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The Study of Dying

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  • 7 b/w illus. 2 tables
  • Page extent: 298 pages
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 (ISBN-13: 9780521739054)

The Study of Dying
Cambridge University Press
9780521517676 - The Study of Dying - From Autonomy to Transformation - By Allan Kellehear
Index

Index

3 May 1808 (1814, Goya) 176–7

AAN (American Academy of Neurology), guidelines for determining brain death in adults 56, 58

accompagnement 83

Adam and Eve 235

Adler, U. 14

Adunsky, A. 11

Agamben, G. 14

agency 2–4, 116–17

and Christianity 233

and NDE (near-death experience) 259–60

in art 165

in cinematic dying 213

in Western literature 195–7

AIDS

See HIV/AIDS

Alexander VII, Pope, tomb of 174

Alzheimer’s disease 110, 153

American Academy of Neurology

See AAN

American Veterinary Medical Association, criteria for confirming death 32

Aminoff, B.Z. 11

Anatomy Act (1832) 127

anencephalic infants, as organ donors 60

Angels with Dirty Faces (1938, film) 222–3

Anil, M.H. 39

animal death

laboratory animals 33

lack of official criteria for 32

pets 33

slaughter animals 33–9

wildlife 39–41

animal death diagnosis, and human death diagnosis 41–2

animal dying 27–8

apnoea test 29–30, 59

Ariès, Philippe 13, 124–5, 128–9, 212

Images of Man and Death 163

Aristotle 147

Armstrong-Coster, A. 11

Ars Moriendi 170–1, 196

artificial respirators, invention of 28, 52

artworks (paintings)

Baroque to neoclassical 173–6

Classical 166–9

dying in 163–6

Expressionism 180–5

medieval and Renaissance 169–72

Romantics and realists 176–80

As You Like It (William Shakespeare) 157–8

Ascent of Souls to Heaven (1490, Hieronymus Bosch) 166

Ash Wednesday 244

Asia, guidelines for determining brain death in adults 59

Atonement (Ian McEwan) 153–5

Australia, guidelines for determining brain death in adults 59

autonomy, principle of 65

Away From Her (2006, film) 221

‘bad death’ 132, 137

Badham, P. 269

Barbato, Michael 89, 92

Bayeux Tapestry 169

BD (brain death)

in animals 34

in humans 29–32

Beaches (1988, film) 215

beautiful death 125–6, 128

Bede 188


Beecher, Henry K. 60

Beheading of St John the Baptist (c.1869, Puvis de Chavannes) 184

beneficence, principle of 65–6

Bernat, J.L. 62

Black Death (1348) 105, 126, 128–9, 133–4

Blackmore, D.K. 34

Body of the Dead Christ in the Tomb (1521, Hans Holbein) 164

bolt guns 36–8

Bosch, Hieronymus

Ascent of Souls to Heaven (1490) 166

Death of a Miser (1510) 170

Boswell, James 195–6

brainstem death 53, 54, 58

Braithwaite, Thomas 172

Breugel, Peter 172

Brian’s Song (1971, remade 2001 TV film) 225–6

Brierley, J.B. 62

Bronfen, Elizabeth 164, 182

Bucket List, The (2007, film) 220

Buffalmacco (fl 1320–1336), Triumph of Death 169–70

Bunyan, John, Pilgrim’s Progress 239

Cain 235

Calle, Sophie, Pas pu saisir la mort (2006) 183

Camille Monet, on her deathbed (1879, Claude Monet) 164

Canadian Neurocritical Care Group, guidelines for determining brain death in adults 58

