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Building More Effective Organizations

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  • 10 b/w illus. 19 tables
  • Page extent: 412 pages
  • Size: 247 x 174 mm
  • Weight: 0.818 kg

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 (ISBN-13: 9780521688529)




Index




absenteeism at Royal Mail Group, transforming xxiii,334–6

   attitudes towards sick days and absenteeism prior to campaign, 335–6

   ‘Be in to Win’ campaign

     Be in to Win, 2 348–9

     communication of, 345–6

     introduction of, 344–5

     outcomes, 347

   business recovery plan, 338–42

   HR department reform, 340–2

   key success factors, 348,350–1

   long-term absences, 337

   management of absences, 336–7,342–3

   morale problems, 335,336

   outcomes, 346–50

   ownership of problem, 338

   procedural issues, 336–7,342–3

   rates of absenteeism prior to campaign, 335–6

   reporting procedures, 337

   U.K. generally, sick absence in, 337–8

achievement, enthusiastic employees’ need for, 14,16,39

Adams, J. S., 76

advocacy, 144–5

Affinity Groups, 265–6

Alavi, M., 212

Alge, B., 102

Allen, Jon, 338,339

Allen, Paul, 170

Ambrose, M. L., 101

Anderson, Ray, 328

Annan, Kofi, 310,311–12

Ansari X Prize, 171

Aquino, K., 101

Argyris, Chris, 210,217

Arrow Electronics, 142–3

ASSET, 114–20

   benefits of audit approach, evidence of 120–1

   communication, 118

   control issues, 118

   health of employee, mental and physical, 119–20

   job design, scheduling, and work flow, 119

   job security, 118

   organizational commitment, 119

   overwork, 117

   pay and benefits, 118

   perceptions of job, 117–19

   relationships with others on job, 117

   resources, access to, 118

   sectional structure of, 116

   work-family policies, 117

attitude of employee to organization (organizational commitment)

   absenteeism at Royal Mail Group and, 335–6

   ASSET survey, 119

   4 C’s Model of sustainable business practices, 314,327–8

audit approach to staff well-being, 114,120–1

authenticity

   culture change at Britannia, 299

   KCM (Kaleidoscopic Career Model), 196,199

automation in manufacturing organizations, 286

Axelrod, B., 5

Baden-Fuller, C., 212

Bandura, Albert, 111

Barnard, C. I., 59,61

Barron’s magazine, 35

Baruch, Yehuda xxi,183,187

Bass, B. M., 219

‘Be in to Win’ campaign at Royal Mail Group. See under absenteeism at Royal Mail Group, transforming

Beer, M., 218

Bell, Sir David, 255–6,260

benchmarking

   evidence-based management, 28

   organizational learning, 211

benefits. See pay and benefits

Bennett, N., 71

Berg, D., 217

Bernott, E. R., 112

Bessant, John xxii

best practice concept, problematic nature of, 229–36

Bethune, Gordon, 55

Bhopal disaster, 313

Bies, R. J., 101

Blau, P. M., 68,70

Bloodgood, J. M., 57

BMW, 281

Bohm, D., 360

Bolino, M. C., 57

Borman, W. C., 62

BP, 315

Branson, Richard, 171

Britannia Building Society. See culture change at Britannia

British Airways, 257–9

Brown, J., 254,255

BT, 270

Built to Change model, 27

Bulgaria, work-family policies in. See under work-family policies

Burke, Ronald J. xix,3

Burnes, B., 294

business performance measurement. See performance appraisals

business process and metrics in effective businesses, 9

camaraderie at work

   ASSET survey, 117

   enthusiastic employees’ need for, 14,16,39

capabilities. See competencies

Caplan, R. D., 117

Career Grid, 190–1,193,194,199

career management xxi,183–4,198–201

   See also training programs

   disengagement stage, 186

   diversity management practices

     case studies, 261–2

     cultural diversity in global workforce, rise of, 200

     women and minorities, encouraging, 197

   establishment stage, 186

   exploration stage, 185

   gender differences in, 196,197,199

   interruptions in careers, 197

   job security and changes in, 183–4

   KCM (See Kaleidoscope Career Model)

