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The Cambridge Companion to Narrative


  • 4 b/w illus.
  • Page extent: 328 pages
  • Size: 228 x 152 mm
  • Weight: 0.52 kg


 (ISBN-13: 9780521673662)


Aarseth, Espen 176,185n.3

Abbott, H. Porter 23,41,51n.5

Abelson, Robert P. 28

action code (Barthes) 221,222

   See also actions vs. events; identity; ideology; story

actions vs. events 221

   See also conversational storytelling; ideology; linguistic approaches; story

abstract. See conversational storytelling

actants. See characters

adaptations. See film; narration

Adventure 177

afternoon: a story 184

agency. See actions vs. events; characters; feminist narratology; ideology; linguistic approaches; story

A Gun for Sale 96

Allen, Robert 164

alterity (otherness). See identity; narrative

Altes, Lisbeth Korthals 208

Althusser, Louis 218

anachrony 148

analepsis (= flashback) 57,103,104,224

   See also time in narrative

ancient Greek epic 73

Anderson, Benedict 260

Anglo-American approach to narrative fiction 15–16

   See also genre; narratology

anticipation. See suspense; time and narrative

Aristotle 13,43,110,142,144,146,147,148,154,207

Ascott, Roy 185n.4

audience. See authorial audience; drama; film; genre; ideal narrative audience; ideology; narrative; narratee; narrative audience; rhetorical approaches; visualization

Austen, Jane 81

Auster, Paul 52

Austin, J. L. 113

author. See rhetorical approaches

authorial audience 210

   See also rhetorical approaches

autobiography 113

   See also identity

Bakhtin, M. M. 53,65n.15,85,86,88,113,121,209,226

Bal, Mieke 23,100–2,202n.6,229n.13

Bald Soprano, The 144

Bamberg, Michael 18n.5,20n.28,141n.19

Banfield, Ann 259n.12

Barthes, Roland 13,14,41,49–50,51n.5,90,142,217,221

Baum, L. Frank 157

Bauman, Richard 140n.3

Baynham, Mike 65n.15

Beckett, Samuel 60,142–3,151

Beebee, Thomas O. 122n.1

Bennett, Donna 117

Bewitched 163,165

Bhabha, Homi 261,267–8

biography. See identity

blogs (weblogs). See digital works

Blum-Kulka, Shoshana 140n.3,140n.10

Booth, Wayne C. 15–16,97,207–9,219,226

   See also rhetorical approaches

Bordwell, David 51n.6,167

Borges, Jorge Luis 110

boring stories. See conversational storytelling; tellability

Bortolussi, Marisa 103

Branigan, Edward 51n.6

Brecht, Bertolt 143,145,155n.12

Bremond, Claude 20n.23,258n.9

Bridgeman, Teresa 259n.13

Brooks, Peter 22,23,198

Brown, Gillian 258n.6

Bruner, Jerome 7,8,10,19n.13,22, 27–8

Buchholz, Sabine 149

Burke, Peter 84

Butler, Judith 191

Butor, Michel 146

Byron, Lord George Gordon 69

Cameron, Deborah 201

Campbell, Joseph 51n.9

Capps, Lisa 20n.28

Carpenter’s Gothic 85

Carter, Angela 192,199

Carville, James 22

“Cask of Amontillado, The,” 203–6,209,211–15

categorization theory 8–9,28–31

   See also characters; narrative

causality. See drama; narrative

Certeau, Michel de 64n.7

Cervantes, Miguel de 66

Chafe, Wallace 140n.1,141n.28


   direct vs. indirect 76

   ideological dimensions of 224–5

   and reader inferences 76,77–9

   and textual cues 76,77,78

   See also characters; dialogue; focalization; identity; ideology


   as actants 13,21n.33,194,220

   categorization of during reading process 74–5,78–9

   as cognitive constructs or mental representations 66,76–9

   empirical research on 76

   ethical dimensions of 208

   evolution of over time 75

   as existents or entities 41

   exterior and interior properties of 72–3

   and generalized literary figures or stereotypes 70

   and indexes (Barthes) 222

   and instabilities in storyworlds 212

   and intertextuality 77

   as (intradiegetic) narrators 206

   and issues of race and ethnicity 46

   and issues of sex, gender, and sexuality 193–6

   and knowledge structures stored in long-term memory 78

   with logically inconsistent properties 68,73

   mimetic, formal, ideological, and enacted dimensions of 143–4

   as narrative agents evoked by referring expressions 66,72,76,78

   as non-actual individuals in fictional worlds 66,70–6

   as “paper beings” (Barthes) 90

   as participants in storyworlds 66

   as “person-kinds,” 68

   and player-characters in computer games 173,178

   in postmodern narratives 73

   and the problem of access to other minds 69,253–4

   public, intersubjective nature of 67

   as radically incomplete 68,73

   reappearance of in multiple storyworlds 69–70,75–6

   recurrent types of associated with specific genres 70

   as semiotic artifacts constructed by an author 66,67–70

   singularity or uniqueness of 74

   static vs. dynamic types of 73

   as subject to a “say-so” semantics 68,69

   and trauma 47

   See also consciousness; dialogue; digital works; drama; feminist narratology; gender; genre; identity; ideology; linguistic approaches; mind style; rhetorical approaches; space in narrative; speech and thought representation; story; storyworld; television

Chatman, Seymour 13,26,41,51n.5,101,105,142,151

Chekhov, Anton 145,147

children. See conversational storytelling

Chomsky, Noam 24

Christie, Agatha 109

chronotope 64n.5,65n.15

Churchill, Caryl 143

cinema. See film

City of Glass 52

classical narratology. See narratology

clones 74

closure. See feminist narratology; plot

Cloud Nine 143

Cocteau, Jean 148

coda. See conversational storytelling

cognitive approaches

   and emotion 254–6

   and frames and scripts 219

   and the interpretation of character 76–9

   and narrative gaps 169

   and narrative perspective 251–3

   and narrative understanding 167–70

   and the nature of conscious experience 256

   See also characters; cognitive science; consciousness; film; focalization; ideology; perspective; plot; space in narrative; storyworld

cognitive linguistics. See cognitive approaches; cognitive science; consciousness; focalization; perspective

cognitive narratology. See cognitive approaches; consciousness

cognitive psychology. See characters; cognitive science; consciousness

cognitive science 8–9,22,167

   See also cognitive approaches; consciousness; focalization; speech and thought representation

