, Australian 51, 53, 57, 58, 60, 61, 63, 66–67, 69, 131, 179, 247, 295, 466

abortion 26, 57, 59, 60, 75, 103, 108, 134, 228, 277, 306, 307, 434, 444

Aché hunter-gatherers 182, 385

Acheulean technology 184–185, 455, 458, 460, 462

Action Network on Small Arms and Light Weapons 383

adultery 67, 158

aggression 34–35, 42–44, 61, 131, 150–152, 206, 248

Agta hunter-gatherers 53

AIDS 381–382, 388, 415

Alaric, king of the Visigoths 292

Alexander the Great 443

Allen’s rule 460

Alroy, J. 86, 88

altruism 32, 33, 38, 41–42, 62, 135–136, 190, 441

See also (morality)

American Civil War 344

American Revolution 318

anaemia 261

Anatolia

Turkey 241, 243, 270, 271, 317, 420

anchoveta collapse, Peruvian 366, 367, 394

Andreski, S. 158

Animal Farm 149, 155, 304, 342

ant bear 52

anteater 52, 79

antelope 40, 41, 77, 78, 171, 179

Anthony, D. W. 271, 395

ape 40, 41, 42, 52, 136, 168–172, 175–178, 180, 181, 184, 189, 194, 197, 199, 202, 218, 304, 464

Arapahoe Plains Indians 253

archers 56, 57, 242

Arctic Circle 72

Aristotle 10, 277, 306, 438

Arkwright, R. 467

‘army of lovers,’ 158

Asian Development Bank 327

Assyrians 275, 281, 282

Aswan High Dam 450

Athens 276, 446

atomism 163, 476

Attica 283

Attila the Hun 292

Auen Bushmen 58, 67, 68, 456

auroch 239

avian influenza 388

axe 85, 106, 111, 184, 188, 207, 208, 213, 218, 237, 238, 241, 242, 268, 272, 276, 329, 455, 462

baboon 40–42, 53, 77, 171, 176, 179, 180, 187, 236

Babylonia 278, 281

Bacon, F. 162

Bacon, R. 287

Bailey, R. C. 70


Bali tiger 322

Banahilk village 254

band, human 56, 61–63, 66–70, 75, 132, 158, 170, 172, 180, 182, 187, 196, 199–200, 204, 205, 221, 224, 242–243, 250, 255, 263, 288, 289, 293, 457

non-human primate 39, 40, 42–43, 63, 246

Bantu horticulturists 70–71, 456

Baran, P. A. 383, 399, 409, 446

barley 50, 236, 240, 254, 273, 276, 283, 299, 457

Barnard, A. 262

Bartholomew, G. A. 18, 22, 47, 51

Bartlett, A. A. 360, 418

Baschetti, R. 41, 136, 374

Batek hunter-gatherers 62

Belgian Blue cattle 428

Bergmann’s rule 460

Beringia 79, 88, 213–214, 226

Berkhout, F. 416

Bilali, N. 383

Binford, L. R. 58, 59, 216, 217, 222, 254, 259

biology 2, 3, 9, 100

biomass 13, 14, 18, 20, 142, 263

biosphere 8, 14, 15, 18, 20, 22, 24, 126, 141, 142, 163, 297, 340, 367, 397, 426, 456

Birdsell, J. B. 18, 22, 47, 51, 61, 227, 257

bison 78, 80, 83, 211, 214, 253, 288, 458

Black Death

See plague, bubonic

Black Sea 239, 242, 275, 291

blade technology 199, 200, 202, 213, 456, 458, 460–462, 464

blue tits 45

Boer war 325

bollworm 425

Bonar, J. 164

Bonger, W. 441

bonobo 41, 43

Boserup, E. 105–107, 108, 109, 116, 117, 167, 253, 260, 274, 299, 302, 440, 443

Botswana 64, 382, 456

Boulding, K. E. 93–97, 99, 120, 142, 395, 400, 413, 447, 449

bow and arrow 53, 56–58, 111, 121, 142, 162, 202, 203, 207–211, 215–216, 229, 251, 260, 261, 276, 282, 292, 465, 466

brachiopods 9

Braidwood, R. J. 251, 252, 254

brain 25, 31, 169–172, 175, 177, 178, 181, 183–184, 187, 188, 190, 192, 455, 457, 460

Brazil 69, 259, 266

breed (of animal) 239

breeding sites, dwellings, homes, houses, housing 22, 23, 30, 34–36, 45, 46, 72, 114, 116, 117, 128, 130, 133, 134, 138, 141, 143, 146, 150, 151, 163, 185, 203, 204, 213, 219–222, 266, 291, 299, 314, 323, 330, 333, 337, 339, 347, 353, 389, 391, 410, 420, 439, 440

Brennan, R. P. 370

bronze 244, 247, 269, 270–272, 274, 280, 281, 331, 458

Brown, L. R. 362, 365

Brues, A. 209, 211, 225

Burns, T. 342

Burt, W. H. 35, 218

Bushmen 51–75 passim 179, 187, 242, 456

cache 63, 127–128, 147, 211, 264

Cairo 404, 439

Calhoun, J. B. 27, 44

Canary Islands 295, 322

canids 190, 192

canines 37, 171, 175–176

cannibalism 27, 31, 68, 69, 170, 182, 190, 192, 193, 197, 245

Cape York Peninsula, Australia 253

capital 16, 18, 94, 96–98, 118, 133, 144, 146, 147, 162, 165, 198, 236, 243, 245, 256, 267–269, 278, 282, 283, 288, 293, 296, 299, 302, 306, 333, 334, 342, 344–345, 349, 350, 375, 380, 406–408, 411, 418, 441, 446, 450, 456

natural 94, 96, 400, 432

capitalism 296, 301–303, 316, 330, 341–343, 348, 350, 375, 383, 386, 398, 441, 443, 444, 453, 456

capitalist 107, 109, 115, 126, 147, 152, 163, 291, 294, 298, 304, 310, 312, 316, 330, 333–335, 338, 341–355

passim 360, 368, 379, 380, 382–384, 389, 395, 396, 398, 402–404, 407–411, 415, 420–424, 435, 440, 445, 446, 449, 450, 456

capuchin 42

caribou 87, 211

Carneiro, R. 259, 260

carnivore 18, 19, 44, 76, 78, 81, 87, 172, 179, 180, 239

Carpenter, C. R. 39

Carr-Saunders, A. M. 51, 57–60, 62, 65, 103, 165, 350, 447

carrying capacity 35, 47, 60, 90, 91, 138, 139, 164, 165, 235, 257, 284, 335, 355, 456, 464

