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The Cambridge Companion to Vygotsky

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      Index



a priori, 57, 60, 66, 278

   cultural, 66

abilities, 12, 21, 28, 47, 69, 72, 89, 90, 102, 110, 111, 112, 114, 166, 173, 176, 202, 203, 233, 287, 315, 318, 330, 336, 337, 350, 354, 355, 356, 358, 359, 361, 422

   cognitive, 47, 62

   mediated, 113

   natural, 345

abstract, 62, 69, 70, 145, 166, 209, 245, 250, 257, 294, 296, 312, 314, 346

abstraction, 70, 88, 142, 184, 185, 201, 217, 218, 219, 221, 250, 256, 259, 268, 311, 312, 370

access, 52, 56, 146, 301, 303, 312, 344, 367

   functional, 280, 281, 303

accommodation, 114, 257, 352

achievement, 56, 114, 118, 124, 134, 139, 198, 199, 330, 374

   cognitive, 148, 374

   developmental, 279

   levels of, 198, 319

   past, 198, 200, 202, 228

   societal, 198

acquisition, 162

   active, 39

action, 2, 23, 38, 42, 64, 65, 78, 80, 81, 82, 83, 94, 95, 97, 98, 116, 119, 127, 128, 131, 133, 134, 137, 143, 166, 186, 211, 231, 236, 237, 256, 258, 259, 265, 292, 293, 294, 297, 300, 353, 365, 368, 373, 374, 382

   concrete, 239, 252

   field of, 294

   inner forms, 236, 295, 297

   mediated, 94, 95, 98, 114, 191, 193, 206, 294, 300

   mental, 65, 127, 222, 223

   object-based, 165, 222, 229, 234, 260

   on the world, 81, 83, 88, 200

   organizing, 129, 181, 208, 296

   perceptual, 236, 239

   practical, 98, 127, 170, 173

   and signs, 99, 179

   situated, 233, 236, 256

   social, 83, 302

   sphere, 285

   tool-mediated, 98, 239

   voluntary, 365, 366

active, 146, 239, 245, 253

activism, 4, 103, 113, 121, 122, 129, 134, 394, 397

   social, 84, 121

activity, 7, 14, 26, 27, 28, 33, 37, 54, 55, 56, 58, 59, 72, 75, 79, 86, 91, 92, 94, 95, 98, 99, 103, 110, 111, 113, 114, 115, 117, 118, 120, 121, 122, 123, 125, 127, 131, 132, 133, 134, 136, 139, 143, 146, 149, 150, 164, 165, 166, 167, 170, 173, 181, 182, 185, 191, 199, 201, 206, 207, 208, 210, 211, 213, 219, 223, 224, 225, 242, 243, 246, 247, 248, 249,

activity (cont.), 252, 253, 254, 255, 259, 261, 262, 263, 264, 265, 266, 268, 269, 271, 273, 274, 275, 279, 280, 281, 288, 291, 294, 295, 299, 300, 311, 314, 315, 317, 318, 319, 320, 321, 322, 323, 325, 326, 327, 328, 329, 331, 337, 343, 346, 348, 353, 356, 358, 359, 365, 367, 381, 423

   collaborative, 318, 354

   collective, 106, 247

   cultural, 118, 120, 121, 122, 257, 344, 361

   education, 121

   educational, 138, 252, 272, 326, 328

   everyday, 132, 246, 247, 261, 263, 274, 347, 352

   and identity, 115, 135

   institutional, 246, 253

   internal, 141

   joint, 158, 165, 166, 167, 168, 171, 269, 344, 347, 354, 356, 359

   and language, 151, 184, 185

   leading, 15, 273, 320

   mediated, 2, 123, 167, 180, 206, 207, 208, 255, 258, 281, 283, 285, 348

   new, 118, 202

   organizing, 173, 185

   play, 86, 255, 261, 263, 278

   practical, 90, 210, 314

   situated, 116, 314

   social, 54, 103, 104, 109, 138, 251, 352

   structure, 263, 327

   systems, 108, 120, 135, 283, 285, 287, 288, 327, 371, 372, 374

   theory, 2, 13, 28, 78, 99, 100, 102, 207, 211, 287, 329, 363

actors, 83, 87, 107, 113, 115, 118, 127, 128, 132, 366, 369, 381

acts, 4, 30, 38, 42, 44, 55, 65, 72, 89, 90, 92, 106, 107, 108, 110, 111, 114, 115, 119, 135, 158, 178, 179, 217, 227, 233, 237, 283, 285, 292, 296, 297, 418

   creative, 241, 245

   on the world, 77, 79, 84, 200

   social, 90, 92, 111

adaptation, 47, 48, 81, 93, 96, 168, 179, 283, 284

adjustment, 94

Adler, 31

adolescents, 132, 165, 166, 246, 315

adult, 6, 14, 22, 29, 56, 63, 67, 104, 111, 123, 124, 148, 149, 150, 158, 164, 166, 167, 171, 172, 180, 182, 225, 257, 261, 263, 267, 268, 269, 271, 272, 273, 275, 277, 278, 287, 302, 311, 317, 318, 320, 322, 323, 343, 348, 359, 382, 400, 409

   assistance, 311, 317, 352

advanced, 62, 140, 292, 318, 331, 335, 352

advancement, 331, 348, 354

aesthetic, 39, 241, 312

affect, 43, 68, 104, 107, 124, 221, 224, 238, 255, 259, 297, 359

affections, 215, 241

affective, 308, 313

   processes, 297

   substance, 238

afferent, 25, 295

affiliation, 118, 131, 132, 133

affordances, 22, 93, 186, 283

   cultural, 287, 288

   intentional, 288

age, 22, 23, 40, 175, 247, 249, 263, 277, 309, 355

   cultural, 280

agency, 7, 14, 17, 37, 38, 63, 65, 72, 104, 105, 106, 109, 116, 128, 134, 135, 180, 186, 322, 363, 365, 367, 370, 374, 380, 381, 382

   and action, 367, 368, 382

   tools of, 116

agglutination, 183

Akhmatova, 235

alcoholism, 113, 116, 118

alternative, 103, 122, 132, 151, 157, 206, 260, 278, 329, 343, 345, 346, 347, 351, 352, 353, 355, 357, 420

   identities, 102, 103

amplification, 17, 367, 382

analogies, 125, 126, 144, 175, 230, 294, 312

analysis, 85, 96, 115, 145, 180, 188, 191, 213, 226, 286, 361, 380, 382, 391, 392, 393, 396, 397, 399, 401, 405, 407, 409, 414, 417

   conceptual, 371

   developmental, i

   levels of, 89

Anglo-American, 5, 205

animals, 26, 27, 28, 38, 40, 47, 168, 169, 170, 204, 218, 285, 291, 292, 294, 295, 310

   abilities, 46, 123

   adaptation, 47

   behavior, 27, 46, 48, 289

anthropology, 6, 7, 12, 28, 50, 66, 101, 102, 103, 107, 130, 143, 197, 198, 203, 207, 287

   cognitive, 14, 99

   cultural, 11, 12, 28, 102, 160, 287

anthropomorphism, 47

anticipation, 280, 287, 321

antirationalist, 63

antireductionist, i, 1, 44, 46, 47, 48, 68, 74, 81, 91, 96, 151

aphasia, 11, 183

apparatus, 56, 156, 241, 295, 365

application

   meaningful, 312

   practical, 138

apprenticeship, 313

   cognitive, 324

appropriation, 14, 56, 58, 66, 73, 100, 137, 147, 208, 246, 247, 253, 260, 263, 265, 280, 298, 299, 300, 327, 338, 349, 352, 355, 369

   competence, 253, 262

   conceptual, 248, 274

   cultural, 53, 54

architectures, 280, 281, 295, 297

   functional, 278, 280

Arendt, 137

Aristotle, 39, 50, 136

Arnheim, 136

art, 23, 24, 150, 178, 193, 194, 196, 198, 212, 225, 232, 235, 239, 240, 241, 245, 281, 288, 352, 393, 394, 399, 407, 411

artifacts, 6, 16, 87, 108, 115, 117, 123, 124, 125, 134, 167, 207, 208, 253, 255, 258, 259, 260, 261, 262, 263, 264, 265, 273, 292, 296, 299, 317, 328

