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Diversity at Work

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Diversity at Work

Cambridge University Press
9780521860307 - Diversity at Work - Edited by Arthur P. Brief
Index


Index

Abrahamson, E. 68

Abrams, D. A. 28, 137, 176, 234

Academy of Management 1

access-and-legitimacy perspective 297

accountability

   passive approach 69

   workplace bias 68–69

Acker, M. 69

Acquino, K. 134

Adams, G. A. 275

Adler, N. 278

affirmative action policies 202, 271–272

   attraction to job applicants 272–273

age, interpersonal differences in

   and bias 202

   and conflict 146

   and social groups 97–98

Aikin, K. J. 28, 218, 231, 325

Akinola, M. 8

Alagana, S. 131, 145, 146, 157, 161

Alderfer, C. P. 37, 179

Alexander, M. G. 15

Alksnis, O. 203, 207, 216

Allen, J. G. 111, 228

Allen, T. D. 90, 286

Allport, G. W. 218, 300

Altemeyer, B. 17

Althauser, R. P. 54

Amason, A. 135, 140, 141

Ambady, N. 228

ambivalent racism 22

Amendola, K. L. 286

American Journal of Sociology 53

American Sociological Review 53

Ames, D. R. 95, 116

Amo, R. B. 223

analysis of specific interactions 242

Anastasio, P. A. 38

Ancona, D. G. 135

Anderson, E. 184

Anderson, N. B. 220

Angell, L. C. 147, 148, 161, 162

appraisal effect 100, 113

   and status differences 101, 113

      initial status disparity 101–102, 103, 104, 107, 109

      joint productivity 102, 103, 104, 107, 109

      social psychological mechanisms 101, 103, 104, 107–106, 108

   usefulness of 112

appraisal theory, and intergroup prejudice 17

appraisals 92, 93

   and identity deliberation 114

   social group membership 95, 97

   status differences and identity negotiation 100, 113

   see also identity negotiation processes

Argote, L. 131, 156

Arkes, H. R. 323

Aron, A. 193

Aronson, D. 32, 69, 70–71, 95, 104, 181, 187, 225–226, 288, 293, 334

Arredondo, P. 266

Arvey, R. D. 68

Asch, S. E. 150

Ashe, A. 336

Ashforth, B. E. 208

Ashmore, R. D. 38, 180

assimilation model 33

Attitudes Toward Women scale 28

aversive racism 23, 322

Avery, D. R. 268, 271, 274–275, 276, 294, 296

awareness and inclusion model 33

awareness training 279

   and behavioral change 282

   manager ethnic identity development 281

   of perception process 281

Axelrod, R. 148

Ayoko, O. B. 147, 161

Azjen, I. 283


Babcock, P. 56, 57, 58, 59, 266

Bachiochi, P. D. 272, 273

Bachman, B. A. 38

Backhaus, K. B. 270

Backman, C. W. 92

Bacon, P. L. 95

Bailey-Werner, B. 28, 30

Bailyn, L. 186

Baits, D. F. 274

Banaji, M. R. 18, 20, 25, 108, 221, 234, 323

Banal, S. 230, 238

Bantel, K. A. 128, 134, 136, 148, 150

Barber, A. E. 269

Bargh, J. A. 25

Barnett, W. P. 55, 128, 136

Baron, J. N. 4, 55, 68, 212

Baron, R. S. 218, 237

Barreto, M. 144, 204, 206, 210, 211, 216, 218, 219, 220, 222, 223, 226, 227, 229, 230, 231, 233, 234, 238

Barrett, F. J. 183, 190

Barsade, S. G. 89, 132, 133, 145, 146, 148, 161, 162, 175, 177, 179, 266

Barsky, A. 300, 324, 336

Bartol, K. M. 202

Batts, V. 23, 24

Bauer, T. N. 273

Baumeister, R. F. 187

Bazerman, M. H. 5

Beale, R. L. 277

Beaton, A. M. 28

Beatty, J. E. 228

Beck, E. M. 54

Becker, B. E. 276, 304

Becker, H. A. 234

Beehr, T. A. 286, 289

Beekes, A. M. G. 234

behavioral confirmation processes 224

   and disconfirmation 226–228

   reciprocal interaction strategies 224, 225

   stereotype-based expectations 224

      in particular situations 225

      and stereotype threat 225–226

   see also stereotypes, disconfirmation

behavioral disintegration, and faultline strength 150–151

Behfar, K. J. 140, 142, 146

Bell, M. 131, 152

Bellard, E. 147, 153, 161

Bells, K. 53

Belongia, L. 16

Ben Zeev, T. 288

Bendersky, C. 140, 141, 142

Bendick, M. 202, 277, 278, 299

Bendix, R. 53

Berger, J. 99

Bergmann, T. J. 274

Berkman, S. 36

Bernstein, D. A. 142

Berry, J. W. 33

Berscheid, E. 224

Bersoff, D. N. 203

Bertrand, M. 336

Bettenhausen, K. 116

Bezrukova, K. 145, 150, 151, 153, 157, 161, 162, 266, 294

Bielby, D. D. 55

Bielby, W. T. 4, 55, 56, 70, 71, 73, 330

Biernat, M. 18, 27, 29, 230

Billig, M. 99

Bird, A. 136

Bisom-Rapp, S. 55, 59

Blackstone, T. 96, 111, 133

Blader, S. 137

Blair, I. V. 213, 322, 327, 328–329, 331

Blake, S. 265, 304

Blake-Beard, S. D. 284, 285, 289

Blake-Davis, A. 55

Blascovich, J. 221, 225, 226

Blau, P. 53, 139

Block, C. J. 20, 98, 183, 272, 281, 284, 287, 288, 335

Block, F. 68

Blyth, A. 301

Bobko, P. 63

Bobo, L. 22, 232, 272

Bobocel, D. R. 272

Boddy, J. E. Jr. 56, 57

Bodenhausen, G. V. 324

Boeker, W. 135

Bok, D. 272

Bond, S. 296

Bonvini, A. 235

Booth, J. N. 135, 136

Borgida, E. 29, 30, 202, 203

Boudreau, L. A. 111, 228

Boulding, K. 140

Bourgeois, L. 146, 161

Bovenkerk, F. 202

Bowen, W. G. 272

Bower, B. 57

Bowers, C. A. 295

Bracker, J. S. 276

Bradley, J. 324, 336

Braly, K. 27

Brand, P. A. 111

Branscombe, N. R. 178, 181, 184, 187, 204, 208, 213, 214, 215, 217, 220, 221, 223, 231, 232, 235