Cohn, Dorrit 35n.30,227,247,248

Coleridge, Samuel Taylor 34n.29

Collier, Gordon 105

complicating action. See conversational storytelling

Compton-Burnett, Ivy 82

computer games. See characters; digital works

computer-mediated narratives. See digital works

conflict. See narrative


   and character analysis 245–8

   and cognitive linguistics 251–3

   as constituted by narrative 257

   and direct, indirect, and free indirect thought 248,249

   and the classical “speech-category approach” (Palmer) 247,248–50

   and emotion 246,247,248,254–6

   and emotionologies 255–6

   and evaluative appraisals expressed via word-choices 249

   and experientiality as core property of narrative 256–7

   and fictional minds 245,250,251

   and folk psychology (philosophy of mind) 253

   and inferences about one’s own as well as other minds 246,248,250,253–4

   and the irrealis vs. realis modality 246–7

   as irreducible element of story content 247,250–1,254,255

   and modal auxiliary verbs 246–7

   and motion verbs as markers of orienting viewpoints 246

   and narrative across media 257

   narrative’s ability to provide access to 256

   and naturalist vs. constructionist approaches to emotion 254

   and perspective as the reflex of minds conceptualizing events 247,251–3

   postclassical approaches to 247–8,251–7

   and qualia (philosophy of mind) 9,20n.20,246,248,256

   and quoted monologue, psychonarration, and narrated monologue (Cohn) 248

   and readers’ models of characters’ minds 245,247,251,256

   and temporal adverbs 246

   textual cues associated with 241,245–7,249,250,251–3

   and Theory of Mind (cognitive psychology) 253,258n.5,259n.17

   and typography 246

   as “what it is like” to have or undergo an experience 256,257

   See also characters; cognitive approaches; figural narrative; focalization; identity; linguistic approaches; mind style; narration; narrative; narratology; novel of consciousness; reflector; speech and thought representation

conversational storytelling

   and abstracts 129

   as based on a substratum of temporally ordered clauses 128

   and boring (or pointless) stories 136

   and codas 129

   and complicating actions 129

   and co-narration 133,134,135,137,138

   and constraints on storytelling rights 127,133–4,135

   and constructions of characters’ dialogue 132–3

   and contextualization cues (Gumperz) 135

   and discourse markers 131

   and disfluencies (false starts, repetitions, repairs) 130

   as embedded in local discourse contexts 127,134

   and evaluation by storytellers 128,129,134

conversational storytelling (cont.)

   vis-à-vis the events being narrated 128

   in family contexts 133,135

   formulaic elements of 131,132

   and “free” (non-temporally ordered) clauses 128

   and group membership 133,138,139

   and humorous narratives 132,135,137

   and identity construction 136,139

   interactive nature of 127,131,132,135,136–7

   and Labov’s model of narrative 128–30

   and the modulation of rapport 136,139

   vs. monologic, practiced stories 127,131

   as most familiar storytelling context 127

   and multimedia narration 176

   multiple functions of 127

   and orientations 129

   vis-à-vis performances of a given story 128,131,138

   and prosody 133,135

   and resolutions 129

   and response stories 137–8,139

   and the retelling of stories 138–9

   and the socialization of children 135

   and story genres 135

   and story openings and closings 132

   as sub-type of oral storytelling 127,131

   and the tellability or reportability of a story 134–6

   and transgressive stories 136,139

   and turn taking 132,137

   and untellable events 135–6

   and verb tense 131,140n.6

   See also dialogue; identity; linguistic approaches; narrative; speech and thought representation; tellability; time in narrative

conversational implicature. See dialogue

Coward, Rosalind 198

Crane, R.S. 207

Croce, Benedettto 112

Croft, William 259n.14

Crowther, Will 177

Cruse, D. Alan 259n.14

Culler, Jonathan 41

Culpeper, Jonathan 79n.6

curiosity (as narrative universal). See time in narrative

cybertexts. See digital works

Dannenberg, Hilary 43,55–6

David Copperfield 99–100

Davis, Lennard J. 85

“Dead, The,” 245

Deception 80,86–92

defamiliarization. See linguistic approaches

definite descriptions 66

   See also characters

Defoe, Daniel 262

deictic shifts (= imaginative transpositions to alternative spacetime coordinates). See focalization; space in narrative

De Lauretis, Teresa 229n.7

Dennett, Daniel 22,256

Derrida, Jacques 113

description. See narrative

detective as model reader 116

detective fiction 109,113,115–18,119

   See also detective as model reader; feminist detective fiction; gender; genre; metaphysical detective fiction; narration; narrative; time in narrative

dialects. See dialogue; speech and thought representation


   changing cultural conceptions of 84

   and characterization 90,92

   and conventions for speech representation 80,81–3

   and conversational implicatures 86

   in conversational storytelling 132–3

   and dialect representation 80,81,83,85,144

   and the dialogic principle (Bakhtin) 85,86,89

   and the direct speech fallacy (Sternberg) 84

   in early twentieth-century American fiction 82

   and the exploration of gender differences 85,88

   focus of on conversational protocols as well as verbal style 85–6,89

   and gaps and silences 91,92

   and Grice’s co-operative principle 86,91

   and the heightening of suspense or surprise 84

   in hypertext fiction 83

   and the idealization of actual speech 84,85

   ideological dimensions of 85,86,88

   immersive effects of 80,89

   and interruption 84

   and models from discourse analysis 85–6

   as more mimetic than narration 151

   and multi-party talk 84

   and notions of the “talking cure,” 81,89

   and power relations among characters 85,86,87

   and quotation marks 81,82,84,258n.11

   role of in externally focalized narratives 98

   as shaped by cinema 82

   as shaped by radio and TV broadcasting 82

   and speech events 137

   and speech tags 83–4,86,87

   as the staging of mini social systems 85

   and stream-of-consciousness technique 81,82

   and turn taking 86

   and typographical indicators of intonation 81,87

   use of by comic writers 82

   See also conversational storytelling; speech and thought representation

dialogue novel 80,82–3,86,92

Dickens, Charles 81,84,99

didactic narratives. See identity

diegesis. See film; story; storyworld

diegetic vs. mimetic (Plato) 110,151

    See also characters; dialogue; film; rhetorical approaches

Diengott, Nilli 202n.12

digital works

   and augmented reality games 184

   and blogs 184

   and chatterbots 184

   computer games 173,174,180,183

   and cut scenes (= animated mini-movies) 175,181,183

   as “cybertexts,” 176

   and data vs. programs 173–5,176

   and hyptertext fiction 184

   interaction of narration and simulation in 172,173,181,183,185

   as interactive computer programs 174,175,176,185

   interactive fiction as one type of 172–3,177–8

   and levels of simulation as diegetic levels 178,180

   and location-aware systems 184

   and MMORPGs 183

   and MOOs 183

   and MUDs 177,183

   and multi-user systems 173,176

   non-interactive types of 175

   vis-à-vis pre-digital narrative theory 174

   and single vs. multiple interactors 175–6

   single-channel vs. multimedia types of 176

   and SMS stories 174

   and story generators 184

   as supporting multiple potential narratives 173,177

   a taxonomy of 173–7

   and types of user input 179–80

   and user as interactor (player character) 172,173,177,178

   See also narrated vs. enacted stories; narrative; storyworld

direct discourse. See speech and thought representation

discourse (= sjuzhet or how the events of a story are narrated)