   maintenance stage, 186

   multiple career trajectories, 190–5

   nontraditional mobile careers

     changes in career management due to, 190–5

     comparison with traditional careers, 191

     rise of, 189–90

   organizational practice of

     Baruch’s study, 187–8

     KCM, 196–8

   pay and benefits, 198

   performance appraisal, 198

   promotions, alternatives to, 193

   provisional workers, 193

   self-designing careers, 193

   self-directed careers, 192

   strategic role of HR and, 201

   technology, using, 200

   traditional linear career models, 184–9,192

   work-life policies, growing importance of, 197,198

Carroll, J. S., 217

Cartwright, S., 113

   See also ASSET

Cascio, Wayne xix

Caton, Sue, 228

Caulkin, S., 285

celebration and recognition

   in effective organizations, 10

   enthusiastic employees, encouraging, 51–3

Centrica, 270

Chakravarthy, B., 213

changing organizations. See transforming organizations

Chaplin, Charlie, 281,290

Chauvel, D., 213

Chouinard, Yvon, 328

Cigna, 79

City of London

   GLC (Greater London Council) diversity partnerships, 273

   Police Force, audit approach to staff well-being adopted by, 121

Co-operative Bank, 323

co-worker attitudes towards work-family policies in Europe, 239–41

coaching

   for leadership development, 142–5

   for teams, 176

Cohen, D. S., 23–6

Cohen, L. E., 254

Colbert, Barry xxiii,310,317,319

collaborative agreements regarding work-family policies, 241

Collins, Jim xix,11–13,47,362

commitment, organizational

   absenteeism at Royal Mail Group and, 335–6

   ASSET survey, 119

   4 C’s Model of sustainable business practices, 314,327–8

communication

   absenteeism at Royal Mail Group, transforming, 345–6

   ASSET survey, 118

   culture change at Britannia and, 300–2

   enthusiastic employees, encouraging, 53

   eustress and, 97

   organizational learning, leadership’s role in fostering, 218

   in responsible restructuring, 18

   stress in the workplace and, 90–3

   teams, information systems for, 173

communities, transforming organizations into xxiv,353–4

   cultural diversity and, 360–2

   emergence of sense of community, 366–8

   facilitation methods, 359–60

   group dynamics in large group interventions, 354–7

   India, experiencing communities in, 363–4

   initial difficulties, 357–9

   mission and vision, clarifying, 362–3,365,370

competencies

   4 C’s Model of sustainable business practices, 314,329–30

   of leaders in particular organizations, 129–30

   organizational learning and acquisition of 211

   of teams, 161–2

competitive advantage

   organizational learning and, 214

   resource-based view of, 316

complexity

   of modern organizations, 5

   sustainable business practices and (See under sustainable business practices)

compressed work hours, 244

computer-aided/computer-integrated design and manufacture, 286–8

conditions of job. See job design, scheduling, and work flow

connectivity, 4 C’s Model of sustainable business practices, 313,323–7

contextual considerations in work-family policy best practices, 230–1,247

contextual knowledge, 212

contextual performance, 57,62

   See also organizational citizenship behavior

Continental Airlines, 55

continuous improvement and organizational learning, 211

control issues

   absenteeism at Royal Mail Group, transforming, 350–1

   ASSET survey, 118

convenience, principle of, 92

Cooper, Cary L., 86,113

   See also ASSET

corporate culture

   absenteeism problems due to (See absenteeism at Royal Mail Group, transforming)

   eustress and, 98–9

   flexibility, 216

   4 C’s Model of sustainable business practices, 314,328–9

   leadership development aligned with, 127

   learning culture (See organizational learning)

   mistakes, freedom to make and learn from, 217

   organizational learning and, 216–17

   partnership cultures xix,15,41–3,55–6

   transforming (See culture change at Britannia; transforming organizations)

   types of, 41

corporate initiatives, leadership development program as launching pad for, 131–2

corporate networks

   diversity management practices, 265–7

   manufacturing organizations and, 289–90

cost-effectiveness

   of diversity management practices, 254

   of work-family policies, 95

Cowens, Bill, 79

Cowherd, D. M., 75

Credit Suisse, 271–2

cross-training teams, 173–7

Crossan, M. M., 215

cultural diversity. See also diversity management practices

   career management and, 200

   communities, transforming organizations into, 360–2

   work-family policy best practices, 230–1

culture change at Britannia xxiii,293,308

   authenticity, 299

   communication and consultation, 300–2

   culture survey, 306–7

   diversity management practices, 303

   documentation and policy reviews, 295

   employee satisfaction surveys, 296,301,304–6

   existing culture, understanding, 294

   human capital as focus of, 296–7

   human process elements of, 294

   implementing, 304–5

   leadership style, 302

   methodology of case study, 295

   outcomes of, 304–8

   purpose and goals, clarifying, 297

culture change at Britannia (cont.)

