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Falls in Older People
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  • 45 b/w illus. 30 tables
  • Page extent: 408 pages
  • Size: 247 x 174 mm
  • Weight: 0.81 kg

Paperback

 (ISBN-13: 9780521680998)

Falls in Older People Cambridge University Press
978-0-521-69099-8 - FALLS IN OLDER PEOPLE - Edited by Stephen R. Lord, Catherine Sherrington, Hylton B. Menz and Jacqueline C. T. Close
Index



Index

ACE inhibitors, risk of falls

acoustic neuroma

Activities-specific Balance Confidence (ABC) Scale

acute illness, risk of falls

aerobic exercise see endurance training

age-related changes

alterations in actions of drugs

and falling risk

attentional limitations

dual tasking ability

joint position sense

muscle strength, power and endurance

peripheral sensation

pharmacodynamic effects of drugs

pharmacokinetic effects of drugs

proprioception

reaction time

sensorimotor function

tactile sensitivity

vestibular sense

vestibulo-ocular reflex

vibration sense

vision

visual field dependence

alcohol consumption, and risk of falls

Alzheimer’s disease, risk factor for falls see also cognitive impairment; dementia

amputation patients, incidence of falls

analgesic agents, risk of falls

ankle strategy, response to perturbation

anthropometric measures, and postural sway

anti-inflammatory drugs, risk of falls

anti-arrhythmic medications, risk of falls

antidepressants

risk of falls

risk of tripping

anti-hypertensive medications, risk of falls

anti-psychotic medications, risk of falls

anxiety management

arthritis, risk of falls

Asian/Pacific Islander population (US), incidence of falls

assessment see clinical assessment of the older faller

assessment tools

assistive devices

aids to prevent ‘long lies’

footwear

hip protectors

occupational therapy assessment

physical restraints

range of physical assistive devices

spectacles

walking aids

attention to obstacles, and risk of falling

attentional limitations

age-related effects

and risk of falls

effects of dual tasking



balance

age-related attentional requirements

effects of dual tasking

balance and gait problems, clinical assessment

balance and mobility, and risk of falls

balance assessment scales

balance training

background

effects on balance

effects on functional abilities

to prevent falls

Berg Balance Scale (BBS)

