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The Palaeolithic Settlement of Asia

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The palaeolithic settlement of Asia
Cambridge University Press
9780521848664 - The palaeolithic settlement of Asia - By Robin Dennell
Index

Index

Entries in bold refer to tables. ‘See’ refers to synonyms, e.g., Burma and Myanmar. ‘See also’ indicates that further information is available under another entry. Words ending in ‘-ean’ or ‘-ian’ refer to archaeological stone tool assemblages, e.g., Acheulean, Clactonian, Soanian.

16R dune site, India 236, 338, 345, 351, 352

See also Thar Desert

40Ar/39Ar, 84, 282

Abri Zumoffen, Lebanon 296, 299, 301, 304, 306, 308

See also Amudian, Bezez

Abu Sif, Palestine 298, 305

Acheulean 24, 28, 115, 118, 122, 123, 125, 235, 260, 267, 274, 275, 277, 278, 279, 283, 284, 285, 289, 290, 293, 296, 297, 301, 306, 307, 310, 312, 320, 321, 322, 323, 324, 337, 340, 343, 344, 345, 346, 358, 359, 362, 365, 369, 370, 371, 374, 375, 376, 377, 378, 380, 381, 384, 387, 388, 392, 418, 421, 433, 434, 436, 437

Acheulean-Jabrudian 290, 296

Acheuleo-Jabrudian 292

See Acheulean-Jabrudian

Acheulo-Yabrudian 297

See Acheulean-Jabrudian

Adlun, Lebanon 296, 301, 302, 304, 307, 308, 481

See also Abri Zumoffen, Bezez

Afghanistan 39, 56, 117, 323, 464, 468

Ain Musa, Palestine 298

Akchagyl Transgression 67, 95

Akhalkalaki, Georgia 97, 98

Altai Mountains 61

Amar Merdeg, Iran 322

Ambrona, Spain 268

amino-acid racemisation 405, 407

Amudian 290, 296, 297, 301, 304, 307, 308

An Nefud, Saudi Arabia 481

Anagwadi, India 339, 340, 342, 351, 379, 380, 392, 481

Anatolia, Turkey 199, 310, 325

Anhui Province, China 178, 419, 444

Anthropithecus erectus 4

Antu, China 414

Anyathian 164, 427

Arabian Desert 257, 464

Arabian Peninsula xiii, xiv, 35, 36, 37, 42, 65, 66, 72, 76, 80, 83, 118, 123, 127, 135, 230, 234, 236, 255, 323, 324, 325, 334, 462, 479, 480, 490, 522, 523, 526, 528, 537