   cultural, 2, 87, 113, 118, 258, 264, 296

   mediating, 207, 258, 264

   technological, 167

artificial, 28, 47, 53, 55, 173, 178, 179, 181, 200, 207, 291, 293, 366

ascension, 61, 70, 203, 314

assessment, 21, 47, 109, 134, 310, 318, 328, 334, 336, 345, 347, 352, 353, 354, 355, 356, 357, 358, 359, 362, 417, 418, 419, 420, 421

   instruments, 357, 359

   reliability, 357

assimilation, 61, 62, 72, 77, 87, 126, 128, 312

   cultural, 73

assistance, 53, 186, 233, 234, 311, 317, 318, 319, 320, 323, 325, 352, 353, 354, 356

association, 42, 77, 107, 108, 139, 174, 179, 205, 232, 250, 269

   free, 42

   logical, 42

   paired, 174

   verbal, 168

atmosphere, 141, 184, 204, 344

attention, 52, 53, 54, 55, 90, 105, 109, 139, 147, 148, 150, 161, 166, 168, 169, 229, 249, 265, 267, 279, 284, 287, 293, 294, 297, 336

   active, 287

   directing, 169, 172, 293

   passive, 287

   voluntary, 287, 309, 342

attitudes, 85, 88, 92, 93, 97, 164, 165, 166, 344

   societal, 344

authentic, 200, 315

   problems, 324

   settings, 324

authoring, 7, 118

   identity, 133

   self, 66, 73, 106, 115, 116, 117, 134

autonomy, 14, 65, 73, 74

awareness, 52, 61, 108, 132, 249, 312

   individual, 79

   reflexive, 52, 94

Babel, 23

Bakhtin, 107, 146, 147, 150, 180, 214, 215, 239

Baldwin, 105, 106, 107, 108, 133

barbarian, 195

barriers, 292, 301

Bartlett, 123, 124

Basov, 2, 37–39, 246

Baudoin-de-Courtena, 29

becoming, 8, 12, 76, 85, 118

behavior, 3, 6, 7, 8, 14, 16, 21, 22, 26, 27, 28, 30, 35, 37, 38, 40, 41, 45, 46, 47, 48, 52, 59, 70, 75, 83, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 115, 119, 124, 132, 134, 135, 138, 140, 144, 148, 152, 157, 158, 159, 160, 161, 162, 164, 167, 168, 169, 170, 172, 173, 174, 181, 186, 200, 201, 202, 203, 208, 212, 223, 235, 278, 280, 289, 290, 291, 292, 295, 297, 299, 308, 318, 322, 335, 336, 337, 343, 344, 359, 361, 364, 365, 367, 373, 386, 398, 401, 404, 421

   control, 93, 109, 115, 291, 365

   cultural, 162, 202

   goal-directed, 181, 342

   mediated, 109

   natural, 162, 168, 202

   social, 27, 40, 92, 98, 170, 203

behaviorism, 10, 27, 28, 36, 40, 42, 43, 47, 48, 51, 89, 93, 95, 157, 180, 205, 290

   vulgar, 90

Bekhterev, 25, 26, 29–31, 40, 43, 46

beliefs, 75, 80, 124, 194, 196, 327

belonging, 102, 130, 133

Belyj, 23

Berdyaev, 32, 33

Bergson, 50, 203

Berkley, 80

Bernard, 25

Bernstein, 2, 236, 295, 308, 320

Bibikhin, 232

Bibler, 57

Binet, 278

biocybernetics, 283, 295

biodynamic, 238

biofunctionalism, 282, 283, 295

biological, 4, 27, 44, 199, 201, 252, 283, 284, 290

   evolution, 4, 283

   functions, 26

   vitalism, 284

Bion, 214

Blok, 222

Blonsky, 32, 33, 35, 37, 39–41

Blumer, 97

Boas, 12, 28, 102, 197, 287

Borovsky, 45, 46–47

boundaries, 131, 240, 281, 282, 296, 372

Bourdieu, 106

brain, 3, 21, 25, 29, 30, 31, 34, 35, 48, 89, 157, 230, 291

breaking away, 335, 374

Brentano, 50

Brodsky, 214, 235

Brudny, 172

Bruner, 86, 98, 250, 251, 252, 263

Bühler, 25, 45

Bulgakov, 23, 32

calculation, 175, 203, 372

capabilities, 14, 116, 196, 278, 316, 317, 321, 326, 364

   natural, 355

capacities, 22, 23, 39, 45, 47, 52, 57, 87, 89, 90, 109, 116, 174, 209, 234, 262, 315, 317, 325, 344, 355, 356

   conceptual, 75

capitalism, 59, 99, 100

caregivers, 72, 120, 134, 148, 166, 167, 246, 255, 263, 319

Cartesian, 58, 75, 137, 282

categorization, 6, 53, 54, 106, 251, 256, 257, 268, 273, 348, 372

   cultural, 157, 337

   language, 145, 149, 150

   social, 109

causality, 17, 52, 53, 64, 68, 75, 144, 218, 354, 381

   Vygotsky’s levels, 75

challenge, 120, 133, 140, 142, 272, 338, 370

change, 1, 2, 6, 8, 16, 22, 23, 30, 40, 45, 47, 48, 53, 84, 86, 88, 91, 93, 94, 98, 111, 116, 117, 127, 128, 129, 135, 136, 142, 145, 152, 163, 176, 182, 183, 185, 186, 195, 196, 198, 199, 200, 201, 202, 203, 204, 208, 209, 210, 224, 226, 227, 228, 249, 252, 255, 258, 260, 261, 262, 263, 275, 276, 281, 283, 292, 293, 299, 301, 308, 316, 318, 321, 323, 326, 331, 340, 343, 344, 346, 356, 361, 365, 379, 404, 409, 415, 417

   cultural, 93, 99, 101, 194, 208, 276, 281

   developmental, 48, 86, 249, 255

   functional, 299

   institutional, 36

   mediated, 122

   qualitative, 355

   social, 49, 101, 116, 127, 128, 135

chaos, 23, 124, 125, 240

Charcot, 29

Chelpanov, 25, 31–37

Chernyshevsky, 25, 29

child, 56, 248, 257, 266, 385, 386, 393, 398, 400, 401, 402, 408, 410, 412, 413, 414, 418, 420, 421, 424, 425

childhood, 67, 149, 247, 249, 261, 262, 263, 350, 404, 408, 409, 411, 417

choice, 74, 120, 122, 126, 146, 173, 174, 240, 241, 244, 273, 313

Chomsky, 147

chronotope, 243, 244

circle, 287, 292, 293, 295

   functional, 283, 285, 287, 288, 289, 290, 291, 292, 293, 295, 300

civil war, 78, 332

civilization, 195, 196, 200, 201, 210

   and culture, 47

Claparède, 38

class, 16, 106, 118, 130

   social, 40, 118, 123, 307, 331

classification, 62, 111, 144, 209, 210, 251, 355

classroom, 39, 120, 121, 249, 318, 319, 321, 325, 326, 328, 329, 330, 340, 343, 348, 350, 351

cognition, 14, 39, 43, 62, 63, 68, 69, 70, 89, 109, 110, 120, 147, 160, 209, 210, 211, 219, 220, 337

   and culture, 91

   distributed, 14, 186, 317

cognitive, 54, 75, 140, 146, 180, 210, 259, 272, 282, 292, 296, 301, 308, 323, 325, 335, 338, 345, 348, 354, 370, 371, 374

   development, 86, 107, 210, 255, 272, 278

   processes, 86, 94

   science, 14, 148, 151, 180

   sphere, 235

coherence, 9, 10, 41, 99, 102, 104, 130, 131, 134, 198, 284, 311

Cole, 93, 282, 296, 317, 322, 328

collaboration, 14, 54, 63, 90, 121, 151, 152, 158, 278, 311, 315, 318, 319, 321, 328, 354, 366, 371, 375, 391, 399, 423

collective, i, iv, 6, 11, 30, 31, 58, 62, 78, 82, 83, 84, 86, 106, 107, 109, 130, 133, 134, 135, 158, 164, 198, 206, 247, 251, 253, 255, 260, 261, 281, 366, 374, 375, 381, 382, 386