Bratslavsky, E. 187

Brett, J. F. 135, 136, 266

Brewer, M. B. 15, 18, 21, 36, 61, 66, 130, 138

Brickman, P. 22

Brief, A. P. 3, 4, 6, 24, 98, 131, 159, 271, 281, 284, 300, 324, 325, 335, 336

Brief, D. 132, 134, 145

Brigham, J. C. 14, 61

Brody, C. 99

Bromley, S. 300

Brown, J. D. 221

Brown, R. 24, 28, 95, 97, 206

Brown, R. J. 21, 61, 66

Brown, R. P. 106, 111

Bryson, J. B. 218

Buckley, K. R. 65

Buhler, P. M. 68, 72

Bunderson, J. S. 128, 156, 157

Burgess, D. 29, 30

Burgoon, J. K. 226

Burke, L. M. 135

Burke, M. J. 16, 202

Burkhardt, M. S. 56, 57

Burrows, J. W. 159, 327, 328–329

Burtess, M. L. 218, 237

Burton, J. P. 290, 295

Buscene, S. 133

business case for diversity 265, 304–305

   customer base or organization 329

   diversity initiatives 266

   negative outcomes 265–266

business schools, and changing workforce 6–7

   personal experience of diversity 7–8

Butterfield, D. A. 183

Butz, R. M. 159, 324, 327, 328–329, 336

Bylsma, W. H. 216

Byrne, D. E. 130, 145, 176


Cadinu, M. 230

Caldwell, D. D. 135

Caldwell, D. F. 128, 136

Callister, R. R. 140

Campbell, D. T. 138

Cannon-Bowers, J. A. 295

Carli, L. L. 90

Carnevale, P. J. 141

Carpenter, M. A. 134, 135

Carr, C. 230

Carranza, E. 31

Carrillo, M. 24

Carson, R. C. 92

Carstensen, L. L. 97

Carter, S. L. 272

Carter, S. R. 36

Caruso, H. M. 114–115

Carvallo, M. 220

categorization, continuum model 17

Cejka, M. A. 332

Cellar, D. F. 278

Chadwick 145, 161

Chaiken, S. 14

Chambliss, E. 55, 59, 69

Chan, S. 324, 336

Chao, G. T. 286

Chatard, A. 90

Chatman, C. 225

Chatman, J. A. 89, 132, 133, 143–144, 175, 177, 179

Chattopadhyay, P. 115, 133, 156

Chavous, T. M. 96

Chen, C. C. 36, 287

Chen, M. 134

Chen, Y. 90, 100

Cherin, D. A. 36

Chetkovich, C. 190

Cheung, A. 25

Cho, T. 134

Choi, H.-S. 132

Choi, I. 35

Christensen, S. L. 277

Chrobot-Mason, D. 265, 281, 283, 294, 301

Chugh, D. 322, 325, 327

Cialdini, R. B. 187

Cihangir, S. 219, 220, 223, 227

Cikara, M. 28

Civil Rights Act (1964) 318, 329

Clair, J. A. 228

Claire, T. 224, 225

Clark, R. 220

Clark, V. R. 220

Clarke-Stewart, A. 142

Clausell, E. 16

Clayton, S. 203, 207, 216

Cleveland, J. N. 16

Coates, D. 22

Cobbs, P. M. 189–190

Coffman, T. L. 27

cognitive bias 55, 56, 57

   importance to sociologists 57–58

Cognitive Bias Working Group 74

cognitive economy, and stereotypes 18, 20

Cohen, E. 22

Cohen, G. L. 62, 68

Cohen, L. L. 217, 221

Cohen, R. R. 6, 24, 322, 329

Cohen, S. 182, 187, 189, 195

Cole, S. W. 229

Colella, A. 4

collective performance

   and interpersonal congruence 93–94, 100

      status differences 101

Collins, D. 106, 131, 145, 146, 157, 161

Collins, P. H. 177

color blindness 33

   argument for 34

   interpersonal perception 36

   lack of support for 35–36

   unrealistic 34–35

Colquitt, J. A. 177, 280

Combs, G. M. 283

communication skills, and diversity training 294

comparative fit 15

computational tasks, and appraisal effects 100

conflict

   asymmetry 144, 160

   avoidance 32

   creative 144

   management of 294

   see also cultural diversity; financial conflict; gender diversity; group conflict theory; intra-group conflict; process conflict; relationship conflict; task conflict

Conlon, D. 144

Connell, R. W. 183

Constantine, V. S. 27

contact hypothesis 300–301

contemporary racism, see modern racism

continuum model 17

Conway-Lanz, S. 134

Cooley, C. H. 92

Cooper, D. M. 135, 136, 266

Cooper, J. 32, 61, 93, 321, 324

Copeland, J. T. 19

Cordova 238

Corneille, O. 18

Cornfield, D. B. 291, 292

Costarelli, S. 21

Cotton, J. L. 283, 285–286

Courtright, J. 68

Cox, T. H. 66–67, 89, 128, 156, 178, 265, 277, 286, 304

Craig, K. M. 291, 292

Crandall, C. S. 230

creativity, and verification effects 100, 102

   see also social creativity strategies

Creed, D. 191–192

Crenshaw, K. 177

Crisp, R. J. 90, 138, 180, 181, 182, 186–187, 188, 189, 195

Crocker, J. 137, 187, 211, 219, 228, 235

Croizet, J. C. 225

Cropanzano, R. 272

Crosby, F. J. 56, 203, 207, 213–214, 216, 217, 222, 272, 300

Cross, S. E. 92, 95, 97

cross-categorization theory 138

   and faultline theory 139

Croteau, J. M. 228

Cuddy, A. J. C. 15, 16, 28, 61

cultural diversity 175

   and conflict 146, 147

   difference frame 176–177, 178

      drawbacks to 177, 178

   intergroup component 175

   intra-group dynamics 178

   outward-focused goals 176

   relational frame 179–180, 193–194

      multiple personal identities 195

      research on intergroup relations 194–195

      shift from inward- to outward-focused goals 195

   suppression of differences 179

   team asset 179

   see also social identity threat

cultural pluralism 33

Cunningham, W. A. 25

Curtis, R. C. 111


Dale, S. 32

Dardenne, B. 19, 32

Darley, J. M. 37, 62, 225, 226

Dasgupta, N. 61, 66

Davidson, B. 150, 157

Davidson, M. N. 176, 188, 189, 192, 193

Davies, P. G. 226

Davis, K. 53

Davis-Blake, A. 300

Davison, H. J. 202

De Dreu, C. K. W. 132, 140, 141–142, 156

De Gilder, D. 210, 235, 236–237

De Vries, N. K. 132

Deaux, K. 180, 181, 202, 203, 235

Dechant, K. 89, 265, 304

Deitch, E. A. 98, 281, 284, 324, 335, 336

demographic composition, and diversity initiative evaluation 268

demographic faultlines 138–139

   see also faultline group coalition

DeNardo, M. 214, 218

Dépret, E. 17, 37, 38

Derks, B. 211–212

descriptive stereotypes

   shifting standards 27, 29, 30

   women’s career advancement 28–30

   see also stereotypes

devaluation threat 181–183

   distancing 185

   negative stereotypes 185

   responses to 184

Devine, P. G. 24, 27, 36, 61, 213, 280, 299, 300

Devos, T. 323

Diamante, T. 266

Dichter, M. S. 56, 57

Dickson, M. W. 115, 128

Diebold, J. 28, 30

Diekmann, K. A. 216

Dietz, J. 6, 24, 159, 271, 322, 325, 327, 328–329

differentiation perspective 34

Dijksterhuis, A. 18

Dino, R. N. 135

Dion, K. L. 217, 218, 220

Dipboye, R. L. 265, 268, 269, 277, 279, 281, 302

DiPrete, T. A. 55

discretion, and bias 61–63

discrimination 14, 322

   change since 1964 336–337

   future research on 242–243

   legal prevention 202

   litigation and implicit bias 57

   see also cognitive bias

discrimination, role of target 334, 336

   awareness of stereotype-based treatment 227–228

   characteristics of stimulus 217–218

   group-based 237, 240–241, 244

   information 215–217

   loss of personal control 220–221

   recognition of prejudice 218

   self-protection effects 219

   social exclusion 219

   system-justifying ideologies 221–222

   see also personal discrimination

discrimination-and-fairness perspective 297, 298

dispersion inaccuracy 19

dispositional explanation of behavior 20–21

Dissociation Model 24–25, 36

DiTomaso, N. 89, 287

diversity

   actual and perceived 152–153

      and demographic faultlines 153

   awareness and inclusion model 33

   central role in organizations 127

   conflict 127, 130, 131, 137, 138, 146

      and minority groups 158

      role of individual 152

   effects of 89, 90

   faultlines 151

   focus on differences 175

   function of organization 5

   importance of senior leadership 8

   importance post-recruitment 33

   improvement in 128–130

   interdependence between demographic characteristics 138–139

   methodological challenges to research 160

   organizational responsibility 334

   overlapping dimensions of 90–91

   and performance 3, 89, 127, 128

   positive belief in 155–156, 159

      and intra-group conflict 156

   relational approach 35–36, 175

   relational dimensions of 35–36

   scarcity of research on 4, 159–160, 333

   single dimensions of 89–90

   societal power disparities 175–176

   team performance 128

      benefit from diversity 128–130

      negative impact on 130

   universal aspects of 89

   visible and non-visible 131

   see also business case for diversity; color blindness; cultural diversity

diversity change, sustainability of 299–302

diversity councils 302

diversity initiatives 266, 333

   effectiveness of skill-based training 303

   evaluation of 268–269, 293–295

   intergroup contact 303

   levels of 295

   motivators of 267–268

   at organizational level 303

   outcomes of mentoring programs 303

   prejudice reduction 303

   research needs 302

   role of supervisor 295–296

   strategy definition 269

diversity recruitment 293

   affirmative action 271–272

   applicant complexity 276

   formal job adverts 270

   informal networks 270

   pro-diversity statements 271, 275–276

   recruiter characteristics 274, 275

   retention of employees 276

   strategic HRM approach 269–270

   use of pictures in advertisements 270–271, 274, 275–276

diversity training 268, 277, 294–295

   awareness training 281–283, 299, 301

   behavioral change 277, 278–279

   criticism of 277

   dissemination of information 277, 278

   importance of environmental conditions 280, 295

   skill training 279–281, 282, 294

   theory-based programs 283

   trainee motivation 279, 280

Dobbin, F. R. 55, 56, 68, 70, 152

Donahue, L. M. 89, 127, 128, 152, 161

Dooley, R. S. 152

Doosje, B. 178, 181, 184, 187, 210

Doucouliagos, C. 68

Dougherty, D. 96, 146

Dougherty, T. W. 274

Douglas, C. A. 284

Dovidio, J. F. 14, 23, 24, 38, 61–62, 175, 213, 287, 301, 322, 335

Downey, G. 111

Dreher, G. F. 66–67, 286

dual process model of impression formation 18

DuBois, C. L. Z. 65

Duckitt, J. 17

Dukes v.Wal-Mart Stores Inc. 56

Duncan, O. D. 53

Dunham, K. J. 276

Dunton, B. C. 24

Dutton, J. E. 112, 193


Eagly, A. H. 30, 31, 203, 328, 332

Earley, P. C. 153

Earn, B. M. 220

Earnshaw, J. 296

Eastman, W. 36

Eberhardt, J. L. 69

Eby, L. T. 284, 285, 286, 289

Eccles, J. 19

Eccleston, C. P. 217

Eckes, T. 28

Edelman, L. B. 55, 56, 59, 69, 75

Ediger, E. 187

Edmondson, A. C. 107, 134, 156, 193

egalitarian norms, to combat prejudice 38

Egan, M. L. 277, 278, 299

Egan, T. D. 35, 37, 133, 137, 157, 265

Egodigwe, L. 283

Ehrhart, K. H. 269

Eisenhardt, K. M. 127, 130, 131, 141, 145, 146, 148, 149, 161, 162

Elder, A. E. 273

Ellemers, N. 137, 178, 181, 184, 187, 204, 206–207, 209, 210–212, 216, 218, 219, 220, 222, 223, 226, 227, 229, 230, 231, 233, 234–235, 236–237, 238, 243

