Cambridge Catalogue  
  • Help
Home > Catalogue > An Introduction to Word Grammar
An Introduction to Word Grammar

Details

  • 106 b/w illus. 12 tables
  • Page extent: 348 pages
  • Size: 247 x 174 mm
  • Weight: 0.69 kg

Paperback

 (ISBN-13: 9780521721646)

An Introduction to Word Grammar
Cambridge University Press
9780521896900 - An Introduction to Word Grammar - By Richard Hudson
Frontmatter/Prelims

An Introduction to Word Grammar

Word Grammar is a theory of language structure based on the assumption that language, and indeed the whole of knowledge, is a network, and that virtually all of knowledge is learned. It combines the psychological insights of cognitive linguistics with the rigour of more formal theories. This textbook spans a broad range of topics from prototypes, activation and default inheritance to the details of syntactic, morphological and semantic structure. It introduces elementary ideas from cognitive science and uses them to explain the structure of language including a survey of English grammar.

Richard Hudson is Emeritus Professor of Linguistics at University College London. His recent publications include Language Networks: the New Word Grammar (2007).


CAMBRIDGE TEXTBOOKS IN LINGUISTICS

General editors:

P. Austin
J. Bresnan
B. Comrie
S. Crain
W. Dressler
C. Ewen
R. Lass
D. Lightfoot
K. Rice
I. Roberts
S. Romaine
N. V. Smith

An Introduction to Word Grammar

In this series:

P. H. Matthews Syntax

A. Radford Transformational Syntax

L. Bauer English Word-Formation

S. C. Levinson Pragmatics

G. Brown and G. Yule Discourse Analysis

R. Huddleston Introduction to the Grammar of English

R. Lass Phonology

B. Comrie Tense

W. Klein Second Language Acquisition

A. J. Woods, P. Fletcher and A. Hughes Statistics in Language Studies

D. A. Cruse Lexical Semantics

A. Radford Transformational Grammar

M. Garman Psycholinguistics

G. G. Corbett Gender

H. J. Giegerich English Phonology

R. Cann Formal Semantics

J. Laver Principles of Phonetics

F. R. Palmer Grammatical Roles and Relations

M. A. Jones Foundations of French Syntax

A. Radford Syntactic Theory and the Structure of English: A Minimalist Approach

R. D. Van Valin, JR, and R. J. Lapolla Syntax: Structure, Meaning and Function

A. Duranti Linguistic Anthropology

A. Cruttenden Intonation Second edition

J. K. Chambers and P. Trudgill Dialectology Second edition

C. Lyons Definiteness

R. Kager Optimality Theory

J. A. Holm An Introduction to Pidgins and Creoles

G. G. Corbett Number

C. J. Ewen and H. Van Der Hulst The Phonological Structure of Words

F. R. Palmer Mood and Modality Second edition

B. J. Blake Case Second edition

E. Gussman Phonology: Analysis and Theory

M. Yip Tone

W. Croft Typology and Universals Second edition

F. Coulmas Writing Systems: An Introduction to their Linguistic Analysis

P. J. Hopper and E. C. Traugott Grammaticalization Second edition

L. White Second Language Acquisition and Universal Grammar

I. Plag Word-Formation in English

W. Croft and A. Cruse Cognitive Linguistics

A. Siewierska Person

A. Radford Minimalist Syntax: Exploring the Structure of English

D. BÜRing Binding Theory

M. Butt Theories of Case

N. Hornstein, J. NuÑES and K. Grohmann Understanding Minimalism

B. C. Lust Child Language: Acquisition and Growth

G. G. Corbett Agreement

J. C. L. Ingram Neurolinguistics: An Introduction to Spoken Language Processing and its Disorders

J. Clackson Indo-European Linguistics: An Introduction

M. Ariel Pragmatics and Grammar

R. Cann, R. Kempson and E. Gregoromichelaki Semantics: An Introduction to Meaning in Language

Y. Matras Language Contact

D. Biber and S. Conrad Register, Genre and Style

L. Jeffries and D. Mcintyre Stylistics

R. Hudson An Introduction to Word Grammar


An Introduction to Word Grammar

Richard Hudson


CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS
Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore, São Paulo, Delhi, Dubai, Tokyo

Cambridge University Press
The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2 8RU, UK

Published in the United States of America by Cambridge University Press, New York

www.cambridge.org
Information on this title: www.cambridge.org/9780521721646
© Richard Hudson 2010

This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part may take place without the written permission of Cambridge University Press.