   reasons for, 293–4

   stakeholder interviews, 295

   strategy for, 296–9

   training programs, 303

   values, clarifying and conforming behavior to, 297–9

   work-family policies, 303

culture of organizations generally. See corporate culture

Cummings, T. G., 215

customer satisfaction

   enthusiastic employees and, 40

   well-being of staff and, 113

customers involved in leadership development program

   client-based experiential learning, 136

   commercial value of, 132–3

   value of program increased by inclusion of, 149–51

Cutcher-Gershenfeld, J., 105

Dalai Lama, 363

Dana Corporation, 50

Dass, P., 255

Deci, E. L., 66

Dell, 289

Denny’s Shipyard, Dumbarton, Scotland, 284

Denton, J., 216,223

design of job. See job design, scheduling, and work flow

Despres, C., 213

Determinism, Reciprocal, 111

DeTienne, K. B., 222

Dewey, John, 134

discrimination, avoiding. See diversity management practices

distribution and supply chain management, 283

diversity management practices xxii,252–3,276

   absenteeism at Royal Mail Group and, 335,336

   awareness of diversity, 257–9

   career management and

     case studies, 261–2

     cultural diversity in global workforce, rise of, 200

     women and minorities, encouraging, 197

   case studies

     British Airways, 257–9

     BT, 270

     Centrica, 270

     Credit Suisse, 271–2

     GLC (Greater London Council), 273

     Goldman Sachs, 270–1

     IBM, 263,269,273

     Law Society of Scotland, 259

     Lloyds TSB, 274,275

     McDonalds, 268

     Pearson, 255–6,260,267,274

     PwC (PricewaterhouseCoopers), 260,265,273,274–5

     Reuters, 256–7,264–6

     Shell, 261–2,263–4,266

   communities, transforming organizations into, 360–2

   cost-effectiveness, 254

   culture change at Britannia, 303

   defined and described, 253–5

   events, 267

   leadership

     reverse mentoring of, 264–5

     work-family policies and, 272

   networks, 265–7

   partnerships, 273–4

   pay equity, 275

   performance monitoring and appraisal 274–5

   recruitment, 259–60

   religious diversity, 268

   role models, 262–4

   strategic approach to, 255–7

   work-family/flexible work policies, 268–72

documentation review and culture change at Britannia, 295

Doeringer, P., 72

Donald, I., 113

downsizing and restructuring. See also job security

   effective organizations, responsible restructuring in, 16–19

   enthusiastic employees, encouraging, 43–5

   loyalty of employees and, 41

   stress in the workplace and, 85,91–3

Drucker, Peter, 130,220

Dubner, S. J., 70

Duening, T. N., 27–8

DuPont, 314

EAPs (employee assistance programs), 104

Easterby-Smith, M., 209

education. See organizational learning; training programs

effective organizations xix,3

   change, remaining effective despite, 23–7

   characteristics of

     Cascio on, 16–19

     Collins and Porras on, 11–13

     Ivancevich, Duening and Lidwell on, 27–8

     Joyce, Norhia, and Robertson on, 19–20

     Katzenbach on, 7–11

     Kirby on, 22

     Kotter and Cohen on, 23–6

     Lawler and Worley on, 20–2,26–7

     Pfeffer and Sutton on, 28–9

     Sirota, Mischkind, and Meltzer on, 14–16

   complexity of modern organizations, 5

   downsizing and restructuring, 16–19

   energy, creating and channeling, 10–11

   entrepreneurial spirit of, 9

   evidence-based management, 28–9

   4+2 formula for, 19–20

   HI (high involvement) organizations, 20–1

   human capital, rising importance of, 5

   individual achievement in, 9,14–16

   managerial role in, 27–9

   mission, values, and pride, 8

   myths regarding, 12–13

   process and metrics in, 9

   recent changes in the workplace (1973–2006), 3–4

   recognition and celebration of achievement in, 10

   talented people, need to attract, 5–6

   “treating people right,”, 21–2

   visionary companies, 11–13

   well-being of staff and (See well-being of staff as determinant of organizational effectiveness)

Eichinger, R. W., 129,141

Eisenberger, R., 71

Eisenstat, R. A., 218

Elkjaer, B., 222

Elvira, M. M., 254

emergencies, flexible work-family policies for dealing with, 246

employee assistance programs (EAPs), 104

employee satisfaction surveys and culture change at Britannia, 296,301,304–6

Englehardt, C. S., 216,217

enthusiastic employees, 35

   See also motivation

   achievement, 14,16,39

   advantages of, 36,39–40

   camaraderie, 14,16,39

   communication, 53

   effective organizations and, 14–16

   equity, 14,16,39,43

   financial gainsharing, 45–7

   in flat organizations, 15,49–50

   involving employees in organizational improvement, 49–51

   job security issues and downsizing practices, 43–5

   leadership role in, 55–6

   loss of initial enthusiasm, reasons for, 35–7

   management demotivation, 37–8

   non-correlated aspects of work, 41

   partnership cultures and xix,15,41–3,55–6

   percentage of workforces with, 36

   policies and practices encouraging, 43–55

   recognition and celebration, 51–3

   respect, 53–5

   three-factor theory of, 39–41

   universal causes of, 40

   visionary companies, 47–9

entrepreneurial spirit of effective organizations, 9

equity

   dysfunctional responses to, 101–2

   enthusiastic employees’ need for, 14,16,39, 43

   management’s effect on experience of, 102–3

   OCB (organizational citizenship behavior) and, 71–3,76,78,79

   in responsible restructuring, 18

   stress in the workplace and, 86,98–103

   “treating people right,”, 21–2

ethnic minorities. See diversity management practices

Europe. See also specific corporations

   diversity management practices in, 255

   work-family policies in (See under work-family policies)

eustress (positive stress), 96–9

evaluations. See performance appraisals

evidence-based management, 28–9

Ewing, D. W., 79

executives. See management

experiential learning

   for leadership development, 133–5

     adversity as learning experience, 140

     breadth vs. depth of experience, 137–8

     Kolb’s four-stage model, 140–1

     outside the company, 136,139

     “popcorn stands,”, 135–6

     “shadowing,” 138

     special projects, 139–40

     as structured process, 136–40

   for teams, 174–6

explicit knowledge, 212

extrinsic vs. intrinsic motivation, 65

Exxon, 315

Fairbrother, K., 92

fairness. See equity

family-friendly policies. See work-family policies

Farnsworth, S. R., 67

Federal Express, 48,55,79

financial gainsharing, 45–7

financial services organizations

   culture change in (See culture change at Britannia)

   producer-leaders at, 137,151

Finkelstein, S. N., 112

firings. See downsizing and restructuring; job security

Fitzgerald, Niall, 257,266

flat organizations, 15,49–50

flat world (globalization 3.0) hypothesis of Friedman, 73–80

flexibility

   double-edged nature of, 233–6

   in job design, scheduling, and work flow 88–90

   of organizational culture, 216

   work-family policies providing (See work-family policies)

flow of work. See job design, scheduling, and work flow

Folger, R., 58,71,72,73

Folkman, S., 111

Ford, Henry, 281,283,284

4 C’s Model of sustainable business practices. See under sustainable business practices

4+2 organizations, 19–20

Francis, Dave xxii

French, J. R. P., 117

Friedman, Thomas, 73–80

Fullerton, J., 252

gainsharing, 45–7

Gardner, J., 367

Garvin, D. A., 211

gender issues. See also diversity management practices

   in career management, 196,197,199

   work-family policies in Europe and, 228,229,230,233,235,241–2

General Electric (GE)