Carson, R. 418

Carthage 281

Caspian Sea 194, 239, 242, 275, 322, 460

Çatal Hüyük village/town 241

cattle 50, 235, 239, 240, 244, 254, 264, 273, 361, 374, 428, 448, 456, 460

Catton, W. R. 395, 422, 431

cells 14–16, 20, 21, 24, 88, 456

Cenozoic 88, 456

Chalybe tribe 271

chariot 275, 276, 293

cheetah 78, 179

chemistry 3, 4, 97, 163, 400, 415

Cheops’ (Khufu’s) Great Pyramid 279

Chernobyl 372

Cheyenne Plains Indians 253

Chicago 323, 461

chickadee 45

chief 62, 63, 69, 158, 242, 267–269, 289, 292, 302, 306

Childe, V. G. 274, 293

chimpanzee 38, 41–43, 53, 168–169, 171–173, 178, 182–184, 188, 209, 228, 246, 304

China, Chinese 164, 187, 213, 271, 274, 279, 283, 285, 287, 288, 290, 292–294, 300, 310, 326, 329, 368, 375, 377, 383, 421, 425, 440, 404, 421

Ching Dynasty 294

Chitty, D. H. 24, 30

cholera 262, 314

Chomsky, N. 377, 380

Christianity 75, 277

chromosome, chromosomal structure 2, 16, 17, 169, 458, 461

See also (karyotype)

Clark, G. 133

Clark, J. M. 344, 407

Clark, M. E. 395

climate change 1, 85–87, 115, 171, 199, 213, 214, 221, 236, 251, 259, 370, 384, 402, 414, 459

climax ecosystem 20–21, 263, 340

cliques 44

closed populations 139, 257

Clovis culture, toolkit 83, 214, 215, 225, 456–457, 458, 462

Clutton-Brock, J. 84, 190, 254, 259

Cobb, J. B. 375, 391, 397, 440

Cohen, M. N. 87, 89–91, 138, 167, 219, 227, 230, 236, 252, 253, 257–259

Cold War 384, 407, 421

commerce

trade 70, 113, 117, 121, 123, 139, 143–144, 151, 156, 162, 164, 217, 236, 244, 245, 262, 277, 278, 282–283, 289, 296, 299, 302, 309, 312, 316, 324, 335, 343, 355, 377–381, 383, 405, 408, 412, 447–449, 451, 456

commodities 70, 144, 162, 163, 236, 278, 296, 303, 305, 333, 349, 378, 409, 456

Commoner, B. 22, 88, 119, 394, 395, 397, 401, 403, 406, 409, 410, 435

communism

communist 155, 406, 421

Congo 56, 383, 388, 465

conservation of energy 3, 4, 7, 95, 96, 400

conservation of matter 4, 7, 18, 95, 96, 163, 400, 436

conservation of resources 159, 398, 432, 436


consumables 33, 34, 112, 120, 140–142, 144, 147, 149, 162, 163, 166, 263, 267, 293, 296, 308, 340, 354, 456

containers 117, 118, 188, 229

Control Arms Campaign 383

copper 7, 8, 94, 269–271, 275, 283, 310, 336, 359, 422, 466

Cordilleran ice sheet 214, 461

Cort, H. 313

cotton gin 312, 457

counter-entropic 23, 99

Cox, H. 159

Cretaceous period 373

critical number (of a population) 13

Crompton, S. 467

crowding 27, 28, 36, 38–40, 42–44, 130, 133, 134, 138, 139–140, 151, 156, 240, 299, 305, 386, 389, 442, 464

Crusades 440

cybernetic

See homeostasis

Cyprus 85, 270, 271

Daly, H. E. 8, 92–94, 96, 98, 129, 144, 367, 375, 391, 395, 397, 400, 401, 406–408, 416, 433, 440, 448

Darfur 385

Darwin, C.

Darwinian 1, 9, 20, 23, 29, 32, 33, 35–37, 48, 63, 99, 100–102, 119, 131, 135, 136, 140, 141, 144, 148, 172, 175, 184, 189, 198, 218, 223, 343, 409, 427, 428, 453, 457, 466

Darwin, C. G. 132, 137, 160, 185, 259, 340, 389, 420, 429, 450

Dasgupta, B. 378

Davis, J. 427

Dawkins, R. 16

DDT 19, 323, 388, 397, 410, 415, 425

deer 46, 78, 150, 179, 211, 214, 264, 293, 322, 456

demographic transition 18, 115

Dene Indians 68

DeVore, I. 69, 70, 73

de Waal, F. 42

Diamond, J. 30, 43, 68, 156, 261, 278, 281, 385, 395

digging stick 106, 171, 180, 237, 238, 241, 242, 272, 273, 360

dikdik 40

diminishing returns 58, 84, 113, 149, 154, 165–166, 192, 216, 225, 226, 231, 234, 269, 299, 309, 335, 339, 355, 362, 368, 389, 392, 414