benzodiazepines, risk of falls

beta blockers, risk of falls

bi-focal glasses, risk of falls

Black population (US), incidence of falls

blood pressure see orthostatic hypotension



calcium channel blockers, risk of falls

calcium supplementation

cardiac arrhythmias, clinical assessment

cardiovascular medications, risk of falls

cardiovascular problems affecting postural control

carotid sinus hypersensitivity/syndrome

and risk of falls

cardioinhibitory response

definition

method of testing

sub-types

treatment

vasodepressor response

cataracts, and risk of falls

central processing, impacts of disease

centrally acting medications, risk of falls

cerebellar disorders, and risk of falls

cerebral hypoperfusion, risk factor for falls

cerebrovascular disease, risk factor for falls

cervical spondylosis, and risk of falls

cervico-collic reflex

choice stepping reaction time test

chronic conditions, risk of falls

clinical assessment of the older faller

anxiety management

assessment of postural stability

benefits of physical activity

benzodiazepines

cardiac arrhythmias

carotid sinus hypersensitivity/syndrome

centrally acting medications

cough syncope

depression management

detailed history of falls

drop attacks

examination

gait and balance problems

medical and drug history

medication review

micturition syncope

neurocardiogenic (vasovagal) syncope

non-pharmacological therapies

orthostatic hypotension

Physiological Profile Assessment

polypharmacy and appropriate prescribing

QuickScreen risk assessment

sick sinus syndrome

sleep disorder management

syncope

Timed Up and Go Test

unexplained falls, dizziness and syncope

vestibular disorders

vision problems

vitamin D insufficiency

cognitive impairment

falls prevention in residential aged care facilities

risk of falls

combined training, to prevent falls

community-based populations, falls prevention interventions

confidence, loss after a fall

consequences of falls

coordinated stability test

cough syncope



deaths due to fall-related injury

degenerative joint disease, and risk of falls

dementia

falls prevention in residential aged care facilities

risk factor for falls

depression, risk factor for falls

depression management

diabetes mellitus

Physiological Profile Assessment

risk of falls

diabetic neuropathy, risk of falls

digoxin, risk of falls

discharge planning

diuretics, risk of falls

dizziness

and vestibular dysfunction

clinical assessment

risk factor for falls

drop attacks

clinical assessment

drug interactions, and risk of falls

drugs, age-related changes in actions see also medications linked to falls

dual tasking ability, and risk of falls



economic cost of falls

effector response, impacts of disease

emergency department attendees, falls prevention interventions

endurance training

background

effects on endurance

effects on functional abilities

health screening

to prevent falls

environmental risk factors for falls

and individual behaviour

and mobility level

evidence from studies

for vigorous older people

home hazard assessment tools

private residences

public places

residential aged care facilities

suggested risk factors

surface types and falls injury

epilepsy, risk factor for falls

exercise intervention studies (analysis of RCTs)

programmes which prevented falls

programmes which did not prevent falls

exercise intervention studies which did not prevent falls

exercise in groups (community dwellers)

exercise in groups (transitional)

individual exercise (community dwellers)

individual exercise (transitional)

individual exercise (institution dwellers)

walking programmes (community dwellers)

exercise intervention studies which prevented falls

exercise in groups (community dwellers)

exercise in groups (transitional)

individual exercise (community dwellers)

individual exercise (institution dwellers)

exercise interventions for older people

balance and functional task training

cardiovascular screening

considerations for exercise prescription

effects on falls risk factors

effects on falls in residential aged care

endurance training

factors affecting adoption and adherence

general exercise programmes

level of supervision required

preferred setting

resistance training

self-efficacy

support and information

to improve physical functioning

vestibular rehabilitation

exercise interventions to prevent falls

balance training

combined training

endurance training

flexibility training

functional training

group or individual (home based)

prescription of exercise

programme design and delivery

resistance training

summary of successful features

Tai Chi

target population

time, duration and frequency of exercise

type of exercise to include

walking programmes

external hazards, risk factors for falls

external perturbations, postural stability responses



fall, definition

falls

aids to prevent ‘long lies’

reporting difficulties

falls ascertainment

Falls Efficacy Scale (FES) see also fear of falling

falls injuries see injuries from falls

falls prevention interventions

community-based populations

emergency department attendees

hospital inpatients

patient-centred care and choice

RCTs for different at-risk populations

research quality and comparability

residential aged care facilities

screening versus assessment

translating research into clinical practice

falls prevention strategies

barriers to home safety modifications

environmental modification

environmental risk factors

home hazards reduction

hospitals

hospitals (evaluation studies)

public environments

residential aged care facilities

residential aged care facilities (evaluation studies)

falls reporting by older people

falls risk, identification of at-risk populations see also risk factors for falls

falls risk assessment see clinical assessment of the older faller

falls risk assessment tools see also Physiological Profile Assessment (PPA)

fear of falling 16–

Activities-specific Balance Confidence (ABC) Scale

and risk of falls

definitions

factors associated with

Falls Efficacy Scale (FES)

measurement

post-fall syndrome

prevalence

ptophobia

Survey of Activities and Fear of Falling in the Elderly (SAFE)