cancer 111–12, 113

palliative care 78

Cannadine, David 140

captive bolt guns 36–8

care management

dying as linearity 5

of aged 7

Cassel, Eric J. 76, 87

cattle, stunning 37

cerebral angiography 28, 30

Cherny, Nathan I. 76

China, guidelines for determining brain death in adults 59

Chochinov, Harvery Max 76, 91

Christakis, N.B. 80–1

Christian tradition

betrayal and dying 244–6

death’s glory 246–8

engaging with the dead 243–4

Eucharist 241–3

‘greater love’ motif 250–1

transformations 248–50

chronologies of mentalities 128–9

cinematic dying 213, 227–9

celebrities 224–7

death row 222–4

fathers 217

gay young men 218–20

mothers 215–17

old age 220–2

‘women’s film’ genre 213–14

City Age 129

Clement XIII, Pope, tomb of 174

clerics, attendance at death 135–6

clinical death 54

CO2 gassing 38

coma dépassé 28–9, 52–3

Communion of Saints

See Christian tradition, engaging with the dead

compression of morbidity 110–11

consumption 125–6

convenience euthanasia, of pet animals 33

Copley, John Singleton, The Death of Lord Chatham (1781) 176

Cosmopolitan Age 113–14, 129

Cumming, E. 9

curative phase 80

Curl, James Steven 125

Dante Alighieri, Divine Comedy 239

Dark Victory (1939, film) 213–14

David, Jacques-Louis 175

Davies, Jon 250

Day of the Dead 243–4

dead-donor rule 32, 60–1

Dead Man Walking (1995, film) 223, 224

death

event vs process 53–4

most accepted definition 53

‘naturalness’ of 79

See also animal death, human death


Death and the Maiden (1915, Egon Schiele) 181–2

Death, Burial and the Individual in Early Modern England (Clare Gittings) 126

death feigning

See TI (tonic immobility)

Death in Venice (Thomas Mann) 193–5

Death of a Miser (1510, Hieronymous Bosch) 170

Death of General Wolfe (1770 Benjamin West) 175–6

Death of Germanicus (c.1627, Poussin) 173–4

Death of Ivan Ilych, The (Tolstoy) 160–1, 199–201

Death of Lord Chatham (1781, John Singleton Copley) 176

Death of Nelson (1806, Benjamin West) 176

Death of Sardanapalus (1827–8, Delacroix) 178

Death of Seneca (1615, Rubens) 173

Death of the Gravedigger (Carlos Schwabe) 180

Death of the Virgin Mary (Albrecht Dürer) 171–2

‘death with dignity’ 64–5, 91

deathbed narratives 138

deathbed visions 15–16, 256–7

Decius Mus cycle (c.1616, Rubens) 173

Delacroix, Eugène, The Death of Sardanapalus (1827–8) 178

Delany, M.W. 34

Delaroche, Paul, Execution of Lady Jane Grey (1833) 176, 184

dementia 11–12, 110

demographics 118–19

and historical studies 126

and palliative care 78

descriptions of dying 87–9

desire to die, palliative medicine 90

Dickens, Charles, Dombey and Son 191–2

Dickinson, Emily 190–1

dignity

palliative medicine 91

See also ‘death with dignity’