diphtheria 244

Divale, W. T. 69, 134, 228, 246, 255

Djilas, M. 155

DNA 14, 15, 461

Dobe area 56, 64, 73, 456

dog 17, 76, 144, 160, 178, 189, 192, 213, 232, 239, 244, 456, 460

domestication 17, 89, 90, 97, 118, 119, 122, 150, 176, 231, 234, 235–241, 244, 245, 248, 254, 255, 257, 258, 261, 263, 267–269, 278, 279, 281, 288, 291, 295, 302, 308, 322, 331, 337, 423, 426–430, 457, 465

of humans 118–119, 176, 210, 222, 232, 239, 263, 279, 394, 426, 429

Douthwaite, R. 347, 392, 395, 405, 407, 409, 417, 425, 431

Drake Well 318–319

Duhl, L. J. 399

duiker 52

Earle, T. 137, 250, 264

Easter Island 199, 435

Ebola virus 388

ecology 2, 3, 15, 21, 90, 110, 388

ecosystem 9, 13, 18, 20, 21, 24, 48, 96, 125, 222, 263, 340, 373, 397, 457

Edwards, W. E. 87

egalitarian 62, 154, 182, 278, 301, 342

Eggan, F. 61

Ehrlich, P. R. and Ehrlich, A. H. 395, 399

Eibl-Eibesfeldt, I. 42, 43

elephant birds 81, 82

Ellul, J. 105, 119, 141, 148, 162, 334, 356, 433

energy:

conservation of 3, 4, 7, 95, 96, 400

fossil-fuel 7, 19, 91, 121, 128, 310–315, 318–321, 328–336

passim 352, 357, 358, 360, 361, 364, 369, 386, 387, 394, 395, 398, 400, 404, 418, 420, 425, 431, 432, 435, 436, 444, 445, 447, 451, 452, 462, 464, 466

free

bound 4, 7, 8, 11, 24, 457

geothermal 6

nuclear 6, 16, 94, 111, 121, 122, 321, 326–328, 332, 351, 357, 372, 397, 408, 416–418, 444

potential

kinetic 4

renewable 122, 331, 335, 352, 357, 400, 437

solar 5–7, 9, 13, 14, 18, 19, 23, 58, 93, 102, 118, 142, 332, 352, 357, 433

Engels, F. 155

entropy 4–9, 10–4, 18, 19, 39, 93–96, 100, 110, 119, 123, 124, 144, 146, 152, 296, 340, 367, 400, 401, 406, 417, 418, 433, 436, 437, 463

entropy principle 4–5, 7–9, 11, 13, 14, 18, 94, 95, 406, 417, 433, 436, 437, 463

Epic of Gilgamesh 486

epideictic 27, 198, 394

equilibrium, dynamic 11–16, 18, 21, 23, 24, 39, 48, 104, 113, 451, 459, 464

ecological 21–24, 26, 29, 30, 32, 39, 43, 46, 48–49, 70, 71, 73, 90, 91, 94, 98, 104, 107–108, 109, 111, 120, 123–126, 129, 139, 151, 152, 184, 227, 228, 232, 257, 260, 265, 300, 394, 402, 410, 419, 434, 437, 444, 451, 453, 463, 467

Equus hydruntinus 264

Errington, P. L. 28–30

Eskimos 51, 53, 68, 71, 73, 203, 216, 291, 460, 466

‘euphoria effect,’ 138

Euphrates river 236, 254, 257, 276, 277, 475

Eurasia 76, 78–80, 168, 187, 188, 190, 211, 213

exchange value 95, 127, 144, 296, 302, 308, 400, 407, 456, 457, 467

extinction

extinctions 7, 12, 24, 29, 46, 75–89

passim 102, 104, 111–113, 125, 136, 184, 188, 202, 221, 224, 226, 233, 246, 264, 268, 284, 287, 288, 295, 300, 308, 322, 336, 352, 354, 373, 395, 426, 430

Far East 195, 397

Fayu horticulturists 68

fecundity (cf. fertility) 25, 27, 29, 135, 228, 457

feedback 36, 91, 194, 113, 127, 138, 148, 165, 189, 216, 464

Fertile Crescent 254, 255, 273, 457

fertiliser 237, 298, 314, 321, 332, 354, 355, 360–362, 410, 418–422, 425, 436, 450

fertility (cf. fecundity) 23, 58, 103, 135, 136, 159, 216, 244, 308, 322, 419, 457

feuding 66–68, 158, 224, 228, 234, 245–246, 249, 263, 444, 457

Fisher, D. 86, 87

Fisher, I. 92

Fisher, R. A. 266

Flores (island) 88

flying shuttle 312, 347, 458

Folsom culture, toolkit 83, 214, 215, 225, 457, 458

Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) 438

food chain 18–20, 29, 39, 90, 102, 142, 144, 180, 340

foot-and-mouth disease 388

Forrester, J. W. 120, 395, 403, 422

francolin pheasant 52

Freeman, D. 224

Fulton, R. 312

Furadan fungicide 422

Galbraith, J. K. 413

Garden of Eden 250–251

Gause, G. F. 29

gazelle 40, 171, 241, 322

gemsbok 52, 179

General Electric Company 411

General Motors 39


genes

genetic 16, 17, 25, 26, 31, 32, 36, 38, 41, 45, 68, 116, 118, 119, 124, 130, 134, 135, 137, 143, 148, 160, 161, 169–172, 181, 182, 184, 197, 199, 214, 220–224, 228, 232, 234, 235, 239, 243, 244, 256, 263, 268, 292, 308, 354, 394, 423–430, 457, 458, 461, 466

Genghis Khan 292

Georgescu-Roegen, N. 8. 13, 93, 94, 96, 98, 155, 161, 393, 395, 401, 415, 418, 430, 446, 447

Gever, J. 353, 418, 425

Giarini, O. 395

goat 50, 211, 235, 239, 241, 244, 254, 264, 276, 361, 456, 460

Goldsmith, E. 394, 402, 403, 436, 447

Göltepe (town) 317

Gombe National Park 41

gonorrhoea 429

Goodall, J. 49

Gordon, D. 441

Gore, A. 382

gorilla 38, 41–43, 168, 169, 171, 176, 183, 209, 228, 304

Great Wall of China 279, 280, 294

‘Green Revolution,’ 362, 408, 419–423, 424

grooming 42

gross national product (GNP) 92, 96, 324, 370, 376, 377, 390, 399–402, 404, 411, 412, 447, 459