   leadership development, 131,135–6,137,146–7,149,151,153,154

   responsible restructuring, 16

   sustainable business practices, 101–2

George, J. M., 67

Gibson, Alvin L. xx,84

Gibson, D. E., 262

GLC (Greater London Council), 273

globalization

   cultural diversity of workforce and, 200

   Friedman’s flat world hypothesis, 73–80

   sustainable business practices and, 310–12

Glocer, Tom, 257,266

goal-setting, 67

Goldman Sachs

   leadership development at, 131,132,136,139–40,143–5,148,149–50,153,156–8

   work-family policies and diversity management practices, 270–1

Goleman, D., 302

Gonzalez, J. A., 253

Grant, R. M., 212

Grant, Robert, 212

Greater London Council (GLC), 273

Green, Harriet, 143

Greenberg, Jerald, 98,101,102,103–5

Greenberg, P. E., 112

Griffin, R. W., 216

group dynamics in large group interventions, 354–7

Hackman, J. R., 166,170

Handfield-Jones, H. J., 5

Harris, J., 58

health of employees. See stress in the workplace; individual health and performance

health of organizations. See organizational health and performance

Hewlett Packard, 101,133,138,139,152

high involvement (HI) organizations, 20–1

high involvement innovation (HII) in manufacturing organizations, 284–7

Holmqvist, M., 217

home, working from, 245–6

Honda, 323

Hoskisson, R. E., 214

hostility in the workplace, 90

HR. See human resources (HR) systems

human capital

   culture change at Britannia, as focus of, 296–7

   in manufacturing organizations, 284–7

   rising importance of xii,xv–xvii,5

human resources (HR) systems. See also specific elements, e.g. performance appraisals

   absenteeism at Royal Mail Group and reform of, 340–2

   strategic role of, 201

   stress in the workplace and integrity of 103–5

   sustainable business practices and (See under sustainable business practices)

Hurd, Mark, 152

Husted , B. W., 58,71,72,73

I-T-O (input-throughput-output) cycles of teams, 163,164,168

Iaccoca, Lee, 84

IBM, 263,269,273

“idiosyncratic ideal,", 77

ILM (internal labor market), 58,60,63–4,72,73,78,79

   See also organizational citizenship behavior

implicit knowledge, 212

incentives. See also pay and benefits

   absenteeism at Royal Mail Group, transforming, 350–1

   high-powered vs. low-powered incentives 64–8

inclusion management. See diversity management practices

India, experiencing communities in, 363–4

individual health and performance xix–xx

   See also enthusiastic employees; organizational citizenship behavior; stress in the workplace; well-being of staff as determinant of organizational effectiveness

   ASSET survey, 119–20

   in effective organizations, 9,14–16

   Katzenbach on, 8

   “treating people right, 21–2

information systems for teams, 173

input-throughput-output (I-T-O) cycles of teams, 163,164,168

integration in manufacturing organizations 286

Interface Carpets, 328

internal labor market (ILM), 58,60,63–4,72,73,78,79

   See also organizational citizenship behavior

internships, 185

interruptions in careers, 197

intrinsic vs. extrinsic motivation, 65

involving employees. See participative management

Isaacs, W. N., 359

Israel, career management in, 187

Ivancevich, J. M., 27–8

Iverson, F. Kenneth, 44,55

James, K., 262

Japan, transformation of manufacturing organizations in, 284,285

job characteristics theory, 171

job design, scheduling, and work flow

   ASSET survey, 119

   stress in the workplace and, 88–90

   work-family policies allowing flexibility in (See work-family policies)

job security. See also downsizing and restructuring

   ASSET survey, 118

   career management and changes in, 183–4

   enthusiastic employees and, 43–5

Johnson, S., 113

Joyce, W., 19–20

JSH (Justice Salience Hierarchy), 101–2

Juran, Joseph, 284

“Just in Time" inventory, 283

justice. See equity

Justice Salience Hierarchy (JSH), 101–2

Kahn, R. L., 117

Kaleidoscope Career Model (KCM) xxi, 195–8

   authenticity, 196,199

   balance, 196,199

   challenge, 196,199

   “mirrors" or parameters of, 195–6,199

   organizational use of, 196–8

Kandola, R., 252

Katzenbach, Jon xix,7–11

Kawasaki Heavy Engineering, 285

KCM. See Kaleidoscope Career Model

Kelleher, Herb, 55

Kelly, K., 318

Kennedy, Stuart xxiii,334

Kerr, Steve xx,127

Kessler, R., 112

King, A. W., 214

Kirby, J., 22

Kirkpatrick, D. L. and J. D., 154

knowledge and organizational learning. See organizational learning

Kochan, T., 254

Kolb, David, 140–1

Konrad, A., 254

Kossek, E. E., 254,255

Kotter, John xix,23–6

Kurucz, Elizabeth xxiii,310

Landauer, Steffen xx,127

large group interventions, group dynamics in, 354–7

Law Society of Scotland, 259

Lawler, E. E., 3–4

Lawler, Ed xix,20–2,26–7

layoffs. See downsizing and restructuring; job security

Lazarus, R. S., 111

leadership

   culture change at Britannia and, 302

   diversity management practices

     reverse mentoring, 264–5

     work-family policies, 272

   eustress, 97

leadership (cont.)