   ideological dimensions of 223–5

   as narration plus plot 40

   as the presentation of story-level events 53,64n.6

   See also ideology; narration; rhetorical approaches; story

discourse analysis. See consciousness; conversational storytelling; dialogue; linguistic approaches

discourse markers 131

Dixon, Peter 103

Doleel, Lubomír 45

Don Juan 69

Don Quixote 66–79


   Aristotle’s theory of 142,144,146,147,148,154

   beginnings and endings of 146–7

   different modes of causality in 150

   exclusion of from restrictive definitions of narrative 142

   vis-à-vis film 142

   and frame-breaking 153

   and frame narrators 151

   framing devices in 152

   and generative narrators 152

   and metadrama 146,149,152

   modes of reflexivity in 152–4

   and monodrama 151

   neo-classical (prescriptive) theories of 148,149

   and non-Western theories of narrative 142

   and performed stories 142,143,144,154

   and possibilties for audience interaction 146,147,154

   as requiring modification of narratological models 154

   spatial aspects of 149–50

   storyworlds of 146,150,152

drama (cont.)

   temporal dimensions of 147–9

   and theater of the absurd 143,145, 155n.4

   and theories of character 142,143–4

   and theories of plot 142,144–6

   and types of event-sequences 145–6

   types of narration in 151–2,155n.12

   as under-analyzed in narrative theory 142

   See also dialogue; narrated vs. enacted stories; speech and thought representation

Dubliners 231,245

Dubrow, Heather 122n.2

Duff, David 112

DuPlessis, Rachel Blau 199

duration 58–9,147,148

   See also ideology; time in narrative

dystopia 178,182

eighteenth-century novel. See novel, the

Elam, Keir 155n.7


ellipsis 58,59

   See also duration; time in narration

embedding. See digital works; drama; narration

Emmott, Catherine 79n.6

Endgame 143–54

emotion. See cognitive approaches; consciousness; narrative; storyworld

empathy. See focalization; identity

emplotment 40,44,50

   See also narration; plot

epiphany 96

epistolary novel 56,59

ergative verbs 233–4

   See also linguistic approaches

ethics. See characters; ideology; rhetorical approaches

evaluation. See conversational storytelling; speech and thought representation

events. See actions vs. events; conversational storytelling; focalization; linguistic approaches; perspective; rhetorical approaches; story

experiencing-I. See narrating-I vs. experiencing-I; narration

experientiality. See consciousness; narrative;

exposition 96

external focalization. See focalization

extradiegetic narration. See narration

fabula. See story

face (Goffman). See identity

Falk, Jane 141n.24

family narrratives. See conversational storytelling

Fanshel, David 140n.4

fantastic, the 55,56

fantasy 60,74

feminism. See feminist narratology; gender; ideology

feminist detective fiction 121

feminist narratology

   and actantial roles (Greimas) 195–6

   and the benefits of narratology for feminist criticism 190

   and character analysis 193–6,221

   and concepts of linearity in narrative 199

   and cultural constructions of gender 189,191,193

   definitions of 189

   diversity of approaches to 189,191

   and the evolution of feminist theory 191

   and the explanatory status of gender 201

   and feminist fiction 199

   and focalization 225

   and the gender-specificity of narratological models 190

   and heterosexuality as default interpretation 193

   history of 190–1

   and linguistics 191,201

   and narrative form vis-à-vis (gender) ideology 199–200,201

   and narrative voice 197–8

   and novelistic polyphony (Bakhtin) 226

   and plot types 43,45,198–9,264

   and psychoanalytic theory 199

   and queer theory 189,191

   and reader response 192

   and representations of time 199–200

   as revision of narrative theory 197–8,200

   and sex vs. gender 190–1

   and sexuality 191,195–6

   as subdomain within narrative theory 190

   See also characters; gender; identity; ideology; narrative; narratology; plot


   as game of make believe 71,73

   vs. narrativity 32,35n.30

   signposts of 35n.30

   theories of 34n.29

   See also fictional worlds; genre; narrative

fictional minds. See characters; cognitive approaches; consciousness; speech and thought representation

fictional worlds

   as alternative possible worlds 52

   as created rather than described by authors 68

   and generic protocols 53,54

   immersion in 70

   and possible-world semantics 71

   spatial and temporal structures of 52

   See also characters; fictionality; postmodern fiction; space in narrative; storyworld; time in narrative

Fielding, Henry 97,207

figural narrative 95,96,97,98,100,107

   See also consciousness; focalization; novel of consciousness; reflector; speech and thought representation


   and audience response 160

   and cinematic adapations of print narratives 156,157–62

   and cognitive approaches to narrative comprehension 167–70

   and cognitive schemata 167–70

   and color cinematography 159

   in comparison with literature as a medium for narration 157–62,171

   in comparison with other narrative media 156,171

   and the presentation and highlighting of visual details 161

   diegetic vs. non-diegetic elements of 160

   and focalization theory 170

   as medium for moving-image storytelling 156–62

   modes of narration in 160–1

   and multimedia narration 176

   and narrative grammar 157,159

   point of view in 159,160

   temporal dimensions of 161–2

   and voice-over narration 160

   See also digital works; drama; narration; narrative; television; reliability

Fitzgerald, F. Scott 217

Flaubert, Gustave 9

Fleischman, Suzanne 65n.23

Fludernik, Monika 11,21n.35,21n.41,26,62,107n.1,155n.12,192,193,219,258n.10,258n.12,273n.11