Elliot, A. J. 27, 61, 282

Elliott, J. R. 67

Ellis, A. 285

Ellis, C. 278, 282

Elsass, P. M. 99

Elsbach, K. D. 94, 206, 208

Ely, R. J. 33, 38, 89, 90, 107, 113, 136, 155, 176, 178, 179, 180, 183, 187–188, 189, 190, 191, 192, 193, 194, 195, 226, 265, 266, 294, 297, 304

emotions, and intergroup prejudice 17

employee network groups 290–291, 292, 295, 298

employees’ perceptions of workplace climate 71–72

Emswiller, T. 202

Equal Employment Opportunities Commission 319, 329

   focus on post-employment harassment 319

equal employment opportunity (EEO) 2, 55–56, 202

   belief in 231–232

   HR process accountability 71

   managerial accountability 70

   organizational assessment 71

   workplace climate assessment 71–72

Erez, M. 290, 295

Erhardt, N. L. 127, 128, 130, 152, 161

Erickson, K. G. 99

Erlanger, H. S. 55, 56, 59, 69

Esen, E. 268, 269, 277, 283, 290, 296, 300

Ethier, K. A. 181, 235

ethnic identity 273

Evan, W. 141

Evans, M. D. R. 16, 22

Evans, N. E. 61


Fagenson-Eland, E.A 286

Fairhurst, G. T. 68, 136

Faley, R. J. 68

Falk, G. 99

Falk, S. 99

Farina, A. 111, 228

Farley, J. A. 270

faultline group coalition

   effect on performance 150–151

   intra-group conflict 155

   process conflict 143

   relationship conflict 150

   task conflict 150

   team learning 157

   see also demographic faultlines

Fazio, R. H. 24, 25, 323

Feagin, J. R. 222

Federal Glass Ceiling Commission 285

Federico, C. M. 132, 134, 145

Feldman, D. C. 278

Feldman-Barrett, L. 215, 218

Felicio, D. M. 111

Ferdman, B. M. 277, 279, 281, 294

Ferguson, M. A. 68

Ferguson, M. J. 217

Fernandez, J. P. 67

Fernandez, R. M. 55

Feshbach, S. 34

Festinger, L. 93

Field, H. S. 69

financial conflict 144

Findler, L. 38

Finkelstein, L. M. 16, 90

firsthand experience effect, on research agendas 7–8

Fischer, H. 25

Fisher, G. 273

Fisher, S. 277, 278

Fiske, S. T. 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 25, 27, 28, 30, 31, 32, 36, 37, 38, 61, 68, 203, 214, 217, 218, 224, 231, 287