First published 2010
Printed in the United Kingdom at the University Press, Cambridge

A catalogue record for this publication is available from the British Library

Library of Congress Cataloguing in Publication data

Hudson, Richard A.
An introduction to word grammar / Richard Hudson.
p. cm. – (Cambridge textbooks in linguistics)
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 978-0-521-89690-0 (hardback) – ISBN 978-0-521-72164-6 (pbk.)
1. English language–Grammar. I. Title. II. Series.
PE1112.H823 2010 428.2–dc22
2010022104

ISBN 978-0-521-89690-0 Hardback
ISBN 978-0-521-72164-6 Paperback
Additional resources for this publication at www.cambridge.org/hudson

Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence or accuracy of URLs for external or third-party internet websites referred to in this publication, and does not guarantee that any content on such websites is, or will remain, accurate or appropriate.


Contents

List of figures
x
List of tables
xiii
Acknowledgements
xv
Introduction
1
Part I    How the mind works
5
1         Introduction to cognitive science
7
2         Categorization
9
2.1       Concepts, categories and exemplars
9
2.2       Taxonomies and the isA relation
12
2.3       Generalizations and inheritance
16
2.4       Multiple inheritance and choices
22
2.5       Default inheritance and prototype effects
24
2.6       Social categories and stereotypes
30
3         Network structure
34
3.1       Concepts, percepts, feelings and actions
34
3.2       Relational concepts, arguments and values
37
3.3       Choices, features and cross-classification
44
3.4       Examples of relational taxonomies
47
3.5       The network notion, properties and default inheritance
57
3.6       Do networks need modularity?
63
4         Network activity
70
4.1       Activation and long-term memory
70
4.2       Activation and working memory
73
4.3       Building and learning exemplar nodes
80
4.4       Building induced nodes
83
4.5       Building inherited nodes
87
4.6       Binding nodes together
91
Part II   How language works
101
5         Introduction to linguistics
103
5.1       Description
103
5.2       Detail
104
5.3       Data
105
5.4       Differences
105
5.5       Divisions
106
5.6       Developments
108
6         Words as concepts
109
6.1       Types and tokens
109
6.2       Word properties
114
6.3       Word-classes
117
6.4       Grammaticality
118
6.5       Lexemes and inflections
121
6.6       Definitions and efficiency
127
6.7       Morphology and lexical relations
131
6.8       Social properties of words
136
6.9       Levels of analysis
138
7         Syntax
145
7.1       Dependencies and phrases
145
7.2       Valency
154
7.3       Morpho-syntactic features, agreement and unrealized words
162
7.4       Default word order
168
7.5       Coordination
175
7.6       Special word orders
181
7.7       Syntax without modules
189
8         Using and learning language
193
8.1       Accessibility and frequency
193
8.2       Retrieving words
197
8.3       Tokens and types in listening and speaking
202
8.4       Learning generalizations
205
8.5       Using generalizations
209
8.6       Binding in word-recognition, parsing and pragmatics
212
8.7       Meaning
220
8.8       Social meaning
241
Part III  How English works
247
9         Introduction to English linguistics
249
10        English words
251
10.1      Word-classes
251
10.2      Inflections
255
10.3      Word-class properties
260
10.4      Morphology and lexical relations
270
10.5      Social properties
276
11        English syntax
279
11.1      Dependencies
279
11.2      Valency
285
11.3      Features, agreement and unrealized lexemes
296
11.4      Default word order
301
11.5      Coordination
304
11.6      Special word orders
307
References
317
Index
322