Flush 96


   as associated with “mood” vs. “voice” (Genette) 97

   and characterization 105

   classical vs. postclassical approaches to 251,252

   and the cognitive parameter of focal adjustment (Langacker) 252

   complex modes of in first-person (homodiegetic) narratives 100

   in contrast to narration 94,97,102

   and deictic shifts 102

   and empathetic identification with reflectors 103,106

   external mode of (Bal) 101,102,225

   external mode of (Genette) 98–9,100

   fixed, variable, and multiple sub-types of 98

   Genette’s theory of 97–100

   hypothetical modes of 99

   ideological dimensions of 225

   and immersion in the storyworld 102

   internal mode of 98,105,225

   and multiperspectivism 101,104,105

   and non-focalized narratives (= narratives with zero focalization) 97–8,101

   and online vs. offline perception 99,103,106

   as perspectival filtering of narrative information 94,97

   vs. point of view 21n.37

   and the possibility of narrator-focalizers 100,101,102

   post-Genetttean theories of 100–2,106

   psychological and ideological facets of 101

   and the psychological turn in modernist fiction 94–6

   and readers 102,103–5

   as refraction of events through an experiencing center (= “reflector”) 62,95

   in sections of narratives vs. whole texts 99

   static vs. dynamic patterns of 99,107

   and thought representation 106

   via various channels of perception 99,106

   See also cognitive approaches; consciousness; dialogue; film; linguistic approaches; mind style; novel of consciousness; perspective; reflector; television

Fogel, Aaron 85

folk psychology. See consciousness

Forster, E.M. 43

For Whom the Bell Tolls 98

Fowles, John 211

framed narrative. See digital works; identity; narration

Frawley, William 258n.7

free indirect discourse. See ideology; linguistic approaches; speech and thought representation

French Lieutenant’s Woman, The 211

frequency 59–60,147,148

   See also time in narrative

Freud, Sigmund 272n.5

Frye, Northrop 51n.9

functional systemic linguistics. See linguistic approaches

function (Barthes). See story

gaps. See cognitive approaches; dialogue; duration; identity; ideology; narration; narrative; plot; time in narrative

Gaddis, William 85


   ambiguous representations of and reader response 192,196,197–8

   and the androcentric bias of narratological models 189,190

   destabilization of in postmodern fiction 192–200

   and detective fiction 122

   and folktales and fairytales 195

   the “logic of the faux pas,” 221

   medium- and language-specific expressions of 198

   of narrators 197–8,200

   and the patterning of character roles 220

   postmodern theories of 191

   and sexual desire 195–6,198

   See also dialogue; feminist narratology; ideology

Genette, Gérard 14,23,41,42,43,54,57,58,97,111,142,151,153,173,186n.13,197,209,218,229n.16

   See also focalization; time in narrative


   and American New Criticism 112

   and the anti-generic aesthetics of Modernism 112

   and characters’ self-definitions 45

   classical theories of 110–11

   as classification of texts 109,110,114

   and constraints on characters’ attributes 73,74,77

   contemporary theories of 112–14

   and Derrida’s “law of genre,” 114

   embeddedness in socio-cultural contexts 121

   as empirical, historical literary category 112

   as enabling the perception of artistic innovation 112

   as encompassing both formal and thematic elements 111,112

   evaluative functions of 109,111

   and generic competence 112,115,118

   and generic innovation 110,113,118,119–22

   and hybrid textual kinds 111

   and ideology 113

   and the literary types of lyric, drama, and epic 111

   and the logic of subgenres 115

   as mediating between literary and non-literary discourse 113

   vs. mode (= form of everyday communicative practice) 112

   as more salient than text-type category 32–3

   vis-à-vis narrativity 30–1

   as norm guiding the production and interpretation of texts 109,111

   poststructuralist approaches to 112,114

   prescriptive functions of 109,110

   and the question of fictionality 32

   and readers’ co-construction of narratives 110

   Renaissance theories of 111

   Romantic theories of 111–12

   as rule-based game played by authors and readers 115–16

   and speech act theory 113

   and speech genres (Bakhtin) 113

   See also characters; conversational storytelling; fictional worlds; genre fiction; narrative

genre fiction 115,120

Gerrig, Richard J. 107n.17

Goffman, Erving 141n.21,272n.2

   See also identity

Golding, William 96

Goldman, Alvin 259n.17

Goodwin, Marjorie H. 141n.21

Gopnik, Alison 258n.5,259n.17

Gramsci, Antonio 218

grand narratives (Lyotard) 22,30,33n.1

grand récits. See grand narratives

Grand Theft Auto 183

Great Gatsby, The 219–28

Green, Henry 82,84

Greene, Brian 31

Greene, Graham 96

Greimas, Algirdas Julien 13,21n.33,194,220

Grice, Paul 85,91

Gumperz, John J. 141n.16

Halliday, M.A.K. 232,236

Hamburger, Käte 265

Hamon, Philippe 227

Heise, Ursula 56

Hemingway, Ernest 82,98

Herman, David 8–9,18n.1,19n.13,20n.26,34n.28,45,64n.5,99,229n.8,241,258n.8,258n.9,259n.16

Herman, Luc 21n.41

heterodiegetic narration. See narration

Hildesheimer, Wolfgang 35n.30

histoire. See story

Hogan, Patrick Colm 259n.18

Homans, Margaret 198,200,201n.5

Homer, Sean 272n.4

homodiegetic narration. See narration

Horace 111

Hornby, Richard 155n.16

humor. See conversational storytelling

Hymes, Dell 141n.20

hypertext fiction. See dialogue; digital works

Hyvärinen, Matti 4,5,18n.7,21n.41

ideal narrative audience 210

   See also rhetorical approaches


   and alterity (or otherness) in narrative 260,263–6

   and alterity (or otherness) in postcolonial narratives 260,266–71,272

   and autobiography 262,264

   and biography 262–3

   and characterization 269–70

   and conflicting accounts of actions or motives 263

   as constituted through narrative 260,263

   in conversational storytelling 260–1,262

   as dependent on a differentiation of self and other 261,264,271

   and didactic, moralizing modes of narration 262

   and empathetic immersion in fictional minds 265,270

   and framing techniques 266

   and gaps left in narratives about the self 262

   and ideological conflicts 268

   as imaginary 260

   and immersion in the other worlds of fiction 265

   and issues of face (Goffman) 260,272n.2

   and life stories 262

   and the medium of storytelling 265

   and the multiplicity of social roles 261

   and non-natural storytelling situations 265

   and orientalism (Said) 267,268

   and othering processes as constitutive of narration 266

   and paratexts 266

   performative basis of 261

   and politeness theory 272n.2

   and power relations 260,266

   and psychoanalytic theory 262,264,271,272,272n.4,272n.5,273n.8

   and the romance quest motif 264

   and tellability 264

   See also characters; consciousness; conversational storytelling; dialogue; feminist narratology; gender; ideology


   and actions and events 221–3

   and characterization techniques 224–5

   and characters 143,217,220,222

   and cognitive approaches to narrative 219

   as “common sense,” 217,218

   and consonance between narrator’s and characters’ discourse 227–8

   and constructivist theories of narrative 219

   and the “discourse” (or “text”) level 223–5

   and duration 223

   and ethical approaches 219

   as false consciousness 217

   and feminist narratology 218

   and focalization 225

   and Free Indirect Discourse 228

   and gaps or ellipses 223

   and hegemony (Gramsci) 218

   at the intersection of narrative techniques 217

   and narration 225–8

   and narrators 226–8

   and “natural narratives,” 219

   as naturalization of the constructed or conventional 218,219,224

ideology (cont.)