   institutions, 262

commitment, 8, 14, 74, 80, 97, 109, 133, 152, 213, 229, 394

communication, 3, 55, 56, 89, 91, 103, 136, 142, 146, 165, 166, 167, 168, 185, 186, 187, 191, 200, 203, 214, 219, 221, 235, 249, 252, 259, 262, 265, 269, 284, 300, 322, 337, 342

communicative, 63, 137, 138, 139, 148, 150, 164, 180, 181, 330, 337, 342

   practices, 63, 146

community, 2, 11, 61, 74, 78, 79, 82, 84, 85, 88, 89, 99, 118, 119, 122, 130, 131, 133, 146, 149, 185, 195, 247, 248, 249, 253, 254, 281, 302, 303, 324, 325, 326, 327, 329, 338, 339, 352, 374, 413

   and culture, 54, 102

   evolution, 281, 381

   homogeneity, 79, 84, 85

   of learners, 326, 327

   of practice, 99, 116, 121, 134, 135

comparative, 12, 28, 45, 46, 47, 48, 102, 143, 145, 199, 204, 287, 333

   analysis, 6

comparison, 240, 348

   systematic, 167

compensation, 56, 333, 342, 352

competence, 87, 140, 186, 246, 249, 253, 255, 259, 260, 261, 262, 263, 264, 265, 266, 267, 274, 275, 280, 318, 322, 330, 402

   conceptual, 248, 253, 262, 267, 269

   in play, 113, 273

complexes, 110, 138, 250

complexity, 21, 22, 41, 42, 75, 86, 139, 142, 151, 152, 156, 202, 209, 213, 221, 225, 293, 333, 368, 380

comprehension, 320, 337

computer, 261, 272

concepts, i, 3, 6, 8, 13, 14, 22, 28, 30, 43, 44, 52, 53, 54, 59, 62, 63, 67, 69, 70, 72, 81, 86, 88, 91, 92, 93, 101, 102, 103, 130, 137, 138, 141, 142, 145, 146, 151, 157, 159, 160, 161, 165, 166, 177, 194, 195, 219, 222, 225, 226, 232, 233, 235, 241, 243, 246, 247, 248, 249, 250, 251, 252, 253, 255, 260, 261, 269, 278, 314, 353

   abstract, 151, 251

   acquisition, 72, 258

   development, 15, 138, 181, 223, 300, 312, 313

   empirical, 273, 274

   everyday, 15, 70, 88, 112, 246, 247, 248, 249, 250, 257, 260, 262, 274, 309, 311, 312, 324, 327, 329, 330, 347

   formation of, 15, 54, 86, 88, 161, 173, 246, 247, 249, 250, 253, 255, 256, 257, 259, 265, 266, 279, 309, 311, 346

   learning, 86, 255, 256, 265, 266, 409

   personal, 253, 261, 274

   scientific, 10, 15, 61, 70, 87, 97, 248, 249, 250, 257, 310, 313, 328, 329, 330, 346

   spontaneous, 88, 249, 257, 310

conceptual, 2, 9, 10, 53, 66, 67, 72, 86, 91, 96, 97, 112, 130, 136, 138, 144, 156, 157, 164, 165, 166, 167, 183, 184, 186, 192, 198, 207, 209, 210, 241, 247, 248, 249, 250, 253, 254, 255, 258, 259, 262, 263, 265, 266, 267, 269, 273, 274, 275, 278, 283, 301, 312, 314, 328, 374, 379, 409

conceptualization, 61, 62, 98, 101, 105, 106, 130, 133, 152, 353, 358

concrete, 70, 98, 112, 166, 184, 202, 206, 209, 218, 219, 221, 239, 249, 250, 256, 260, 268, 296, 311, 312, 314, 326

   being, 229

   forms, 230, 364

conditioning, 38, 168, 290

   animal, 26, 292

   classical, 27, 28

conditions, i, 1, 4, 16, 47, 65, 68, 74, 84, 89, 94, 135, 166, 172, 188, 214, 255, 269, 280, 314

   external, 3, 21

confirmation, 109, 210

conflict, 66, 80, 118, 132, 133, 185, 276, 323, 329, 338

connections, 10, 27, 42, 79, 81, 92, 93, 95, 117, 121, 136, 138, 143, 157, 168, 169, 170, 171, 172, 174, 175, 179, 186, 187, 189, 193, 205, 212, 227, 236, 243, 257, 259, 262, 263, 268, 288, 289, 290, 291, 292, 297, 300, 303, 308, 314, 317, 326, 329, 343, 354

   mediated, 289

consciousness, 10, 11, 12, 28, 30, 38, 51, 52, 55, 56, 63, 68, 73, 78, 79, 81, 85, 86, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 102, 124, 125, 126, 148, 161, 165, 168, 178, 180, 185, 215, 217, 219, 222, 226, 228, 231, 238, 247, 248, 249, 287, 296, 300, 309, 313, 316, 383, 391, 396, 400, 409, 410

   and behavior, 90, 91

   and language, 146, 233

   and society, 6

consequences, 124, 133, 200, 265, 342

   social, 335, 345

conservative, 67, 126, 127

consistency, 48, 104, 130, 133, 134, 299

constraints, 73, 105, 186, 260, 317, 324

   institutional, 324

construction, 4, 5, 6, 49, 60, 63, 67, 82, 85, 88, 90, 91, 100, 109, 110, 115, 121, 128, 130, 132, 134, 146, 151, 161, 191, 232, 238, 239, 251, 258, 260, 272, 287, 298, 299, 318, 330, 365, 366, 367

   active, 109

constructivism, 80, 82, 97, 99

content, 219, 230, 231, 238, 239, 253, 259, 265, 267, 314, 317, 330, 345, 346, 374

contestation, 17, 73, 367

context, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 12, 14, 16, 17, 21, 28, 62, 69, 73, 81, 102, 105, 116, 118, 120, 124, 130, 131, 132, 133, 141, 147, 149, 150, 157, 159, 166, 195, 206, 208, 210, 213, 223, 224, 226, 227, 232, 252, 256, 259, 276, 277, 285, 287, 291, 302, 303, 310, 311, 313, 314, 317, 319, 321, 322, 324, 325, 326, 328, 329, 334, 339, 343, 349, 354, 363, 364, 365, 370, 382, 396, 399, 413, 416, 418, 420, 421, 422, 423

contingency, 65, 81, 116

continuity, 102, 104, 127, 131, 132, 203, 204, 296, 297, 298

contradiction, 7, 17, 80, 83, 104, 128, 131, 132, 157, 179, 208, 217, 220, 224, 225, 232, 234, 296, 351, 355, 367, 371, 372, 374, 376, 377, 381, 382

control, 16, 36, 52, 53, 66, 78, 83, 84, 87, 88, 93, 98, 107, 109, 110, 111, 200, 202, 205, 235, 265, 268, 291, 292, 311, 312, 316, 317, 319, 322, 323, 324, 330, 365, 367, 396

   active, 110

   over nature, 61, 66, 202

conversation, 141, 267, 324, 325

Cooley, 79, 86, 103

cooperation, 148, 279, 287, 311, 320, 321, 334

coordination, 89, 108, 243

   of activity, 92, 103

correcting, 124, 141

counting, 69, 140, 166, 175, 178

craft, 107, 122, 124, 142, 324, 378

creation, 21, 28, 33, 39, 44, 57, 58, 65, 66, 74, 116, 124, 129, 132, 137, 169, 176, 193, 202, 207, 214, 216, 217, 233, 236, 239, 240, 252, 259, 279, 291, 293, 298, 315, 317, 318, 326, 329, 343, 344, 349, 379, 424

   cultural, 63

creativity, 21, 34, 40, 49, 58, 73, 134, 135, 143, 156, 225, 228, 238, 241, 245, 273, 293, 315, 316, 320, 322, 391, 400, 401, 402, 406

criticism, 37, 46, 47, 48, 90, 96, 193, 208, 210, 213, 320, 327, 351

cross-cultural, 13, 28, 102, 110, 209, 210, 287, 337

cross-linguistic, 138, 144, 149, 152

cultural, i, 1, 2, 3, 6, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 24, 28, 53, 54, 56, 57, 58, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 66, 75, 78, 84, 87, 88, 91, 93, 97, 99, 102, 103, 104, 107, 109, 110, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 120, 122, 124, 125, 126, 129, 130, 132, 134, 135, 138, 143, 146,