Figures

2.1         A menu taxonomy in traditional notation
15
2.2         A menu taxonomy in Word Grammar notation
15
2.3         The sea-thrush inherits from ‘bird’ and ‘creature’
17
2.4         The searcher climbs step by step but the copier sends copies directly
20
2.5         Only exemplars inherit properties
21
2.6         Multiple inheritance
23
2.7         The Nixon diamond
24
2.8         An exception creates an inheritance conflict
29
2.9         ‘Me’ as goal-keeper
31
3.1         The Necker cube (A) with its two interpretations (B, C)
35
3.2         A concept such as ‘cat’ may be linked to percepts, emotions and motor skills
37
3.3         Properties shown as links
39
3.4         Properties shown as labelled links
40
3.5         Social relations shown as labelled links
41
3.6         Relations shown as a taxonomy
42
3.7         New relations are defined in terms of existing ones
43
3.8         Sex as a choice between ‘male’ and ‘female’
45
3.9         Man, boy, woman and girl defined
47
3.10        A taxonomy of family relations
49
3.11        How three of the Simpsons are related
49
3.12        Four interactive relations and their default behaviours
51
3.13        Figure or ground?
53
3.14        Landmarks tend to be local
54
3.15        ‘Before’ and ‘after’ isA ‘landmark’
56
3.16        Typical cars are fuelled by petrol and have their motor in front
60
3.17        Grandparents are parents’ parents and great- grandparents are grandparents’ parents
60
3.18        Petrol is the default car fuel, and diesel is an exception
62
3.19        A car’s motor is in front by default, and only exceptionally in the rear
63
3.20        From meaning to sound in the brain
66
4.1         Activation spreads indiscriminately from a node to all its neighbours
75
4.2         How to retrieve Jack’s birthday
78
4.3         Three bird exemplars have wings and a beak
85
4.4         A schema for ‘bird’ has been induced from a number of exemplars
86
4.5         How to inherit a mother
88
4.6         What you know about a bird exemplar
93
4.7         What you know about ‘bird’
96
4.8         What you know about bird E
96
4.9         You decide that E isA ‘bird’
97
6.1         Types and tokens distinguished
112
6.2         Traditional word-classes as a taxonomy
118
6.3         Inheritance in a taxonomy of word-classes
119
6.4         How the lexeme BOOK is related to the inflection ‘plural’
123
6.5         Forms realize words, and word-forms are variants of other forms
133
6.6         Two kinds of morphological exception
134
6.7         Inflections and lexical relations are different
136
6.8         The architecture of language
142
7.1         Two syntactic analyses of Cows eat grass.
148
7.2         Two syntactic analyses of Hungry cows eat grass.
150
7.3         The difference between subjects and adjuncts in a simple example
153
7.4         A general taxonomy of dependencies
155
7.5         Typical words need a parent, but finite verbs don’t
157
7.6         A triangle in syntax and in kinship
161
7.7         Plural nouns have exceptional plural number
165
7.8         Three alternative analyses of the imperative Hurry!
166
7.9         Landmarks shadow dependencies
170
7.10        How tangled dependencies show bad word order
171
7.11        The triangular dependencies of He keeps talking.
174
7.12        Syntactic triangles can be multiplied freely
174
7.13        Coordinated words share the same dependency
177
7.14        Any dependency can be shared by multiple parents or dependents
177
7.15        Coordinated items depend on the conjunction
178
7.16        Coordinating conjunctions have dependents but no parent
178
7.17        Word strings accommodate non-constituent coordination
180
7.18        One coordination may contain another
180
7.19        An extracted object
184
7.20        A grammar for simple extraction
185
7.21        Long-distance dependency
186
7.22        Subordinate questions with and without extraction
188
8.1         GOOD is more frequent than BAD
196
8.2         When speaking, thinking of ‘cat’ evokes /kat/
198
8.3         Stages in the learning of the lexeme CAT
208
8.4         How to recognize {cat} and CAT
214
8.5         The Stroop effect
215
8.6         How to parse a simple sentence
217
8.7         Verbs as well as nouns have a sense and a referent
225
8.8         The semantics of plural and past inflections
227
8.9         How a dependent’s referent most typically affects the sense of its parent
229
8.10        Coreference between a determiner and its complement
230
8.11        The syntax and semantics of a cleft sentence
231
8.12        He is a linguist means ‘he isA linguist’
233
8.13        The meaning of He can swim.
233
8.14        The idiom KICK THE BUCKET
234
8.15        Four deictic words and their meanings
238
8.16        How the English kinship system is defined in terms of ‘mother’ and ‘father’
242
8.17        Given names are used only for ‘intimates’ of the speaker
244
10.1        A more efficient taxonomy of word-classes for English
254
10.2        The inflections of the English verb
258
10.3        The morphology and semantics of the lexical relation ‘opposite’
274
11.1        Four basic dependency categories for English
282
11.2        The syntactic structure of a sentence
283
11.3        Prepositions can have many different complement patterns
289
11.4        A typically simple dependency analysis of a complex noun phrase
289
11.5        The two ‘apostrophe s’s as clitics
290
11.6        Mutual dependency in a relative clause
291
11.7        A typical ditransitive verb, with direct and indirect object
293
11.8        Recursive dependencies in a chain of predicatives
294
11.9        Determiners agree in number with their complement noun
297
11.10       Subject–verb agreement in English
298
11.11       Verb–complement ellipsis as an unrealized lexeme
300
11.12       Coordination and subordination compared
305
11.13       The grammar for subject–auxiliary inversion
309
11.14       Extraction in a wh-question
310
11.15       Subordinate questions with and without extraction
311
11.16       A relative pronoun introducing a relative clause
312
11.17       A long subject with and without extraposition
313
11.18       Passivization
315



© Cambridge University Press
printer iconPrinter friendly version AddThis