Fitzgerald, L. F. 214, 218

Fleming, C. 224

Fletcher, J. K. 186

Flett, G. 187

Flood, P. 135, 148, 162

Florey, A. T. 131, 179

Flynn, F. J. 177

Foddy, M. 26

Foerster 57

Foldy 99

Fombrun, C. J. 68

Forcey, B. 216

Ford, J. K. 63, 64, 277, 278

Ford, T. E. 68

Foschi, M. 26, 29

Foster, M. D. 214

Fountain, C. M. 55

Frable, D. E. S. 96, 111, 229

Fragale, A. R. 111

Frazer, R. A. 26

Frederickson, G. M. 33

Fredrickson, J. W. 134, 135

Freeman, C. 270

Freeman, J. H. 68

Freitas, A. L. 111

Freytag, P. 213

Friedman, J. J. 89

Friedman, R. A. 265, 290–291, 292

Frigerio, S. 230

Fromm, E. 93

Fryxell, G. E. 152

Fuegen, K. 29

Fuller, S. R. 56

Funayama, E. S. 25

functional diversity 131

   and conflict 131, 147

   moderators of 148–149

   and performance 148

Fung, H. H. 97


Gabarro, J. J. 295, 296, 297, 298, 304

Gabriel, S. 95, 97

Gaertner, S. L. 14, 21, 23, 24, 38, 61, 61–62, 175, 301, 322, 335

Gagnon, D. 216

Galinsky, A. 226

Gallois, C. 143

Gambino, F. 68

Garcia, D. M. 223

Garcia-Preito, P. 147, 153, 161

Gardenswartz, L. 68

Gardner, P. D. 286

Gardner, W. L. 95, 97

Gary, M. L. 38

gateways

   as distinct from pathways 318

   effect of implicit bias 323, 325

   focus of legislation 319

   responsibility of organizations 334

Gatewood, R. D. 69

Gavin, J. H. 131, 179

Geisinger, K. F. 270

Gelfand, M. J. 38, 89, 128, 137, 273

gender discrimination 13, 202

   discretionary bias 62–63

   individual and group ratings 214, 215

   prescriptive stereotypes 30–31

   self-promotion by women 30, 31

   stereotypes 13, 236–237

   see also descriptive stereotypes

gender diversity, and conflict 146

Gentile, M. C. 267, 277

George, E. 133, 156

Gersick, C. J. 115

Gibson 153, 157, 160, 238

Giesler, R. B. 93

Gifford, R. K. 16

Giglio, L. 266

Gilbert, D. T. 24

Gilbert, G. M. 27

Gill, M. J. 93

Gilliam 331

Giovannini, M. 70

Giscombe, K. 265, 270, 296

Glaser, R. 229

Glick, P. 15, 28, 30, 31, 61, 218, 231

Glicke, W. H. 135

Gliha, D. 111, 228

Gochman, I. R. 266

Goffman, E. 91, 92, 228

Goldberg, C. B. 274

Goldstein, I. L. 279, 295

Good, C. 293

Goodman, J. 296

Gordijn 132

Gordon, M. M. 33, 53

Government Accountability Office 277, 300, 302

Gowing, M. K. 89

Gramzow, R. H. 211, 222, 229, 231

Grant, A. 189

Gras, M. 202

Graves, L. M. 99, 202

Green, S. 68

Greenberger, D. B. 284, 289

Greenhaus, J. H. 64

Greenwald, A. G. 20, 25, 322, 323

Greenwood, D. 218

Greer, L. L. 140, 141, 142, 143, 144, 154

Gregg, E. 72

Gresov, C. 68

Griffeth, R. W. 276, 285, 289, 295

Grossman, R. J. 266

group-based expectations, individual attempts to escape 231

group boundaries

   permeability of 233

   token mobility 233

group conflict theory 328

group identity

   interpersonal congruence 93–94

   perceptions of personal discrimination 213

group membership

   color-blindness 34

   competence 26–27

   failure to perceive discrimination 213

   self-views and appraisals 95

   status differences 98

   stereotypes 16, 236–237

   see also social identity theory

group norms, defiance of 186

group oppression, and social dominance theory 133

group performance, self-verification appraisal effects 100

group threats, and intergroup prejudice 17

Gruenfeld, D. H. 128, 131, 133, 148, 150, 156

Guetzkow, H. 140

Guimond, S. 90

Guinn, J. S. 92

Gulati, G. M. 188

Gurin, G. 217

Gurin, P. 217

Gutek, B. A. 61, 136

Guzzo, R. A. 115, 128

Gyr, J. 140


Haberfeld, Y. 30

Habig, C. 213

Habke, M. 187

Hackman, J. R. 116

Hafer, C. L. 203, 232

Haley, H. 134

Hall, W. S. 28, 218, 231, 325

Halpin, S. M. 230

Hambrick, D. C. 134, 139, 141, 150, 153, 155, 160, 162

Hamilton, D. L. 16, 61

Hamilton, W. D. 325

Hanges, P. J. 325

Hannan, M. T. 68

Hanover, J. M. 278

Hansen, F. 266

Hansen, J. 323

Hardee, B. B. 23, 24

Hardin, C. D. 300

Harris, C. 229

Harris, K. L. 141, 147, 161

Harris, L. E. 56, 57

Harrison, B. 131

Harrison, D. A. 153, 159, 179

Hart, A. J. 25

Hart, M. 56, 57

Hartel, C. E. J. 147, 161

Hartmann, R. 214

Harvey, O. J. 92

Harvey, R. D. 213, 217, 220

Haslam, S. A. 137, 155, 203, 206, 209, 210, 236–237

Hass, R. G. 22

Hastorf, A. H. 228

Haveman, H. A. 68

Hawkins, A. 234

Hayes, E. 3, 266

Heaphy, E. D. 193

Hebl, M. R. 271, 287

Hegstad, C. D. 284, 285

Heilman, M. E. 20, 29, 183, 203, 232, 272

Heine, S. J. 93, 94

Heiner, K. 270

Helmreich, R. 28

Helms, J. E. 281

Hemker, K. 203, 207, 216

Henderson, R. 68

Heneman, H. G. III 69

Henry, P. J. 23, 132, 134, 145

Herlihy, J. M. 232

Hermsen, S. 38

Hernandez, M. 271

Herrmann, R. K. 15

heterogeneity, and performance 2

Hewitt, P. L. 187

Hewstone, M. 20, 66, 138

Hezlett, S. A. 289

Higgins, M. C. 293

Highhouse, S. 273

Hill, C. A. 92

Hilton, J. L. 37, 226, 323

Hinkle, S. 206

hiring practices, and subtle bias 67–68

Hispanic population in US, equality of 2

Hitt, M. 202

Hixon, J. G. 24

Hodson, G. 62

Hodson, R. 54

Hogg, M. A. 15, 137, 138, 150, 157, 175, 210, 217, 228, 234

Holtom, B. C. 290–291, 292, 295

Holvino, E. 177, 277, 279, 281, 294

Holzer, H. J. 67

Hom, P. W. 276, 285, 289, 295

Homan, A. C. 156

Hoobler, J. M. 268–269

Hopkins, A. B. 231

Horan, P. 54

Hornsey, M. J. 137

Horvath, M. 16

Hough, J. C. Jr. 23

Houlette, M. A. 62

Hudson, K. J. 55

Huerta, J. 218

Huffcutt, A. I. 63

Hugenberg, K. 324

Hukai, D. 284, 287, 289, 292, 296

Hulin, C. L. 214, 218

humanitarianism–egalitarianism, and ambivalent racism 22

Hunt, D. E. 92

Hunter, A. J. 228

Hunter, B. A. 28, 218, 231, 325

Hunter, J. E. 63

Huselid, M. A. 276, 304

Hutchings, V. L. 232

Hyde, A. 67

Hyers, L. L. 217, 218, 222

Hyland, M. M. 273


Ibarra, H. 67, 238, 290, 295

identity-blind affirmative action policies 271–272

identity-conscious affirmative action policies 272

identity group membership

   differing dimensions of diversity 177

   history of societal relations 179

   idealized images of 186

   outward-facing goals 176

   power positioning 178

   simultaneity 177–178

   suppression of 185

   threats from power imbalances 176

   threats from stereotypes 176, 181–184

identity negotiation processes 91, 92–95

   disclosure of identities 91, 96

   and identity deliberation 114–115

   in diverse membership groups 95, 112–113, 115–116

   influence of social group 96–98

   information exchanges

      explicit action 94, 98, 115

      indirect identity negotiation 95

      implicit 94, 96, 98, 114–115

   investigation of 116–117

   status disparities 91, 99–100, 112–113

identity salience

   effect on conflict 147, 153

   perception of discrimination 217

immigrants

   stereotypes 16

   subtle racism 24

Impagliazzo, L. 230

Implicit Association Test 322, 324

   psychometric properties of 323

   race IAT 322–323, 324, 326

   self-administered 323

implicit bias

   behavioral consequences of 322–327

   exposure to stimuli outside workplace 330–332

   need for research on 335

   workplace discrimination 56–57

individual success

   distancing from group 234–235

   group-based disadvantage 232–234, 236–240, 241

   perception of negativity 236

   reluctance to favor group members 236

   role models 235, 238

information, aggregation of, and perception of discrimination 216, 240

ingroup favoritism and outgroup bias

   functional heterogeneity 147

   intra-group dynamics 178

   performance testing 211–212

   racial disparities in performance assessment 66

   social categorization 137, 138, 145–146

   social dominance theory 134

Inman, M. L. 218, 219, 238

Insko, C. A. 17

integration-and-learning perspective 33, 34, 297

interdependent relationships 37–38

interethnic conflict, and group conflict theory 329

intergroup distinctiveness 210

   devaluation of minority group characteristics 210

   mutual acknowledgment of strengths and weaknesses 210

   and performance 210–211

intergroup perception, processing biases 20–21

   use of social creativity strategies 209

   see also social identity theory

intergroup relations

   overlapping identities 90–91

   relational framework for research 194–195

interpersonal congruence 93–94

   appraisal effect 100

   increase in 100

   self-verification effect 100

intra-group conflict 139–142, 146

   and emotion 143

   faultline strength 151

   financial/political/creative conflict 144

   legitimacy threat 183

   proportional conflict 143–144

   relational conflict 144

   tenure diversity 148

   transactive memory 143

   see also process conflict; relationship conflict; task conflict

Inzlicht, M. 288, 293

Isbell, L. M. 218

Iserman, E. 226

Iyengar, S. 331

Iyer, A. 272


Jackman, M. R. 218, 231

Jackson, C. 202

Jackson, C. J. 32

Jackson, C. L. 177

Jackson, J. R. 24

Jackson, L. C. 214

Jackson, P. B. 66

Jackson, S. 36, 127, 128, 130, 131, 134, 135, 136, 148, 150, 152, 156, 159, 161, 266, 294

Jacobs, A. 206

Jacobson, L. 93

James, E. H. 24, 67, 188, 193

Jayne, M. E. A. 265, 268, 269, 277, 279, 281, 302

Jehn, K. A. 89, 127, 131, 139, 140, 141, 142, 143–144, 145, 146, 148, 149, 150, 151, 152, 153, 154–155, 157, 160, 161, 162, 175, 187, 228, 266, 294