Arabian Sea 36, 65, 230, 232, 233, 234

Arabian/Persian Gulf 232, 234

Aral Basin 66

Aral Sea 42, 52, 66, 67, 325, 332

“Aridistan,” 253, 254, 476

Aravalli Hills, India 345

Arjun 3, Nepal 346

Armenia 319

Arridos, Spain 268

Atapuerca, Spain 192, 391, 392, 426, 436, 457, 458, 466

Attirampakkam, India, 390 340, 388

See also Kortallyar Basin

Australian monsoon 36

Australopithecus 18, 20, 21, 29, 31, 163, 184, 191, 411

A. aethiopicus 12, 19, 25

A. afarensis 12, 13, 16, 20, 27

A. africanus 5, 12, 13, 16, 163

A. anamensis 12, 15

A. bahrelghazali 16, 17, 188

A. garhi 12, 16, 17, 22, 22, 25, 26, 123, 198, 200

Azerbaijan 318, 322

Azraq Basin, Jordan 298, 323

Azych, Azerbaijan 318, 320, 321, 334, 453

Bab al Mandab Strait 122, 199, 324, 462

Badain Jaran, China 207

Baghbaghu, Iran 117

Baichbal Valley, India 339, 342, 366, 367

See also Hunsgi-Baichbal Valleys, India

bamboo 165, 179, 428, 435

Ban Don Mun, Thailand 428

Ban Fa Suai, Thailand 249

Banda Sea 252

Bandlav-ki-Tala, India 353

Bandung Basin 250, 252

Banshan, China 174, 175

See also Nihewan Basin

Baoji, China 48, 209

Barda Balka, Iraq 322

Barents Sea 36

Bay of Bengal 57, 207, 224, 228, 485

Bear Cave, Israel 239

Belan Valley, India 349, 392

Berach Valley, India 351, 392

Berekhat Ram, Israel 275, 279, 282, 283, 285, 307, 333, 334, 358

Beringia 3

Bethlehem, Palestine 131, 192, 193

Bezez Cave, Lebanon 296, 300, 301, 306, 308

See also Abri Zumoffen, Adlun

Bhimbetka, India 339, 340, 347, 353, 356, 358, 434, 474, 481

Bilzingsleben, Germany 241, 284, 360, 436

Bizat Ruhama, Israel 276, 278, 279, 334, 375, 411, 481

Black Sea 42, 66, 67, 95, 310

Bodo, Ethiopia 456

Bori, India 375

Borneo, Malaysia 250, 253, 422, 432

Bose Basin, China 6, 152, 418, 422, 433, 434, 436, 481

Bouri, Ethiopia 16, 17, 18, 22, 24, 26, 28, 458, 465

Boxgrove, UK 2, 111, 192, 268, 335, 391, 392, 436, 437, 455, 477

Brahmaputra River, India 129, 130, 464

Burma 164, 229

See also Myanmar

cannibalism 26, 415, 436

Caspian Sea 1, 42, 52, 66, 67, 68, 95, 322

Caucasus 67, 84, 94, 239, 322, 325, 433

Central Asia 36, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 54, 62, 66, 67, 72, 77, 182, 207, 210, 221, 222, 230, 232, 238, 275, 333, 435, 436

Changgousi Glaciation, Tibetan Plateau 206

Charentian 313, 317

Chashmanigar, Tajikistan 52, 217, 218, 485

Chemchemal Valley, Iraq 322

Chenjiawan, China 436

Chenjiawo, China 243, 247, 396, 433, 442

Cherrapunji, India 1

China 35, 36, 43, 44, 45, 51, 58, 62, 64, 65, 77, 89, 113, 163, 184, 185, 217, 228, 250, 336, 418, 427, 448

Chinese Loess Plateau 50, 60, 62, 65, 77, 183, 212, 217, 221

Chirki, India 338, 339, 340, 342, 347, 348, 349, 353, 369, 392, 434, 474, 481

Chongnokni, South Korea 418, 433, 434, 436

Choukoutien, China

See Zhoukoudian

Chuwoli, South Korea 418

Clactonian 312, 342, 410, 433, 436

Cona, Georgia 239, 318, 320

crystals 352, 374, 436

C-Spring, Azraq, Jordan 323

Dali, China 433, 444, 456

Danangou, China 178

Daocheng Glaciation, Tibetan Plateau 206

Darai Kalon, Tajikistan 217

Darwin, Charles 3, 4, 194, 196

Dasht-i-Kavir Desert 257

Dasht-i-Lut Desert 257

Dauqara, Jordan 323

Davidson Black 4, 179, 399

Dawādmī, Saudi Arabia 324

Dead Sea Valley 1, 68, 70, 72, 83, 114, 236, 260, 375

Devapur, India xvii, 361, 368, 376, 394

See also Hunsgi-Baichbal

Didwana Formation, India 235, 236

See also Thar Desert

Dina, Pakistan 208, 338, 339, 375, 391

Dingcun, China 418, 433, 434, 436, 444, 445, 447, 481

Dmanisi, Georgia 67, 80, 84, 96, 98, 100, 103, 113, 123, 126, 131, 134, 135, 163, 166, 176, 182, 184, 186, 189, 192, 193, 194, 198, 321, 330, 466, 474, 481

Donggutuo, China 6, 182, 433, 481

See also Nihewan Basin

Dongyaozhitou, China 178

Durkadi, India 337, 481

Dursunlu, Turkey 115, 116, 135

East Asia 204, 205, 208, 218, 228, 398, 435, 436

East Asian monsoon 36, 37, 41, 45, 47, 48, 50, 64, 65, 77, 145, 178, 210, 212

Egyptian deserts 301

electron spin resonance (ESR) dating 179, 278, 279, 285, 295, 302, 303, 307, 316, 375, 388, 417, 419, 424, 446

El-Khowm, Syria 279, 296, 306, 307, 323, 481

Eoanthropus dawsoni 5

Erq el-Ahmar, Israel 113, 118

Erumaivettipalayam, India 385

See also Kortallya Basin

Esekartkan, Kazakhstan 54

Euphrates River 83, 310

Evron Quarry, Israel 118, 120, 135, 238, 276, 334, 481

Fatehpur, India 362, 363, 376, 394

fauna

Central Asia 54, 56, 330

China (North) 167, 168, 170, 174, 175, 176, 177, 242, 243, 247, 396, 443

China (South) 178, 181, 247, 249, 419, 424, 427, 443, 445

Dmanisi 86, 95

India (post-Siwalik) 241, 347, 362

India, Pakistan (Siwaliks) 56, 130, 131, 144, 343

Indonesia 253

Java (Ngandong) 153, 251

Java (Punung) 252

Java (Satir, Ci Saat) 162

Java (Trinil) 153, 154, 160, 162, 251

Siberia 62, 253

Southeast Asia 250, 251

Southwest Asia 76, 116, 120, 192, 239, 260, 274, 278, 307, 308, 311, 318, 319, 322

