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Why Do Languages Change?

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  • 8 b/w illus. 11 tables
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 (ISBN-13: 9780521546935)

Why Do Languages Change?
Cambridge University Press
9780521838023 - Why Do Languages Change? - By R. L. Trask and Robert McColl Millar
Index

Index

Académie française 30

acronyms, unlikely as word origins 52

adverbial -ly 24

Afghanistan 89

Afrikaans 158, 161

separation from Dutch 160

Albanian 89, 159, 168

Aleut 177

Copper Island Aleut 177

Alfred the Great, king of the West Saxons 11, 156, , , 157, , 158, 159

alphabet, development of

abjad 165, 166

Arabic 167,

use with South Asian Moslem languages 167

Canaanite 165

Ethiopian 167

Hebrew 166, 168,

Phoenician 166,

Ugaritic 165

Indian literacy 167

Brahmi script 167

Burmese 167

Central Asian scripts 167

Khmer 167

Lao 167

Thai 167

Tibetan 167,

full alphabet 166

Armenian 167, 168

Slavonic, Cyrillic 167

Etruscan 166

futhark 93, 94, 167

Georgian 167

Greek 166, ,

Roman 166

Albanian 168

Basque 168

English 167

Finnish 168

German 167

Hungarian 168

Lithuanian 168

Welsh 167

Iberian 166

ambiguity, avoidance of 54–5

American Chemical Society 107

American Sign Language 181

Anatolia, Celtic settlement 90

andabata (Gaulish) 44

Arάn, Basque place name outside present Basque country 71

Armenian 89, 159, 167, 168

arrivederci (Italian) 23

arvo (afternoon; Australian), creation of 58

Aśoka, Mauryan emperor 167

at this moment in time 25

auf Wiedersehen (German) 23

au revoir (French) 23

Authorised Version, the (Bible; 1611) 103

Austen, Jane 7–11, , 155

Austria, Celtic settlement 90

Australia 58, 75–6, 77, 85, , 172

Austronesian 177, ,

Balkans, the 89,

Celtic settlement 90

Bantu languages 177

barbie (barbecue), creation of 58

Basque 32–3, 53–4, 55, 56–7, 71, , 72, 78, 168

bat (in sport), problems with etymology 45–6

battalion, origin of 45

batten (down the hatches), origin of 44

batter, origin of 44

battery, origin of 44–5

battle, origin of 45

battuere (Latin) 44

bead 4–5, 27

bed 4

beefburger, creation of 60, 61

Bengali 159, 167

Bermuda, connection to name Pimlico 69

B-girl 4

bi (bisexual), creation of 58

bikini 39

reanalysis of 61,

bimbo, origin of 40

bizarre, origin of 53–5

false Basque etymology 53–4

correct Italian etymology 54–5

blackmail, origin of 40

Blanchett, Cate 122

blurb, creation of 61,

blusher, cosmetic 2,

Bogart, Humphrey 1, 155


Bohemia, Celtic settlement 90

boogie-woogie, origin of 49

borrowing, due to changes in the world 23

Boston 116, 117

origin of name 74

boy, problems with etymology 43

Boyle, Robert 156

bra

creation of 58

loss of informal nature 59

Bradman, Sir Donald 1

Brave New World 4

Breton 93

bridegroom 28

Bridgwater, origin of name 66

Brighton, origin of name 64–5

brim, origin and history 41

Bristol, origin of name 72, 74

British (language) 93

British Sign Language (BSL) 181–2,

Brontë, Charlotte 9

brunch, formation of 60

budgie, creation of 58

bug (computer), origin of 49, 50–1

Burgess, Anthony 1

Burgess, Gelett, creator of blurb 60, 61

burgle, back-formation of 60

bus

compounds possible (bus stop) 59

creation of 58

inflections possible 59

loss of informal nature 59

butterfly, problems with etymology 42–3

bustle, item of underwear 4

By Jingo, non-Basque origins of 55

Byron, Lord George Gordon, creation of darkle 62

California 116

Canada 85, 117, 177

carhop 4

cat and cut in RP 15

Caxton, William 101, 146,

Cedar Valley, as an inappropriate name 65

cello

creation of 58

loss of informal nature 59

Celtic origins of British place names 71

examples 71

chads (pregnant), problems with the origin of 51–3

Champers (Champagne; upper-middle-class British), creation of 59

Champollion, Jean-François 162

chapparal, origin of 56