Jetten, J. 210

job discrimination, and modern racism 24, 26

job-related skill requirements, and racial discrimination 60

Johannesen-Schmidt, M. C. 30

Johns, G. 276, 304

Johns, M. 226

Johnson, B. T. 14, 61

Johnson, W. B. 89

Johnston, L. 273

Johnston, W. 265, 304

Joly, S. 28

Jones, E. E. 93, 228

Jones, S. C. 93

Joshi, A. 127, 128, 130, 152, 159, 161, 266, 294

Jossem, J. 72

Jost, J. T. 18, 19, 30, 108, 221, 234

Juan, E. 296

Judd, C. M. 18, 19

Judge, T. A. 69

Judge, W. Q. 152

Julin, J. A. 135, 136, 266

Jury, J. C. 274

Jussim, L. 19, 224, 225


Kahng, S. K. 228

Kahwajy, J. 146, 161

Kaiser, C. R. 204, 219, 222

Kalev, A. 56, 68, 70, 333–334

Kalleberg, A. L. 54, 55

Kampmeier, C. 213

Kane, M. 291, 292

Kang, J. 56

Kanter, R. M. 54, 139, 154, 158, 183

Kao, C. F. 218, 237

Kaplan, S. 68, 325

Karau, S. J. 31

Karlins, M. 27

Karpinski, A. 323

Karuza, J. Jr. 22

Kasinitz, P. 67

Katz, D. 22, 27

Katz, I. 228

Kaufman, R. L. 54

Kawakami, K. 38, 175, 301, 335

Kay, A. C. 19, 30

Keck, S. L. 135

Keiper, S. 19

Kelley, H. H. 93

Kelley, J. 16, 22

Kellogg, K. 186

Kelly, E. 56, 68, 70, 333–334

Kemeny, M. E. 229

Kennedy, D. 70, 71

Kerfoot, D. 183

Kerr, S. 70

Kessler, T. 214

Khouri, H. 111

Kiang, L. 230

Kidder, D. L. 265

Kidder, L. 22

Kiecolt-Glaser, J. K. 229

Kihlstrom, J. F. 322

Kilian, C. M. 284, 287, 289, 292, 296

Kim, J. I. 69

Kim, S. S. 273

Kincaid, D. L. 289

Kinder, D. R. 23

Kirchmeyer, C. 238

Kirnan, J. P. 270

Kirschenman, J. 67

Kitayama, S. 35

Kleef, G. A. V. 156

Klein, K. J. 153, 159

Klein, O. 224–225

Klonoff, E. A. 220

Klonsky, B. G. 30, 203

Kluegal, J. R. 22, 232, 272

Kmec, J. A. 270

Knight, D. 135, 148, 162, 183

Knippenberg, D. V. 156

Ko, S. J. 92, 112

Kobata, M. T. 72

Kobrynowicz, D. 18, 27, 29, 214, 217, 220, 221, 230

Kochan, T. 266, 294

Kohler, S. S. 65

Kolb, D. 183

Konrad, A. M. 35, 68, 99, 203, 204, 232, 265, 272

Koonce, R. 266

Kosterman, R. 24

Kraiger, K. 63, 64

Kram, K. E. 293

Kramer, K. 16

Kramer, R. M. 66, 137, 193, 208, 295

Kravitz, D. A. 272

Krawiec, J. K. 69

Kray, L. J. 226

Kreiner, G. E. 208

Krieger, L. H. 56, 57

Kristof, A. L. 276

Kuhlman, D. M. 15

Kulik, C. T. 275, 277, 280, 283, 288, 295, 300, 333–334

Kumar, K. 89

Kumhyr, S. M. 214, 220

Kunda, Z. 300

Kurowski, L. L. 38, 89, 128, 137

Kwan, J. L. 156

Kwan, V. S. Y. 25, 93, 96, 100, 112


labor markets, dual/segmented 54

LaFrance, M. 218

Lai, L. 29

laissez-faire racism 22

Lalonde, R. N. 214

Lam, R. 187

Landau, J. 64

Lande, J. 56, 69

Landrine, H. 220

Landy, F. J. 16, 65

Langevoort, D. C. 267

Lankau, M. J. 265, 286

Larkin Ford, R. 266

Latham, G. P. 65

Latinotti, S. 230

Lau, D. C. 90, 127, 138–139, 150–151, 153, 154–155, 157, 160, 162

Lawler, A. 231

Lawrence, B. 90, 135, 146, 266

lawsuits, and diversity initiatives 267

Le Poire, B. A. 226

leader effectiveness, and task disagreement 15

Lebesis, M. 29

Lecky, P. 92

Lee, A. J. 56

Lee, H. 68

Lee, T. L. 17

Lee, T. W. 290, 295

legitimacy threat 181, 183–184

   defensive reactions to 186

   outward-focused reaction to 191

   responses to 184

Lehrman, S. 56

Leibold, J. M. 324

Leisse, U. K. 214

Lengnick-Hall, M. L. 72

Lentz, E. 286

Leonard, J. 69, 266, 294

Lepinasse, V. 18

LePine, J. A. 280

Lepore, L. 24, 95, 97

Lerner, M. J. 203, 221, 222

Leslei, L. M. 17, 27

Levin, S. 34, 99, 132, 133, 134, 145, 222, 231

Levine, D. 266, 294

Levine, J. M. 132

Levinson, D. J. 90

Levy, P. E. 98

Leyens, J.-P. 19, 32

Li, J. 35, 139, 141, 150, 153, 155, 160, 162

Lie, J. 55

Lin, M. H. 25, 68

Lindner, N. M. 323

Link, B. G. 228

Linnehan, F. 35, 68, 203, 204, 232, 272

Lipset, S. M. 53

Liu, J. H. 134

Lobel, S. A. 89, 128, 156

Lockwood, A. 284, 285, 289

Loewy, M. 213

Lofhjelm, S. M. 277, 278, 299

London, M. 114–115

longevity, effect on performance 146, 148, 149

LoPresto, R. 68

Louis, M. R. 289

Lovelace, K. 98, 131, 148, 149, 162

Lowery, B. S. 300

Lubatkin, M. J. 135

Lucas, J. A. 272

Luhtanen, R. 187

Lundgren, S. 133

Lupton, B. 208

Lutz, A. M. 97

Lydon, J. E. 222

Lynch, C. I. 225

Lynch, F. R. 277

Lyons, B. D. 286


Maass, A. 230, 235

Mackie, D. 61, 66

Mackie, D. M. 130, 157

MacLean, T. L. 228

Macrae, C. N. 38

Madiot, B. 202

Madon, S. 19, 225

Madson, L. 95, 97

Mager, R. F. 279, 295

Magley, V. J. 214, 218

Main, K. J. 228

Major, B. 137, 207, 211, 213, 214–215, 216, 217, 219, 221, 222, 229, 231

Makhijani, M. G. 30, 31, 203

Mallet, R. 221

manager ethnic identity development 281

managers

   assessment of 64

   behavioral skills courses 243

   and discrimination 203

   and employee network groups 292

   guidance on diversity initiatives 266–267, 296

   mentorship of 66–67

   and racism 6

   responsibility for diversity outcomes 296, 334

   vital to society 4

Manis, M. 27, 69

Mannix, E. A. 3, 89, 127, 128–130, 133, 136, 137, 140, 142, 146, 148, 150, 152, 161

Mansfield, M. T. 325

Manstead, A. S. R. 207, 210

Mara-Drita, I. 56

Marchington, M. 296

marginalized identity groups, and legitimacy threats 183

Marks, M. A. 286

Markus, H. R. 35, 92, 228

Marques, J. M. 223

Martell, R. F. 183

Martin, J. 34, 66, 69, 233, 235

Martin, L. 68

Martinot, D. 90, 217

Martins, L. L. 3

Martocchio, J. J. 63

Maruyama, G. 30, 202

Mason, P. 134

Masser, B. 28

Matsouka, J. K. 16

Matsuo, M. 141, 142

Mattis, M. C. 265, 270, 296

May, E. 131

Mayer, J. D. 143

Mayo, E. 68

McAuliffe, B. 210

McBrier, D. B. 270

McCarty, C. E. 284, 287, 289, 292, 296

McCauley, C. D. 284

McConahay, J. B. 23, 24, 213, 218, 322, 329

McConnell, A. R. 324

McCoy, S. K. 219, 222, 231

McFarlin, D. B. 216, 296

McGhee, D. E. 322

McGuire, G. M. 66

McInerney, S. C. 25

McIntyre, S. 202

McKay, P. F. 268, 274–275, 276, 294, 296

McKirnan, D. J. 232, 233

McLaughlin, J. P. 21

McLaughlin-Volpe, T. 180

McLeod, P. 89, 128, 156

McMahon, B. T. 16

McMillan, D. 20

McMurty, B. 187

McNab, S. M. 273

McTague, T. 318

Mead, G. H. 91, 92

Medkik, N. 277, 280, 281–282, 283, 301

Meeker, M. 53

Meertens, R. W. 24, 26, 28, 38

memory biases, and stereotypes 20, 26

Menger, P. 55

mentoring programs 295, 302

   career development 284, 287–289

   demographic similarity of mentor and protégé 286–287

   exclusion from informal communication networks 289–290

   formal 283–284

      differences from informal 285–286

      studies of 285

   group programs 290–291, 292

   informal 284

      benefits of 286

   quality of mentoring relationship 286

   relationship with immediate supervisor 291

   research on 292–293

   retention of employees 284–285, 289–291, 295

   socialization, lack of 289

   stereotype usage 287

   unmet expectations 289

mentorship, and minority employees 66–67

Merrill-Sands, D. 277, 279, 281, 294

Messick, D. M. 61, 66, 130, 157, 216

meta-analysis of racial bias 63–64

meta-contrast ratio, see comparative fit

Meyer, J. W. 55

Meyerson, D. E. 176, 183, 187, 188, 189, 190, 191, 192, 193, 195

Michaelis, B. 111

Michaelsen, L. K. 89

Migdal, M. J. 138

Miller, A. H. 217

Miller, C. C. 135

Miller, C. E. 98

Miller, C. T. 111, 204, 219, 222

Miller, D. T. 34, 203, 221, 222, 225, 228

Miller, J. S. 286

Miller, K. 111

Milliken, F. J. 3

Milton, L. P. 89, 93–94, 96, 100, 102, 112, 116, 179

minorities, increase in corporate America 8–9

minority group representation 238–239, 242

minority influence

   role of individuals 132

   role of proportions 132–133

Mintzberg, H. 4

Mitchell, T. F. 295

Mitchell, T. R. 290, 295

Mladinic, A. 28

Mlicki, P. 210, 211

Moberg, D. 202

modern racism 23–24, 25–26, 322, 329

Modern Racism Scale 24

modern sexism 28, 325

Moghaddam, F. M. 214, 216, 222, 232

Mohammed, S. 147, 148, 161, 162

Moll, J. 38

Molleman, E. 151, 162

Mollica, K. A. 265

Molloy, J. C. 293

Monasterio, E. 16

Monteith, M. J. 282, 299

Moore, W. E. 53

Mor Barak, M. E. 36, 38

Morasch, B. 136

Morgan, Lewis and Bockius 57

Morris, M. L. 95

Morrison, A. 57, 68

Mosakowski, E. 153

Moscovici, S. 132

Moskowitz, G. B. 299

Moss, P. 67

Mossholder, K. W. 36, 143

motivation, effects on perception 36

Mouw, T. 67–68

Mucchi-Faina, A. 21

Mullainathan, S. 336

Mullen, B. 138, 206

Mullin, B. 210

multiple identities, effect on identity threat 195

Mummendey, A. 21, 208, 214

Muraven, M. 187

Murmann 135

Murnighan, J. K. 90, 116, 127, 138–139, 150–151, 153, 154–155, 157, 160, 162

Murray, A. I. 135

mutual accommodation model of diversity 33

Myers, A. M. 111

Myers, D. G. 30, 202


Naquin 131, 156

national stereotypes 16

Neale, M. A. 3, 89, 127, 128–130, 131, 132, 133, 136, 137, 139, 142, 145, 146, 148, 149, 150, 152, 161, 175, 177, 179, 187, 266

Neckerman, K. M. 67

negative interdependence, and prejudice 17

negative team dynamics

   outward-focused goals 176

   threats to identity 176

Neilson, L. H. 74

Nelson, C. 15

Nelson, R. L. 74

Nelson, T. E. 27, 69

Nemeth, C. J. 103, 156

Nemetz, P. L. 277

neosexism 28

Neuberg, S. L. 17, 36, 37, 38, 68

new institutionalists 55–56

new structuralism 55

Newman, A. E. 55

Nibler, R. 141, 147, 161

Nier, J. 62

Nieva, V. F. 61

Nisbett, R. E. 35

Nixon, R. 67

Nkomo, S. M. 66, 99

Noe, R. A. 177, 284, 289, 290

Noordenbos, G. 234

Norenzayan, A. 35

normative fit, self-categorization theory 15

Northcraft, G. B. 89, 127, 131, 139, 142, 145, 146, 148, 149, 152, 161, 175, 187, 266