   and novelistic polyphony (Bakhtin) 226–7

   and order 223–4

   vis-à-vis plots that feature closure 198,199

   and power relations among classes or groups 217,218

   and the reader 218–19

   and rhetorical theories of narrative 218

   and setting 220–1

   and speech and thought representation 227–8

   and the “story” level 220–3

   and structuralist narratology 217,218

   traditions of research on 217–19

   and unreliable narration 226–7

   and verisimilitude in narrative 218

   See also action code (Barthes); dialogue; duration; feminist narratology; focalization; linguistic approaches; order; rhetorical approaches; space in narrative; time in narrative

immersion. See characters; dialogue; fictional worlds; focalization; identity; space in narrative; storyworld; television; time in narrative

implied author. See rhetorical approaches

Impressionist, The 268–71

index (Barthes). See characters; story

indirect discourse. See consciousness; speech and thought representation

Inheritors, The 96

interactive fiction. See digital works

IF (= Interactive Fiction) Archive 178

interactivity. See drama; digital works

internal focalization. See focalization

intertextuality. See characters; genre; genre fiction; ideology; linguistic approaches; parody

intradiegetic narrators (= character- narrators). See characters; narration; narrator; rhetorical approaches

Ionesco, Eugène 144

irony. See narration

Iser, Wolfgang 44

iterative narration 59

   See also frequency; narration; time in narrative

Jackson, Shelley 184

Jahn, Manfred 99,108n.20,149,151,229n.8,251,258n.4,259n.23

James, Henry 15,95,96,245

James, William 95,101

Jannidis, Fotis 34n.24,79n.6

Jefferson, Gail, et al. 141n.17

Johnson, Mark 55,56

Johnstone, Barbara 140n.6

Joyce, James 81,95,112,231,245

Joyce, Michael 184

Juul, Jesper 185n.3

Kellogg, Robert 16

“Killers, The,” 98

Kreiswirth, Martin 4

Kristeva, Julia 199

Kunzru, Hari 268

Labov, William 4–5,7,12,18n.5,20n.28,128,134,140n.1,140n.4,260

   See also conversational storytelling

Lacan, Jacques 261,272n.4

Laclau, Ernesto 229n.4

Lakoff, George 8

La Machine infernale 148

Lambert, Mark 92n.10

Lamarque, Peter 79n.3

Landa, José Angel García 23

Langacker, Ronald W. 252

Lanser, Susan 190,197,201n.5,201n.6,226

Larrain, Jorge 229n.2

Lee, Alison 202n.7

Leech, Geoffrey 93n.17,108n.22,258n.10

Lejeune, Philippe 19n.15

Levin, Janet 20n.20,256

Levinas, Emmanuel 219

“Lieutenant Salso,” 72

life stories. See identity

Linde, Charlotte 140n.1

linguistic approaches

   and character analysis 235,236–40

   and effects created by verbal texture 231,232–41,243

   and the expression of agency (or its absence) 234,235,236

   and defamiliarization 234,235–6

   and dialogism in narrative 243

   and free indirect thought 232,241–3

   and functional systemic linguistics 237

   and indirect thought 242

   and language patterns as construals of situations 237,238

   and the language patterns of a story’s opening 232

   and markedness as a cue to reader inferences 240,243

   and markers of characters’ viewpoints 241

   and nominalization 235

   and paraphrase as transformation of the story 231,243

   and process types encoded in clauses 236–40

   role of in narrative analysis and interpretation 240–1

   and participant roles in types of processes 236,237–40

   and sentence-level grammatical constituents 231,236,237

   and setting 233

   and stylistic analysis 237,241

   and transitivity analysis (Halliday) applied to narrative 232,236–40,243

   and variations in word order 234

   and verb types 233–4,236,239

   and verbal markers of acts of focalization 239–40

   See also characters; cognitive approaches; consciousness; conversational storytelling; dialogue; feminist narratology; focalization; identity; ideology; narration; narrative; narrative semantics; narrative units; narratology; perspective; pragmatics; rhetorical approaches; speech and thought representation

literary impressionism 94,95,105

   See also focalization; modernist narrative; novel of consciousness

Lodge, David 256

Lost 166–71

Lovitt, Carl R. 118

Lowry, Malcolm 96

Lubbock, Percy 15,96

Lyotard, Jean-François 22

Macherey, Pierre 218

Madame Bovary 52–63

Mad Dog Blues 147

Mallinson, Christine 19n.12

Manovich, Lev 176

Marbot 35n.30

Margolin, Uri 258n.2,273n.11

Marx, Karl 217

Mayes, Patricia 140n.7

McHale, Brian 258n.12

media. See conversational storytelling; digital works; drama; film; narrative; television

Meehan, James 184

memory. See consciousness; time in narrative

Mepham, John 80,82,85

Meretzky, Steven 172

Merivale, Patricia 120

metalepsis 52,153

meta-narratives. See grand narratives (Lyotard)

metaphysical detective fiction 110,119,120–1

   See also detective as model reader; detective fiction; feminist detective fiction; genre; plot

Mezei, Kathy 190

Michener, James A. 97,102

Miller, J. Hillis 208,219

Miller, Nancy K. 221

Miller, Walter M. 96

mimesis. See characters; dialogue; drama; diegetic vs. mimetic (Plato); narrated stories vs. enacted stories; rhetorical approaches