Grousset, R. 291

growthmania 93, 409

Guanches (natives of the Canary Islands) 295

guinea fowl 37, 52

gull 45

guppy 26–27, 31, 44, 130

Gutsell, J. S. 26

G/wi Bushmen 53, 59, 62, 70, 173, 456

Haast’s eagle 80

habitat 30, 35, 40, 46, 47, 58, 73, 85, 86, 125, 139, 150, 190, 202, 234, 254, 256, 287, 288, 297, 373, 450, 461, 463

Hadza hunter-gatherers 52, 54, 56, 57, 62, 64, 70, 72, 74, 89, 91, 162, 172, 227, 459

hæmorrhagic dengue fever 388

Hägerström, A. 33

Hammurabi 278

Hanford, U.S.A. 372

Hanson, J. 437

Harako, R. 70

Hardin, G. 119, 395, 414, 426, 439

hare 35, 40, 52, 171, 212

Hargreaves, J. 466

harpoon 202–203, 209, 210, 321

Harris, D. R. 257, 259

Hassan, F. 228, 259

Hawaii 81, 85, 199

hawk 189

Hawken, P. 441, 446

head-hunting 66

headman 62, 198, 199

Heikum Bushmen 57, 456

Heilbroner, R. L. 302, 414

Heinrich, B. 175

Henderson, H. 395

Henderson, L. J. 323

herbivore 18, 19, 21, 44, 76, 78, 83, 88, 180, 239

Hesiod 153, 218, 483

hierarchy 28, 38–40, 104, 131, 145, 148, 153, 154, 167, 241, 248, 249, 255, 262, 299, 301, 302, 304, 341, 342, 345, 386, 415, 419

Hilly Flanks 254, 255, 329, 457

hippopotamus 76, 78, 81, 284, 288

Hiroshima 326, 372

Hitler, A. 384

Hittites 271, 281

HIV 381–382, 388

hoarding 62–63, 147

Hobbes, T. 50, 64, 70, 152, 153, 163, 206–207, 351

hoe 111, 142, 237–238, 242, 261, 268, 269, 272, 273, 298, 360

Holdren, J. P. 7

Holland 310

homeostasis 15, 16, 21–29

passim 36, 45, 46, 58, 84, 95, 101, 104, 117, 126, 129, 132, 134, 138, 139, 150, 340, 398, 459, 468

Homer 307

Homo rhodesiensis 455

Homo soloensis 455

horned turtles 78

horse 17, 76, 79, 111, 122, 179, 187, 211, 214, 223, 232, 235, 239, 244, 264, 275–276, 285, 287, 288, 291–294, 312, 361, 387, 428

Hottentot (Khoikhoi) pastoralists 67, 179

Hubendick, B. 428

Hudson’s Bay Company 449

human ecology 2, 3, 110

Hungary 213, 291, 294

Huxley, A. 119

hydatidosis 179, 187, 244, 460

hydroelectric 6, 367, 369

hyena 76, 78, 172, 179, 187

ibex 211

Iceland 322, 382

Iliad 282

impala 40

India 155, 199, 270, 271, 288, 326, 368, 375, 377, 388, 421–423, 449

Indians

Indian 222, 306

American 68, 85, 179, 203, 214, 224, 253, 261, 266, 291, 295, 385, 458

Indonesia 85, 89, 155, 189

Indus river 274, 276, 277, 450

infanticide 26, 33, 41–43, 57–60, 65, 69, 72, 75, 100, 102, 103, 108, 132, 134–136, 140, 158, 159, 170, 192, 197–198, 204, 216, 223, 227, 228, 247, 265, 266, 268, 277, 284, 288, 306, 307, 317, 323, 338, 339, 388, 434, 444

influenza 244, 325, 388, 456

initiation rites 53, 61, 72, 134, 197, 247, 288

inorganic minerals 6, 18, 19, 94, 124, 359, 462, 464, 465

instincts 25, 27, 31–34, 37–49

passim 59, 103, 124, 130–132, 134, 137, 138, 144–146, 151, 152, 154–156, 158, 160, 170, 171, 182, 183, 189, 206, 208, 212, 223, 224, 248–250, 262, 263, 301, 304, 350, 386, 393–395, 443, 445, 452

International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) 327, 417

International Energy Agency 332

International Monetary Fund (IMF) 377, 379, 380, 423

International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) 420, 423

invisible hand 346

Irish elk 78

Irish Sea 372

iron 51, 181, 240, 270–272, 276, 279, 281, 283, 296, 310, 312–313, 328, 329, 331, 335, 348, 359, 379, 386, 463, 465

Iron Curtain 386

Isle Royale, Lake Superior 46, 367

Israel 326

Italy 284, 292

Ituri forest 70, 465

jackal 179

Japan

Japanese 199, 241, 326, 329, 362, 372, 378, 382, 385, 440, 445

Jarmo village 254

javelin 88, 188, 193, 202, 209–211, 214, 215, 222, 226, 228, 229, 257, 260, 261, 434, 456

Jenner, E. 429

Jericho 241, 281, 309

Jevons, W. S. 331, 332, 436

Jews 277, 385

Johnson, A. W. 137, 250, 264

Joshua 281

Jouvenal, B. D. 343

Kadesh, Battle of 281

Kalahari Desert 52, 60, 63, 65, 68, 187, 456

kangaroo 78, 174, 179

Kapauku horticulturists 246

Kapp, K. W. 344, 347, 387, 400, 402, 407, 409, 410

Karachay, Lake, in Russia 372

Karim Shahir village 254

karyotype 2, 9, 16–17, 23, 25, 26, 29–33, 36, 43, 48–49, 55, 102–104, 117, 119, 123, 124, 129, 131, 133, 136, 137, 142, 143, 156, 160, 161, 168–171, 177, 183–185, 193, 196, 197, 218, 220, 221, 223, 232, 234, 239, 256, 304, 381, 393, 408, 426, 457–459, 461, 464, 466