charts, the 4

Chaucer, Geoffrey 11, 100, 101, 156, 159

chef (French), origin of 40

cherry, back-formation of 60

Chinese 143, , 155,

writing, development of 166, , 168, , , , 184

Churchill, Sir Winston 155

cig (cigarette), creation of 58

Coates, Richard 67–70

Coca-colonisation 86

Cockney dialect 38

Colette 82

colour distribution

Basque 32–3

English 33–4

orange 33–4

pink 34

comparative method 87

conservatism, linguistic 9

Coptic 162

Cornish 84, 93

Corrie (Coronation Street; British soap opera), creation of 58

cosmetics, changing names of 1–2

cot and caught 12–14,

Coward, Noël 1

creation of words 57

back-formation 60

blending 60

clipping 58–60, 148

compound formation possible 59

change in meaning from unclipped form 59

complex 59

diminutive suffix -ers/-er (upper-middle-class British) 59

diminutive suffix -ie or -y 58

diminutive suffix (Australian) -o 58

diminutive suffix (popular British) -s 59

dismissive meaning of some clipped forms 59

found in dictionaries 59

informality of some clipped forms in comparison to unclipped 59

real words 59

from nothing 60, 61–2

mumpsimus, misinterpretation of word 62

reanalysis 60–1

Cree, Michif 177–80

croc

compounds possible (croc handler) 59

creation of 58

inflections possible 59

Cushitic languages 177


Dalmatian 159

Danish 159

darkle, new form created from darkling 62

darkling, misinterpretation by Byron 61, 62

Darwin, Charles 155

Davis, Bette 1, 118, 122,

Davy, Sir Humphry 107

Day, Doris 118–19,

delope 4

Denison, David 8

Denmark 93

dental fricatives and Type O blood 19–20

Dickens, Charles 8

diff (difference), creation of 58

discs, compact 2,

Dixon, Bob 75

diss (disrespect), inflections possible 59

Dniepr, Iranian origin of 70

Dniester, Iranian origin of 70

Don (Ukraine), Iranian origin of 70

Donets, Iranian origin of 70

Dutch 158, 159, 174

ear (of corn), origin of 40

ear (on head), origin of 40

Edgbaston, origin of name 64

Edison, Thomas and the origin of bug 51

edit, back-formation of 60

Elizabeth I, queen of England 66, 122,

English 155, 156–7, 158, 184

English, American vs British 11, 106–29

grammatical differences 106, 123–8,

can’t have vs must have 128

cater 128

collective nouns 126

compound nouns 127–8

different 128

got vs gotten 128

have, auxiliary 128

immediately 128

in case 128

present perfect 125–6

shall, use of 128

subjunctive 124–5

your one vs yours 128

lexical differences 106, 108–12

film 111–16,

geography 108

selection 109

separation 109–12

transport 110–11

pronunciation differences 116–23

bath-broadening 119–20

cot and caught 12–14,

codify 123

controversy 123–8,

geographical spread in America 116–17

granary 123

miscellany 123

/r/-dropping 117–18

spelling pronunciation 120–1

stress retraction 106, 122–3

tomato 123

/t/-tapping 118–19,

unrounding of the pot vowel 106

spelling distinctions 106, 111–16,

aluminum 107–8

artifact vs artefact 116

codification, eighteenth century 113

in Britain 113

in America 114–15

connection vs connexion 116

-er vs -re 114

fetus vs foetus 116

-ise vs -ize 113

-l- vs -ll- 115

millipede vs millepede 116

-or vs -our 115

sulfur vs sulphur 116

English, global language 84

English, global languages in 1600 85

English, history of language 84–105

borrowing, receptiveness to 103–4

French influence upon 28, 98–100, 103, 176

centrality of English vocabulary in later English 100

French culture dominant 98

later Central French borrowing 102, 176

prestige of French vocabulary 29–30, , 99–100

replacement of Old English vocabulary 98–9

vocabulary borrowed 100

Greek influence 176

Latin influence 102–3, 176

‘inkhorn’ words 102

maturity in Renaissance 103

Middle English 157

Modern English 157

early Modern English 157

Old English 94–5, 157

Runic futhark 94

symbols, special alphabetic 94

purism 103–5

Ayenbite of Inwit 104