dirty dying 11, 263

disenfranchised dying

See indeterminacy

disengagement 8–11, 19

and Christianity 234

in art 165

in cinematic dying 213

disintegration 11–13

and Christianity 234

and NDE (near-death experience) 263–4

in cinematic dying 213

Divine Comedy (Dante) 239

Doctor, The (1891, Luke Fildes) 165–6, 179–80

Doctor’s Visit (c.1725, Egbert van Heemskerk III) 174–5

Dombey and Son (Dickens) 191–2

domesticity, and ‘good death’ 135–9

Dream of Gerontius, The (J.H. Newman) 149–50

Dürer, Albrecht, Death of the Virgin Mary 171–2

dying 17–19

academic interest in 1

and retrospect 158

as a journey

See linearity

as collapse

See disintegration

as form of living 149

as oscillation

See fluctuation

as personal control

See agency

as target metaphor in Western literature 201–2

as transformation

See transcendence

as withdrawal

See disengagement

from the day you’re born 147–8

lack of consensus 1–2

medical transition to 81

over-arching theories of, from palliative medicine 92–4

themes of study 2

Dying Gaul (statue) 167–8

Early Frost, An (1985, TV film) 218–19

Eberhardt, L.E. 41

EEG (electroencephalography) 28–9

Elliot, Gil 13–14, 115

emotions, and dying 139–42


end-of-life decisions 64–6

English Way of Death, The (Julian Litten) 126

Epicurus 51

epidemiological transition

adequacy of theories of 112–14

age of degenerative diseases 109

age of pestilence and famine 105–6, 108–9

theory of 104–5

Eucharist 241–3

Europe, guidelines for determining brain death in adults 59

euthanasia, end-of-life decisions 66

Evening (2007, film) 216–17

Execution of Lady Jane Grey (1833, Paul Delaroche) 176, 184

Execution of the Emperor Maximilian (1867, Édouard Manet) 177, 184

experiences, varieties of 152–5

Fading Away (1858, Henry Peach Robinson) 179

Family, Sex and Marriage in England, 1500–1800 (Lawrence Stone) 140

famine 108

Field, David 84

‘fighting cancer’ 12

Fildes, Luke, The Doctor (1891) 165–6, 179–80

final speeches 137

See also last words

Finland, adoption of brain death as definition of death 29, 58–9

First World War (1914–18) 126, 139

fluctuation 6–8, 117

and Christianity 233–4

and NDE (near-death experience) 261–2

in art 165–6

in cinematic dying 213

See also modest paradoxes, dying need not end in death

Flynn, C.P. 268

Fowler, R. 224

Fox, Renee 1, 4

François I at the Deathbed of Leonardo (1818, Ingres) 183

Fried Green Tomatoes (1991, film) 215

Fulton, R. 8–9

funerary rites

Christian 237, 240–1

historical study of 127–8

Jewish double burial 236

funerary sculpture 163, 166

futility 79

Gatrell, V.A.C. 137

Gaylin, D.S. 113

Genesis, Book of 235–6

Géricault, Théodore, Raft of the Medusa (1818–9) 177–8

Gerontius 149–50

Gethsemane, Garden of 244–5

Ghosts (Ibsen) 201–2, 206–7

Gittings, Clare, Death, Burial and the Individual in Early Modern England 126

Glaser, Barney 1, 4, 5

Godé-Darel, Valentine 182

‘good death’ 52, 81–3, 123–4, 142–3

and domesticity 135–9

and religion 133–4

Europe 2–3, 129–34

Good Friday 245–6

‘good enough’ death 82–3

Gould, Glenn 76

Goulon, M. 52–3, 64

Goya, Francisco 176–7

Graham, Barbara

See I Want to Live! (1958, film)

Green Mile, The (1999, film) 224

Greshem, Joy

See Shadowlands (1993, film)

Guantánamo Bay, US Camp Delta 115–16

Guide me, O Thou Great Jehovah (William Williams) 239–40

Halal slaughter 35

happily ever after 195

heart disease 111

Heemskerk, Egbert van, III, Doctor’s Visit (c.1725) 174–5

Heidegger, Martin 147, 237


Henry, W.E. 9

‘heroism’ in death 12

Hinton, John 1, 4, 93

historical studies of dying 123–4, 124–9

HIV/AIDS 107, 118

cinematic representation of 218–20

dying as collapse 12

dying as not recognised 14

dying as oscillation 7

Hochschild, A.R. 9

Hodler, Ferdinand 182

Hogarth, William 174

Holbein, Hans, The Body of the Dead Christ in the Tomb (1521) 164

Holland, Henry Scott 192–3

hollow skull sign 56–7

Holy Grail 244–5

hooks, bell 211–13

Horrox, Rosemary 130–1

horses, stunning 37

Houlbrooke, Ralph 3, 138, 139–40

How we die (Sherwin Nuland) 11, 14, 76, 102, 109–11

Hughes, Ted 197

human death

anatomy of 54–5

and organ harvesting/donation 32, 60–1

definition of/criteria for 28–9

BD (brain death) 29–32

brainstem death 53, 54

validity of 58

future developments 66–7

heartbeat as 51

neocortical death 62–4

opposition to brain-centered definition 61–2

whole brain death 54, 55

geographic variations 58–9

historical understanding of 51–3

medical tests for 55–7

predicting 80–1

hunting of animals 40

hydration, when dying 81

I Want to Live! (1958, film) 223, 224

Ibsen, H., Ghosts 201–2, 206–7

ICD (International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems) 101–2

identity maintenance 3

Images of Man and Death (Philippe Ariès) 163

impression management 3

indeterminacy 13–15, 117–18

and Christianity 234

and NDE (near-death experience) 264

in cinematic dying 213

Industry and Idleness (1747, Hogarth) 174

infant mortality 126

infectious diseases

See epidemiological transition, age of pestilence and famine, HIV/AIDS, malaria, TB (tuberculosis)