Mind Forever Voyaging, A 172,176,178–82

mind style 108n.22

   See also characters; consciousness; focalization; novel of consciousness; reflector

mise en abyme 153

modality. See consciousness

mode. See genre

Modernist narrative 56,59,81–2,94–6,97,105

   See also focalization; novel, the; novel of consciousness; postmodern fiction

Montfort, Nick 186n.9,186n.12

moralizing narratives. See identity

Mosher, Harold F. 9

Mouffe, Chantal 229n.4

Moulthrop, Stuart 184

moving-image storytelling. See film; narrative; television

Mrs. Dalloway 96

Ms. Pac-Man 174–5

multimedia narratives. See digital works; film; television

Murray, Janet 176,184

Nagel, Thomas 256

names 66,72

   See also characters

narrated monologue. See consciousness

narrated vs. enacted stories 18n.5,142,147,148,151,154

   See also diegetic vs. mimetic (Plato); digital works; drama; narration

narratee 204,209,210

   See also rhetorical approaches

narrating-I vs. experiencing-I 8,19n.15,48,227

   See also focalization; narration; time in narrative


   vis-à-vis characterization and plot 45–9

   as creating as well as closing narrative gaps 45,50,212

   embedded modes of 42,45,47

   extradiegetic mode of 101,160

   in films 41,49–50

   heterodiegetic vs. homodiegetic modes of 42–3,197,227,245,264,265

   ideological dimensions of 226–8

   ironic modes of 57,58,59,61,68,73,102,106,242,266,269,270–1,272

   as narrator’s words exclusive of direct speech or thought report 42

   vis-à-vis plot and story 39

   as production of narrative by narrator 41

   and sensibility of the narrator 42–3

   and shifts to characters’ viewpoints 98,241,243,246–7

   vs. simulation in digital works 172

   vis-à-vis story and discourse in narratological models 219

   as synonym for narrative 41

   temporal dimensions of 161

   and tensions at the discourse level 212

   and withholding of information in detective fiction 116,117

   See also dialogue; digital works; discourse; drama; feminist narratology; film; focalization; identity; ideology; narrated vs. enacted stories; narrating-I vs. experiencing-I; plot; reliability; rhetorical approaches; television; time in narrative


   affective responses to 210

   basic components of represented in detective fiction 115

   and causality 10,23,150

   as cognitive style or mode of thinking 27

   and conflict or disruption 10–11,212

   and consciousness representation 8,9,241–3,245–57

   as constitutive of conscious experience 257

   in contexts of face-to-face interaction 5,6–8,12,131

   definitions of 3–4,6–11,22–35,40

   and the depiction and recuperation of alterity (otherness) 264

   vs. descriptions 9,10,20n.21,23,25,27,53,58

   and emotions 6–8,19n.15,45,48,255–6

   and experientiality 11,256–7

   as fundamental human endowment 16,17,32

   gaps as essential ingredient of 44

   as independent of the fiction/nonfiction distinction 26

   and inferences about minds 28,253–4

   interdisciplinary approaches to 4–6,12,16,17,18–19n.9

   linguistic perspectives on 12,14–15,21n.35,231–43

   across media 5,16,26,64,156

   and medicine 5

   and moving-image storytelling 156–71

   vs. the novel 5,16

   and particularity 10,11

   of personal experience 5,6–8

   and postmodernism 22

   rhetorical dimensions of 15,21n.39,203–15

   and scientific explanations 3,10,27

   semiotic theory and 24–6

   in social-scientific research 4–5,12

   and space 52–3,55–6,60–3

   structuralist theories of 4–5,12,13–15, 16

   and temporal sequence 3,9,10,23,25,39,41,52–3,54,57–8,128

   as text-type category 8–11,19n.18, 26–7

   as type of mental representation 8–11,26,28,40

   as type of speech event 137

   See also categorization theory; cognitive approaches; conversational storytelling; drama; fictionality; genre; narrated vs. enacted stories; narrative competence; narrative reasoning; narratology; rhetorical approaches; space in narrative; time in narrative

narrative audience 210

   See also rhetorical approaches

narrative competence 112

narrative or diegetic levels. See digital works; narration

narrative progression. See narration; plot; rhetorical approaches

narrative reasoning 7–8,19n.13,27–8

    See also paradigmatic reasoning

narrative semantics 25,27

narrative turn, the 4–6,22–35

narrative units 24

   See also linguistic approaches; story

narrative voice. See feminist narratology; narration

narrativism (or narrative imperialism) 19n.13,33,185n.3

narrativity 26,28–31,32,33,34n.25,54

   See also consciousness; fictionality; genre; narrative; tellability

narrativization 46


   classical approaches to 12,13–16,20n.26,217

   contextualist varieties of 209

   linguistic models informing 14–15

   origins of 5,40,41

   postclassical approaches to 12,15,16,20n.26,21n.41

   as shaped by cultural and historical contingencies 94

   See also cognitive approaches; feminist narratology; ideology; linguistic approaches; rhetorical approaches

narrator 39–40,41,45,71,96–7,100,101,102,106,197–8,226

   See also drama; feminist narratology; focalization; gender; ideology; narrated vs. enacted stories; narration; reliability; rhetorical approaches; speech and thought representation

naturalization. See ideology

natural narratives. See conversational storytelling; identity; ideology

Neale, Stephen 122n.19

Nelles, William 99

Newton, Adam Zachary 219

non-focalized narratives. See focalization

N⊘rgaard, Nina 237,239

Norrick, Neal R. 140n.5,140n.10,140n.14,141n.18,141n.22,141n.28

Norris, Margot 235

“Not I,” 151

nouveau roman 59

novel, the

   and eighteenth-century novels 221

   and polyphony (Bakhtin) 226

   relation of to drama 81

   and Victorian novels 81

   See also dialogue; dialogue novel; Modernist narrative; novel of consciousness; postmodernist fiction; speech and thought representation

novel of consciousness 95

   See also consciousness; figural narrative; focalization; novel, the; reflector

Nünning, Ansgar 21n.41,101,154n.2

Nünning, Vera 101

Nussbaum, Martha 208

Oatley, Keith 19n.11

Ochs, Elinor 20n.28

Ochs, Elinor, et al. 141n.15

Odyssey, The 25

Oedipus Rex 150

Onega, Susana 25

oral narrative. See conversational storytelling

order 57–8,147,148,161,167

   See also ideology; narration; narrative; plot; television; time in narrative

otherness. See identity; narrative

Page, Norman 81,82,83,84,85

Page, Ruth 201n.5

Palmer, Alan 45,245,247,250,254

paradigmatic reasoning 7–8,27

   See also narrative reasoning

paratext 46

parody 68

Passion of New Eve, The 192–200

Patchwork Girl 184

pause 58

   See also duration; time in narrative

performance. See narrated vs. enacted stories; conversational storytelling; drama; identity