flexibility training, to prevent falls

floor type, and falls injury

foot problems, risk of falls

footwear

and risk of falls

compliance issues

fixation to the foot

foot orthoses potential to improve balance

heel collar height

heel height

midsole cushioning

midsole flaring

risk factors for falls

slip resistance of outer soles

fractures caused by falls

functional reach test

functional task training

background

effects on balance

effects on functional abilities

to prevent falls

functional tasks

balance assessment scales

falls screening tests

internal perturbations generated by

future directions for falls research

balance and associated falls risk factors

barriers and motivators to uptake of interventions

common taxonomy for reporting

comparability of outcomes from trials

cost-effectiveness of population interventions

cross-cultural differences in falls rates

determination of best intervention strategies

development of population interventions

effectiveness and cost-benefits of applying evidence

efficacy of approaches to intervention

epidemiology and taxonomy

evaluation of falls clinics

evidence-based falls assessment tools

falls prevention as means of fracture prevention

falls prevention strategies in population subgroups

human balance and related sensorimotor systems

intensity and type of exercise interventions

interventions for maximizing vision

medication effects on balance

neuropsychological risk factors

optimal shoe designs

preventing falls in institutions

psychoactive medication withdrawal

role of vitamin D in prevention of falls

transient risk factors for falls

understanding an older person’s perspective



gait alterations in older people

falls risk

level walking

slipping responses

stair walking

stepping over and avoiding obstacles

tripping responses

gait and balance problems, clinical assessment

general exercise programmes

background

effects on function

glasses see spectacles

glaucoma, and risk of falls

GP (general practitioner)

assessment of older people

clinical assessment of the older faller

identification of those at risk of falls

reporting of falls by older people



healthcare cost of falls

hearing impairment, and risk of falls

hip fracture caused by falling

consequences

due to drop attacks

in older people with dementia

hip protectors

hip strategy, response to perturbation



Hispanic population (US), incidence of falls

history of poliomyelitis see prior poliomyelitis

home hazards

assessment tools

barriers to safety modifications

environmental risk factors

falls prevention strategies

reduction

risk factors for falls

hospitals

admissions due to falls

discharge planning

environmental interventions

falls prevention strategies

falls risk assessment tools

inpatients falls prevention interventions

incidence of falls

increasing awareness of falls risk

monitoring patients

nursing staff recording of falls

post-fall assessment

reducing falls injury

research evaluating falls prevention strategies

risk factor modification

risk factors for falls

incidence of falls

after discharge from hospital

amputation patients

Asian/Pacific Islander population (US)

Black population (US)

community-dwelling older people

following hospitalization for medical illness

frail older people

groups at increased risk

Hispanic population (US)

in hospitals

Japanese populations

Parkinson’s disease patients

people with arthritis

people with cognitive impairment

people with dementia

people with diabetes

people with vestibular disorders

presentation at hospital emergency departments

rates of falls hospitalization

residential aged care facilities

risk of subsequent falls

seasonal variations in frequency

secular trends in falls injuries

stroke patients

White populations

incontinence, risk factor for falls

independence, loss after a fall

injuries from falls

and environmental surface types

and floor type

definition of fall-related injury

reducing see also hip fracture caused by falling; ‘long lie’ after a fall

intermediate-care hostels, incidence of falls

intermittent claudication, and risk of falls

internal perturbations generated by functional tasks



Japanese populations, incidence of falls

joint position sense, age-related changes



lateral reach test

leaning

measures of falls risk

postural stability tests

level walking

effects of fear of falling

effects of reduced sensorimotor function

gait alterations and risk of falling

gait alterations in older people

head and pelvis acceleration patterns

potential for loss of balance

location of falls

‘long lie’ after a fall

aids to prevent

consequences

lower-extremity muscle strength, and postural sway

lower-limb muscle weakness, and risk of falls

lower-limb osteoarthritis, Physiological Profile Assessment



macular degeneration

Physiological Profile Assessment

risk of falls

maximal step length test

maximum balance range test

medical risk factors see risk factors for falls

medication review for older people

medications linked with falls

ACE inhibitors

analgesic agents

antidepressants

anti-hypertensives

anti-psychotics

benzodiazepines

beta blockers

calcium channel blockers

cardiovascular medications

centrally acting medications

digoxin

diuretics

drug interactions

drugs and ageing

limitations of studies

mechanisms for increased risk of falls

monoamine oxidase inhibitors

narcotic analgesics

NSAIDs

optimization of prescription for older people

pharmacodynamic effects of drugs

pharmacokinetic effects of drugs

polypharmacy (multiple drug prescription)