cultural (cont.), 147, 148, 149, 150, 151, 156, 157, 159, 160, 161, 162, 163, 166, 167, 169, 178, 179, 180, 186, 187, 189, 190, 193, 194, 195, 197, 198, 199, 200, 201, 202, 204, 206, 208, 209, 210, 211, 217, 223, 246, 247, 257, 258, 262, 264, 278, 279, 280, 282, 283, 285, 286, 287, 288, 290, 295, 296, 298, 301, 302, 303, 307, 309, 313, 317, 328, 329, 330, 331, 335, 336, 337, 338, 339, 342, 344, 345, 352, 361, 363, 369, 374, 375, 382, 391, 393, 394, 395, 396, 397, 400, 402, 403, 405, 408, 409, 410, 411, 414, 418, 420, 421, 422, 423

   acquisition, 56, 345

   deprivation, 337, 339, 340

   development, 53, 158, 161, 309, 313, 330, 336

   practices, 13, 28, 75, 91, 102, 206, 211, 287

   relativism, 71, 195

   studies, 101, 125

   worlds, 7, 13, 113, 115, 116, 120, 125, 127, 128, 132, 135

cultural–historical, 1, 2, 3, 13, 14, 15, 16, 28, 57, 58, 60, 61, 63, 74, 84, 91, 101, 102, 110, 114, 143, 147, 150, 156, 193, 199, 207, 208, 211, 246, 259, 287, 296, 313, 331

   approach, 62, 63

   development, 93, 193

   psychology, 194, 204, 223

   theory, 198, 335

culture, 56, 114, 115, 117, 122, 125, 126, 128, 130, 131, 143, 146, 148, 149, 158, 159, 160, 193, 194, 195, 196, 197, 198, 199, 201, 203, 204, 205, 206, 207, 208, 211, 220, 237, 240, 241, 247, 258, 269, 278, 280, 281, 283, 288, 303, 316, 329, 331, 336, 338, 339, 344, 386, 394, 396, 397, 399, 400, 404, 405, 410

   collective, 58, 146, 198

   personal, 208, 296

   and society, 280

   and thought, 193, 202, 203

D’Andrade, 207

Darwin, 4, 27, 28, 45, 204

Das Kapital, 58

Davydov, 14, 247, 251, 252, 313, 328

decisions, 17, 49, 233, 239

decontextualization, 62, 69, 166, 347

defectology, 16, 56, 333, 334, 347

defects, 56, 206, 312, 333, 335, 340, 342, 344, 345

deprivation, 16, 337, 338, 339, 340

Descartes, 50, 58, 59, 214, 222, 236, 237

description, 2, 16, 29, 38, 77, 85, 89, 94, 96, 124, 149, 151, 167, 170, 173, 174, 175, 194, 216, 217, 231, 241, 251, 252

design, 3, 16, 78, 185, 196, 252, 281, 288, 290, 293, 310, 319, 326, 327, 356, 368, 370, 371, 373, 375, 378, 379, 380, 382

   educational, 17, 142, 279, 280, 302, 303, 310, 312, 313, 314, 325, 328, 337, 349, 351, 357, 360, 369, 382

   experiments, 17, 363, 368, 369, 378

   research, 246, 290, 326, 365, 368, 369, 370

desire, 66, 68, 75, 82, 108, 112, 113, 114, 121, 169, 227, 236, 261, 291

determining, 21, 28, 61, 65, 189, 273, 277, 279, 285, 368

determinism, i, 1, 2, 146, 147

   social, 82, 85

development, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 10, 13, 14, 15, 16, 22, 38, 40, 42, 46, 49, 51, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 60, 61, 62, 63, 66, 68, 71, 72, 73, 75, 78, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 95, 98, 101, 109, 110, 111, 113, 117, 118, 134, 135, 137, 138, 142, 147, 148, 149, 150, 151, 152, 156, 157, 158, 159, 160, 161, 162, 164, 165, 166, 167, 170, 175, 177, 181, 182, 183, 187, 191, 193, 196, 198, 199, 200, 201, 202, 203, 206, 208, 210, 211, 222, 223, 224, 226, 246, 247, 248, 249, 250, 255, 257, 258, 262, 267, 272, 273, 274, 277, 278, 279, 280, 281, 282, 283, 286, 299, 300, 301, 302, 303, 308, 309, 310, 311, 312, 313, 314, 315, 316, 317, 319, 320, 322, 323, 324, 325, 326, 328, 330, 331, 332, 335, 336, 337, 338, 340, 342, 343, 344, 345, 346, 347, 348, 351, 353, 354, 355, 356, 357, 358, 359, 360, 361, 363, 364, 371, 380, 386, 387, 391, 393, 394, 395, 396, 397, 398, 399, 400, 401, 402, 403, 404, 405, 408, 409, 410, 412, 413, 414, 415, 416, 417, 418, 419, 420, 421, 422, 423, 424, 425

   conceptual, 86, 255, 278, 328

   cultural, i, 13, 161, 163, 187, 193, 194, 203, 208, 279, 298, 302, 335, 342

   natural, 208, 335

   ontogenetic, 176, 291

   psychological, 343

development, ontogenetic, 91

devices, 53, 111, 113, 124, 242, 287, 364, 365, 366

   mediating, 110, 113

   mnemonic, 54, 202

   semiotic, 128, 129

Dewey, 6, 39, 50, 77, 78, 80, 81, 82, 83, 89, 90, 93, 94, 95, 99, 283, 391, 392

dialectic, i, 25, 42, 43, 70, 78, 81, 86, 183, 185, 209, 222, 246, 252, 255, 278, 285, 290, 315, 345, 361

dialogue, 7, 17, 107, 118, 127, 133, 134, 147, 148, 211, 217, 323, 325, 327, 393, 398, 400

dichotomies, 59, 137, 159

differences, 6, 12, 15, 16, 28, 41, 47, 62, 63, 65, 71, 78, 79, 80, 82, 83, 87, 91, 93, 101, 102, 105, 107, 114, 126, 127, 129, 131, 140, 144, 177, 195, 197, 201, 204, 208, 210, 229, 248, 249, 250, 251, 267, 268, 278, 287, 290, 294, 307, 308, 324, 328, 329, 330, 337, 338, 340, 344, 353, 359, 369, 379

   cultural, 329, 330, 337, 338, 339

   original, 2

differentiation, 146, 149, 159, 198, 242, 251, 338, 350, 352, 360

Dilthey, 50, 75, 79

directed, 53, 108, 117, 169, 172, 181, 184, 215, 224, 225, 227, 231, 239, 245, 258, 290, 298, 310

   self, 108, 140

disabilities, 15, 16, 43, 119, 180, 333, 334, 335, 338, 340, 342, 343, 344, 345, 346, 347, 349, 350, 351, 352, 357, 361, 362

   blindness, 56, 340, 345, 346, 347

   learning, 349

   mediation, 362

discontinuity, 257, 368

discourse, 71, 80, 119, 120, 121, 123, 125, 126, 127, 130, 134, 150, 166, 319, 327, 329, 369, 375, 402, 410

discovery, 73, 183, 217, 317

discrimination, 129, 273, 274

disontogenesis, 16, 335, 340, 343, 345, 361

distinguishing, 11, 12, 25, 28, 40, 42, 45, 46, 47, 48, 53, 68, 87, 91, 94, 102, 106, 134, 160, 168, 169, 179, 186, 191, 196, 199, 200, 201, 221, 222, 229, 231, 232, 239, 242, 261, 287, 288, 310, 330, 336, 338, 339, 347, 355, 356

   humans, 47, 48, 55, 89, 90, 170, 200, 203

distributed, 208, 276, 281, 282, 298, 302, 317

disturbances, 30, 157, 175, 370, 371, 374, 382

diversity, 62, 152, 195, 267, 316

Dobrolyubov, 29

dogmatism, 78, 95

dominance, 16, 52, 86, 239, 255, 260, 261, 262, 263, 269, 274, 275, 307, 320, 331, 339