Ubeidiya 100, 106, 110, 111, 113

Zhoukoudian 242

Fingnoian, Thailand 427

fire 269, 270, 293, 297, 333, 335, 391, 395, 398, 402, 413, 415, 416, 417, 436, 463, 477

fission-track dating 155, 252, 429

Fjaje, Jordan 323

Flores, Indonesia 2, 6, 163, 250, 252, 432

Gadeb, Ethiopia 123

Ganges River, India 129, 130, 132, 144, 435, 464

Ganj Par, Iran 322

Garrod, Dorothy 260, 285, 286, 297, 301, 302, 303, 304

Georgia 98, 318, 321

Gesher Benot Ya⼹aqov (GBY), Israel 6, 118, 135, 238, 271, 283, 323, 333, 335, 349, 375, 392, 436, 465, 474, 477, 481

Gezidong

See Gezitang Cave

Gezitang Cave 400, 410

Gharmachi 1b, Syria 275

Ghataprabha Valley, India 351, 379, 380, 392, 394

Gigantopithecus 178, 179, 180, 249

Gobi Desert 39, 257, 463

Gobi Gravels 207

Gongwangling, China 176, 177, 184

See Lantian

Guanyindong, China 248, 426

Gulf of Aden 232

Gulf of Aqaba 114

Hadar, Ethiopia 13, 20, 22

Haeckel, Ernst 4

Hathnora, India 392, 452, 453, 469, 481

See also Narmada Valley

Hayonim Cave, Israel 6, 279, 307, 335, 474, 481

hearths 293, 412, 428

Hebbal Buzurg II

See also Hunsgi-Baichbal

Heqing Basin, China 223

Herto, Ethiopia 460, 468

Hexian, China 6, 243, 247, 248, 442, 443, 446, 470, 481

High Wangfeng Glaciation, Tibetan Plateau 206

Himalayas 7, 39, 40, 42, 204, 205, 207, 208, 235, 240, 344

Hindu Kush mountains 39, 325, 326, 393, 469

Hiran Valley, India 351, 392

Hoabinhian 164, 427

Holon, Israel 276, 278, 279, 306, 307

Homo

archaic H. sapiens 243, 396, 417, 446, 448, 452, 454, 455, 457, 459, 460, 465, 469, 470

H. antecessor 392, 436, 458, 465, 468, 471

H. cepranensis 455, 458, 465, 471

H. erectus (general) 4, 5, 8, 9, 14, 18, 22, 30, 33, 34, 123, 135, 187, 191, 421

H. erectus s.l. 12, 13, 32, 33, 89, 90, 91, 96, 113, 125, 134, 163, 176, 180, 184, 186, 188, 189, 192, 198, 201, 271, 376, 438, 452, 453, 455, 457, 466, 476

H. erectus s.s. 29, 103, 149, 155, 161, 164, 165, 179, 180, 191, 243, 244, 247, 249, 252, 398, 414, 415, 416, 417, 432, 433, 436, 446, 448, 450, 452, 470, 471

H. ergaster 12, 13, 14, 17, 19, 20, 21, 26, 27, 29, 30, 89, 90, 113, 166, 180, 190, 194, 438

H. floresiensis 188, 190, 198, 252, 429, 432, 438, 471, 472

H. georgicus 85, 90, 91, 113, 125, 184, 189

H. habilis 12, 18, 19, 20, 21, 24, 26, 27, 28, 29, 32, 33, 89, 90, 113, 124, 163, 180, 189

H. heidelbergensis 5, 335, 391, 392, 438, 446, 452, 453, 454, 455, 456, 458, 459, 465, 471

H. helmei 446, 454, 455, 459, 460, 465, 470

H. neanderthalensis 287, 298, 438, 452, 453, 455, 456, 465, 468, 472, 477

H. rhodesiensis 455, 459, 465

H. rudolfensis 12, 18, 20, 21, 28, 29, 89, 90

H. sapiens 163, 252, 253, 432

Hoti Cave, Oman 234, 255, 485

Hsi-hou-tu

See Xihoudu

Huleh Basin, Israel 236

Hummal, Syria 279, 296, 300

Hunsgi, Hunsgi Valley, India 340, 369, 370

Hunsgi Valley, India 274, 339, 342, 366, 367

Hunsgi-Baichbal Valleys, India 338, 353, 362, 363, 366, 367, 368, 375, 474

India 35, 39, 40, 42, 164, 208, 226, 234, 241, 249, 274, 336, 342, 380, 395, 405, 408, 418, 421, 433, 434, 435, 436, 453