Ingres, François I at the Deathbed of Leonardo (1818) 183

Intra-Venus (1991–2, Hannah Wilke) 184

Ireland, potato famine 108–9

Iris (2001, film) 221, 224

irreversible coma 29, 53

See also coma dépassé

Isenheim Crucifixion (Grünewald) 164

Jalland, P. 4, 134, 138–9, 140, 141

James, Nicky 84

Japan, guidelines for determining brain death in adults 59

Jesus 233

pictures of crucifixion 169

Jouvet, M. 29

Judaeo-Christian tradition

and dying 233–4

Christian developments 237–51

dying to self 234–5

Jewish roots 235–7

Jung, Carl 268

justice, principle of 66

Kalish, R.A. 9

Kastenbaum, Robert 158–61

Kates, J. 113

Kearney, Michael 76, 87


Keats, John 204–6

Kellehear, Allan 14, 147, 150, 261

A Social History of Dying 113–14, 129

Kierkegaard, Sören, Sickness unto Death 237

Kleinman, Arthur 76

Knox, S. 212

Kosher slaughter 35

Kraemer, David 236–7

Kübler-Ross, Elizabeth, On Death and Dying 1, 13, 88, 93, 261

Kübler-Ross Foundation 216

laboratory animals, determination and evaluation of death 33

Lakoff, G. 189

Lakotta, Beate 184

Laocoön and His Sons (sculpture) 164

last rites 130–1

last words 158, 159–60

See also final speeches

Lawton, Julia 11, 86–7

Levenson, Jon D. 235–6

Lewis, C.S.

See Shadowlands (1993, film)

Life as a House (2001, film) 217

life expectancy 104

linearity 4–6, 17, 117

and Christianity 233

and NDE (near-death experience) 260–1

in art 165

in Western literature 190–5

literature

See Western literature

Litten, Julian, The English Way of Death 126

Longtime Companion (1990, film) 219

Love Story (1970, film) 214

lucid interval 88

Lunney, J.R. 6

Lynn, Joanne 78

Maccabean Revolt 236–7

MacIntyre, Alasdair 155–6

Macklin, Ruth 91

MacLeod, Roderick D. 76, 87

Mahon, M. 212

Maimonides, Moses 52

malaria 106

malnutrition 108

Malpas, Jeff 155

Manet, Édouard, Execution of the Emperor Maximilian (1867) 177, 184

Mann, Michael 115

Mann, Thomas, Death in Venice 193–5

Mapplethorpe, Robert, Self-Portrait (1988) 183–4

Marriage à la Mode (c.1743, Hogarth) 174

Marshall, V.W. 9

masses for the dead 243

Maundy Thursday 244

McEwan, Ian, Atonement 153–5

McIlwain, C. 211

McKinstry, J.L. 39

McManners, J. 4

McNamara, Beverley 11, 82

Metamorphoses (Ovid) 197

Millais, John Everett, Ophelia (1851–2) 179

modest paradoxes 148–9

dying can happen to a person more than once 152

dying need not end in death 151

while death is universal, dying is not 149–51

Mollaret, P. 52–3, 64

Monet, Claude, Camille Monet, on her Deathbed (1879) 164

Montaigne, M. 147, 196

Moody, R.A. 253

Morley, John 125

mortality statistics 100

problems with

dependence on International Classification of Diseases 101–2

inaccuracies in data gathering 102–3

insufficient data 100–1

political and policy priorities 103–4

MRSA 113

Munch, Edvard, Sick Child (1885) 180–1


Murdoch, Iris

See Iris (2001, film)