Dostoevsky, 8, 155, 193

double stimulation, 16, 17, 38, 87, 90, 98, 173, 176, 181, 246, 247, 249, 363, 364, 365, 366, 368, 373, 374, 380

drawings, 34, 140, 176, 178, 267, 269, 373

drives, 134, 169, 215, 235

dualism, 59, 83, 195, 289

   experience/reason, 220

   individual/social, 282

   material/ideal, 13, 28, 102, 208, 287

   mental/material, 276

   mind/world, 80, 83, 84, 96

   natural/cultural, 208, 210

   subject/object, 3, 252

   tools/mediators, 207

   traditional/modernized, 210

Du Bois-Reymond, 25, 29, 32

Durkheim, 49

Ebbinghaus, 79

ecofunctional, 13, 14, 285, 286, 287, 288, 289, 290, 292, 296

ecological, 276, 279, 282, 283, 284, 285, 287, 288, 289, 290, 292, 296, 301, 302, 355, 368, 370

economy, 21, 43, 80, 122, 128, 132, 135, 202, 204, 367

educated, 12, 28, 46, 102, 118, 123, 196, 210, 240, 287, 343

education, 22, 39, 56, 62, 71, 72, 74, 122, 123, 188, 196, 272, 332, 334, 338, 340, 346

   polytechnic, 39, 42

   preschool, 14, 15, 86, 172, 246, 247, 248, 249, 250, 253, 255, 257, 261, 262, 263, 265, 266, 272, 274, 275, 277, 278, 360, 422

educational, 23, 39, 41, 50, 65, 68, 72, 86, 121, 252, 255, 258, 263, 264, 265, 266, 269, 272, 273, 274, 276, 277, 278, 279, 282, 298, 301, 302, 307, 311, 328, 334, 338, 342, 345, 346, 349, 350, 351, 352, 355, 356, 362, 363, 366, 368, 369, 391, 402, 408, 414, 416, 418, 420, 421, 422, 423

   action, 280, 303

   deprivation, 338, 349

efferent, 25, 295

efficiency, 174, 175, 179, 287, 290, 292, 296, 342, 349

egalitarian, 57, 122, 124

egocentric, 138, 175, 176, 223

   speech, 160, 164, 223

eidetic, 168

   imagery, 202, 209

Einstein, 216, 239

Eisenstein, 24

El’konin, see Elkonin

elementary, 30, 53, 88, 90, 165, 168, 201, 213, 299, 360, 367

   mental functions, 52, 53, 62, 66, 71, 160, 161

elitism, 62

Elkonin, 170, 262, 263, 358, 359

emblem, 114, 123, 129, 134, 135

embodiment, 7, 14, 69, 73, 75, 113, 134, 150, 184, 207, 214, 216, 217, 218, 220, 223, 225, 226, 231, 235, 237, 238, 242, 243, 245, 260, 296, 301, 323, 369

   cultural, 73

emergence, 58, 62, 80, 103, 117, 136, 178, 186, 201, 202, 214, 222, 231, 239, 278, 296, 344, 398, 409

emotions, 43, 46, 65, 66, 68, 104, 109, 111, 214, 215, 252, 255, 273, 312, 313, 334, 344, 345, 350, 352, 358, 359, 373

   negative, 132

empirical, 12, 15, 28, 51, 57, 86, 97, 101, 102, 116, 131, 161, 167, 173, 186, 194, 201, 205, 230, 231, 249, 250, 251, 253, 255, 257, 269, 273, 274, 278, 287, 314, 399

empiricist, 60, 80

empowerment, 114, 129

enactive, 263, 287

enculturation, 60, 62, 71, 76, 327

endpoints, 368, 370

energy, 30, 42, 43, 44, 187

engagement, 57, 62, 66, 72, 115, 118, 120, 123, 190, 287, 314, 329

   active, 114, 208

   dialogical, 321

   emotional, 132

Engels, 5, 42, 45, 204, 205

Engeström, 16, 17, 98, 179, 206, 317

Enlightenment, 9, 11

environment, 3, 4, 5, 6, 14, 21–23, 27, 28, 38, 42, 47, 48, 49, 64, 66, 80, 92, 96, 110, 112, 116, 148, 166, 168, 169, 200, 208, 218, 220, 223, 258, 259, 279, 283, 284, 290, 324, 342, 347, 348, 351, 354, 365, 387

   cultural, 200, 283

   social, 22

   and tools, 148

envision, 109, 167, 260, 372, 378

Erikson, 7, 101, 102, 107, 114

Eriksonian, 103, 117, 130, 131, 132, 133, 134

essence, 11, 44, 55, 58, 73, 91, 97, 152, 217, 241, 244, 245, 346, 349

ethnographic, 12, 28, 102, 117, 127, 159, 198, 287, 296

ethos, 66, 122, 128

etiquette, 126, 129

Eurocentrism, 5, 62, 71, 74

evaluation, 107, 116, 146, 194, 277, 280, 328, 332, 340, 352, 361, 369

events, 4, 23, 24, 49, 53, 63, 68, 74, 75, 110, 112, 113, 117, 118, 119, 120, 122, 149, 155, 216, 243, 252, 256, 257, 269, 370

everyday, 15, 102, 103, 112, 123, 125, 147, 256, 311, 319, 324, 325, 326, 328, 346

   events, 120, 252

   life, 105, 134, 138, 252, 262, 273, 274, 302, 324, 332

   practices, 62, 194, 246, 251, 253, 263, 275

   settings, 37, 248, 263

   thought, 311

evolution, 4, 38, 45, 47, 62, 89, 157, 160, 163, 182, 193, 196, 199, 201, 202, 203, 204, 209, 276, 281, 282, 283, 284, 292

   cultural, 54, 62, 196, 202, 209

Ewing, Kathy, 131

existence, 3, 21, 109, 208, 214, 215, 216, 231, 240, 259

expansion, 8, 13, 14, 28, 54, 73, 101, 102, 165, 245, 287, 291, 295, 363, 365, 372, 374, 377, 379, 382

expectations, 22, 26, 36, 85, 89, 126, 130, 131, 132, 143, 269, 317, 327, 344, 351, 364, 366, 382

   societal, 253

experience, 1, 6, 52, 55, 64, 67, 69, 70, 80, 81, 89, 96, 108, 116, 130, 137, 143, 145, 147, 151, 172, 199, 219, 234, 249, 256, 257, 258, 290, 325, 328, 332, 344, 352, 356, 370, 372

   emotional, 220

   mediated, 117

experimentation, 260, 261, 269, 272, 273, 274

experts, 139, 140, 187, 188, 189, 190, 321, 322, 354, 355

exploitation, 290, 374

exploration, 137, 152, 260, 265, 274, 320, 325

expression, 46, 73, 137, 142, 146, 147, 152, 170, 184, 215, 216, 226, 238, 242

   of thought, 184, 217

extension, 110, 125, 188, 253, 262, 268, 286, 289

external, iv, 3, 10, 11, 14, 21, 30, 42, 53, 54, 66, 73, 82, 86, 87, 92, 94, 95, 142, 145, 146, 161, 164, 165, 168, 169, 173, 175, 176, 177, 183, 184, 185, 207, 208, 212, 216, 217, 219, 221, 223, 224, 227, 229, 231, 232, 234, 235, 236, 238, 240, 241, 243, 245, 258, 276, 278, 279, 281, 282, 284, 285, 287, 290, 291, 292, 293, 294, 295, 296, 297, 298, 299, 300, 301, 302, 309, 343, 344, 359, 361, 364, 365, 366, 367, 373, 382

extracortical, 289, 291, 303

extramental, 160, 177

   functioning, 160, 164, 175, 177

facilitation, 315, 316, 349, 382

facts, 4, 11, 28, 31, 41, 60, 67, 73, 96, 160, 165, 167, 169, 171, 243, 289, 315, 322, 346, 348

failure, 2, 188, 349, 356, 359

family, 132, 196, 197, 248, 253, 274, 339, 356

fantasy, 112, 113, 129

feelings, 26, 112, 116, 137, 142, 214, 218, 219, 238, 239, 242, 252, 302

   and action, 238

Feuerbach, 50, 58, 206

Feuerstein, 16

Fichte, 50

Finland, 17

Flechsig, 29

flourish, 57, 60, 71, 74

Forbidden Colors Task, 181, 182, 186, 189, 191

forces, 3, 10, 12, 13, 28, 31, 42, 64, 66, 84, 99, 102, 119, 124, 125, 129, 177, 187, 225, 237, 239, 287, 296, 315, 332, 380