Indian monsoon 36, 37, 56, 57, 64, 77, 145

Indian Ocean 36, 37, 38, 43, 44, 65, 72, 80, 208, 212, 224, 228, 234

Indonesia 166, 253, 396, 432

Indus River, Pakistan xiv, 128, 129, 132

Iran 67, 68, 83, 116, 127, 236, 257, 322

Iranian Plateau 35, 83, 199, 325, 334

Iraq 83, 127, 322

Isampur, India 6, 339, 340, 375, 378, 474

See also Hunsgi-Baichbal Valleys

Isernia, Italy 263

Israel 69, 83, 100, 106, 114, 118, 120, 121, 122, 236, 239, 259, 260, 276, 290, 295, 306, 309, 321, 436

Jabrud rock-shelter, Syria 6, 279, 285, 290, 295, 296, 297, 298, 306, 307, 308, 417, 481, 527

Jabrudian 279, 289, 290, 292, 295, 296, 298, 300, 301, 304, 306, 307

Jalalpur, Pakistan 208, 338, 375, 391

Japan 64, 208, 210, 222, 227, 396, 418, 419

Java Sea 250

Java, Indonesia 89, 149, 166, 176, 184, 250, 251, 252, 427, 448

Jayal Formation, India

See also Thar Desert

Jayal, India 353, 481

See also Thar Desert

Jerf Ajla, Syria 298

Jerodong Formation, Borneo 422

Jigongshan, China 419, 436

Jinnuishan, China 6, 247, 444, 445, 446, 456, 460, 470, 481

Jisr Banat Yaqub

See Gesher Benot Ya⼹aqov

Jordan 290, 306, 323, 325

Jordan Valley 98, 100

Joubb Jannine, Lebanon 274

Kabuh Formation, Java 147, 149, 162, 164, 165

Kabwe, Zambia 455, 456

Kadar Gona, Ethiopia 22, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 144, 198

Kadmali Valley, India 351

Kaladgi Basin, India 339, 380

Kalambo Falls, Zambia 263, 270

Kalatepe Deresi 3, Turkey 310

Kaldenvanhalli, India 338

Kalpi, India 345

Kanam, Kenya 5

Kanjera, Kenya 5

Kara Sea 36

Karain Cave, Turkey 315, 318, 321, 453

Karakorum Mountains 7, 39, 128, 129, 204, 205, 207, 254, 393, 469, 474, 500, 528

Karakum Desert 51, 219, 257

Karamaidan, Tajikistan 54

Karari Industry 122

Kashafrud, Iran 116, 118, 135, 322

Kawoli, South Korea 418

Kazakhstan 54, 217

Kebara Cave, Israel 302

Kedung Brubus 251

Kenyanthropus platyops 15

Khao Pha Nam, Thailand 428

Khyad, India 379

Kombewa technique 263, 264, 271, 283, 333, 466

See also Gesher Benot Ya⼹aqov (GBY)

Komunmoru, North Korea 418

Konso-Gardula, Ethiopia 103

Koobi Fora, Kenya 12, 14, 18, 20, 22, 22, 23, 25, 26, 30, 103, 122, 165

Koplay, Kazakhstan 54

Korean Peninsula 396, 418

Koro Toro, Chad 16, 197

Kortallyar Basin, India 3, 345, 362, 386, 387, 388, 390, 435

Kotzetang Cave

See Gezidong Cave

Kovalli, India 379

Krishna Basin, India 361, 380, 393

Kromdraai, South Africa 5, 19

Kudaro, Georgia 239, 318, 320, 321, 334

Kukdi, India 338

Kuldara, Tajikistan 217, 326, 327, 328, 330

Kumpari, South Korea 418

Kungwangling

See Gongwangling

Kunlun Mountains, Tibetan Plateau 51, 206, 435, 463

Kunlun Pass, Tibetan Plateau 206, 485

Kuratau, Tajikistan 328

Kuruksay, Tajikistan 54, 131

Kuznetsk Basin, Siberia 253

Kyrgyzstan 329

Kyzyllkum Desert 51, 219, 257

Laetoli, Tanzania 13, 16

Lake Baikal, Siberia 1, 7, 62, 65, 77, 206, 208, 211, 222, 253, 254, 255, 485

Lake Biwa, Japan 208, 210, 222, 485

Lake Turkana 113

Lakhmapur, India xii, 342, 379, 380, 381, 383, 481

Lakhuti, Tajikistan 220, 327, 328, 329

Lantian, China 157, 176, 177, 182, 481

Latamne, Syria 115, 135, 271, 275, 276, 279, 310, 392

Lazaret, France 98

Lebanon 259, 260, 274, 290, 292, 296, 301, 306, 309

Lehringen, Germany 268

Leizhou Peninsula, China 223, 226, 249, 424

Lemuria 4

Levallois 115, 122, 277, 278, 283, 285, 289, 298, 305, 310, 312, 324, 340, 344, 346, 347, 352, 357, 359, 360, 385, 435