   Katzenbach on effective organizations and, 7–11

   organizational learning and (See under organizational learning)

   partnership cultures and enthusiastic employees emerging from, 55–6

   of teams, 165–6

leadership development xx,127–30

   alignment with specific corporate needs and culture, 127

   breadth vs. depth of experience, 137–8

   career stage at which offered, 148–9

   commercial value of, 132–3

   competencies, identifying, 129–30

   content and structure of program, 133–47

     coaching, mentoring, and advocacy 142–5

     coursework, 145–6

     experiential learning (See under experiential learning)

     GE’s “Session C,", 146–7

     70-20-10 divide, 133

   corporate initiatives, as launching pad for, 131–2

   customers involved in

     client-based experiential learning, 136

     commercial value of, 132–3

     value of program increased by inclusion of, 149–51

   defining, 127–30

   experiential learning (See under experiential learning)

   faculty, choosing, 151–3

   initial level of responsibility, 148

   involvement of CEOs and Boards of Directors in, 128

   objectives of, 130–3

   organizing principles of, 156–8

   paradoxes of, 130

   performance appraisals and

     evaluation of program, 153–6

     program as vehicle for leadership assessment, 132

   producer-leaders, 137,151

   ROI, 153–4

   students, choosing, 147–51

   in teams, 149

learning cultures or organizations. See organizational learning

Lee, Jay xix,57

Leighton, Allan, 340

Lelon, Elise xx,127

Lerner, M. J., 72

Leslie, K. xvii

Lester, D., 113

Leventhal, Gerald, 72

Levine, D. I., 75

Levitt, S. D., 70

Lewis, Suzan, 228

Lexus, 323

Liden, R. C., 71

Lidwell, W., 27–8

life-work policies. See work-family policies

Lincoln Electric Company, 284

living systems and sustainable business practices

   complex RBV (resource based view) and, 318–19

   4 C’s Model and, 320–30

   principles of, 318,320

Livingstone, Ken, 273

Lloyds TSB, 274,275

Lobel, S. A., 254,255

Loch, M. A. xvii

Lombardo, M. M., 129,140,141

London

   GLC (Greater London Council) diversity partnerships, 273

   Police Force, audit approach to staff well-being adopted by, 121

loyalty of employees, 41

Lyles, M. A., 209

MacMillan Blodel, 315

Mainiero, L. A., 195,196

Makhija, M. V., 214

Mallon, M., 194

management

   of absenteeism at Royal Mail Group, 336–7,342–3

   demotivation of enthusiastic employees by, 37–8

   diversity management, reverse mentoring for purposes of, 264–5

   effective organizations, role in, 27–9

   equity in the workplace, effect on experience of, 102–3

   evidence-based, 28–9

   participative (See participative management)

   SMTs (self-managed teams), 50–1

   stress in the workplace and, 86–7,102–3, 105

   training programs, 105

   work-family policies, attitudes towards, 232–3,237–9

manufacturing organizations xxii,281–91

   agile response to swift product life cycle, need for, 283–4

   computer-aided/computer-integrated design and manufacture, 286–8

   human capital and HII (high involvement innovation), 284–7

   key changes in, 288

   major changes in, 281–2

   mechanization, automation, and integration, 286

   networking, 289–90

   proportion of population involved, steady decrease in, 282

   strategic concerns in, 286

   supply and distribution chain management, 283

   from trade-offs to adding features, 283, 284

market failures, OCB, and TCE, 58–60

Marks and Spencer, 324

McCall, M., 134,140

McCarthy, Tony xxiii,334

McDonalds, 268

McGregor, Douglas, 105–6

McMahan, G. C., 67

measurement of performance. See performance appraisals

mechanization in manufacturing organizations, 286

Meltzer, Michael xvi,14–16,35

mental health of employees. See stress in the workplace; individual health and performance

mentoring

   diversity management, reverse mentoring for purposes of, 264–5

   leadership development, 142–5

Merck, George, II, 48

metrics and process in effective organizations, 9

   See also performance appraisals

Michaels, E., 5

minorities. See diversity management practices

Mirvis, Phil xxiv,353

Mischkind, Louis xvi,14–16,35

mission of organization, 8,362–3,365,370

mistakes, freedom to make and learn from, 217

Moir, Karen, 296,303

Monsanto, 313

Moorhead, G., 216

morale. See enthusiastic employees; motivation

Morrison, A. M., 140

Mother Teresa, 276,363,364

motivation. See also enthusiastic employees

   absenteeism at Royal Mail Group and, 335, 336

   intrinsic vs. extrinsic, 65

   organizational learning, leadership’s role in fostering, 218

   well-being and, 111–12

Motowidlo, S. J., 62

National Cash Register, 284

Nestlé 324

Netherlands. See Shell, and under work-family policies

networks

   diversity management practices, 265–7

   manufacturing organizations and, 289–90

Newmont Mining, 315

Nexen, 315

Nissan, 285

Nonaka, I., 207

nondiscrimination practices. See diversity management practices

Norhia, N., 19–20

Norway, work-family policies in. See under work-family policies

Novo Nordisk, 314

Nucor Corporation, 44,50,55

OCB. See organizational citizenship behavior

O’Keefe, T., 220

Okosky, Chuck, 137

Olisa, Ken, 265

Omaar, Rageh, 267

Organ, Dennis W. xix,57

organization theory xv–xxiv

   challenges faced by organizations today xviii

   development of xii–xiv

   effectiveness (See effective organizations)

   health and performance of organizations (See organizational health and performance)

   human capital, rising importance of xii,xv–xvii,5

   individuals and (See individual health and performance)

   transformative processes (See transforming organizations)

organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) xix,57–8

   authority relation, 61–3

   consummate cooperation, 60–1

   equity, 71–3,76,78,79

   Friedman’s flat world (globalization 3.0) and, 73–80

   ILM (internal labor market) and, 58,60,63–4,72,73,78,79

   incentives, high-powered vs. low-powered, 64–8

   market failures, 58–60

organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) (cont.)