   institutional, 178

formation, 1, 7, 15, 27, 28, 54, 78, 79, 84, 86, 87, 88, 89, 91, 92, 94, 98, 101, 103, 105, 109, 113, 114, 115, 117, 118, 120, 121, 122, 124, 127, 132, 133, 135, 146, 161, 165, 172, 173, 174, 222, 232, 238, 246, 247, 248, 249, 250, 253, 255, 257, 266, 278, 298, 300, 303, 307, 309, 311, 312, 327, 330, 331, 334, 342, 343, 344, 346, 353, 370, 374, 380, 395, 403, 408, 409, 410, 411

forms, 3, 8, 12, 15, 16, 21, 27, 28, 33, 52, 53, 61, 62, 66, 67, 68, 69, 71, 72, 85, 86, 90, 102, 106, 117, 123, 125, 132, 141, 147, 148, 152, 157, 158, 159, 160, 161, 162, 164, 167, 168, 170, 180, 183, 184, 186, 188, 190, 191, 193, 199, 202, 203, 205, 206, 207, 209, 210, 212, 219, 221, 228, 229, 230, 231, 233, 236, 237, 238, 239, 240, 241, 243, 245, 249, 250, 251, 253, 255, 258, 261, 262, 278, 287, 317

   mediational, 180, 186

   pure, 229, 241

Foucault, 106

foundations, 11, 27, 28, 31, 33, 46, 63, 74, 95, 108, 135, 170, 178, 179, 183, 190, 196, 208, 209, 213, 220, 236, 247, 248, 250, 251, 260, 263, 283, 335, 360

frames

   social, 106

Frank, 29, 33, 36

freedom, 58, 64, 65, 66, 74, 85, 212, 233, 234, 244, 261, 293, 312

Freire, 124

Freud, 31, 235

frontiers, 13, 14, 282, 289

   ecological, 276

   theoretical, 276

   Vygotsky, 276, 282, 289

functional, 280, 299

   systems, 10, 157, 211, 276, 285, 343

functionalism, 77, 283, 288

functioning, 2, 161, 349, 352, 354, 355, 356, 360

functions, 56, 81, 95, 110, 168, 175, 188, 217, 221, 222, 229, 230, 237, 241, 244, 249, 258, 261, 262, 273, 274, 276, 279, 280, 281, 283, 284, 288, 289, 291, 292, 294, 296, 297, 298, 299, 300, 301, 302, 308, 309, 310, 315, 317, 318, 329, 330, 331, 335, 336, 337, 338, 342, 343, 344, 348, 350, 353, 354, 355, 360, 364, 366, 368, 389, 393, 398, 400, 401, 413, 417, 424

   cognitive, 296, 357

   developmental, 313, 318, 330

   distributed, 276, 281, 282, 298, 301, 302

   frontier, 295

   higher, 278, 281

   instrumental, 148

   linguistic, 142

   mediational, 288

   mental, 53, 298

   natural, 164, 288, 336, 340

   ontogenetic, 328

   psychic, 260, 262

   rudimentary, 160, 175

   social, 148

funds of knowledge, 303, 325, 326

Gal’perin, 223, 298, 358

games, 69, 112, 113, 171, 181, 261, 265, 266, 267, 268, 269, 270, 271, 272, 275, 319, 342, 352, 397

gaze, 108, 282, 287, 289, 374

Geertz, 208

gender, 103, 106, 130, 145, 146, 152

generalization, 69, 137, 138, 142, 166, 183, 185, 214, 221, 226, 250, 260, 311, 336, 347, 348, 361, 370

   transference, 69

generations, 8, 24, 25, 35, 36, 37, 45, 72, 128, 148, 259, 372

genesis, 10, 98, 110, 156, 223, 258, 259, 294, 396, 401, 413

genetic, 54, 57, 117, 161, 162, 165, 167, 168, 183, 203, 277, 296, 298

   analysis, i

   approach, 203, 282

   domains, 211

   law, 158, 187, 298, 309, 313, 330

   method, 179, 182, 364

genetic-cultural, 278, 285

Gerke, 38

Gessen, 34

gestalt, 25, 51, 283

gestures, 94, 97, 108, 167, 169, 289, 297, 298, 323, 347

Gibson, 287

Gleason, 102, 103

goals, 38, 85, 112, 119, 122, 156, 181, 186, 190, 207, 213, 233, 252, 277, 281, 291, 293, 294, 314, 316, 317, 322, 327, 329, 342, 345, 352, 355, 356, 357, 368, 393

Goethe, 216

Goffman, 103, 108

Goldstein, 25

Gorky, 23

Grot, 32

groups, 1, 16, 30, 31, 54, 67, 80, 81, 82, 83, 106, 108, 119, 120, 121, 122, 123, 127, 132, 133, 140, 144, 188, 189, 190, 194, 195, 196, 197, 198, 201, 203, 205, 208, 216, 225, 243, 265, 266, 269, 272, 273, 278, 291, 297, 314, 320, 322, 333, 334, 338, 347, 348, 349, 352, 356, 357, 375, 378, 379

   social, 97, 104, 200, 210, 259

growth, 22, 53, 72, 86, 87, 112, 150, 162, 188, 190, 226, 238, 249, 278, 282, 312

guidance, 9, 16, 38, 65, 88, 140, 144, 246, 268, 269, 278, 287, 293, 307, 314, 315, 317, 321, 331, 349, 354, 361, 364, 368, 370

Guillaume, 45

Gullestad, 128

habitat, 38, 48, 285

habits, 46, 196, 204

habitus, 123

Halliday, 148

Hedegaard, 14, 15, 314, 328

Hegel, 5, 39, 50, 58, 60, 70, 81, 215

Hegelian, 58, 60

Helmholtz, 25

Herder, 12, 195, 198

heredity, 27, 54, 290

Hering, 32

heritage, 51, 125, 129, 155, 201, 334

Herodotus, 194

heterogeneity, 130, 211, 237, 239

heuristic, 148, 161, 165, 167, 168, 222, 236, 277, 282

hierarchical, 11, 12, 28, 102, 195, 251, 287, 311, 375

higher, 66, 161, 164, 203, 211, 294, 297, 355

   functions, 281, 288, 291, 292, 294, 309

higher mental functions, 6, 13, 28, 31, 35, 38, 52, 53, 54, 55, 66, 75, 87, 101, 105, 110, 113, 116, 134, 156, 160, 161, 167, 168, 170, 171, 173, 178, 181, 187, 193, 278, 297, 298, 311, 336, 342, 345, 348, 356, 363, 364

higher psychological functions, 285, 342, 351

historians, 35, 40, 43, 203

historical, i, 4, 5, 6, 8, 12, 13, 23, 28, 48, 49, 58, 60, 61, 62, 64, 71, 74, 80, 85, 91, 93, 102, 110, 115, 117, 148, 152, 156, 166, 178, 195, 196, 197, 198, 199, 201, 203, 210, 211, 259, 283, 287, 288, 290, 303, 308, 313, 328, 331, 364, 400, 403, 406, 408, 414, 423, 424

   approach, 48, 78, 84

   change, 203, 258

   contincy, 67

   contingency, 122, 133

history, 1, 4, 5, 12, 28, 32, 39, 40, 41, 50, 59, 60, 71, 79, 86, 99, 100, 102, 110, 119, 122, 127, 129, 130, 152, 159, 161, 170, 172, 195, 197, 198, 202, 204, 209, 240, 276, 281, 283, 287, 288, 300, 376, 383, 385, 387, 395, 398, 401, 403, 404, 405, 409, 419, 424, 425