My Life (1993, film) 217

Nantes Triptych (2002, Bill Viola) 183

narrative perspective 155–8

‘naturalness’ of death 79

NDE (near-death experience) 267–9

and agency 259–60

and disengagement 262–3

and disintegration 263–4

and fluctuation 261–2

and indeterminacy 264

and linearity 260–1

and the study of dying 257–9

and transcendence 15, 16–17, 265–7

biomedical aspects 51, 255–6

characteristics of 253–4

polarization of views about 19

research on 254–6

See also deathbed visions

neocortical death 62–4

New Poor Law (1834) 127

New Zealand, guidelines for determining brain death in adults 59

Newman, J.H., The Dream of Gerontius 149–50

Noah 235

non-penetrating captive bolt 36–7

Notebook, The (2004, film) 221

Noys, B. 14, 115

Nuland, Sherwin B., How We Die 11, 14, 76, 102, 109–11

nutrition, when dying 81

Ode on a Grecian Urn (Keats) 205

Ode to a Nightingale (Keats) 205

Ode to Autumn (Keats) 206

Ode to Psyche (Keats) 204–5

old age

as cause of death 101–2, 109

dying as oscillation 6–8

Omran, A.R. 104–5

On Death and Dying (Elizabeth Kübler-Ross) 1, 13, 88, 93, 261

On Golden Pond (1981, film) 222

One True Thing (1998, film) 216

Ophelia (1851–2, Millais) 179

organ harvesting/donation

and human death 32, 60–1

See also volunteering for experimental medical research

Ovid, Metamorphoses 197

paintings

See artworks (paintings)

palliative medicine

as death-denying 84–5

descriptions of dying 87–9

desire to die 90

development of 84

dignity 91

literature on dying 78

nature of suffering 87

over-arching theories of dying 92–4

quality of life 91–2

recognition of dying process 79

research 85–6

symptom prevalence 86

terminal sedation 89–90

therapeutic approaches 86–7

transitions from curative 79–81

palliative phase 80

Pallis, C. 54

papal rulings, on moment of death and artificial extension of life 53

papal tombs 174

paradoxes

See modest paradoxes

Pas pu saisir la mort (2006, Sophie Calle) 183

Passing On (David Sudnow) 12

Passing, The (2002, Bill Viola) 183

Passover 241

Pastoral Age 129

Paul, resurrection and transformation 248–50

Pausch, Randy 226–7

Peck, D. 103–4

penetrating captive bolt 37

pet animals, determination and evaluation of death 33

Philadelphia (1993, film) 219–20

philosophy, and dying 147–8

Picasso, Pablo 182

pigs, stunning 37

Pilgrim’s Progress (Bunyan) 239

Pittsburgh protocol (1993) 55–6

Pius XII, Pope 53

Plath, Sylvia 190–1


popular culture, portrayal of dying in 211–12

Postman Always Rings Twice, The (1946, film) 223

post-mortem body movements 56

Poussin, Nicolas 173–4

pregnant brain dead women, maintenance of 61

Prejean, Helen

See Dead Man Walking (1995, film)

President’s Commission Report 29, 31

Pride of the Yankees (1942, film) 224–5

public executions 137

See also cinematic dying, death row

purgatory 243

Puvis de Chavannes, Pierre, Beheading of St John the Baptist (c.1869) 184

quality of life, palliative medicine 91–2

Queen Victoria and Prince Albert in Saxon Dress (1863–7, William Theed the Younger) 165