Levallois-Mousterian 278, 289, 290, 296, 301, 302, 304, 306, 307, 308

Levant 68, 70, 82, 83, 90, 120, 236, 239, 259, 309, 321, 336, 337, 405, 418, 433

Liang Bua, Flores, Indonesia 6, 432

Linxia Basin, China 42

Lion Spring, Azraq, Jordan 323

Liuhuangshan Glaciation, Tibetan Plateau 206

loess 40, 43, 45, 52, 62, 72

Central Asia 7, 52, 54, 77, 208, 221, 255, 275

China, other 168, 176, 177, 210, 403, 406

Chinese Loess Plateau 7, 51, 52, 57, 58, 59, 65, 77, 204, 206, 207, 208, 217, 227, 228

Pakistan 220, 255

Ukraine, Russia 220

“loess palaeolithic,” Tajikistan 329, 332

Lokalalei, Kenya 22, 22, 24

Longgupo, China 113, 131, 178, 180, 181, 182, 183, 193, 243, 419, 481

Longgushan, China 397

See Zhoukoudian (locality 1), China

Luochuan, China 204, 209, 212, 216, 228, 405

Ma U'Oi cave, Vietnam 448, 481

Maba, China 444, 447

Madrasian 388

Mae Tha, Thailand 427

Mahadeo Piparia, India 337

Mailapur, India

See also Kortallyar Basin

Majuangou, China 6, 135, 182, 184

See also Nihewan Basin

Makapansgat, South Africa 16, 411

Makassar Straits 432

Malaprabha River, India 379, 380, 394

Malaysia 36, 427

Maliang, China 433

Maozhushan, China 419

marine cores

Indian Ocean 65, 234, 255

other 48, 60, 68, 238

Pacific Ocean 62, 68

South China Sea 64, 228

marine isotope stage (MIS)

MIS 10 223, 226, 232

MIS 11 203, 212, 220, 222, 226, 379, 405, 465

MIS 11–15 204, 222, 226, 254

MIS 12 206, 222, 227, 228, 234, 253

MIS 1–2 217

MIS 1–29 226

MIS 13 210, 212, 228

MIS 13–15 210

MIS 14 211, 222, 233

MIS 14–18 206

MIS 15 222, 226

MIS 16 203, 228

MIS 1–6 213

MIS 1–6 229

MIS 1–6 238

MIS 17 227, 405

MIS 19 260

MIS 22 212, 227

MIS 23 226

MIS 24 226

MIS 34 210

MIS 36 67

MIS 5 212, 228, 230, 249, 317, 424, 472

MIS 51 64

MIS 5–6 217

MIS 59/60 64

MIS 5e 203, 222, 226, 234, 235, 301, 330

MIS 6 206, 214, 220, 222, 223, 227, 228, 229, 232, 234, 236, 249, 250, 254, 257, 304, 345, 418, 424, 465, 469, 477

MIS 7 212, 228, 234, 249, 278, 295, 302, 304, 308, 318, 424

MIS 8 223, 228, 232, 249, 278, 295, 304, 307, 424

MIS 9 222, 234, 295, 304, 308, 424

Masharai’a 4, Jordan 323

Masloukh, Lebanon 290, 298

Mata Menge, Flores, Indonesia 6, 429, 432, 436

Mauer, Germany 5, 157, 455, 458

Meganthropus 147, 152, 162, 163

See Pithecanthropus, H. erectus s.s.

Mesopotamian Desert 257

Micoquian 292, 297

microfauna 32, 56, 62, 86, 179, 260, 282, 285, 306, 318, 330, 412

Minarawala Kund, India 359

Misliya, Israel 306

Mode 1 421, 434

Mode 2 421, 434, 436

Mojokerto, Java 4, 6, 90, 136, 145, 147, 149, 153, 154, 154, 155, 156, 162, 164, 166, 186, 192, 199, 490, 508, 519