Barnes, William 104

Jennings, Paul (in jest) 104–5

resurgence of English 100

Scandinavian influence upon 95–8

considerable settlement in the English midlands 95, 96

differences in influence across England 95,

intense settlement in northern England 95,

invasion and settlement 95

lexical borrowing 95, 96–8

mutual intelligibility? 95, 96

small settlement in the south and west of England 95, 96–8

structural influence 98

Middle English 3rd person pronouns 98

standardisation 101

continuing prestige of Latin and French 101

printing, influence of 101

English, influence over other languages; in particular, French 30–1

English, myth of unchanging 1

English, sociolinguistic position in 1600 84–5

English, spelling 111, 112, 113, 130–53

chaotic ‘system’ 130–3

codification, eighteenth century 113

in Britain 113

in America 114–15

eccentricities

aisle, island, isle 146

build 146

come, some, son, love, etc. 147–8

could, should, would 145

delight 145

ghost 146

‘Latinising’ spellings of French borrowings 145–6

-os vs -oes plurals 144–5

potato 144

rhyme vs rime 147

word-final <-v> 148–9

zinc 146

historical spellings 136–7

<ea> vs <ee> 137

<kn> 136

<-oo-> 137

pretty 137

<wr> 136

<-gh-> 136

Greek (Classical) influence upon 140–1

joint Greek and Latin influences 141

fetid 141

fetus 141

ptarmigan 140

history of alphabetic system 133–6

<Q> 134

Roman alphabetic heritage 133–5

<C> and <G> 134

transliterations from Greek 134

shortage of letters 133

<v> and <j> 134–5

<w> 135

Latin influence upon 139–40

joint Latin and Greek influences 141

fetid 141

fetus 141

reinforcement of French models 139

logographic system, move towards 152

morphemic spelling 138–9

Norman French influence 137–9

<c>, use of 138

<g>, use of 138

<-ie-> vs <-ei-> 138

<qu>, introduction of 138

<v>, use of 139

/Z/, introduction of 139

‘phonetic’ representations of words from other languages 141–4,

Irish and Scottish Gaelic 142

reform? 149–52

spelling innovations in other European languages 135–6

Textspeak 152–3

transliterations from non-Roman alphabet languages 141

Arabic 144

Chinese 143

south Chinese lexis 143

Greek, modern 143

Japanese 143

Russian 142–3

transliterations from Roman alphabet languages 141

English, spread of language after 1600 85–6

American ‘victory’ in the First World War 86

Industrial Revolution as factor 85

throughout the American ‘Empire’ 85–6

Africa 85

Australia 85

Caribbean 85

eastern seaboard of North America 85

Hong Kong 85

India 85

Malaya 85

Mediterranean 85

Middle East 85

New Zealand 85

Pacific 85

Singapore 85

south Atlantic 85

Virginia 85

English, twentieth- and twenty-first-century

popular culture 86

spelling system 11

Eskimo 177

Essex 94

‘Estuary English’ 18

euphemism, sexual 7, 26–7,


Faeroese 159

female address terms, changes in English 27

feminism 3–4

flack 4

flivver 4

flower and flour, origin of 40

flu, creation of 58

folk etymology 28

fortuitous, misinterpretation 28–9

fortunate 28

fragrance, verb 2

France 85

Celtic settlement 90

French 72, 155, , 161

former international language 84, 85

Michif 177–80

nasal vowels and the weather 20–1

reaction to English influence 30–1

invention of ‘English’ words 31–8,

See also English, history of language

fridge

compounds possible (fridge magnet) 59

creation of 58

inflections possible 59

informal nature of 59

Friends, television series 17, 86

Frisian 158, 159

funk (popular music), origin of 49, 50–1

Gaelic, Scottish 84

Galatians, Celtic people 90

Gambia 27

garbo (garbage collector; Australian), creation of 58

Garbo, Greta 83

garlic, origin of 39

gator, creation of 58

geography cannot explain change 21

Germany 93

Celtic settlement 90

German

former international language 84

High 159

Low 158, 159

geopathic, creation of 57

Germanic 90–1, 158, 159,

Britain 92–4

‘Dark Ages’ 92–3