Norton, M. 16, 62

Nosek, B. A. 18, 323

Nuer, N. 182, 187, 189, 195

Nurius, P. 92


Oakes, P. J. 15, 203, 206, 209, 217, 228, 236

O’Bannon, D. P. 135

O’Brien, L. 215

O’Connell, M. 213, 217

O’Connor, K. J. 25

Offerman, L. R. 89

Oh, S. 218

Olian, J. D. 30, 135, 148, 162

Oliva, T. A. 68

Olivier, M. A. 182, 187, 189, 195

Olson, J. M. 203, 224, 232

Olson, M. A. 25, 323

Omi, M. 99

one-way assimilation models of diversity 33

Operario, D. 214, 217

Oppenheimer, A. 72

Oppler, E. S. 286

O’Reilly, C. A. 2, 9, 32, 35, 37, 115, 127, 128, 133, 135, 136, 137, 145, 146, 148, 152, 157, 161, 162, 175, 176, 265, 266, 290

Orey, M. 56

organizational culture, classifications of 34

organizational demography, effects of diversity characteristics 135–136, 329

   tenure diversity 136

organizational inertia 68

organizational research

   assumptions of whiteness in workplace 1

   guidance on diversity initiatives 266–267

   need for 38, 333

   percentage dealing with race, gender, or diversity 1

   on race 4–5

   slow response to change 2–3

organizations

   European equal rights legislature 241

   expectations from diversity recruitment 274–276

      from diversity training 282–283

      from formal mentoring programs 291–293

   identification of discrimination at group level 241

   perspective on diversity 298–299

   potential instrument of change 3

   selection of diversity initiatives 296–299

   see also social context of organization

orientation programs 278

Orton, D. J. 69

Ostfield, M. L. 228

Ostrom, T. M. 66

Oullette, J. A. 133

Ouwerkerk, J. W. 207

Owen, S. 217, 221

Oyserman, D. 186


Pack, S. J. 93, 225

Packer, A. E. 89, 265, 304

Padavic, I. 179, 193, 194

Paez, D. 223

Palacios, M. 216, 222, 227, 233

Palich, L. E. 276

Palma-Rivas, N. 266

Palumbo, P. 19, 225

Panitch, D. 93

Parasuraman, S. 64

Parent, J. D. 183

Park, B. 19

Park, L. E. 180, 181, 186–187, 188

Parker, S. 280, 295

Parkin, M. 187

pathways

   as distinct from gateways 318, 320–321

   effect of implicit bias 321, 323

   informal channels within organizations 324

   organizational responsibility 334

   shifting focus to 319

      effectiveness of diversity interventions 320

      group perspective 319

      individual, cognitive perspective 319

      role of conflict 320

      status differences 320

      stereotyping processes 320

Patterson, S. 55, 59, 69

Pearce, C. L. 135, 148, 162

Peeters, G. 15

Pelham, B. W. 220

Pelled, L. H. 127, 130, 131, 135, 137, 141, 145, 146, 148, 149, 150, 157, 161, 162

Pendry, L. F. 38

Peng, K. 35

Pennebaker, J. W. 229

Pepper, M. B. 277, 280, 283, 295

performance assessment systems

   design of 65

   disparities between whites and Hispanics 64

   of managers 64

   promotion potential 64

   racial bias in 58, 63–67

   subjective and objective measures 63

   training of raters 65

Perino, Tara 8

Perkins, L. A. 270

Perry, E. L. 300

personal discrimination

   detection by cognitive processes 215–219

   detection by motivational processes 218, 219–222

   failure to perceive 213

   failure to report 222–223

   group discrimination 214

   minimization by victim 214, 222

   over-estimation effect 214–215

   see also Stereotypes, Confirmation Of

personal values

   and combating prejudice 37–38

   as determinant of occupation 6

personal–group discrimination discrepancy 214, 215

Peterson, R. S. 140, 142, 146

Petterson, S. 55, 69

Pettigrew, T. F. 24, 26, 28, 38, 66, 69, 213, 233, 235, 301

Peyronnin, K. 135, 136, 266

Pfeffer, J. 3, 55, 69, 128, 135, 136, 212, 266

Phalet, K. 15

PhD Project 8–9

Phelps, E. A. 25

Phillips, J. M. 276

Phillips, K. W. 132, 133

Phinney, J. S. 273

Piazza, T. 24

Pickens, B. 202

Pickus, P. S. 276, 304

Pinel, E. C. 111, 217

Pipe, P. 279, 295

Pittinsky, T. 228

Pittman, T. S. 93

Place, A. W. 274

Plant, E. A. 213

Platania, J. 272

Plaut, V. C. 33, 35, 36

Podolny, J. M. 55

political conflict 144

political ideology, and modern racism 24

Polzer, J. T. 89, 92, 93–94, 96, 100, 102, 112, 114–115, 116, 132, 133, 175, 177, 179, 216

