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Radiology for Anaesthesia and Intensive Care

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  • 396 b/w illus. 28 tables
  • Page extent: 328 pages
  • Size: 234 x 156 mm
  • Weight: 0.7 kg

Paperback

 (ISBN-13: 9780521735636)

Radiology for Anaesthesia and Intensive Care
Cambridge University Press
9780521735636 - Radiology for Anaesthesia and Intensive Care - By Richard Hopkins, Carol Peden and Sanjay Gandhi
Index

Index

abdominal aortic aneurysm 86–8

abdominal CTs 63–4

abdominal paracentesis 273–4

abdominal trauma

blunt renal trauma 117

Chance fracture of L4 114–15

diaphragm rupture 104–5

focused abdominal sonogram for trauma (FAST) 106

liver trauma 110–12

splenic laceration 106–9

abdominal X-rays 60, 62

bowel gas pattern 48, 60

calcification 61

solid organs 60

acalculous cholecystitis 276–7

achalasia 43, 78–9

acoustic neuroma 223–4

air space shadowing 15

airway management 155

anaesthesia

challenges 210

diagnostic radiology 211

hazards to anaesthetists 210

monitoring 210

safe management of patients 210

sedation versus anaesthesia 211–12

angiography

See CT angiography, MR angiography

angiotensin II 85

anisotropy 289

ankylosing spondylitis 150–2

anterior mediastinal masses 41–2

aortic aneurysm rupture 86

aortic arch 57

aortic dissection 38

aortic injury 97–9

appendicitis 74

appendoliths 74

ARDS 49–50

aspiration of foreign body 23–4

atrial enlargement 46

atrial septal defect 47–8

biliary stent 235–6

bladder injuries 118–19

blunt abdominal trauma

See abdominal trauma

blunt chest trauma 100–2

Boerhaave's syndrome 33

bowel gas pattern 60

extraluminal gas 72–3

small bowel infarction 92

small bowel obstruction 65–7

bowel trauma 114–15

brain glioma 203–4

brain injury 205–8

caecal volvulus 70

calcification 61, 74

Caplan's syndrome 147

cardiac enlargement 34–5, 44–8

cardiac injury 103

cavitating malignancy 55

central line insertion 271–2

central pontine myelinolysis (CPM) 227

cerebral contusions 206

cerebral infarction 195–9

cerebral metastasis 200–2

cervical spine

airway management with fractures 155

ankylosing spondylitis 150–2

clay shoveler's fracture 169–70

craniocervical junction 144–5

diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) 154

extension teardrop fracture 163

flexion teardrop injury 164–5

hangman's fracture 161–2

imaging 130–3

importance in intubation 130

injury 139–41

Jefferson fracture 157–8

lateral view 138–9

locked facet injuries 166–8

occipito-atlantal dissociation 156

odontoid fracture 159

open mouth AP radiograph 136–7

pre-cervical haematoma 136

rheumatoid arthritis 145–9

segments 130

soft tissue contour 134

unconscious/obtunded patients 140

cervical spondylosis 143, 225–6

Chance fracture of L4 114–15

chest trauma

aortic injury 97–9

blunt chest trauma 100–2

cardiac injury 103, 285

pulmonary contusion 102–3

steering wheel injuries 100

chest X-rays

air space shadowing 15

bones 6

diaphragm 5

heart and mediastinum 4–5

interpretation 6–8

interstitial pattern shadowing 26

labels 2

large airways, lungs and pleura 3, 4

opacification 7, 8, 14, 17

projection and patient position 2–3

quality of film 3

review areas 6, 57

side marker 3

silhouette sign 7

soft tissues 6

children 211, 220

cholangiogram 235–6

cholecystitis 276–7

cirrhosis 238–9, 273

claustrophobia 211

clay shoveler's fracture 169–70

Clostridium difficile 68

colitis

necrotizing enterocolitis 76

pan colitis 72

pseudomembranous 68–9

collapsed lung 29

colonic diverticulitis 80

colo-rectal stents 241

compartment syndrome 123–5

competency-based training and assessment xvi

contrast medium 175, 215

craniocervical junction 144–5

CT angiography 85, 247–8