psychotropic medications

sedative/hypnotics

selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs)

serotonin and noradrenaline re-uptake inhibitors (SNRIs)

tetracyclic antidepressants

tricyclic antidepressants

use of multiple psychotropic agents

vasodilators

Meniere’s disease, risk factor for falls

micturition or cough syncope

mobility, interaction with environmental risk factors

monoamine oxidase inhibitors, risk of falls

multi-direction reach test

multifocal glasses, risk of falls

multiple medication use, risk of falls

multiple psychotropic drug use, risk of falls

muscle strength, age-related changes

muscle synergies, responses to perturbation

muscle weakness, and risk of falls

myelopathy, and risk of falls



narcotic analgesics

neurocardiogenic (vasovagal) syncope, clinical assessment

neurological abnormalities, risk of falls

neuromuscular factors associated with falls

non-pharmacological therapies

NSAIDs, risk of falls

nursing homes, incidence of falls



obstacles

avoiding

stepping over

occupational therapy see assistive devices

older person, definition

optimization of prescription for older people

orthostatic hypotension

clinical assessment

risk of falls

osteoarthritis, risk factor for falls



Parkinson’s disease

incidence of falls

risk factor for falls

patient-centred care and choice, in falls prevention interventions

Performance Oriented Balance and Mobility Assessment (POMA)

peripheral arterial disease, and risk of falls

peripheral neuropathy, as cause of falls

peripheral sensation

age-related changes

and postural sway

peripheral sensation impairment, and risk of falls

perturbations (external), postural stability responses

perturbations (internal), generation by functional tasks

pharmacodynamic effects of drugs, age-related changes

pharmacokinetic effects of drugs, age-related changes

physical activity, benefits for older people see also exercise interventions for older people

physical restraints

alternatives to

Physiological Profile Assessment (PPA)

components of

comprehensive version

examples in clinical groups

individual falls risk assessment

individual physiological assessment

older people with diabetes mellitus

older people with lower-limb osteoarthritis

older people with macular degeneration

people with a history of poliomyelitis

PPA tests

prediction of falls in older people

rationale for test selection

screening version

time taken to administer

use in falls clinics

use in falls prevention trials

web-based normative database and assessment report programme

poliomyelitis see prior poliomyelitis

polypharmacy (multiple drug prescription)