Poppe, E. 15

population trends 2

Porter, L. E. 213

Posner, B. Z. 202, 289

Postmes, T. 210, 214, 215

Potter, A. 32

Powell, G. N. 183, 289

power disparities 37

   functioning of culturally diverse teams 175–176, 180

   and simultaneity 178

   vulnerability to stereotype 37

Pratto, F. 17, 34, 99, 132, 133, 134, 145

Prehlman, T. A. 331

prejudice

   combating 36–39, 300

      need for research on 303

   intergroup relations 14, 301

   proportion of black population 328

   racial 21

   recognition of 218

   see also contact hypothesis

Prentice, D. A. 31, 34

prescriptive stereotypes 30–31

   gender-intensified and gender-relaxed 31

Price, J. M. 218

Price, K. F. 68

Price, K. H. 131, 179

privileged identity groups

   devaluation threats 182, 183

   distancing tactics 185

   legitimacy threats 183

   occurrence of threats 195

   outward-focused goals 190–191

Probst, T. M. 141

process conflict 140

   backgrounds of subgroups 150

   effect on performance 142

   and social category 146

processing biases, and intergroup perception 20–21

proportional conflict 143–144

Protestant work ethic, and ambivalent racism 22

Proulx, T. 93, 94

Pryor, J. B. 218

psychological bias in workplace 202

   acknowledgment of 203–204

   response to 204

public image 180

   devaluation threats 181–183

   indifference to 186

   legitimacy threats 183–184

Pufall, A. 213, 217

Pugh, S. 6

Pugh, S. D. 24, 322, 329


Quinn, D. M. 225, 226, 228

Quinton, W. J. 214–215, 217, 219, 220


Raabe, B. 286, 289

Rabinowitz, J. L. 132, 134, 145

Rabinowitz, V. C. 22

race

   and conflict 146

   difficulties of research 4–5

   importance to researchers 6

   lack of research on 1, 4

racial discrimination 13

   discretion and bias 61–62

   by employers 61, 202

   negative effect of 13

   persistence of 21

   sociological research on 58–59

   systems to minimize bias 70

      interdisciplinary research 73–75

      proactive policies 70–72

   see also modern racism; performance assessment systems; stereotypes

racial groups, and identity negotiation process 97, 98

racial heterogeneity, and performance, effect of moderators 146–147

racial resentment, see modern racism

Ragins, B. R. 99, 283, 285–286, 296

Raju, N. S. 16

Rampersad, A. 336

Ramsoedh, D. 202

Randel, A. E. 147, 153, 154, 156, 161

Ranganath, K. A. 323

Rau, B. L. 273, 275

Rau, D. 141, 143

Rauch, S. L. 25

Ravaud, J. R. 202

Rawls, J. 2

Read, S. J. 92

Reddy, D. 131, 145, 146, 157, 161

Redersdorff, S. 90, 217, 223

Reed, A. 134

Reicher, S. 15, 217, 228

Reid, C. L. 266

relational demography, perceived dissimilarity influences 133

relationship conflict 140

   between Chinese and US 147

   effect on performance 141–142

   faultlines 150–151

   functional heterogeneity 147, 148–149

   identity salience 147

   interpersonal congruence 93–94

   and performance 144

   process conflicts 140

   proportional conflict 143–144

   and social category 145

   and task conflict 143

   tenure diversity 148

   and transactive memory 143

Relyea, G. F. 72

Rentfrow, P. J. 92

Renwick, D. 296

Reser, A. H. 223

Reskin, B. F. 55, 56, 69, 70, 270

Reszke, I. 28

retention of employees

   mentoring programs 284–285

      exclusion from informal communication networks 289–290

      group mentoring 290–291

      lack of socialization 289

      unmet expectations 289

reverse discrimination 204, 232

Rhodenizer, L. 295

Rhoton, L. A. 90

Riach, P. 202

Rich, J. 202

Richard, C. 135, 136

Richards, Z. 20

Richardson, K. D. 187

Richeson, J. A. 32, 326

Ridgeway, C. L. 31, 99

Rinehart, J. S. 274

Rink, F. 144

Riordan, C. M. 133, 137, 286

Rispens, S. 142, 144

Roberson, L. 98, 277, 280, 281, 283, 284, 285, 287, 288, 295, 333–334, 335

Roberto, M. A. 134

Roberts, L. M. 179, 180–181, 185, 188, 193

Robinson, C. L. 68, 318

Robinson, G. 89, 265, 304

Rodin, M. J. 218

Roefs, M. 210

Roese, N. J. 224

Rogers, E. M. 289

Roggema, J. 68

Rokeach Value Survey 6

Romero, J. 202

Romoli, C. 21

Roselli, F. 61

Rosen, B. 98, 282, 301

Rosenberg, J. 67

Rosenberg, S. 15

Rosenthal, R. 93, 226

Ross, R. 141

Roth, P. L. 63

Rothblum, E. D. 111

Rouiller, J. Z. 279, 295

Rousseau, D. M. 276

Rowe, A. 68

Rowley, S. A. J. 96

Roy, E. J. 142

Roy, S. A. 228

Rudman, L. A. 30, 31, 38

Ruef, M. 68

Ruggiero, K. M. 214, 220, 222

Ruscher, J. B. 17

Russin, A. 38

Rust, M. C. 38

Rutte, C. G. 216

Ryan, A. M. 16

Rynes, S. L. 269, 282, 301

Ryujin, D. H. 16


Sablynski, C. J. 290, 295

Sackett, P. R. 65

Saiz, J. L. 28

Sakamoto, I. 186

Salancik, G. R. 69

Salas, E. 295

Salinas, M. F. 226

Salovey, P. 143

Sanchez, F. J. 218

Sanchez, J. I. 277, 280, 281–282, 283, 301

Sandelands, L. E. 112

Sanders 23

Sanna, L. J. 30

Saul, B. B. 111

Saxe, L. 300

Scandura, T. A. 296

Scheck, J. 57

Scheepers, D. 243

Scherbaum, C. 96, 111

Schlenker, B. R. 93, 186

Schmader, T. 211, 217, 219, 220, 222, 226, 231

Schmidt, F. L. 63, 106

Schmidt, P. 266

Schmitt, M. T. 204, 213, 217, 220, 221, 231

Schneider, D. J. 36

Schneider, S. C. 147, 153, 161

Schofield, J. W. 36

Scholten, L. 159, 327, 328–329

Schopler, J. 17

Schreiber, C. T. 68

Schreiber, H.-J. 208

Schroder, H. M. 92

Schultz, V. 188

Schuurman 132

Schwab, D. P. 30

Schwartz, J. L. K. 322

Scott, K. D. 131

Scott, R. A. 228

Scott, W. R. 55, 327

Scully, J. 135

Scully, M. 191–192

Sears, D. O. 23, 24

Sechrist, G. 221, 222–223

Secord, P. F. 92

Sedikides, C. 66

segregation levels, after Civil Rights Act 318

Seijts, G. H. 36

self-categorization theory 15

self-regulation training 300

self-verification 92, 96, 113

self-verification effect 100

   and status differences 101, 113

      initial status disparity 101–102, 103, 104, 107, 108

      joint productivity on creative tasks 102, 103, 104, 107, 108

      social psychological mechanisms 99–102, 103–104, 108, 113–108

   usefulness of 112

self-views 92

   costs of reporting discrimination 223

   identity deliberation 114, 180

   nature of 113

   and public image 180, 187

      protection of 187–188, 192

   relational construal by women 97

   social group membership 95

   status differences and identity negotiation 99–100, 113, 183

   see also identity negotiation processes

Sellers, R. M. 96, 217

Semyonov, M. 54

Sessa, V. I. 135, 136, 266

sexual harassment, minimization by victims 214

Seyle, D. C. 92, 112

Shankster, L. J. 65

Shapiro, D. 131, 148, 149, 162

Shaw, J. B. 160

Shelton, J. N. 32, 96, 217, 326

Sherif 328

Sherk, D. L. 225

Sherman, J. W. 299

Sherman, M. 111, 228

Sherry, S. 187

Shih, M. 228

Shin, L. M. 25

Shore, L. 133, 137

Shull, A. 325

Sidanius, J. 17, 34, 99, 132, 133, 134, 145

Sigerson, K. 29

signaling theory, and diversity recruitment 293

Sikes, M. P. 222

Silver, H. 55

similarity attraction theory 130, 176–177

Simon, B. 213

Simon, M. C. 183

Simons, C. 210

Simons, T. 135

Sims, H. P. 135, 148, 162

Sims, R. R. 68

Simsek, Z. 135

simultaneity, of group identities 177–178

Sinar, E. F 272, 273

Sincharoen, S. 272

Sinclair, S. 300

situational explanations of behavior 20–21

Sjomeling, M. 225

skill training 278, 294

   environmental conditions for 280

   need for research on 303

   needs assessment 279–280

   trainee motivation 279, 280

Slaughter, J. E. 272, 273

Smart, L. 229

Smith 17

Smith, A. 19, 225

Smith, A. N. 4

Smith, C. 206

Smith, D. M. 193

Smith, E. R. 232

Smith, K. A. 135, 148, 162

Smith, K. G. 135, 148, 162

Smith, K. K. 179

Smith, M. A. 96

Smith, M. H. 68

Smith-Crowe, K. 271

Smith-Lovin, L. 99

Smithson, M. 26

Smyth, F. L. 323

Snavely, B. K. 136

Sniderman, P. M. 24

Snyder, M. 19, 93, 224–225

Snyder, R. C. 135, 136, 213, 217

social context of organization

   customer base 329

   importance of 327–328

   legal environment 329

   and marriage 332

   and popular media 330–331

   proportion of black population 328–329

   structure of 328

social creativity strategies, response to identity threat 206–207, 208–209, 212–213

   change in comparative dimensions 207–208

   reproduction of inferior standing 209

   shifts in comparison focus 207

   status-definition and performance 211–212

social dominance orientation 271

social dominance theory

   ethnicity 134

   gender differences 132

   group-based oppression 133

   support for violence 134

social identity theory 14, 137–138, 176–177, 205–206

   and job recruitment 270, 293

social identity threat 181

   among privileged groups 190–191

   benefits of 192

   devaluation threat 181–183

   dispelling of negative stereotypes 185

   distancing 185

   effects of multiple identities 195

   feigning indifference 186

   historical context of 194–195

   individual mobility 232

   ingroup bias 206

   learning opportunity 189–190, 191–192

   and legitimacy threat 183–184

   non-defensive nature of 189

   pursuit of inward-focused goals 186–187, 188

   pursuit of outward-focused goals 184, 189, 192, 193

      protection of image 187–188

      reinforcement of status quo 188

      witholding of resources 188

   see also social creativity strategies

social interaction

   interpersonal congruence 93–94

   and stereotypes 19

social policy, and social dominance theory 134

social sciences

   percentage of publications on race, gender or diversity 1

   progress on racism and sexism 3

Social Scientific Perspectives on Employment Discrimination in Organizations (SSPEDO) 75

Society for Human Resource Management 268

   Workplace Diversity Practices Survey Report 269, 283, 290

Son Hing, L. S. 272

Sonenfeld, J. A. 278, 282

Soule, W. T. 55

space, use of, effect on performance 147

Spahlinger, P. 213

Spears, R. 18, 38, 178, 181, 184, 187, 206, 207, 210, 214, 215

Spence, J. T. 28

Spence, M. 270, 274, 293

Spencer, S. J. 181, 187, 211, 225, 226, 300

spontaneous behavior, and implicit bias 324

Spratt, M. F. 276, 304

Stahelski, A. J. 93

Stainback, K. 68, 318

Stallworth, L. M. 132, 134, 145

Stangor, C. 20, 221, 222–223, 230

Stapp, J. 28

Stathatos, P. 20, 272

statistical discrimination 55

status differences in diverse groups 98–99

   expectations theory 109–112

   identity negotiation process 109–112

   role in small group dyamics 158

   stigma consciousness 111–112

   subgroups 154

      size of 154

status quo maintenance, and stereotypes 18

Stauffer, J. M. 65

Staw, B. M. 112

Steele, C. M. 32, 95, 104, 181, 187, 193, 225, 288, 334, 335

Steelman, L. A. 98

Stein, M. 187

Stein-Seroussi, A. 93

Sterele, C. M. 225–226

stereotype inaccuracy 19

stereotype tax 325, 326–327

   assessing advice 327

stereotype threat 32, 104, 225–226, 334–335

   to African Americans 98

   and lack of advancement 288

   reduction of 288–289, 293

stereotypes

   accuracy of 19–20

   and awareness training 281, 282

   combating 36–39, 234–235

   confirmation of 223, 241

      behavioral processes 224–226

      costs of hiding stigmatized identity 228–229, 230

          on emotional well-being 229

          on feelings about the self 230

          on work performance 230

   content model 15–17

   costs and benefits of 325–327

   devaluation threats 181–182

   disconfirmation 226–228

   dispelling of 185

   in diverse social interactions 95, 116

   employee usage 299–300

   implicit 25

   inference from social structure 328

   intergroup relations 14, 176

   and legitimacy threats 183–184

   and mentoring 287–288

   person perception models 17–18

   personnel decisions 61, 62–63

   positive and negative 7, 19, 21

   public image 181, 187

   research on 55, 56, 58

   shifting standards models 27

   status characteristics and competence 26–27, 29

   subgroups and subtypes 20

   target’s influence on 32

   unconscious processes 203

   utility of 18–19

   women’s relational construal of self 97

   see also Dissociation Model; gender discrimination; processing biases; self-categorization theory