Germanic settlement 93

Angles 93, 94

Frisians 93,

Jutes 93,

Saxons 93, 94,

contact with Greeks and Romans 91–2

invasions of empire 92

Germanic borrowings in Romance languages 92

survival of Germanic dialects within former empire 92

switch to Latin 92

dispersal 91

eastern 91

Gothic 159

settlement 91

northern 91

settlement 91

western 91

First Germanic Consonant Shift (Grimm’s Law) 91

grammar 90

grammatical innovations 90

homeland 90

lexis 90

North-Sea Germanic 93, 158, , 159

Runic futhark 93, 94, , 167

survival of German in Italy 92

survival of Gothic in Crimea 92

See also English, German

geyser, origin of 55

Gibson girl 4

gig, origin of 49

girl, problems with etymology 44

Godfather, The 86

going to construction 27–8

goodbye 23

googol

creation of 61,

googolplex, derivative of googol 61,

gorilla, origin of 40–1

Gower, John 100, 101

grammar and glamour 5–6

granny (grandmother), creation of 58

Greek 72–3, 89, 159

See also English, history of language, language age

See underhistory of recorded languages

Greenland, origin of name 65

Grimm, Jacob 91

grimoire 5

guesstimate, formation of 60

Gujarati 167

Gym

compounds possible (gym shoes) 59

creation of 58

inflections possible 59

hamburger, reanalysis of 60, 61–2

hankie

creation of 58

informal nature of 59

Hayworth, Rita 83

Harry Potter 5

head, origin of 40

helpmeet, misinterpretation of 62

Hepburn, Katharine 118


heroin 39

Hindi-Urdu 167

Hippo

creation of 58

informal nature of 59

hit parade 4

Hittite 159

hodie (Latin) > aujourd’hui (French) 24–5

Home and Away, soap opera 17

Hopper, Dr Grace Murray, and the origin of bug 50

Huns 92, 93

Huxley, Aldous 4

/hw/-loss 15–16

Icelandic 159

Illyrian 159

‘I’m like’ construction 10–11

Indo-Europeans and Indo-European 86–8, 158, 159,

agriculture 88,

belief system 88

culture 87

dispersal 88–90

Albanian 89

Anatolian 89

Hittite 89

Armenian 89

Baltic 89

Celtic 89–90

metallurgy 90

Dacian 89

Germanic, 

See undersee separate entry

Greek 89

Illyrian 89

Indo-Iranian 89

Indic 89

Iranian 89

Italic 89

Macedonian 89

Slavonic 89

Old Church Slavonic 168

Thracian 89

Tocharian 89

grammar 87

horse-based culture 88,

homeland 86

metallurgy 87

numerals 87

pastoralism 88

phonology 87

social organisation 87

infomercial, commercial formation of 60

intercourse 6–7

Iran 89

Iranian speakers on Pontic Steppe 70–1

Irish 85, 159

Italy 85, 92, 159

Celtic settlement 90

jai alai, history of word 56

Japanese 176

jazz, origin of 46–9

jelly roll, origin of 49

Johnson, Dr Samuel 1, 113

juke, origin of 49

Kacirk, Jeffrey 6

Kasner, Edward, role in creation of googol 61,

Keats, John 12–14,

Kelly, Grace 118

Kennedy, John F. 1

Kurdish 159

Langland, William 100, 101

language age 154–69

descent of languages 154–5

descent of speakers 155

history of recorded languages 161–9

Cherokee 168

Chinese 166, , 168, , , , 184

Cree 168

hieroglyphics, Egyptian 162–3, 164, , 166, 167

Hittite 165

Indian languages, modern 168

Indus Valley civilisation 164

Japanese 168

Korean 168

Linear A 165,

Linear B 165, 166

Maldivian scripts 167

Meroitic 167

Mexican, early literacy 167

Mayan 167

Ogham 167

Persian 167

proto-Elamite 164

reasons for relative lateness of writing 163

South American languages, modern 168

Sumerian 163–4, , 166, 167

See also Sumerian

syllabary 165

West African languages, modern 168

languages change over time 155–6

no language older than another 161

separation 156–60

Afrikaans 160

English as a unit 156–7, 158–9

‘problem’ of American 157

‘problem’ of Scots 157

Latin as a unit 158

its Romance daughters 159–60

no discontinuity 160


language change 19–38

explanations

analogy 34–6

change can increase or decrease complexity 21–2

change in the world 22–3

emphasis and clarity 24–6

group identity 36–8

‘laziness’ 23–4

misunderstanding 27–9

myths 19–22