Kay, J. 458

Kealey, E. J. 286

Keeley, L. H. 66, 70, 156, 245

Kennedy, J. F. 412

Khoikhoi (Hottentot) pastoralists 67, 179

killer-whales 109

korhaan 52

Kottak, C. P. 266

Krzywicki, L. 192

K-selected species 20, 22, 25, 30, 32, 38, 46, 86, 133, 139, 214, 426, 461, 465

kudu antilope 52

Kuenen, D. J. 274, 436, 438, 448

Kuikuru horticulturists 259–260

!Kung Bushmen 41, 52, 53, 59, 62–64, 66, 70, 74, 162, 262, 456

kwashiorkor malnutrition 64

Labour Party 345

Lack, D. 29, 34, 44

lactation 26, 58, 60, 103, 197, 244, 267, 469

Laetoli, Tanzania 174

Lancashire 312

Lancaster, C. S. 88, 181, 204, 209, 224, 229

lance 88, 188, 192, 202, 209, 210, 214, 215, 221, 222, 260, 457, 458, 465

land bridge 87, 140, 199, 213, 226, 459

lassa fever 388

Laurentide ice sheet 214, 461

Lavosier, A. L. 4

learning 25, 27, 42, 43, 48, 49, 83, 88, 130, 134, 143, 145, 170, 177, 189, 192, 207, 220, 249

Lee, R. B. 64, 69, 70, 73

lemmings 26, 31, 34, 43, 257, 374

leopard 179, 187, 284

leprosy 244, 262

Lese horticulturists 70

Levallois technology 458, 460, 461, 462, 464

Levant 194–197, 217, 222, 241, 457

Liebig’s law 22, 36, 128, 130

life-cycle 5, 7, 8

Limits to Growth 394, 395, 401

lion 27, 43, 76, 78, 172, 179, 187, 240, 284

Lorenz, K. 33, 43, 148, 160, 183, 206, 208, 209, 224, 403, 443, 444, 481

Loubergé, H. 395

Luddites 341, 348, 461–462

Madagascar 76, 81, 82, 85, 86, 88, 199, 288

magic 189

Maison de la Couche 339

malaria 64, 244, 284, 323, 381, 388, 425

Malmberg, T. 160

Malthus, T. R.

Malthusian 47, 98, 99–105, 106, 107, 109, 116, 129, 137, 292, 293, 337, 338, 376, 377, 422, 440, 447, 448, 453, 463

mammoth 78, 79, 83–85, 211, 213, 214, 458

Mammoth Steppe 78, 213

Manchester 343

Manufacturing Chemists’ Association 409

marasmus malnutrition 64

Marburg virus 388

Marco Polo 310

Margolin, S. 224

Marshall Thomas, E. 59

marsupials 76, 78, 178, 322

Martin, P. S. 75–89

passim 225, 228

Marx, K. 155, 304, 349, 406

mastodon 78, 79, 86, 87, 214

maternal 26, 28, 31, 134, 178

Mauch, S. 427

Mauritania 379

Mauritius 288

Mayak nuclear fuel reprocessing plant 372

Mayer, R. J. 3

Mayr, E. 34, 136

McLaren, D. J. 437, 439

McMichael, A. J. 395

McNeill, W. 300

Meadows, Dennis 394, 395, 414, 451

Meadows, Donella 394, 414

measles 244, 262, 430

Mediterranean 187, 264, 276, 283, 284, 325, 450, 451

megafauna 7, 75, 76, 78, 83–87, 216, 226, 229, 230

megamachine 279, 307

Mehringer, P. J. 86

Mersey River 312

Mesolithic 52, 89, 91, 212–217, 226, 229–232, 234, 237, 243, 251, 260, 261, 268, 324, 349, 462, 464


metals 5, 6, 19, 111, 126, 264, 265, 269–272, 278–280, 283, 287, 299, 300, 304, 308, 309, 312–313, 331, 335, 343, 348, 354, 356–357, 359, 386, 389, 418, 434–436, 451, 462, 464, 465

Mexico 90, 274, 420, 421, 440, 458

mice 27, 39, 40, 239, 386

microlith 216, 462

Micronesia 196

middle class 145, 147, 325, 345, 348, 349, 352, 354, 355, 374, 375, 389, 391

Middle East

See Near East

Milbrath, L. W. 395, 401

Mill, J. S. 96, 147, 339

minerals 6, 19, 94, 124, 283, 312–313, 321, 329, 332, 354, 356, 359–362, 379, 418–420, 422, 433, 435, 447, 450, 462, 465

Miranha horticulturists 69

Mishan, E. J. 137, 333, 395, 402, 403, 408, 411, 413, 426, 430, 433

moa 80, 81

Moffat, C. B. 34

moles 35, 39, 40, 386

Mongols

Turks 157, 223, 284, 291–294

mongongo nut 73–74

monkey 39–42, 62, 76, 80, 144, 168, 170, 178, 181, 189, 197, 464

monogamy 37, 103, 131, 198

Monsanto 424

moose 46, 47, 78, 86, 367

morality 32, 33, 53, 59, 62, 66, 97, 103, 131, 135–137, 151, 153, 183, 223–224, 234, 247, 263, 265–266, 268, 269, 277, 278, 282, 288, 303, 307, 308, 339, 343, 354, 373–374, 383, 411

Moran, E. F. 58, 67, 159

More, T. 303–304, 375

Morocco 291

mortality 22, 23, 36, 45, 46, 64, 90, 103, 129, 140, 149–150, 159, 164, 165, 193, 212, 226, 227, 232, 244, 261, 267, 268, 280, 284, 289, 317, 323, 337–339, 381–382, 388, 404, 419, 426, 427, 431, 437, 444, 451, 461, 462, 465