   performance appraisals, 63–4,67,68–71

   reputation, 78–9

   social exchange, 67,68–71

   TCE (Transaction Costs Economics) and, 58

   virtual, 79

organizational commitment

   absenteeism at Royal Mail Group and, 335–6

   ASSET survey, 119

   4 C’s Model of sustainable business practices, 314,327–8

organizational culture. See corporate culture

organizational health and performance xx–xxii

   See also career management; diversity management practices; leadership development; organizational learning

   European work-family policies and, 234–5,247

   (See also work-family policies)

   Katzenbach on, 8–11

organizational justice. See equity

organizational learning xxi,207–9,223–4

   benchmarking, 211

   competency acquisition, 211

   competitive advantage, 214

   continuous improvement, 211

   culture of organization and, 216–17

   defined and described, 209

   exploration vs. exploitation, 210–11

   flexibility of structure and, 216

   frameworks for, 214–15

   individual learning and, 222–3

   key factors in, 207–8

   key processes, 211–15

   knowledge application, 213

   knowledge generation, 212

   knowledge transfer, 213,222–3

   knowledge types, 212

   leadership’s role in fostering, 218–22

     communication, 218

     motivation, 218

     support, 219–20

     transformation process, managing and sustaining, 220–2

     vision, 219

   mistakes, freedom to make and learn from, 217

   single-loop vs. double loop, 208,210,217

   social learning theory, 222

   styles of, 209

   transforming organizations, 215,220–2

organizational process and metrics in effective businesses, 9

organizational sustainability. See sustainable business practices

orientation programs, 186

O’Toole, J., 3–4

Ouchi, W. G., 58

overwork

   ASSET survey, 117

   work-family policies in Europe and, 233–6,241

Pack, M. Scott, 355

Parker, B., 255

Parker, James, 45–7

participative management

   culture change at Britannia and, 300–2

   and enthusiastic employees, 49–51

   HI (high involvement) organizations, 20–1

   manufacturing organizations, HII (high involvement innovation) in, 284–7

partnership cultures xix,15,41–3,55–6

partnerships for diversity management, 273–4

Patagonia, 314,328

Paulson, Hank, 131

pay and benefits

   ASSET survey, 118

   career management, 198

   diversity management practices, 275

   Friedman’s flat world (globalization 3.0) hypothesis and, 73–80

   gainsharing, 45–7

   high-powered vs. low-powered incentives, 64–8

Pearson, 255–6,260,267,274

performance appraisals

   career management, 198

   diversity management practices, 274–5

   gainsharing and, 45–7

   leadership development program

     evaluation of, 153–6

     as vehicle for leadership assessment, 132

   OCB (organizational citizenship behavior) and, 63–4,67,68–71

   process and metrics in effective businesses, 9

   as social exchange, 67,68–71

   stress in the workplace and, 103

   teams (See under teams)

performance-based pay. See pay and benefits

performance episodes of teams, 163–4

performance of organization and staff well-being, 112–15

Peters, T., 22,362

Pfeffer, J. xv,28–9

physical health of employees. See stress in the workplace; individual health and performance

Piore, M., 72

Point, S., 255

policies and practices

   culture change at Britannia, 295

   enthusiastic employees, encouraging 43–55

   work-family (See work-family policies)

“popcorn stands,", 135–6

Porras, Jerry xix,11–13,47,362

Portugal, work-family policies in. See under work-family policies

positive stress or eustress, 96–9

Prasad, P., 254

Preece, Emma xxiii,293

pressure vs. stress, 112

PricewaterhouseCoopers (PwC), 260,265,273,274–5

pride

   individual achievement, importance of, 14,16,39

   organization’s sense of, 8

Pringle, J. K., 254

process and metrics in effective organizations, 9

   See also performance appraisals

producer-leaders, 137,151

productivity and staff well-being, 112–15

professional development. See training programs

provisional workers, 193

pseudo-community, 355

psychological health of employees. See stress in the workplace; individual health and performance

Purcell, Christine xxi,228

PwC (PricewaterhouseCoopers), 260,265,273,274–5

quality movement, 284

Quick, James Campbell xx,84

racial minorities. See diversity management practices

Ragins, B. R., 253

RBV (resource based view), 316–20

Realistic Job Previews (RJPs), 186

Reciprocal Determinism, 111

recognition and celebration

   in effective organizations, 10

   enthusiastic employees, encouraging, 51–3

records review and culture change at Britannia, 295

recruitment, diversity management practices in, 259–60

reduced work hours, 243

relationships at work

   ASSET survey, 117

   enthusiastic employees’ need for, 14,16, 39

religious diversity, 268

reporting absences at Royal Mail Group, 337

reputation

   as most important corporate asset, 131

   OCB (organizational citizenship behavior) and globalization, 78–9

resources

   ASSET survey on access to, 118

   RBV/complex RBV (resource based view), 316–20

respect as means of encouraging enthusiastic employees, 53–5

restructuring. See downsizing and restructuring; job security

return on investment (ROI) as measure of leadership development, 153–4

Reuters, 256–7,264–6

Revans, R., 137

reverse mentoring for purposes of diversity management, 264–5

rewards. See also pay and benefits

   absenteeism at Royal Mail Group, transforming, 350–1

   high-powered vs. low-powered incentives 64–8

Rhoades, L., 71

Richardson, Neville, 296,298,300,302,303

RJPs (Realistic Job Previews), 186

Robertson, B., 19–20

Robertson, Ivan T. xx,110

Robertson, Susannah xx,110,113

ROI (return on investment) as measure of leadership development, 153–4

role models, 262–4

Rosen, S., 74,78

Rousseau, D. M., 77

Royal Dutch Shell. See Shell

Royal Mail Group, absenteeism at. See absenteeism at Royal Mail Group, transforming