Hobbes, 50

Hochschild, 111

holistic, 39, 52

home, 85, 125, 126, 244, 246, 247, 249, 252, 253, 254, 262, 263, 266, 267, 325, 326, 377, 414

horizontal, 145, 250, 321, 370, 375

Hull, 205

human, 95, 110, 117, 255, 288, 381, 385, 387, 388, 389, 392, 395, 396, 397, 399, 400, 402, 404, 405, 409, 410, 413, 414, 415, 416, 423, 424

humanism, 82, 83

humanities, 102, 332

humanity, 71, 195, 199

Humboldt, 166, 184, 191, 202, 222, 229, 232, 235

Humboldtian, 11, 184

Hume, 80

Husserl, 50, 191

Hutchins, 180, 296

iconic, 263

ideal, 13, 28, 39, 61, 65, 66, 71, 74, 86, 102, 166, 207, 218, 229, 230, 247, 250, 251, 255, 258, 278, 280, 281, 287, 324, 388, 404, 409

   spheres, 218

idealism, 5, 25, 34, 35, 36, 40

ideas, 37, 39, 60, 66, 93, 141, 166, 175, 188, 214, 217, 229, 230, 238, 261, 307, 371

identification, 2, 66, 119, 121, 122, 123, 124, 125, 126, 127, 128, 129, 132, 134, 221, 257, 380, 398, 424

   conflict, 133

identities, 111, 122

   multiple, 119, 131, 132

identity, i, 6, 7, 15, 63, 74, 85, 86, 88, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 118, 119, 120, 121, 122, 123, 124, 125, 126, 127, 128, 129, 130, 131, 132, 133, 134, 135, 195, 215, 222, 256, 284, 393, 394, 395, 396, 397, 398, 413

   and action, 108, 127

   cultural, 120, 127, 129

   development, 113, 116, 118

   emotional, 133

   formation, 15, 101, 109, 113, 114, 116, 118, 120, 127, 132, 133, 134, 135

   frontier, 276

   mediated, 127, 135

   mediation, 123

   social, 109, 114

ideology, 5, 6, 124, 125, 133, 206, 212

Il’enkov, 13, 28, 102, 207, 208, 215, 248, 251, 255, 287

images, 42, 74, 118, 136, 141, 187, 213, 214, 218, 219, 225, 226, 227, 232, 233, 235, 236, 237, 238, 239, 240, 241, 242, 243, 245, 284, 317, 342, 346, 348, 358, 368, 397, 408

   and action, 237, 238, 239, 240, 241, 245

   mediated, 239

   mirror, 137, 224

imaginaries, 103, 130, 133, 135

imagination, 109, 112, 113, 116, 118, 140, 141, 148, 157, 219, 249, 260, 261, 263, 328

imitation, 90, 105, 106, 107, 108, 147, 167, 248, 259, 337

   original, 105

immediate, 89, 96, 112, 120, 142, 233, 261, 288, 291, 295, 300, 301, 311, 318, 326, 328, 329, 336, 337, 340, 346, 347, 348

impairment, 16, 334, 335, 336, 337, 342, 345, 346

   organic, 334, 340, 345

implicit, 140, 143, 156, 164, 185, 191, 252, 322

improvement, 80, 95, 97, 139, 179, 340, 368, 370

impulses, 237, 245, 292, 295, 313

inclinations, 21, 157, 232, 313

inclusion, 257, 350, 351, 419, 420

independent, 3, 35, 67, 74, 106, 144, 166, 168, 181, 183, 185, 258, 269, 278, 279, 291, 292, 311, 318, 325, 348, 354, 355, 356, 361, 378

individual, 3, 4, 6, 7, 11, 13, 14, 17, 21, 22, 30, 31, 38, 42, 47, 54, 58, 60, 62, 63, 66, 68, 70, 71, 73, 74, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 93, 96, 97, 99, 100, 101, 102, 104, 106, 108, 109, 110, 113, 116, 121, 130, 131, 132, 133, 134, 135, 140, 143, 158, 159, 160, 162, 164, 166, 167, 174, 178, 180, 185, 186, 187, 197, 200, 206, 208, 211, 214, 225, 226, 228, 235, 241, 247, 257, 266, 276, 280, 281, 282, 292, 296, 301, 302, 309, 310, 312, 315, 316, 317, 322, 334, 336, 337, 344, 345, 351, 353, 354, 366, 375, 380, 381, 391, 413, 415

   functions, i, 158, 164

individualism, 5, 40, 74, 79

individuality, 40, 344

industrialized, 209, 210, 252, 263

infant, 52, 60, 72, 86, 147, 166, 167, 169, 209, 278, 343

inference, 110, 209

influences, i, 1, 3, 7, 8, 10, 11, 14, 15, 16, 23, 25, 27, 30, 38, 40, 45, 47, 49, 50, 51, 55, 58, 59, 65, 67, 70, 71, 73, 75, 78, 80, 81, 83, 86, 89, 92, 94, 95, 99, 105, 132, 136, 143, 144, 148, 149, 150, 164, 168, 170, 194, 197, 199, 200, 202, 232, 240, 246, 249, 252, 257, 262, 263, 264, 265, 276, 283, 286, 288, 290, 296, 307, 309, 310, 312, 313, 328, 330, 331, 333, 334, 342, 344, 345, 348, 356, 405, 408, 413, 414, 416, 418

   societal, 344

information, 63, 165, 183, 257, 315, 320, 321, 322, 347, 349, 356, 359, 366

ingrowth, 87, 162, 165

initiation, 56, 73, 75, 319

initiative, 6, 32, 72, 85, 351

innate, 27, 40, 60, 66, 209, 233

inner, 3, 11, 21, 26, 43, 52, 56, 57, 61, 106, 107, 138, 139, 140, 141, 142, 162, 165, 168, 183, 195, 212, 216, 221, 222, 223, 224, 226, 229, 232, 233, 235, 236, 237, 238, 240, 241, 242, 243, 245, 315, 326, 339, 344, 355, 364, 367, 371, 372, 407

   form, 235

innovation, 135, 348, 368, 369, 370, 375

inquiry, 50, 54, 57, 67, 68, 69, 73, 74, 79, 82, 92, 95, 96, 97, 98, 150, 152, 179, 391, 413

   scientific, 52, 60, 96

inspiration, 2, 8, 9, 26, 29, 38, 39, 50, 57, 59, 101, 102, 107, 117, 148, 211, 245, 272, 327, 335, 348

instantaneous, 234, 235, 237

instinct, 46, 47, 48, 88, 168, 170

institutions, 115, 130, 262, 274, 302, 415, 419

   cultural, 262

   human, 113

   societal, 261

instruction, 15, 62, 72, 171, 186, 187, 188, 189, 190, 246, 247, 249, 263, 269, 279, 307, 310, 311, 312, 313, 314, 316, 317, 318, 319, 321, 322, 324, 325, 326, 353, 354, 356, 408, 411, 413, 414, 415, 417, 423, 424

   and development, 309, 310

instrumental, 17, 43, 83, 93, 94, 179, 199, 283, 292, 293, 299, 302, 348, 364, 380, 382, 403, 409, 410, 425

   mediation, 281

instruments, 93, 158, 180, 200, 224, 379, 380

   psychological, 299

integral, 44, 73, 107, 115, 120, 130, 327

integration, 7, 61, 124, 130, 131, 157, 185, 299, 321, 333, 340, 349, 350, 351, 352, 393

intellect, 47, 48, 56, 58, 61, 66, 68, 69, 88, 166, 168, 183, 218

intellectual, 2, 4, 6, 13, 21, 23, 24, 28, 32, 33, 42, 49, 53, 58, 67, 71, 72, 78, 79, 83, 91, 93, 95, 99, 102, 105, 111, 136, 137, 146, 165, 182, 219, 221, 224, 229, 237, 240, 273, 287, 297, 309, 315, 326, 359, 374, 386, 391, 392, 396, 397, 417, 418

   functioning, 48

   functions, 223

intelligence, 14, 62, 89, 199, 203, 211, 277, 287, 340

   tests, 269, 272, 273

intelligences, 280

intention, 90, 113, 146, 147, 150, 185, 187, 213, 215, 229, 232, 235, 236, 237, 245, 248, 252, 255, 259, 262, 263, 266, 295, 329, 348, 360, 365, 366, 381

intentional, i, 4, 8, 12, 17, 21, 27, 28, 102, 287, 366

interaction, 63, 84, 86, 92, 93, 108, 119, 128, 134, 148, 190, 241, 246, 256, 258, 262, 265, 269, 279, 285, 287, 307, 312, 318, 319, 321, 323, 330, 331, 333, 334, 335, 342, 343, 344, 345, 346, 348, 353, 356, 361, 396, 398, 399, 400, 418