Moses 277

mother of invention 105, 106, 108, 116, 117, 125

mother of necessity 126

Moula-Guercy, France 193

Mousterian technology 84, 85, 192, 195, 199, 455, 456, 458, 460–462, 464

mule (spinning machine) 467

Mumford, L. 60, 117, 186, 189, 232, 262, 279, 295, 305, 374

Murngin hunter-gatherers 53, 57, 62, 66, 131

musk-ox 76, 79, 86, 214, 227

muskrat 28, 30

Mycenae 278

Myotragus 264

Nagasaki 326, 372

Nahrwan canal 274

Namibia 456

Napoleon 443

National City Lines 398

Natufian fisher-foragers 217

natural gas 19, 319, 320, 321, 330, 331, 335, 357, 369, 425, 462

natural selection 1, 2, 29, 37, 48, 65, 100, 101, 104, 108, 136, 150, 151, 160, 172, 178, 184, 196, 204, 224, 243, 430, 466

Nazis 385

Near East, Middle East 90, 187, 194, 199, 235, 236, 239, 241, 251, 270–272, 276, 284, 296, 368, 378, 404, 445, 462, 464, 466

nepotism 41

net energy ratio 19, 55, 299, 311, 357, 358, 434, 463

net hunting 56, 465

Newfoundland

Grand Banks 367, 435

New Guinea 61, 68, 76, 195, 199, 205, 246, 253, 459

New Kingdom, Egypt 278

Newton, I. 10

New World 42, 123, 196, 217, 294, 296, 300, 308, 314, 316, 325, 343, 431, 462

New Zealand 61, 76, 80, 81, 85, 199

Niagara Falls 369

niche 31. 89, 90, 98, 117, 122, 124, 126, 141, 161, 195, 340, 342, 430, 435, 463


Nielsen hot blast 311, 463

Nigeria 388

Nile 229, 254, 273, 277, 284, 450, 451, 457

Nobel Prize 415, 421, 431

Nootka hunter-gatherers 65

Nubia, Egypt 211, 229

nuclear (cf. uranium) 6, 16, 94, 111, 121, 122, 321, 326–327, 328, 332, 351, 357, 372, 395, 397, 399, 408, 416–418, 444

Oakley, K. P. 180

Ob river basin, Siberia 372

O’Connor, J. 395, 398

Odysseus 282, 306–307

Ogallala aquifer 369

Oldowan technology 184, 455, 460, 463, 464

Old Testament 250, 281

Olorgesailie site, Kenya 185

orang-utan 38, 41

organ 14–16, 21, 24, 43, 208, 339

organic minerals 6, 19, 20, 94, 100, 124, 321, 359, 362, 419, 462, 464, 465

organism 4, 5, 12–20, 23–25, 40, 44, 48, 55, 87, 99, 100, 114, 118, 125, 126, 129, 141, 145, 150, 169, 170, 226, 373, 420, 422–430

passim 455–457, 459, 464

Orwell, G. 149

osteoarthritis 261

overkill 75–89, 93, 167, 224, 225–226, 231, 239, 251, 337, 453

overshoot 47–48, 84, 109, 113, 164, 165, 167, 220, 226, 234, 265, 267, 269, 300, 305, 309, 334, 355, 393, 451–452, 464

ovulation 25, 27, 134

oxygen 5, 114, 181

Pacific 89, 230, 295, 398

Pakistan 326

Palmstierna, H. 395, 398

Pandora 218

Paraguay 75, 182, 385

parasites 21, 22, 90, 161, 244, 262, 267, 268, 305, 337, 427, 460

Parsons, J. 376, 440, 441

passenger pigeon 322

Pax Romana 153, 351

peacock 37

Peacock, N. R. 70

pecking order 38, 39, 150, 250, 256, 278, 304, 362

penicillin 429

Pennine chain 212

percentage efficiencies of energy transfer 19

Persia 276, 281, 284, 286, 292, 294, 404

perspective

worldview 50–51, 71, 75, 92, 98, 167, 251, 252, 330, 342, 396–398, 406, 407, 411, 413–415, 451, 454

Peru 217, 253, 274, 366, 394

Peterson, N. 61

Pettersson, R. 433

phenotype 16, 17, 104, 169, 197, 220, 461, 464

Philippines 53, 420

photosynthesis 14, 18, 366

phylogenetic 31, 42, 158, 208

physics 3, 94–96, 163, 400

piercers 117, 118

pig 41, 50, 76, 232, 239, 244, 288, 325, 361, 387, 428, 456

Pimentel, D. 321, 425

plague, bubonic 262, 284, 289, 300, 305

plastics 6, 129, 320, 336, 397, 410, 434, 465, 466

Plato 153, 156, 277

Player Piano 397

pneumonia 90

Poincaré 4

polio 388

pollution 96, 113, 120, 124, 125, 221, 312, 324, 335, 352, 354, 355, 370–372, 373, 386, 387, 399, 401, 402, 410, 416, 431, 435–436, 437, 439

Pol Pot 385

polygyny 37, 38, 66, 131

Polynesian 81, 85, 196

Ponting, C. 295, 331, 378, 395

porcupine 52

potter

pottery 242, 253, 270, 274–275, 307, 444

precision grip 177

President’s Commission on Population Growth and the American Future 438

primate 30, 31, 37, 40–43, 52, 131, 136, 146, 168, 170–172, 175–198

passim 236, 304, 373, 380, 416, 459, 464


principle of evolution 2, 9, 99, 100, 108, 110, 453

principle of population 20, 21, 24, 47, 99–102, 106, 107, 110, 111, 129, 138, 140, 149, 337