Russell, Bill, 79

Rutan, Burt, 170

Sainsbury’s, 324

Salas, Eduardo xxi,160

Salas, Silvia xxi,207

Sarason, S., 355,368

Saxenian, A. L., 189

Scaled Composites, 170

scheduling. See job design, scheduling, and work flow

Scheihing, B. J., 143

Schminke, M., 101

Schnaninger, W. xvii

Schulz, M., 213

Schutz, W., 355

Scotland

   Denny’s Shipyard, Dumbarton, 284

   Law Society of, 259

Seabright, M. A., 101

Sealy, R., 262

security on the job. See downsizing and restructuring; job security

self-designing careers, 193

self-directed careers, 192

self-managed teams (SMTs), 50–1

Senge, P., 370

September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks, 35

service economy and rising importance of human capital, 5

“Session C" leadership development program, GE, 146–7

Settoon, R. P., 71

“shadowing" as form of experiential learning in leadership development, 138

Shell, 261–2,263–4,266,313,315,327

Shercliff, Tim, 269

sick leave. See absenteeism at Royal Mail Group, transforming

Side-bet theory, 192

Simmons, P. R., 216,217

Simon, H., 59,61

Singh, Val xxii,252,255,262

Sirota, David xvi,xix,14–16,35

Six-Sigma, 131

Slovenia, work-family policies in. See under work-family policies

Smith, Frederick W., 48,55

Smithson, Janet, 228

SMTs (self-managed teams), 50–1

Snell, S. A., 329

social exchange, performance appraisals as, 67,68–71

social learning theory, 222

Somerset County Council, audit approach to staff well-being adopted by, 120

Sommerblad, E., 285

South Asian businesses as communities. See communities, transforming organizations into

Southwest Airlines, 45,55

SpaceShipOne, 170

SpaceShipTwo, 171

Stagl, Kevin xxi,160

stakeholder interviews on culture change at Britannia, 295

Starbucks, 324

Stern, E., 285

Stiglin, L. E., 112

stock market performance and employee enthusiasm, 39

Stora Enso, 315

strategy

   culture change at Britannia, 296–9

   in diversity management practices, 255–7

   HR’s role in, 201

   in manufacturing organizations, 286

   in sustainable business practices, 316

stress in the workplace xx,84–5,105–6

   ASSET survey on (See ASSET)

   in changing organizations, 89–90,91–3,105

   communication, 90–3

   convenience, principle of, 92

   downsizing and restructuring, 85,91–3

   equity and fairness, 86,98–103

   hostility, 90

   HR systems integrity and, 103–5

   job design, scheduling, and work flow, 88–90

   management and, 86–7,102–3,105

   positive stress or eustress, 96–9

   pressure vs. stress, 112

   teams, 88–9

   well-being and, 111–12

   work-family policies and, 93–6

Stress Matching, 92–3

Sullivan, Sherry E. xxi,183,190,195,196

Sun Microsystems, 197

Suncor Energy, 315

Sunnydale Institute, 86

Super, Donald, 184,185

supervisors. See management

supply and distribution chain management, 283

sustainable business practices xxiii,310–12,331

   complexity-based approach to, 312

     complex RBV (resource based view), 316–20

     4 C’s Model and, 316,319

     living systems, 318–19

     science of complexity, 317

   4 C’s Model, 313–15

     capabilities, 314,329–30

     commitments, 314,327–8

     complex RBV (resource based view) and, 316,319

     connectivity, 313,323–7

     culture, 314,328–9

     living systems and, 320–30

   globalization and, 310–12

   leverage points in HR systems and processes, 325

     capabilities, 330

     commitments, 327

     connectivity, 324–7

     culture, 329

   living systems

     complex RBV (resource based view) and, 318–19

     4 C’s Model and, 320–30

     principles of, 318,320

   strategy in, 316,317

   traditional models of change, inadequacy of, 310,311–12

   work-family practices in Europe, 234–5

Sutton, R. I. xv,28–9

Sweden, work-family policies in. See under work-family policies

tacit knowledge, 212

talented people, need for organizations to attract, 5–6

Tannenbaum, S. I., 164,168,171,173

taskwork vs. teamwork processes, 161–3

Tauber, D. L., 113

Taylor, P., 113

TCE (Transaction Costs Economics), . See also organizational citizenship behavior, 58