Molyan, Afghanistan 56

Mongolia 36, 40, 44

monsoon 37, 38, 40, 41, 42, 44, 45, 46, 48, 56, 57, 62, 66, 77, 376

Mousterian 288, 290, 292, 298, 316, 317, 321

Movius Line 398, 437, 464

Mu Us Desert 210, 214, 227

Mudnur, India 342, 363, 363, 364, 366, 368, 374

See also Hunsgi-Baichbal Valley

Mugharan 286, 290, 298, 302

Myanmar 36, 345, 427, 435

Naamé, Lebanon 301, 306

Naamean 301

Nadaouiyeh, Syria 323

Nahal Aqev, Israel 306

Nahal Zihor, Israel 69, 114, 115, 135, 481

Nanga Parbat, Pakistan 208

Nariokotome, Kenya 26

Narmada Valley, India 240, 336, 337, 346, 353, 392, 450

Negev Desert, Israel 69, 80, 82, 114, 257, 306, 307

Nepal 57, 345

Nevasa River, India 339, 347, 392

Nevasian 347

Ngandong, Java xxii, 4, 153, 157, 160, 252, 448, 450, 470

Ngawi, Java 448

Ngebung, Java 164, 428

Nihewan Basin, China xiv, 6, 80, 128, 167, 169, 176, 181, 182, 183, 184, 185, 186, 187, 192, 194, 202, 206, 433, 474, 476, 499, 522, 528

Donggutuo 169

Majuangou 2, 176

Xiantai 174

Xiaochangliang 170, 175

North China 42, 43, 44, 47, 52, 58, 65, 72, 77, 78, 166, 167, 177, 178, 181, 183, 207, 218, 219, 221, 222, 226, 227, 249, 253, 396, 399, 419, 435

North Korea 418

Obigarm, Tajikistan 54

Oldowan 23, 24, 28, 122, 123, 323, 421, 434

Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania 3, 14, 19, 20, 21, 22, 26, 29, 31, 76, 103, 106, 122, 123, 136, 191, 263, 269, 395, 421

Olduvai Subchron 84, 86, 95

Olorgesailie, Kenya 28, 29, 263

Oman 232, 234

Omma Formation, Japan 64

optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating 278, 279, 418

Ordos Desert 257

Orontes Valley, Syria 271, 275

Pabbi Hills, Pakistan 130, 134, 142, 144, 240, 393, 481

Pachycrocuta 170, 175, 178, 179

P. brevirostris 238, 398

Pacitanian 427

Paisra, India 342, 359

Pajitan, Java 164

Pakistan 39, 54, 56, 57, 58, 64, 77, 95, 97, 112, 208, 240, 340, 343, 344, 375

Pal Barik, Iran 322

palaeomagnetism 54, 76, 84, 85, 86, 114, 116, 118, 168, 170, 176, 177, 179, 181, 204, 223, 252, 260, 419

palaeosols 44, 45, 47, 48, 50, 52, 56, 72, 208, 209, 210, 216, 217, 220, 236, 396

Pallavaram, India 336, 344

Pamir Mountains 39, 51, 52, 54, 66, 67, 325, 326

Panxian Dadong, China 247, 248, 249, 255, 419, 422, 433, 444, 445, 481

Paranthropus 5, 12, 17, 19, 21, 22, 25, 26, 30, 31, 163, 200

Paratethys Sea 42, 46, 67

Parikulam, India 385

See also Kortallyar Basin

Paviland Cave, UK 398

Pei Weizhong 399

Petralona, Greece 455, 458

Philippines 65, 228, 253

Philippines Islands 250

Piltdown 5

Pinjor Stage, Upper Siwaliks 130, 240

Pir Panjal Mountains 207

Pithecanthropus

P. alalus 4

P. dubius 147, 162, 163

P. erectus 4, 14, 145, 147, 153, 159, 162, 164, 179

P. modjokertensis 147, 162

P. robustus 147, 162

Pithecanthropus erectus

See H. erectus s.s.

pollen 47, 62, 72, 97, 98, 99, 161, 210, 216, 220, 222, 223, 226, 227, 229, 236, 249, 250, 252, 274, 404