Prometheus 208, 218–219

Protestantism 343

Przewalski’s horse 288

psychosomatic 27

Public Development Aid 380

Pygmies 51, 56, 69, 70, 219, 465

quail 40

Quaternary period 75, 465

rabies 244, 428

ranking 35, 38–40, 131, 148, 241, 249, 305

rat race 160, 393, 403, 411

rats 27–28, 36, 44, 45, 81, 125, 232, 239, 240, 288

reaction principle 47, 48, 105, 120, 124, 130, 138, 142, 299, 332, 334, 393, 397, 408, 415, 427, 432, 439, 452

Reagan, R. 399

recycling 5–8, 94, 465

Redclift, M. 395

red grouse 35, 36, 38, 40, 44, 139, 256, 257

redistributional system 145, 262

Reed, C. A. 63, 252, 254, 259

Reiman, J. 153, 349–350, 404

reindeer 46, 63, 192, 203, 211, 227, 235

religion 53, 93, 132, 137, 152, 178, 277, 280, 288, 307–309, 443

renewable resources 5–7, 70, 111, 122–124, 140, 142, 164, 226, 231, 265, 270, 308, 309, 311, 354, 357, 359, 367, 400, 401, 415, 432–434, 437, 465

reserves 6, 121, 127, 128, 140, 141, 144, 146, 166, 310, 311, 331, 343, 353, 379, 417, 431, 456, 465, 466

resilience (of a system) 11

revolt 112, 151, 154–156, 157, 291, 354, 355, 445

revolution, armed 112, 154–156, 157, 159, 302, 314, 318, 354, 355, 421, 438, 440, 446

rhinoceros 78, 187

Ricardo, D. 463

rickets 64

ring doves 35

ritual 34, 62, 189, 198–200, 248

Romania 213

Rome 277, 281, 283–285, 291, 297, 300, 438

Rousseau, J.-J. 152, 153, 157

Royal Navy 310

r-selected 25, 43, 46, 86, 374, 461, 465

Ruskin, J. 143

Russell, C. and Russell, W. M. S. 39, 40, 42, 43, 137, 150, 156, 158, 159, 274, 444

Russia 211, 289, 291, 325, 326, 383, 440, 446

Rwanda 385

sabretooth 76, 79, 80

Sahlins, M. 71–73, 89, 204, 262, 264, 265, 434

Salish hunter-gatherers 65

San Bushmen 65

Sarmatians 291

SARS 388

Saudi Arabia 326

Sauer-Thompson, G. 453

Saunaktuk 68

scabies 388

Scandinavia 235, 241, 286, 310, 460

Schumacher, E. F. 93, 95, 116, 126, 127, 157, 163, 332, 394–398, 400–402, 404–407, 412, 413, 416, 418, 432, 445, 447

science, modern 1, 3–4, 92, 110, 112, 161–162, 163, 167, 297, 309, 325, 396, 402, 415, 416, 453

scurvy 64

sea-anemones 25

Self, P. 378

self-domestication 176

Sellafield, Calder Hall, Windscale 326, 372

sexual selection 36–37, 189, 198, 304

Shamshi-Adad, Assyrian king 282

sheep 50, 86, 235, 239, 241, 244, 254, 264, 336, 361, 456, 460

Shoshoni hunter-gatherers 53

Shushwap hunter-gatherers 65


Siberia 61, 213, 372, 457, 459

Sicily 283–285

Sieferle, R. P. 230, 239, 252, 265, 331, 332, 351, 395, 436

Silliman, R. P. 26

silver 283

sink 7, 8, 98, 142, 401

sled

sledge 213, 239, 275, 291

sleeping sickness 64

smallpox 244, 262, 314, 317, 427, 429

Smith, A. 163, 248, 301, 346, 347, 441, 463

Smith, J. W. 395, 453

Smith, V. L. 175

social position 39, 132, 147, 285, 304, 407

social power structure 38

social sciences 2, 407, 415

soil 5, 6, 223, 237, 238, 251, 273, 274, 276, 280–283, 286, 298, 308, 309, 332, 354, 362, 364, 370, 373, 386, 418, 419, 422, 424, 434, 439

solar radiation

See energy, solar

solar system 10–14

Sollas, W. J. 68, 203

Solon 276

source 7, 29, 34–36, 38, 40, 71, 111, 114, 122, 161, 223, 225, 227–229, 248, 258, 260, 283, 292, 293, 310, 316, 329, 333, 352, 357, 419, 421, 446, 464

South-east Asia 75, 84, 388, 459

Soviet Union 304, 384

spear:

See javelin, lance

spearthrower

atlatl 88, 209, 210, 214, 458, 466

spinning jenny 313, 347, 466, 467

springhare 52

Stalin, J. 384

standard of living 45, 72, 145, 268, 317, 341, 349, 352, 376, 378, 390, 412–414, 451, 465, 466

Standard Oil of California 398

Stanford, C. B. 42

status, social 37, 39, 52, 53, 62, 63, 73, 132, 145, 147, 182, 198, 199, 204, 217, 248, 288, 293, 303, 304, 307, 333, 334, 350, 408, 415, 444

steam engine 91, 311–313, 321, 327, 330, 333, 348, 355, 436, 463

steenbok 40, 52, 76, 179

Steller’s sea cow 322

stickleback 34

stirrup 111, 287, 291

St. Louis 404

stock 5, 21, 26, 29, 54, 92, 94–96, 98, 121, 127, 128, 141, 144, 146, 275, 333, 353, 365, 367, 389, 433, 456, 466

store 54, 63, 74, 127–128, 141, 144, 217, 230, 231, 239–241, 244, 245, 256, 260, 264, 267, 283, 296, 302, 309, 357, 433, 466