politeness 26–7,

prestige and pretentiousness 29–31

structural reasons 31–8,

fashion 3–4

grammar 7–11,

ongoing change 10

meaning 4–7

pronunciation 11–18

languages with beginnings 169–84

artificial languages 169–70

Esperanto 170

Interlingua 170

Klingon 170

Tolkien’s languages 170

Volapük 170

creoles 174–6, , 182

descent from pidgins 174

Sranan 174–6

mixed languages 176–80, 182

Copper Island Aleut 177

English? 176

Ma’a 177

Media Lengua 177

Michif 180

origins 179

New Guinean languages? 177

pidgins 170–4, 182, 183,

elaborated pidgins 172–4

Tok Pisin 172–4, 175

lexifier language 172, 174

unelaborated pidgins 170–1

Russenorsk 171, 172

sign languages 180

American Sign Language (ASL) 181

British Sign Language (BSL) 181

structure 181–2

Chinese Sign Language 181

International Sign Language (ISL; formerly Gestuno) 183

lack of sign language families 182–4,

Nicaraguan Sign Language (NSL) 183–4

pidgin stage 183

Signed English/Manually Coded English 180

Latin 93, 159

Lear, Edward, creator of runcible 62

Lebanon 27

let ‘allow’ vs let ‘hinder’ 25

lez (lesbian) dismissive nature of clipped form 59

lezzy (lesbian) dismissive nature of clipped form 59

Lincoln, Abraham 1, 155

Lithuanian 159

love-in 4

Low Countries, Celtic settlement 90

lucky 28

Madonna (Ciccone, Madonna) 83

mag (magazine), creation of 58

Manitoba 177

Manx 85

Mark II computer and the origin of bug 50

mascara, cosmetic 2

Massachusetts 106

Maxwell, James Clerk 82, 83

Meitner, Lise 82

Mencken, H. L. 157

Mersey, Anglo-Saxon origin of 71

Métis 177

Michif 179, 180

Middlesex 94

milko (milkman; Australian), creation of 58

mini-, prefix created by reanalysis 61,

miniature, reanalysis of 61, 62

minimum, reanalysis of 61,

miniskirt, creation of 61, 62

Mississippi, origin of name 67

mob

creation of 58

loss of informal nature 59

use in Australia 58

monokini, creation of 61,

Monroe, Marilyn 1, 83, 118, 155

words known and unknown to her 2–3

motel, formation of 60

Mount Pleasant (London), origin of name 66

Netherlands 93

New England 116

New York City 116, 117, 118

New Zealand 85

nipple, problems with etymology 43

nightmare, origin of 39

Nicaragua 183

revolution in 1979; effect on deaf community 183

Nicaraguan Sign Language (NSL) 183–4,

Nin, Anaïs 82

Norn 84

North Carolina 85, 116

connection to name Pimlico 68


North Dakota 177

Norse influence on English 1

Northern Cities Shift 15

Norwegian 155, , 159

noun plurals in English, analogy 34, 35–6

nylon, creation of 61, 62

occupy, history of 41–2

Olivier, Laurence 1

Owl and the Pussycat, The 62, 63

Oxford English Dictionary 120

Oxford University Press, spelling policy 114

paint, cosmetic 1–2

palatalisation, English 31–2

Palm Springs, as an inappropriate name 65

Papuan languages 133–6, 177,

Papua New Guinea 172, 177

Paralympics, formation of 60

Paston Letters 113

past tense in English verbs, analogy 35

pea, back-formation of 60

penguin, problems with etymology 42

Pepys, Samuel 8

perfect aspect, English 9

Philadelphia 116–23

phone, creation of 58

Pimlico, origin of name 67–70

pocket pistol 4

place names

Basque, outside present Basque country 71

Celtic, within Basque country 72

‘fading’ of names 73–7

in Europe 75

names of cities 75

names of countries 75

names of mountain ranges 75

names of rivers 75

lack of ‘fading’ in Australia 75–6

if similar elsewhere 76–7

New York 74

speed of ‘fading’ 75

Taj Mahal 74

French names in British Isles 72

incidental names

in Australia 77

in USA 77

origins and development of 64–83

methodology of 65, 70

newly discovered territory

New York State 80

extraterrestrial territory 80–3

planets and moons 81

the surface of the Moon 81

the surface of Venus 81–3

of the eastern United States

of European origin 71

of native origin 71

and politics 77–80

contemporary change to preferred native names 79