complications 245

CT-guided lung biopsy 233–4

CT pulmonary angiography 36–7

CT scans

acute subdural haematoma 187–9

analysis 176, 181

attenuation 173

brain injury 205–8

cerebral infarction 195–9

cerebral metastasis 200–2

extradural haematoma 190–1

Hounsfield units 173

image formation 173

intracerebral haematoma 192–4

intravenous contrast medium 175

malignant brain glioma 203–4

MRI versus CT 216

multi-slice CT 174

protocol variables 175–6

spiral CT 174

subarachnoid haemorrhage 182–3

tissue density 173

windowing 173–4

degenerative cervical spondylosis 225–6

dens fracture

See odontoid fracture

dextrocardia 3

diagnostic radiology 211

diaphragm rupture 104–5

diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) 154

discitis 230–1

diverticular abscess 80–1

Doppler ultrasound 254

duplex ultrasound 246, 254

echocardiography 279

focused echocardiography 283

left ventricular function 281–2

pre-operative 282

stress echocardiography 282

training 283

transoesophageal (TOE) 282–3

transthoracic (TTE) 279–81

Eisenmenger syndrome 47

emergency patients 211

endotracheal tubes 40

endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) 87–8

epidural abscess 230–1

extension teardrop fracture 163

faecoliths 74

fasciotomy 123

fat embolism 123

femoral fractures 122–5

intertrochanteric fracture of the hip 126–7

femoral nerve block 301–2

flexion teardrop injury 164–5

focused abdominal sonogram for trauma (FAST) 106

focused echocardiography 283

FRCA examination xv–xvi

gadolinium 215

gallstones 60

Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) 183–4

glioma 203–4

haemothorax 103

Hampton's hump 36

hangman's fracture 161–2

head injuries 190, 205–7

hiatal hernia 43

hip fractures 126–7

Hounsfield units 173

HU values

See Hounsfield units

ileocaecal valve 71

inferior vena cava (IVC) filters 242–3, 245

intensive care patients 220

intensive care units

echocardiography

See echocardiography

ultrasound 255

interstitial pattern shadowing 26

intertrochanteric fracture of the hip 126–7

interventional radiology 232

intracerebral haematoma 192–4

intracranial sinus thrombosis 229

intravenous contrast medium 175

intussusception 77

Jefferson fracture 157–8

juvenile rheumatoid arthritis 148–9

kidneys 60

kidney stones 60, 61

kidney trauma 117

kyphoscoliosis 56

lap belt injury 114

large bowel obstruction 70–1

laryngoscopy 130

left ventricular function 281–2

leg ischaemia 246

liver 60

cirrhosis 238–9, 273

portal hypertension 238–9

liver trauma 110–12

lobar collapse 19–21

locked facet injuries 166–8

lung biopsy 233–4

contraindications 233

lung cavitation 54–5

lung collapse

See lobar collapse, collapsed lung

malignant brain glioma 203–4

mediastinal masses 41–2

micro-shock 220

miliary nodules 27–8

mitral valve disease 46

MR angiography 85, 215, 246–9

complications 248–9

MRI

anaesthesia 219–20

anaesthetic monitoring 216

bioeffects of electromagnetic radiation 218

contraindications 218

contrast agents 215

CT versus MRI 216

hazards 218, 221

image formation 212–13

intensive care 220

magnetic field strength and ferromagnetic attraction 216–17

main uses 212

micro-shock 220

monitoring patients 219

tissue contrast 213–15

multi-slice CT 174

nasogastric tubes 39

National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) 218

necrotizing enterocolitis 76

needle gauge 265

needle visualization 259–69

problems and tips 268–9

needling technique 292–3

neuronal tissue 293–4

obesity 293, 294

occipito-atlantal dissociation 156

odontoid fracture 159

oesophageal stents 240–1

oesophagectomy 43

oesophagus 78

opaque hemithorax 28–9

open book pelvic fractures 120

orotracheal intubation 130

pan colitis 72

pancreatitis 60, 89–91