Raft of the Medusa (1818–9, Théodore Géricault) 177–8

Rapture 249

religion, and ‘good death’ 133–4

religious slaughter 35

respirator brain 55

Rice, J.L. 200

Rilke, Rainer Maria 202–4

Ring, K. 253, 261, 268, 269

rites 4–5

Robinson, Henry Peach, Fading Away (1858) 179

Ross, Ellen 141–2

Rubens, Peter Paul

Death of Seneca (1615) 173

Decius Mus (c.1616) cycle 173

Saunders, Cicely 76

scared to death, in death feigning animals 41

Schels, Walter 184

Schiele, Egon, Death and the Maiden (1915) 181–2

Schut, H. 92

Schwabe, Carlos, The Death of the Gravedigger 180

Schweitzer, Albert 268

Scoggin, W.F. 9–10

Seale, C. 4, 12

Segers, K. 221, 222

Self-Portrait (1988, Robert Mapplethorpe) 183–4

Seneca, L.A. 150

Sergeant, A.B. 41

Shadowlands (1993, film) 214, 224

Shakespeare, William, As You Like It 157–8

Shechita slaughter 35

Shewmon, Alan 61

Sick Child (1885, Edvard Munch) 180–1

Sickness unto Death (Kierkegaard) 237

Siddal, Elizabeth 179

Six Feet Under (TV drama) 211

slaughter animals, determination and evaluation of death 33–9

Small, N. 7

smallpox 125

‘social death’ 8, 136

Social History of Dying (Allan Kellehear) 113–14, 129

Socrates 175, 196

Sontag, Susan 125

Sourvinou-Inwood, S. 4

St Francis Borgia at the Deathbed of an Impenitent (1788, Goya) 176

Stations of the Cross 246

status passage, dying as 5

Steel Magnolias (1989, film) 215–16

Steinhauser, K.E. 81–2

Stepmom (1998, film) 215

sticking (of animals for exsanguination) 35

Stone, Lawrence, Family, Sex and Marriage in England, 1500–1800 140

Strauss, Anselm 1, 4, 5

Stroebe, M.S. 92–3

stroke 112

stunning 34–5, 39

captive bolt 36–8

electrical 179–80

See also religious slaughter


Sudnow, David, Passing On: The Social Organization of Dying 12

suffering, medical nature of 87

suicide 2, 114–15

super locked-in syndrome 54–5

Sutherland, C. 262

syphilis 125

Tait, Archbishop 140

Takahashi, L.M. 14

Tallis, Briony 153–5

Tarlow, Sarah 127, 141

TB (tuberculosis) 106–7

terminal illness, agency 2–3

terminal phase 80

terminal sedation 89–90

terminal, meaning of 79

Terms of Endearment (1983, film) 215

Testament of Eudamidas (1643–4, Poussin) 173–4

Theed, William, the Younger, Queen Victoria and Prince Albert in Saxon dress (1863–7) 165

TI (tonic immobility) 40–1

Tolstoy, L., The Death of Ivan Ilych 160–1, 199–201

tonic immobility

See TI

Too Late (1858, William Windus) 179

Toynbee, Arnold 268

Trajan’s Column 168–9

trajectory, dying as 5

transcendence 15–17, 18

and Christianity 234

and NDE (near-death experience) 15, 16–17, 265–7

in art 166

in cinematic dying 213

in Western literature 197–201

transformation

See transcendence

transubstantiation 242

Triumph of Death (Buffalmacco, fl. 1320–1336) 169–70

Tuesdays With Morrie (1999, TV film) 226

Turner, M. 189

Two Weeks (2006, film) 216

uncertainty of dying 17

Uniform Determination of Death Act 29, 58

Unton, Sir Henry 172

US Collaborative Study of Cerebral Death (1997) 58

Van Gennep, A. 4–5

vegetative patients

as organ donors 60–1

end-of-life decisions 65

See also neocortical death

verbal autopsy 103

Vincent, David 140–1

Viola, Bill 183

violence 115–16

volunteering for experimental medical research 3

Vovelle, Michel 76

Walter, Tony 13, 14

war

See First World War (1914–18)

Warhol, Andy 182–3

waterboarding 151

West, Benjamin

Death of General Wolfe (1770) 175–6

Death of Nelson (1806) 176

Western literature

and dying as a journey 190–5

and dying as control 195–7

and dying as target metaphor 201–2

and dying as transformation 197–201

and the artist’s own death 202–6

dying in 188–9, 206–7

whole brain death 54, 55

Wilke, Hannah, Intra-Venus (1991–2) 184

will-making 172

Williams, William, Guide me, O Thou Great Jehovah 239–40

Windus, William, Too Late (1858) 179

Winnicott, D. W. 82–3

Wit (2001, TV film) 217–18

Wittgenstein, Ludwig 51

Witzel, L. 4, 88, 93

Wordsworth, W. 197–8

Yeats, W.B. 196–7




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