competition between German and Polish names 77

competition between Ayers Rock and Uluru 78

English forms of Italian and French names 78,

English language preference for Russian over native Ukrainian names 78

Hawai’i 79–80

in Belgium 78–9

Mount Everest, names for 78

replacement of imperialist by native African names 77

replacement of Spanish by Basque names 78

Scandinavian names in British Isles 72

examples 72

prehistory 70–3

Pope, Alexander 155

Prague, origin of name 67

pre-Greek language traces in Greek 72–3

common-noun evidence 73

place-name evidence 72

Presley, Elvis 86

prestige

covert 38

overt 38

prez (president) informal nature of 59

printing

introduction to Europe 101

introduction to England 101

promo (promotion), creation of 58

pronouns in English, avoidance of ambiguity 26, 98

progressive passive, in English 8–9

Quechua 176, 177

rabbit ears 4

Raleigh, Sir Walter 66, 85

connection to name Pimlico 68

ramble 39

/r/-dropping 11–12

Received Pronunciation (RP) 15, 19–20

See also English

reduction 24

reinforcement as a reaction 24–5

reffo (refugee; Australian), creation of 58

reinforcement 24–5

rhino, creation of 58

Robson, Flora 122

rock ’n’ roll, origin of 49

rockumentary, commercial formation of 60

Roller (Rolls-Royce; upper-middle-class British), creation of 59


rouge, cosmetic 2, 4

runcible, origin of 62–3

Russenorsk 171, 172

Russian 159, 176, 177

Sappho 82

Saskatchewan 177

sauna, origin of 55

Scott, Sir Walter 6

sculpt, back-formation of 60

Scrabble™ 59, 79, 144

Seaton, Matt 17

semantic change in the lucky field in English 28–9

Semitic 163–4, , 166, 167

invention of the alphabet 133

Seppo (American; Australian), creation of 58

sexsational, commercial formation of 60

Shakespeare, William 1, 9, 11, 103, 113, 156, 159

shampoo, origin of 39

Shaw, George Bernard 106

Shetland, dialect 9

‘shortening’ 23

Shrewsbury, origin of name 66–7

silhouette, Basque origin of 56–7

silly 28

sit-in 4

ski, origin of 55

smoking, change in the vocabulary about 3

smog, formation of 60

smorgasbord, origin of 55

soccer (association football; upper-middle-class British), creation of 59

Somoza, Anastasio 183

Spanish 159, 177

Spain 85, , 159

Celtic settlement 90

spring, origin of 40

stadialism, problems with its acceptance 21–2

Stratton, origin of name 64

Sudan 27, 167

Sumerian 163–4, , 166, 167, 176

adaptation for Semitic languages 164

Akkadian 164

Amorite 164

Eblaite 164

Elamite 164

Hurrian 164

Kassite 164

Urartian 164

use in the great Mesopotamian empires 164–5

Assyrian 164

Babylonian 164

See also language age

Suriname 174

Sussex 94

Swahili 155,

Swedish 159

Swift, Jonathan 155

Switzerland, Celtic settlement 90

Syria 89

tache (moustache), informal nature of 59

Tamil 167

Tannen, Deborah 18

Tanzania 177

telly (television; British)

creation of 58

informal nature of 59

the with country names 27

Tocharian A 159

Tok Pisin 172–4, 175

topless 3

tranny (transistor radio [British] vs transvestite), creation of 58

turps (turpentine; popular British), creation of 59

tweed, mistaken creation of 62

Uey (U-turn; Australian) 58

Ukraine 27

ump (umpire; American) 58

umpy (umpire; Australian), creation of 58

uni (university), creation of 58

United States of America 85, 177,

uptalk (high-rise terminals) 17–18

Urdu 167

varsity, change in meaning of clipped form 59

Ventris, Michael 165

Victoria, queen of Great Britain and Ireland 1, 111, 112

Virginia 106

Wantok 172

Washington, George 155, 156

Wayne, John 1

Webster, Noah 114–15

Welsh 84, 93

Wessex 94

whisky, origin of 39

Wilde, Oscar 155

will go to 24

women’s lib(eration) 3–4

words for which no origin settled 41

word origin/etymology 39–63

work and orgy, common origin of 39

Yiddish 159

Zamenhof, Dr Ludwig Lazar 170

Zulu 176




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