potassium-argon (K-Ar) dating 84, 137, 418

pre-Aurignacian 290, 293, 296, 297

pre-Oldowan 23, 94, 125

Qafzeh Cave, Israel 279, 302, 306, 453, 455, 460, 468

Qaidam Basin, China 39, 210

Qara Su River, Iran 83

Qesem Cave, Israel 6, 279, 290, 296, 301, 306, 307, 308, 333, 335, 474, 477, 481

Qilian Shan, Tibetan Plateau 206

Qinling Mountains, China 47, 166, 177, 241, 243, 396, 419

Raisen, India 340, 342, 358, 359

Ras el Kelb, Lebanon 306

Red Sea 122, 235

Remisowka, Kazakhstan 217

Renzidong, China 178

Revadim, Israel 278, 279, 282, 306, 307

Riwat, Pakistan 139, 184, 393, 481

Rohri Hills, Pakistan 371, 481

Rosh ein Mor, Israel 279, 305, 307

Rub al Khali Desert 1, 235

Russia 220, 318

Rust, Alfred 290, 292

Sadab

See also Hunsgi-Baichbal Valleys

Sadab, India 338, 368, 375

Sahara Desert 43, 78, 235, 239, 463, 464, 465

Saharan-Arabian Desert 100, 477

Sahul 428

Sambungmachan, Java 157, 428, 448, 450

Samnapur, India 346, 391

Sangiran Dome, Java 5, 161, 163, 164, 165

Satani Dar, Armenia 319

Saudi Arabia 74, 118, 123, 324

Saurashtra Valley, India 351

“Savannahstan,” 77, 78, 253, 476

Schöningen, Germany 268, 335, 436, 477

Sea of Japan 62, 64, 77, 255

Sel⼹ungur Cave, Kyrgyzstan 330, 331, 332, 334

Semliki River, Zaire 22

Shijiawan, China 211

Shuwayhittiyah, Saudi Arabia 123

Siberia iii, 1, 3, 7, 36, 40, 44, 59, 62, 77, 199, 203, 204, 208, 220, 221, 222, 253, 254, 255, 463

Sima de los Huesos (Atapuerca), Spain 455

Sinai Desert 198, 257, 301

Sinai Peninsula 114, 122, 201, 306, 323, 324, 462

Sinanthropus pekinensis 4, 14, 163, 398, 399, 411, 415

Singi Talav, India 235, 340, 342, 351, 352, 353, 374, 408, 436

See also Thar Desert

Sivapithecus 56

Siwaliks 3, 88, 129, 130, 131, 134, 139, 143, 179, 208, 254

Upper Siwaliks 343

Skuhl Cave, Israel 279, 306, 453, 455, 468, 469

Soa Basin, Flores 429

Soan Flake Industry 130

See Soanian

Soan Valley, Pakistan 128, 134, 136, 340, 343, 344, 345

Soanian 164, 337, 342, 344, 381

Sodmein Cave, Egypt 235, 462

Son Valley, India 349, 392

South Asia 144, 208, 238, 239, 241, 395, 435, 436

South China 178, 181, 224, 249, 396, 427

South China Sea 36, 43, 44, 64, 208, 224, 228, 229, 250

South Korea 418

Southeast Asia 35, 36, 40, 166, 178, 225, 228, 249, 250, 252, 336, 343, 396, 419, 422, 432

Southwest Asia 127, 236, 239, 325, 344, 399

speleothems 234, 237, 248, 255, 279, 405, 406, 417, 424, 461, 462

Sri Lanka 3, 435

Stable isotope studies 54

Starosele Cave, Crimea 447

Steinheim, Germany 455

Sterkfontein, South Africa 16

structures 274, 419, 436

subsistence 278, 297, 318, 330, 335

Dmanisi 98

Gesher Benot Ya⼸aqov (GBY) 270

Hunsgi-Baichbal 379

Jabrudian 309

Panxian Dadong 427

Ubeidiya 113

Zhoukoudian (locality 1) 415

Sulawesi, Indonesia 250, 252, 253, 432

Sulawusu, China 448

Sumatra, Indonesia 250

summer monsoon 36, 37, 40, 45, 46, 48, 50, 52, 64, 65, 66, 77, 178, 208, 209, 210, 211, 212, 218, 226, 227, 228, 229, 230, 232, 234, 235, 358, 361, 378, 379, 393

Sundaland 145, 428

Swanscombe, UK 455

Swartkrans, South Africa 2, 5, 17, 19, 22, 25, 192

Syria 83, 127, 259, 260, 271, 290, 292, 296, 298, 306, 310, 323

Syrian Desert 257, 296

Tabaqat Formation, Jordan 323

Tabun Cave, Israel xi, 6, 239, 278, 279, 282, 285, 287, 288, 290, 296, 297, 300, 301, 306, 308, 322, 337, 417, 453, 455, 468, 469, 474, 509

Tajikistan 51, 52, 217, 218, 219, 220, 222, 326, 330, 331, 332, 334, 411, 461, 474