Stott, D. H. 24, 25, 29

stress 26, 27, 30, 39, 42–44, 55, 72, 87, 130, 134, 140, 150–152, 156, 171, 175, 209, 231, 245, 300, 389–391, 403

succession, species 16, 17, 31, 48, 184

Sumba, island of 88

Sumer 274, 275, 278, 282

Superphoenix reactor 327

Suttles, W. 217

Swaziland 381, 382

Sweden 376, 386, 444

swidden horticulture 237–238, 264, 272, 302

sword 272, 282

syphilis 261, 284

Syria 276, 281, 326

system, closed

isolated

open 13–15

taboos 26, 58, 60, 251, 374, 439

Tainter, J. A. 154

Taiwan 326

Tanzania 54, 57, 174, 459

Tapirapé horticulturists 266

Tasmania

Tasmanians 61, 173

Taurus Mountains 317

Techna River 372

Teleki, G. 41

territoriality 16, 30–46, 60–62, 67, 68, 104, 114, 115, 128, 130–134, 136, 137, 140, 143–145, 146–148, 149–158, 170, 172, 175, 176, 182–183, 186, 187, 205, 207, 212, 214, 218, 223, 224, 227–230, 236, 245, 248–250, 255, 256, 262, 263, 284, 285, 289, 293, 294, 298, 300, 302, 304, 333, 337, 349–350, 376, 377, 395, 397, 403, 415, 416, 440, 441, 443–445, 461, 465

terrorism 112, 151, 154–155, 159, 354, 355, 445

Terry, R. 345, 389, 409, 410

testosterone 35

tetracycline poison 424

thermodynamics 3, 4, 6, 93, 95

thermostat 16, 27, 138–139

Three Mile Island 372

throughput 92, 95–96, 98, 432, 433

thumb 177

Thunderbird 78

Tigris river 236, 254, 257, 274, 276, 277, 457

Timor 88

Tolowa fisher-foragers 62, 217, 230

totemism 53, 60

trade

See commerce

traditions 42, 103, 137, 139, 161, 183, 277, 346, 394, 446

Trainer, T. 346, 389, 395, 412, 448, 449

Tremearne, A. J. N. 69

‘trickle down,’ 346, 347, 389, 449

Trobriand Islands 61

Trojans 281

trophic level 18

TSE 388

tuberculosis 90, 244, 261, 262, 284, 323, 388

Tunisia 283

Turkey 243, 270, 420

Turnbull, C. M. 69, 70

UN Children’s Emergency Fund (UNICEF) 380

UN Conference on Environment and Development 412

ungulate 28, 29, 211, 216, 230, 264, 322

UN Human Development Report 380

Universal Declaration of Human Rights 439

UN Office of the Special Representative of the Secretary General for Children and Armed Conflict 383

UN Security Council 383

UN World Commission on Environment and Development 412

UN World Population Conference 439

Ural Mountains 212

uranium 19, 121, 335, 372, 416–418, 434

Uruk 277

US Defense Department 440

use value 95, 129, 144, 198, 296, 302, 308, 432, 456, 467

vaccination 314, 323, 426–429

Van Bath, S. 305

varanid lizards 78

Veblen, T. 408

vent faunae 13

vertebrates 25, 30, 35, 36, 75, 81, 86, 102, 104, 144, 170, 172, 190, 218, 255, 373, 461

Vienna Exhibition 323

Vikings 292, 440

vital needs 58, 114–116, 125, 126, 128, 134, 135, 158, 161, 225, 229, 249, 251, 252, 265, 267, 293, 329, 330, 334, 338, 342, 346, 347, 406, 408, 410, 433, 453

vital resources 22, 33, 70, 124, 128, 130, 141, 144, 146, 154, 161, 217, 221, 227, 248, 249, 266, 274, 275, 301, 342, 346, 347, 386, 403, 419, 420, 448, 465

vitamin B deficiency 64

voles 30, 40, 44

von Malmborg, R. 444

Vonnegut, K. 397

von Weizsäcker, E. 334

von Wright, G. H. 334

vultures 179

Wallace’s line 89

wart hog 52

Washburn, S. L. 88, 179, 181, 204, 209, 224, 229

water frame 311, 467

watermill 111, 286

Wayanad, India 422

Weber, M. 330, 343

Weidenreich, F. 192

Welch, C. 380

West Indies 76, 80, 85

Westphalia 343

whale 190, 284, 318, 336, 387, 401, 435


wheat 50, 90, 236, 240, 254, 273, 276, 283, 299, 315, 366, 421, 423, 457

wheel 242, 274–275, 286, 287, 466, 467

Wheel of Samsara 474

White, L. 257

Whitney, E. 457

wildebeest 52, 76, 179, 322

Wilkinson, P. F. 227

Wilkinson, R. G. 52, 60, 71, 73, 75, 91, 92, 106–108, 109, 116, 117, 120, 124, 126, 128, 129, 134, 141, 149, 150, 160, 161, 167, 250–252, 259, 274, 298, 301, 302, 306, 327, 328, 330, 333, 334, 339–341, 346, 349, 392, 395, 402, 453

Williams, J. 331

windmill 111, 286

Wittfogel, K. A. 274

wolf 17, 43, 67, 79, 178, 187, 190–192, 202, 239, 240, 282

Wolf, E. 440

wombat 78

Woodburn, J. 70, 74, 227, 262

Working Party’s report on the Control of Pollution 416

World Bank 327, 377, 379, 380, 423, 447

World Trade Organisation 377

World War II 325, 335, 362, 365, 370, 383–385, 388, 389, 412, 440, 447

World Wildlife Fund 419

Wright, Q. 157, 292, 351, 384

writing 118, 242, 278

Würm-Weichsel-Wisconsin ice age 459

Wynne-Edwards, V. C. 27, 33, 35, 36, 40, 44, 46, 130, 139, 148, 255, 257, 394, 433

Yamnaya herders 271, 275, 291

yaws 261

Yellow River 277

yin/yang 117

Yuen Dynasty 294

Zagros Mountains 254, 457

Zambia 379

Zanzibar 385

zebra 76, 179

Zedong, M. 385

Zeus 153, 218–219, 307

Zhoukoudien erectus site 187

Zimbabwe 382




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