paralytic ileus 71

patient archiving and communication systems (PACS) xiii

pelvic trauma

bladder injuries 118–19

Chance fracture of L4 114–15

complications of fractures 120–1

femoral fractures 122–5

intertrochanteric fracture of the hip 126–7

percutaneous tracheostomy 275

percutaneous transhepatic cholangiogram (PTC) 235–6

pericardial effusion 44, 285

pericardial tamponade 103, 285

peripheral nerve stimulation 287, 293–5

Pneumocystis pneumonia 17–18

pneumomediastinum 33

pneumonia 14–16

pneumoperitoneum 77

pneumothorax 3, 31–2, 103

lung biopsy 233–4

portal hypertension 238–9

porto-systemic shunts 233, 239

pre-operative assessment xix–xx

pre-operative echocardiography 282

pseudomembranous colitis 68–9

pulmonary contusion 102–3

pulmonary embolism 36–7, 286

inferior vena cava (IVC) filters 242–5

pulmonary fibrosis 25

pulmonary hypertension 46–8

pulmonary nodules 27–8, 52–5

pulmonary oedema 33–5

pulmonary venous hypertension 34

radio-isotope ventilation/perfusion scanning 37

Ranson criteria 90

regional anaesthesia

See ultrasound-guided regional anaesthesia

Reidl's lobe 60

renal artery stenosis 84–5

renal tract stones

See kidney stones

renal trauma 117

rheumatoid arthritis 145–9

ring enhancing lesions 203–4

scoliosis 56

sedation 211–12

sigmoid volvulus 70

silhouette sign 7

sinus thrombosis 229

small bowel infarction 92–3

small bowel obstruction 65–7

spinal stenosis 225–6

spiral CT 174

spleen 60

splenic laceration 106–9

spondylosis 143, 225

stress echocardiography 282

stroke

See cerebral infarction

subarachnoid haemorrhage 182–3

anaesthetic management 183–5

common causes 185

complications 186

further investigations 185–6

subdural haematoma 187–9

superior sagittal sinus thrombosis 229

tamponade 285

tension pneumothorax 31–2

thrombo-embolic disease

inferior vena cava (IVC) filters 242–3, 245

tracheostomy 275

transjugular intrahepatic porto-systemic shunt (TIPS) 237–9

transoesophageal echocardiography (TOE) 282–3

transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) 279–81

transversus abdominus plane (TAP) block 303–4

trauma

abdominal

See abdominal trauma

chest

See chest trauma

pelvic

See pelvic trauma

ultrasound

abdomen 256–7

abdominal paracentesis 273–4

acalculous cholecystitis 276–7

advantages and disadvantages 259

central line insertion 271–2

coarse gain 253

colour Doppler and power Doppler 254

depth control 254

Doppler ultrasound 254–5

duplex Doppler 254

focused abdominal sonogram for trauma (FAST) 106

image display 253–4

image formation 251–2

intensive care units 255

musculoskeletal 259

optimizing the image 255

percutaneous tracheostomy 275

probe frequency 253

thoracic 255–6

time gain compensator (TGC) 253

use in anaesthesia 251

vascular 257–9

ultrasound-guided procedures 259–60

angles of approach of the needle 267

background medium 266

checks prior to passing the interventional needle 268

depth 263

focus 262

hand position 264–5

initial scan 263–4

longitudinal or transverse approach 266–7

needle gauge 265

needle visualization 265, 266

objectives 260

probe covers and patient preparation 264

probe frequency 262

probes 261–2

problems and tips 268–9

time gain compensator (TGC) 263

ultrasound-guided regional anaesthesia 287–8

anatomy 295

anisotropy 289

appearance of nerves 293–4

application 294–5

femoral nerve block 301–2

frequency, resolution and depth 288–9

interscalene approach to the brachial plexus 299

machines 288

needles and needling technique 292–3

patients 293

techniques 295–8

transversus abdominus plane (TAP) block 303–4

unconscious patients 140

ureteric obstruction 82–3

valsalva manoeuvre 275

Volkmann contracture 123




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