Taklamakan Desert, China 1, 39, 51, 207, 257, 463

Tampanian 427

Tangshan, China 6, 247, 248, 405, 442, 446, 481

Tan-Tan, Morocco 284

Tarim Basin, China 39, 42, 206

Taung, South Africa 5, 13, 16

Tautavel (Arago), France 98, 453, 455

Tayacian 285, 288

Teggihalli, India 375

See also Hunsgi-Baichbal Valley

tektites 152, 421, 422

Tengger Desert, China 257

Tepe Gakia, Iran 322

Ternifine (Tighenif), Algeria 14, 263, 459

Terra Amata, France 98

Terra and Paterson 340, 343, 343, 344

Thailand 179, 249, 422, 427

Tham Khuyen, Vietnam 179, 181, 249, 433, 448

Thar Desert 208, 230, 234, 235, 257, 345, 351, 353

thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (TIMS) 297, 405

thermoluminescence (TL) dating 218, 236, 274, 275, 278, 279, 286, 288, 293, 295, 296, 302, 303, 307, 315, 316, 317, 320, 327, 338, 405, 406, 417, 418, 446

thorium-uranium (Th-U) dating 234, 236, 301, 324, 337, 347, 374, 375, 378, 405

Thum Wiman Nakin, Thailand 249

Tian Shan (=Mountains), China 39, 42, 51, 54, 61, 66, 67, 206, 217, 218, 435

Tianyang Lake, China 223, 226, 255

Tibetan Plateau 1, 4, 7, 36, 43, 45, 46, 50, 57, 58, 61, 65, 70, 72, 77, 204, 205, 206, 207, 208, 209, 210, 218, 222, 223, 227

Timor, Indonesia 250, 252

Toba volcanic eruption 2, 345, 351

Toka, India 344

Tongtian Cave, China 444

Tongtianyan Cave, China 446, 448

Tonzi, China 447

Treugol⼹naya Cave, Russia 318, 320, 481

Trinil, Java 4, 161, 162, 164, 251, 271

Turfan Depression, China 1, 39, 257

Turkey 57, 83, 115, 127, 236, 239, 309, 318, 321, 433

Tutak, Tajikistan 54

⼸Ubeidiya, Israel 2, 6, 76, 80, 84, 95, 98, 102, 108, 110, 111, 113, 115, 118, 123, 125, 135, 182, 241, 260, 263, 264, 271, 321, 323, 334, 335, 375, 392, 477, 481

Umm Qatafa, Palestine 239, 277, 278, 279, 285, 306

uranium-series dating 302, 405, 417, 424

Verkhoyansk, Siberia 1

Verteszöllös, Hungary 411

Vietnam 179, 181, 249, 422, 427, 448

Vindhya Range 353, 358

Wagan Valley, India 351

Wallacea 428

Wangkun Glaciation, Tibetan Plateau 206

Weidenreich, Franz 399

winter monsoon 36, 40, 41, 44, 46, 48, 50, 65, 77, 166, 208, 210, 211, 226, 227, 228, 230, 232, 233

Wushan, China

See Longgupo

Xiantai, China 135, 182

Xiaochangliang, China 6, 135, 181, 182, 433

See also Nihewan Basin

Xifeng, China 209, 212, 213

Xihoudu, China 176, 177, 182

Xujiayao, China 433

Yabrud Rock-shelter, Syria 300

Yabrudian 297

See Jabrudian

Yadwad, India 379, 481

Yakou Glaciation, Tibetan Plateau 206

Yamuna Valley, India 345

Yangtse River, China 178, 210, 226, 227, 243, 248, 249, 396, 419, 536

Yarımburgaz Cave, Turkey 6, 239, 310, 312, 321, 334

Yediyapur, India 340, 342, 363, 365, 366, 368, 370, 375, 376, 394

See also Hunsgi-Baichbal Valleys

Yellow Sea 225, 418

Yemen 123, 324

Yiron, Israel 118

Yuanmou, China 113, 178, 181, 182, 183, 206, 243, 419, 481, 508, 513, 534

Yunxian, China 247, 249, 419, 442, 446, 481

Yushe Basin, China 167

Zagros Mountains, Iran 35, 68, 82, 83, 122, 259, 322, 323, 325, 333, 334, 468, 471, 476, 493

Zhinglianggan Glaciation, Tibetan Plateau 206

Zhoukoudian (localities 4 and 15), China 418, 444

Zhoukoudian (locality 1), China 4, 5, 6, 98, 177, 241, 244, 337, 402, 417, 418, 433, 436, 474, 481

artefacts 411

cannibalism 416

dating 402, 405, 407, 443, 446

fauna 242, 243

fire 413, 477

history 399

hominin remains 439, 440, 470

stratigraphy, excavations 404

subsistence 413, 415

Zil⼹fi, Tajikistan 54

Zinjanthropus boisei 19

Zoige Basin, Tibetan Plateau 210, 485

Zuttiyeh Cave, Israel 239, 279, 290, 295, 306, 307, 453, 460, 504, 530




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