and appropriate prescribing

risk of falls

post-fall assessment

post-fall syndrome see also fear of falling

post-polio syndrome see prior poliomyelitis

postural control

effects of cardiovascular problems

visual field dependence

postural hypotension, and risk of falls

postural instability, and risk of falls

postural stability

age-associated changes

compensation between physiological systems

definition

integration of physiological systems

internal perturbations generated by functional tasks

leaning

response to external perturbations

sensory and musculo-skeletal interaction

standing

voluntary stepping

postural stress test

postural sway

age-related effects

as predictor of falls

measurement

prior poliomyelitis

and risk of falls

Physiological Profile Assessment

private residences, risk factors for falls

proprioception, age-related changes

proprioceptive impairment, and risk of falls

psychoactive medications, risk of falls

psychological risk factors for falls

attentional limitations

fear of falling

psychotropic medications, risk of falls

ptophobia see also fear of falling

public places

falls prevention strategies

risk factors for falls



QuickScreen risk assessment

alternate step test

near tandem stand

peripheral sensation test

sit-to-stand test

vision test



reaction time

age-related changes

and postural sway

reaction time impairment, risk of falls

research

areas of investigation

prospective studies

volume of research literature see also future directions for falls research

residential aged care facilities

benefits of calcium supplementation

benefits of vitamin D supplementation

discharge planning

effects of exercise on falls

environmental interventions

falls prevention for people with impaired cognition

falls prevention interventions

falls prevention strategies,

falls risk assessment tools

incidence of falls

increasing awareness of falls risk

monitoring patients

multi-faceted falls prevention programmes

nursing staff recording of falls

post-fall assessment

reducing falls injury

research evaluating falls prevention strategies

risk factor modification

risk factors for falls

use of hip protectors

resistance training

background

effects on functional abilities

effects on strength

to prevent falls

restraints

alternatives to

retirement villages, incidence of falls

risk factors for falls

acute illness

alcohol consumption

Alzheimer’s disease

analgesics

anti-inflammatory drugs

anti-arrhythmic medications

antidepressants

anti-hypertensive medications

anti-psychotics

arthritis

benzodiazepines

cardiovascular problems affecting postural control

carotid sinus hypersensitivity

cataracts

cerebellar disorders

cerebrovascular disease

cervical spondylosis

chronic conditions

cognitive impairment

degenerative joint disease

dementia

depression

diabetes

dizziness

drop attacks

environmental factors

epilepsy

external hazards

fear of falling

foot problems

footwear

glaucoma

hearing impairment

home hazards

incontinence

intermittent claudication

intervention strategies

macular degeneration

medical factors

medications linked with falls

Meniere’s disease

modification of risk factors

multiple medication use

muscle weakness

myelopathy

neurological abnormalities

orthostatic hypotension

osteoarthritis

Parkinson’s disease

peripheral arterial disease

peripheral sensation loss

physiological impacts of disease

postural hypotension

postural instability factors

prior poliomyelitis (post-polio syndrome)

psychoactive medications

psychological factors

reaction time

risk-taking behaviours

selective attention impairment

sensory and neuromuscular factors

socio-demographic factors

spectacles

stroke

syncope

transient cerebral hypoperfusion

urinary incontinence

vestibular impairment

visual impairment

risk-taking behaviours, and risk of falls



screening tools

seasonal variations in frequency of falls

sedative/hypnotics, risk of falls

selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs), risk of falls

sensorimotor function

age-related changes

compensation between physiological systems

integration of physiological systems

sensory factors associated with falls

sensory input, impacts of diseases

sensory organization test

serotonin and noradrenaline re-uptake inhibitors (SNRIs), risk of falls

sick sinus syndrome

sleep disorders management

slipping responses

socio-demographic risk factors

spectacles, risk factors for falls

stability see postural stability

stair walking, fall studies

standing

age-related effects on postural sway

components of postural stability

postural sway

postural sway as predictor of falls

postural sway measurement

stepping over obstacles

stepping strategy, response to perturbation

stroke, risk factor for falls

stroke patients, incidence of falls

Survey of Activities and Fear of Falling in the Elderly (SAFE)

sway see postural sway

syncope

clinical assessment

risk factor for falls

tactile sensitivity, age-related changes

Tai Chi training, to prevent falls

tetracyclic antidepressants, risk of falls

time of day when falls occur

Timed Up and Go Test (TUGT)

tricyclic antidepressants, risk of falls

tripping responses

tripping risk, and antidepressants



urinary incontinence, risk factor for falls



vasodilators, risk of falls

vertigo

vestibular impairment

effect on incidence of falls

forms of

risk of falls

vestibular rehabilitation

background

effects on dizziness

effects on falls risk factors

effects on functional abilities

vestibular sense

age-related changes

and postural sway

impairment related to falls

nystagmus

vestibulo-collic reflex

vestibulo-ocular reflex

age-related changes

impairment related to falls

vestibulo-spinal reflex

vibration sense, age-related changes

vision

age-related changes

depth perception and risk of falls

edge-contrast sensitivity and risk of falls

importance in balance and avoiding falls

visual field loss and risk of falls

visual acuity

and postural sway

and risk of falls

visual field dependence, age-related changes

visual impairment

and risk of falls

clinical assessment

vitamin D

insufficiency in older people

supplementation in older people

voluntary stepping

measures of falls risk

postural stability tests



walking, potential for loss of balance see level walking

walking aids

alternatives to

indications

limitations

possible role in falls prevention

prescription principles

types of

walking programmes, to prevent falls

White populations, incidence of falls




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