Perfume, The 106


   and cognitive linguistics 251–3

   and the cognitive parameter of focal adjustment (Langacker) 252

   as conceptual structuring system 252

   and readers’ attitudes toward narrated events 56

   spatial dimensions of 56,62–3

   See also consciousness; film; focalization; space in narrative

Pfister, Manfred 155n.9

Phelan, James 19n.13,154n.3,205,209,210,227,259n.23

philosophy of mind. See consciousness

Pilgrimage, Dorothy Richardson 82

Plato 110


   and the avoidance of closure in metaphysical detective fiction 120

plot (cont.)

   and closure 198

   cognitive approaches to 55–6

   as contrasted with narration 44

   and the management of narrative gaps 44–5,46,49,50

   as method of disclosing the story 42, 43

   as network of paths through a storyworld 55

   and Propp’s functions 13

   the romance quest as most basic type of 264

   as structuring of story 13,40,50

   as type of story 43,44,45–6,50

   types of as means for characterization 45–9

   as what makes a story a story 43

   See also drama; emplotment; feminist narratology; narration; space in narrative; story; television; time in narrative

Poe, Edgar Allan 121,203

point of view. See film; focalization; perspective

Polanyi, Livia 140n.2,140n.5,140n.12

politeness theory. See identity

possible worlds. See fictional worlds; storyworld

postclassical narratology. See narratology

postcolonial narrative. See identity

postmodernism. See gender; postmodern fiction

postmodern fiction 30,52,54,56,72,73

   See also gender; metaphysical detective fiction; storyworld

Powell, Anthony 82

power. See dialogue; identity; ideology


   and definitions of narrative based on use 25–6

   and the limits of structuralist narratology 14

   and text-type approaches to narrative 27

   See also conversational storytelling; dialogue; linguistic approaches; rhetorical approaches

Prince, Gerald 22,23,34n.25,204

proairetic code. See action code (Barthes)

prolepsis (= flashforward) 57,224

Propp, Vladmir 10,13,51n.9,145

prototypical narratives. See categorization theory; narrative

psychoanalysis. See dialogue; identity

psychonarration. See consciousness; ideology

psychonarratology 103,107n.19

psychological realism 94

   See also focalization; literary impressionism; Modernist narrative; novel of consciousness; realism

Pyrhönen, Heta 122n.14

qualia. See consciousness; narrative

queer theory. See feminist narratology

quoted monologue. See consciousness

Rabinowitz, Peter J. 57,209,210,218

Rader, Ralph W. 209

reader. See characters; consciousness; detective as model reader; feminist narratology; focalization; gender; genre; ideology; rhetorical approaches; space in narrative; time in narrative

realism 52,54,56,74,80,83–4,86,94,167

   See also psychological realism

A la recherche du temps perdu 41

Ree, Jonathan 81

reflector 95–7,98,100,103–5,106,245,250

   See also consciousness; figural narrative; focalization; mind style; Modernist narrative; narration; novel of consciousness; perspective; space in narrative

resolution. See conversational storytelling


   in drama 152–4

   and metaphysical detective fiction 120

   See also mise en abyme; postmodern fiction


   coding of in film narration 49

   of direct discourse as expression vs. narration 47–9

   of heterodiegetic or third-person narrators 42

   of homodiegetic or first-person narrators 45,47

   and ideology 226–7

   See also narration; rhetorical approaches

repetitive narration 59,138,149

   See also conversational storytelling; frequency; narration; time in narrative

rhetorical approaches

   and audience 210

   and author’s communication with audiences 204,205–6,213,214

   and the author-text-reader relationship 209–10

   basic principles of 209–13

   and Booth’s foundational work 207–9

   and character-narrators (= intradiegetic narrators) 206,214,215,227

   and Chicago School neo-Aristotelianism 207–9

   and ethical dimensions of narrative 203,208,211–12,213–15

   and the functions of narrators 205

   history of 207–9

   and the implied audience 208

   and the implied author 208,226–8

   and mimetic, thematic, and synthetic dimensions of narrative 210

   and narrative judgments 211–12

   and narrative progression 212–14

   and narrative viewed as a purposive communicative act 203,209

   and narrators’ communication with narratees 204,205–6,215

   and overt authorial commentary 208

   and relations among tellers, audiences, and narrated events 203,215

   and reliable vs. unreliable narration 205,208,214

   as rooted in the study of texts’ effects on audiences 207

   and tensions (in discourse) vs. instabilities (in story) 212,213

   and types of unreliability 205

   See also ideology; narration; reliability

Richardson, Dorothy 82,96

Richardson, Brian 43,65n.17,154n.3,155n.9,155n.11,155n.12,199–200

Richter, David 209

Ricoeur, Paul 23,43

Rimmon-Kenan, Shlomith 51n.8,101

Roberts, Thomas J. 122n.19

Rosch, Eleanor 8

Roth, Philip 80

Rudrum, David 18n.1,34n.15

Russian Formalism 5,12,13–14,41,119,121

Ryan, Marie-Laure 3,8,11,18n.1,21n.42,34n.25,35n.29,45,64n.3,65n.26,79n.5,176,184,258n.9

Sacks, Harvey 140n.13

Sacks, Sheldon 209

Said, Edward 267

Salammbô 9

Saramago, José 84

Sarraute, Nathalie 83

Saussure, Ferdinand de 5,14,41

scene 58

   See also duration; time in narrative

Schaeffer, Jean-Marie 35n.29,111,122n.3

Schank, Roger 28

Schneider, Ralf 79n.6,245

Scholes, Robert 16

science fiction 60,74,161

semiotics. See linguistic approaches; narrative; narrative semantics; narrative units; narratology; pragmatics

serial narrative. See television

setting. See ideology; linguistic approaches; space in narrative; story; time in narrative

sexuality. See feminist narratology

Shaw, George Bernard 143

Shepard, Sam 147

Shklovskii, Viktor 13

Short, Michael 93n.17,108n.22,258n.10

Showalter, Elaine 229n.7

showing vs. telling 15

   See also rhetorical approaches

Shuman, Amy 140n.11

SimCity 182

Sims, The 185

simulation. See digital works; narration

Six Feet Under 166

sjuzhet. See discourse

Snow, Catherine E. 140n.10

soap operas. See television

sociolinguistics. See linguistic approaches; narrative

Sommer, Roy 154n.2

Solid Mandala, The 102–7

space in narrative

   and containers, paths, and portals 60–2

   as differently structured in different kinds of texts 149

   and embodied human experience 55,62

   and imaginative shifts to characters’ locations 62

   and ideology 220–1

   and immersion in storyworlds 62,63

   and models of plot 55–6

   and movements of entities in storyworlds 55

space in narrative (cont.)