teams xxi,160,179

   aligning performance strategies with goals 170

   authority, allocating, 169

   best practices, 178–9

   characteristics of members, 172–3

   coaching, 176

   competencies of, 161–2

   composition of, 172–3

   consequential direction, need for, 171

   creating, 167–8

   defined and described, 161–4

   effectiveness

     defining and assessing, 163

     methods of fostering, 164–7

     model or framework, 164,167–8

   enabling structure, 171

   goals and goal feedback, 168,170

   I-T-O (input-throughput-output) cycles, 163,164,168

   information systems for, 173

   leaders of, 165–6

   leadership development in, 149

   meaningful work, importance of, 171

   meetings, rosters, and web pages, 169

   norms of conduct, establishing, 172

   number of members, 172–3

   performance appraisals

     authority, allocating, 169

     effectiveness, defining and assessing, 163

     goal feedback, 168

     reward systems, 173

   performance episodes, 163–4

   roles and responsibilities of members, 168

   SMTs (self-managed teams), 50–1

   stability of membership, 169

   stress in the workplace and, 88–9

   supportive organizational context for 173

   task analysis, conducting, 168

   task performance

     beginnings, 176

     endpoint, 177–9

     midpoints, 177

   taskwork vs. teamwork processes, 161–3

   training, 173–7

   vision for, establishing, 170

   work-family policies in Europe, co-worker attitudes towards, 239–41

telecommuting/working from home, 245–6

termination of employment. See downsizing and restructuring; job security

Theory Y, 106

Thurow, Lester, 44

Tinline, Gordon xx,110

Tiwana, A., 212

Tokugawa, Yoshimune, 284

Toshiba, 285

Toyota, 285,289,323

training programs. See also career management

   culture change at Britannia, 303

   leadership (See leadership development)

   stress in the workplace and, 104–5

   teams, 173–7

Transaction Costs Economics (TCE), 58

   See also organizational citizenship behavior

transforming organizations xxii–xxiv

   See also absenteeism at Royal Mail Group, transforming; communities, transforming organizations into; culture change at Britannia; manufacturing organizations; sustainable business practices

   Built to Change model, 27

   effectiveness, maintaining, 23–7

   embracing change, 26

   failed change efforts, common characteristics of, 23

   organizational learning and, 215,220–2

   recent changes in the workplace (1973–2006), 3–4

   requirements for xviii

   steps for large-scale change, 23–6

   stress in, 89–90,91–3,105

   traditional models of change, inadequacy of, 310,311–12

   training programs and, 67

TRANSITIONS cross-national study on European work-family policies. See under work-family policies

“treating people right,", 21–2

Trip, T. M., 101

Turner, K. L., 214

Turner, Ted, 110

Turnley, W. H., 57

Ulrich, D., 213,217

unauthorized sick leave. See absenteeism at Royal Mail Group, transforming

Union Carbide, 313

United Kingdom. See also specific U.K. corporations

   career management in, 187

   City of London

     GLC (Greater London Council) diversity partnerships, 273

     Police Force, audit approach to staff well-being adopted by, 121

   diversity management practices in, 252,255

   (See also “case studies," under diversity management practices)

   sick absence in, 337–8

   work-family policies in (See under work-family policies)

United Nations (UN) Global Compact, 330

United States. See also specific U.S. corporations

   career management in, 187

   diversity management practices in, 252

   (See also “case studies," under diversity management practices)

UPS, 74

values of organization, 8,297–9,370

Van City Credit Union, 323

Vinnicombe, S., 262

Virgin Galactic, 171

virtual OCB, 79

vision

   authenticity in, 299

   communities, transforming organizations into, 362–3,365,370

   defined, 370

   effective organizations and, 11–13

   enthusiastic employees, encouraging, 47–9

   organizational learning, leadership’s role in fostering, 219

   of teams, 170

Von Glinow, Mary Ann xxi,207

Wachter, M., 58

WalMart, 74

Walton, S., 194

Warn, J., 92

Waterman, R., 22,362

Weitzel, William F. xiv

Welch, Jack, 16,131,137,149,154,219

well-being of staff as determinant of organizational effectiveness xx,110

   ASSET survey (See ASSET)

   audit approach, 114,120–1

   customer satisfaction, 113

   health of employee, mental and physical, 119–20

   motivation and well-being, 111–12

   organizational commitment, 119

   perceptions of job, 117–19

   performance and productivity, 112–15

   stress and well-being, 111–12

Wharton School, 150

Wheeler, David xxiii,310,319

Whole Foods, 314

Wilhelm, W., 223

Williamson, O. E., 58,59,60,63,66,67,68–71,72,76

women. See also diversity management practices

   in career management, 196,197,199

   work-family policies in Europe and, 228,229,230,233,235,241–2

work-family policies

   ASSET survey, 117

   career management and, 197,198

   cost-effectiveness of, 95

   culture change at Britannia, 303

   demand for and feasibility of, 94

   as diversity management practice, 268–72

   employees resenting, 94

   European xxi,228–9,246–8

     best practice concept, problematic nature of, 229–36

     co-worker attitudes, 239–41

     collaborative agreements, 241

     compressed hours, 244

     consistency in applying policies, 238

     contextual considerations, 230–1,247

     countries in case studies, 229

     double-edged nature of, 233–6

     emergencies, dealing with, 246

     gender issues, 228,229,230,233,235, 241–2

     healthy organizations, concept of, 234–5,247

     individual factors affecting perceptions, 232–3,247

     managerial support, 232–3,237–9

     overwork, problem of, 233–6,241

     reduced hours, 243

     scheduled hours, autonomous flexibility regarding, 244–5

     statutory entitlements, implementing, 236–7,247

     telecommuting/working from home 245–6

     trust and understanding, sense of, 238–9

   stress in the workplace and, 93–6

   types of, 94

   zero-sum circumstances, coping with, 95

work stress. See stress in the workplace

working conditions. See job design, scheduling, and work flow

workload

   ASSET survey, 117

   work-family policies in Europe and, 233–6,241

World Business Council on Sustainable Development, 330

Worley, C. G., 26–7,215

Wright, P. M., 67,329

Yeh, B. Y., 113

Yeung, A. K., 209,210,215

Zeithaml, C. P., 214

zone of indifference/acceptance, 61


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