Stevens, L. E. 30

Stewart, G. L. 127, 128, 152, 161

Stewart, M. M. 134

Stierwalt, S. L. 273

stigma of incompetence 20

Stinchcombe, L. 68

Stites, J. 71

Stockdale, M. S. 56

Stone, B. A. 270

Stone, J. 225

Strauss, G. 148

stress, and perception of discrimination 220

Stroop, J. R. 326

Stroop task 326

Stuart, T. E. 55

Stuermer, S. 213

Stukas, A. A. J. 93

Sturm, S. 70, 267, 268

subgroups

   inter-subgroup processes 154

      and intra-subgroup conflict 155

   size of 154

   status 154

subtle bias, influence of 321

   see also implicit bias

Summers, Lawrence 203

superordinate identity 137

Susskind, J. 61

Sutcliffe, K. 128, 156

Sutton, J.R 55

Sutton, R. I. 266

Swann, W. B. Jr. 89, 91, 92–94, 96, 100, 102, 104, 112, 113, 116, 179, 202, 217, 218, 221, 226, 229, 231

Swim, J. K. 28, 30, 215, 218, 221, 222–223, 325

symbolic racism, see modern racism


Tajfel, H. 14, 130, 137, 145, 176, 178, 185, 205, 206, 217, 228, 233, 270, 274, 293, 329

Talaska, C. 14

Tanke, E. D. 224

task conflict 140

   Chinese versus US 147

   effect on performance 141

   faultlines 150–151

   functional heterogeneity 148

   proportional conflict 143–144

   relationship conflict 143

   social category 145–146

   subgroups 155

task routineness, and performance 146, 148

Tatar, D. G. 134

Taylor, D. M. 213, 214, 216, 220, 222, 232, 233

Taylor, G. A. 270

Taylor, H. F. 66

Taylor, M. C. 328

Taylor, M. S. 274

Taylor, S. E. 18, 221, 229

Taylor, T. 318

team learning

   and diversity 156

   effects of conflict on 159

   group faultlines 157

   identity threat 188

      benefits of outward-focused goals 192, 195

team performance

   discussion of cultural experiences 193

   image protection 187–188

   mutual risk-taking 193

   outward-focused goals 195

Terry, D. J. 137, 138, 208

Testa, M. 216, 219

Tetlock, P. E. 56, 69, 323

Thatcher, S. M. B. 141, 142, 143, 144, 145, 150, 151, 154–155, 157, 160, 161, 162

Thibaut, J. W. 93

Thoits, P. 66

Thomas, C. H. 286

Thomas, D. A. 8, 33, 38, 66, 89, 90, 136, 155, 179, 188, 193, 265, 266, 270, 288, 294, 295, 296, 297, 298, 304

Thomas, K. M. 270

Thomas, K. W. 140

Thompson, L. 226

Thorne, B. 177

Tice, D. M. 187

Tiedens, L. Z. 111

Tiemersma, J. 229

Tilly, C. 67

Tluchowska, M. 133, 156

tokenism 54, 154, 216

   chronic devaluation threat 183

   individual upward mobility 233

Tolbert, C. M. II 54

Tomaka, J. 221

Tomaskovic-Devey, D. 68, 318

top management teams, and diversity 134–135, 148

Tougas, F. 28

Town, J. P. 64

Townsend, A. M. 131

Triandis, H. C. 38, 89, 128, 137

Trochim, W. M. K. 140, 142, 146

Tropp, L. R. 301

Tsui, A. S. 35, 37, 133, 137, 139, 157, 265, 290

Turban, D. B. 274

Turnbull, W. 225

Turner, J. C. 14, 15, 130, 137, 145, 150, 157, 176, 203, 205, 206, 209, 217, 228, 233, 236

Turnock, J. L. 189–190

Tushman, M. L. 135

Tyler, R. B. 61

Tyler, T. R. 137


Uggen, C. 56

Uhlmann, E. L. 62, 68, 324

ultimate attribution error 66

Umphress, E. E. 159, 271, 327, 328–329

unemployment rates for black and white workers 2

upper-echelons theory 134

US Bureau of the Census 2

US Bureau of Labor Statistics 2


valence inaccuracy 19

value diversity 131

   and conflict 149

value-added model of diversity 33

Van Allen, K. 222–223

Van den Heuvel, H. 235

Van der Vegt, G. 157

Van Dyck, C. 206

Van Knippenberg, A. 18, 137, 208, 209, 233

Van Knippenberg, D. 155

Van Laar, C. 24, 133, 211–212

Van Lange, P. A. M. 15

Van Oers, H. 208

Van Rijswijk, W. 206, 210

Vandello, J. A. 62

Vaslow, J. B. 6, 24, 322, 329

Vasquez, K. A. 300

Veijga, J. F. 135

Vermeulen, D. 18, 153, 157, 160

Vescio, T. K. 18

video-taping, of specific interactions 242

Ville, I. 202

violence, and social dominance theory 134

visibility, and stereotypes 16

Visscher, B. R. 229

Vivekananthan, P. S. 15

Vodosek, M. 142, 146, 161

Voekl, K. 219

Vohs, K. D. 93, 94

Von Baeyer, C. L. 225

Von Hendy, H. M. 37

Vorauer, J. D. 214, 220, 228


Wackenhut, J. 22

Wagner, W. G. 128, 135, 136

Waldo, C. R. 228

Wall, J. A. 140

Wallace, K. M. 54

Wallston, B. S. 64

Walters, G. 27

Walz, P. M. 286

Wanberg, C. R. 289

Wang, S. 284, 289

Warner, W. L. 53

Watkins, M. B. 271, 325

Watkins, M. D. 134

Watson, W. E. 89

Wax, A. 56

Webber, S. S. 89, 127, 128, 152, 161

Weber, D. L. 18

Weber, R. 235

Weber, U. 213

Wegner, D. M. 36, 229

Weichselbaumer, D. 202

Weick, K. E. 69

Weigold, M. 186

Weinberg, N. 55

Weingart, L. R. 131, 140, 141–142, 148, 149, 162

Welland 100

Welsh, E. T. 289

Wentling, R. M. 266, 284, 285

Wenzel, M. 21

Wesolowski 36

West, S. L. 16

Wetherell, M. 15, 217, 228

Wexley, K. N. 65

Whalen, N. J. 218

Whalen, P. J. 25, 213

Wharton, A. S. 135

Wheeler, M. E. 25

White, T. L. 36

Whitener, E. M. 63

Whitney, K. 131

Whitney M. Young Conference 190

Wickens, C. D. 142

Wiersema, M. 128, 134, 136

Wiersma, U. J. 26

Wiethoff, C. 283

Wilder, D. A. 235

Wilke, H. 137

Wilkins, D. 188

William, J. 74

Williams, C. J. 24

Williams, D. R. 220

Williams, E. A. 296

Williams, J. R. 98

Williams, K. 2, 9, 32, 115, 127, 128, 137, 145, 146, 148, 150, 152, 161, 162, 175, 176, 266

Williams, M. L. 273

Williams, R. 266

Wilson, M. S. 134

Winant, H. 99

Wind, L. H. 38

Wise, P. G. 270

Wise, S. 296

Wojciszke, B. 15

Wolfe, C. 211

women, and identity negotiation process 97

Wood, W. 133

Woodzicka, J. A. 218

Word, C. O. 32, 61, 93, 321, 324

workforce, equality in 2

   economists’ perspective on 53–55

   organizational responses to EEO laws 55–56

   psychological research on 55, 56

   sociological research on 53

   sources of racial disparities 60–61

Wormley, W. W. 64

Woulfe, S. 214

Wright, S. C. 213, 214, 216, 222, 232, 233

Wyse, R. E. 274


Xin, K. R. 127, 130, 131, 133, 139, 141, 145, 146, 148, 149, 161, 162

Xu, J. 15, 61


Yang, J. X. 143

Yarkin, K. L. 64

Younes, N. 16

Young, H. 214, 215

Young, I. P. 274

Young, L. V. 230


Zanna, M. P. 32, 61, 93, 224, 225, 272, 321, 324

Zanutto, E. 150, 151, 154–155, 160, 162

Zenger, T. R. 146, 266

Zhu, L. 28, 30

Ziegert, J. C. 269, 325

Zikmund, W. 202

Zimmer, C. 318

Zimmer, L. 37

Zuwerink, J. R. 282

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