   and the positioning of the reader 62–3

   and public vs. private domains 61

   and shifts to characters’ private mental worlds 62

   social and psychological aspects of 55,60,61

   and the use of locations to track multiple plot-lines 56

   and the variable scope or size of storyworlds 60

   See also drama; narrative; plot; time in narrative

speech act theory. See genre

speech and thought representation

   and direct discourse 40–2,45,47–9,80,82,132,228,248

   and dissonant vs. consonant psychonarration 227

   and the dual-voice hypothesis 258n.12

   as entailing evaluation by the narrator 227–8

   and expressivity markers suggesting characters’ speech patterns 248

   and free indirect discourse 228,248

   historical development of in the novel 81–3

   and indirect discourse 228,248

   ideological dimensions of 227–8

   and James Joyce’s use of dashes for direct discourse 258n.11

   and stage dialogue 81

   See also consciousness; dialogue; focalization; linguistic approaches; narrative; reliability

Stanzel, Franz K. 95,258n.3

Stearns, Carol 259n.19

Stearns, Peter 254,259nn.18,19

Sternberg, Meir 44,46,54,57,65n.20,81,84

story (= fabula or what is narrated)

   and Barthes’, grammar of actions and events 221–3

   as composed of actions and characters 41,220

   vs. discourse 13,24,26,34n.25,40,41,53,212

   essential vs. expendable components of 41

   as event-sequence that can be presented in different ways 39,40

   and functions vs. indexes (Barthes) 222–3

   as histoire vs. discours 41

   ideological dimensions of 220–3

   vs. narration 40

   vs. plot 39,40

   and setting 220

   as “signified” vs. “signifier,” 41

   See also action code (Barthes); actions vs. events; discourse; ideology; narration; rhetorical approaches; storyworld

story arcs. See television

storytelling rights. See conversational storytelling


   cognitive and emotional immersion in 170

   and the concept of diegesis in film studies 160

   in contrast with sub-worlds of characters 62,71

   identifying the fact domain of 71

   as mental construction 168

   of postmodern narratives 63

   as spatially and temporally structured 52,63

   as world evoked by a narrative 42,44,49,66,71

   See also character; fictional world; story

Strawson, Galen 19n.13

stream of consciousness 95,96

   See also consciousness; dialogue; novel of consciousness; speech and thought representation

stretch 58

   See also duration; time in narrative

structuralism. See narrative; narratology; Saussure

structuralist narratology. See narrative; narratology; pragmatics

stylistics. See linguistic approaches

summary 58,59

   See also duration; ideology; time in narrative

surprise (as narrative universal). See time in narrative

suspense 40,54,58,161

   See also dialogue; time in narrative

Süskind, Patrick 106

Sweeney, Susan Elizabeth 120


Talmy, Leonard 252

Tambling, Jeremy 230n.18

Tani, Stefano 119,120,121

Tannen, Deborah 140n.7,141n.23


   as affording greater immersion than films 171

   and commercial breaks 165

   in comparison with literature as a medium for narration 162,165,171

   in comparison with other narrative media 156,165,171

   and crime procedurals 166

   and episodic versus serial programs 163–5

   and focalization theory 170

   extrinsic vs. intrinsic norms of 166, 167

   as medium for moving-image storytelling 156,162

   and multimedia narration 176

   and narrative arcs 165

   and online fan communities 170

   and participatory viewing 171

   and plot types 164

   and serial narration 163–6

   and soap operas 164,166

   temporal constraints on 161,165

   and unplanned story developments 165

   and use of characters’ backstories 167

   See also film; time in narrative

tellability 8,10–11,19n.15,134–6

   See also conversational storytelling; identity

temporality. See consciousness; duration; frequency; ideology; narrative; order; time in narrative

Theory of Mind. See consciousness

Thomas, Bronwen 92n.12,241

Thomasson, Amie L. 79n.2,79n.4

Thornborrow, Joanna 140n.6

thought representation. See speech and thought representation

time in narrative

   approaches to 53–4,57–60

   and backward temporal sequencing of detective fiction 115

   and beginnings and endings 57

   as bound up with space 53

   and curiosity 54

   and dialogue 58

   and gaps causing suspense, curiosity, and surprise 54,104

   and genre 54,56

   and ideology 220–1,223–4

   and immersion in storyworlds 63

   and memory and anticipation 54,57

   and order, duration, and frequency (Genette) 54,57–60,147–9

   and simultaneous plot strands 58

   and surprise 54

   and suspense 54,58,59

   and the temporality of story vs. discourse vs. narration 161–2

   and the time of reading 53,58,63,64n.7

   and verb tense 65n.23

   See also consciousness; conversational storytelling; discourse; drama; duration; film; frequency; narrative; order; space in narrative; story; television

Todorov, Tzvetan 5,10,41,112,113,114,120

Tomashevskii, Boris 13

Tom Jones 97,207

Toolan, Michael 93n.17,193,258n.10,258n.12

transitivity analysis (Halliday). See linguistic approaches

trauma. See characters

travelogue 264,268

Turner, Mark 28

“Two Gallants,” 231–43

Tynianov, Iurii 72,119

typography. See consciousness; dialogue; speech and thought representation

Ulysses 112

Under the Volcano 96

Unnameable, The 60

unreliable narration. See ideology; reliability; rhetorical approaches

untellable or unnarratable events. See conversational storytelling

verb tense. See conversational storytelling; time in narrative

verb types. See consciousness; ergative verbs; linguistic approaches

verisimilitude (vraisemblance). See ideology

Vervaeck, Bart 21n.41

Victorian novel. See novel, the

Victory Garden 184

video games. See digital works

Virtanen, Tuija 26

visualization 157,159,160

Votre Faust 146

Waiting for Godot 144

Waletzky, Joshua 5,140n.1

Wallace, Honor 196,199

Walton, Kendall 34n.29

Warhol, Robyn 189,202n.6

Waugh, Evelyn 82

Watt, Ian 265

Wellman, Henry 259n.17

Weizenbaum, Joseph 184

Werth, Paul 64n.3

What Maisie Knew 96

White, Patrick 102

Wild, Jonathan 262–3

Winnett, Susan 199

Wizard of Oz, The 157–62

Wodehouse, P.G. 82

Wolfson, Nessa 140n.6

Woolf, Virginia 95,96,147,199

Wuthering Heights

   film version of 49–50

   novel version of 39–49

zero focalization. See focalization

Zoran, Gabriel 55,64n.5

Zork 177

Zunshine, Lisa 259n.1

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