   causal, 68

   communicative, 137

   social, 265, 266, 323

interactionist, 82, 284

interactive, 151, 207, 356

interconnections, 15, 247, 333, 371

   developmental, 144

interdependence, 21, 144, 147, 240, 285, 303, 311

interdisciplinary, 101, 125, 150, 152, 157

interest, 272, 313

interfaces, 13, 281

interfunctional, 10, 15, 157, 299, 308, 309, 340, 343

interiorization, 10, 165, 287, 295, 296, 297, 298, 299, 300, 301

intermental, 13, 53, 86, 111, 158, 160, 162, 171, 187, 189

   functioning, 13, 158, 164, 167, 168, 169, 170, 171, 172, 177, 187, 190, 223

internal, 10, 42, 54, 86, 88, 92, 136, 140, 146, 152, 156, 169, 174, 175, 198, 216, 217, 219, 221, 222, 223, 224, 225, 226, 227, 228, 229, 230, 236, 237, 238, 239, 240, 241, 243, 245, 276, 278, 279, 281, 282, 284, 285, 290, 291, 293, 294, 295, 296, 297, 298, 299, 300, 301, 343, 354, 359, 361, 364, 369, 377, 402, 424

internalization, 38, 43, 54, 73, 89, 97, 107, 137, 138, 148, 160, 165, 178, 279, 302, 319, 339, 343, 344, 345, 346, 355, 356, 358

   active, 7, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 114, 118, 120, 122, 133, 134

interpersonal, 118, 119, 125, 146, 148, 279, 313, 318, 329

interpretation, 4, 5, 9, 15, 64, 92, 94, 97, 109, 115, 116, 135, 144, 145, 187, 205, 220, 230, 232, 235, 243, 248, 314, 317, 318, 319, 329, 331, 381, 399

interpsychological, 279, 309, 366. See intermental

intersubjectivity, 187, 188, 190, 323, 402

intervention, 1, 3, 16, 17, 294, 340, 356, 360, 361, 363, 369, 370, 371, 376, 380, 382, 422

intimate, 62, 117, 129, 138, 199, 219, 228, 355, 395

intrafunctional, 308

intramental, 13, 54, 86, 160, 162, 177, 187

   functioning, 13, 111, 160, 164, 167, 189, 223

intrapersonal, 279

intrapsychological, 309, 366. See intramental

introspection, 2, 25, 31, 35, 38, 40, 43, 52, 90, 242

intuition, 95, 229

invention, 37, 47, 84, 111, 158, 166, 176, 182, 200, 406

investigation, 36, 38, 64, 183, 205, 217, 314, 328, 365, 368, 372, 400, 404, 411

involuntary, 160, 168, 169, 291, 297

involvement, 68, 118, 193, 252, 267, 269, 323, 337, 410

irony, 329, 352

Ivic, 315, 415

Jaensch, 202

James, 6, 25, 50, 77, 78, 80, 81, 82, 83, 86, 91, 92, 95, 99, 214, 283

Jennings, 283

Jensen, 251

joint, 398

Judd, 200, 203

judgments, 65, 77, 106, 107

Jung, 31

Kant, 34, 50, 58, 81

Kellogs, 45

Kerschensteiner, 39

Khotin, 48

kinesthetic, 152, 297, 342

knowledge, 4, 5, 15, 38, 39, 43, 49, 50, 52, 54, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 66, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 82, 86, 94, 106, 113, 161, 165, 175, 196, 219, 247, 248, 250, 251, 252, 253, 255, 257, 258, 262, 263, 265, 267, 268, 269, 273, 275, 277, 278, 280, 302, 308, 311, 312, 313, 314, 315, 316, 317, 319, 321, 324, 325, 326, 327, 330, 339, 344, 359, 397, 400, 407, 409, 411, 413, 422, 424

   acquisition, 256

   conceptual, 253, 257

   cultural, 66

   development, 73, 82, 251

   empirical, 250, 251, 252, 258, 269, 273, 274, 313

   forms, 251, 253, 262, 263

   narrative, 251, 252, 253, 269

   prior, 321, 325

   societal, 15, 251, 253, 261, 264, 274

   systems, 215, 248, 253, 262, 315

   theoretical, 61, 251, 274, 313, 314, 315

Koffka, 25, 45, 283

Köhler, 25, 38, 45, 47, 49, 137, 169, 175, 203, 204

Kohts, 45, 385, 387

Köning, 32

Kornilov, 28, 33, 35, 37, 41–44

Kozulin, 31, 96

Krueger, 25

Krupskaya, 39

labor, 23, 45, 46, 179, 202, 292, 374

laboratory, 12, 15, 16, 26, 27, 28, 31, 32, 35, 45, 102, 181, 287, 290, 332, 370, 371, 372

labor school, 39, 41, 42

Ladygina-Kohts, 45–46

Lakoff, 144

language, 8, 11, 31, 53, 54, 55, 56, 67, 70, 77, 88, 89, 93, 94, 98, 131, 136, 137, 138, 139, 140, 141, 143, 144, 145, 146, 147, 148, 149, 150, 151, 152, 156, 161, 169, 170, 176, 178, 180, 182, 185, 189, 191, 195,

language (cont.), 198, 202, 203, 205, 207, 209, 212, 213, 214, 216, 217, 219, 221, 224, 225, 230, 232, 233, 234, 235, 238, 240, 255, 257, 266, 277, 312, 316, 319, 329, 333, 336, 337, 346, 347, 356, 380, 397, 398, 399, 400, 402, 405, 407, 409, 414, 420, 422

   acquisition, 69, 75, 147, 148, 149, 150, 152, 200, 256

   communicative, 136, 137, 138, 139

   and culture, 143, 199, 203

   development, 56, 138, 148, 149

   interactional, 147

   mediated, 73

   natural, 148, 166, 181, 185, 257

   second, 131, 140

   signs, 166

   social, 180, 182, 191

   and thought, 136, 143, 151, 216, 233

   and tools, 202, 292

Lapshin, 32, 34

latent, 355, 356

Lave and Wenger, 99

laws, 13, 15, 27, 28, 30, 42, 53, 57, 75, 106, 110, 158, 161, 162, 163, 175, 177, 182, 187, 196, 222, 238, 279, 284, 298, 309, 313, 330, 403

   of mediation, 162

   of society, 4, 23

Lazurskiy, 29, 37

leading, 14, 43, 63, 72, 94, 99, 145, 179, 190, 223, 236, 247, 250, 253, 255, 276, 299, 309, 310, 313, 320, 324, 329, 330, 342, 345, 374, 382

   abilities, 72

learner, 86, 121, 131, 138, 140, 301, 310, 314, 315, 316, 317, 318, 319, 320, 321, 322, 323, 324, 325, 326, 327, 328, 329, 346, 347, 348, 349, 356, 400, 413, 419

   adult, 140

   passive, 121

learning, 2, 3, 41, 63, 72, 73, 88, 98, 114, 117, 120, 121, 139, 141, 147, 148, 149, 150, 168, 186, 187, 188, 190, 200, 217, 226, 240, 246, 248, 251, 257, 263, 278, 279, 310, 312, 313, 314, 315, 316, 317, 319, 320, 321, 322, 323, 324, 325, 326, 327, 328, 329, 330, 334, 337, 338, 339, 342, 343, 345, 346, 347, 348, 349, 351, 352, 353, 354, 355, 356, 357, 358, 359, 360, 362, 367, 368, 370, 372, 374, 393, 394, 396, 398, 409, 412, 413, 414, 415, 416, 417, 419, 420, 421, 422, 423, 424

   active, 280

   and development, 13, 279, 309, 328, 330

   by doing, 39, 41

   empirical, 314, 317

   ideal, 279, 324

   mediated, 286, 287, 338, 348

   potential, 338, 347

   processes, 248, 308

Leibnitz, 58

Lenin, 27, 33, 39, 43, 51, 205, 307

lenses, 9, 116, 119, 180, 380

Leont’ev, 2, 10, 33, 87, 89, 91, 92, 98, 142, 155, 176, 181, 189, 199, 205, 206, 208, 210, 212, 223, 226, 228, 259, 280, 294, 298, 320, 364, 366, 404, 409

Leontiev (see Leont’ev)

levels, i, 7, 11, 14, 23, 42, 44, 48, 66, 71, 72, 75, 79, 88, 89, 90, 131, 138, 141, 142, 151, 157, 162, 168, 169, 172, 182, 186, 187, 188, 189, 190, 191, 195, 196, 197, 198, 202, 203, 210, 211, 250, 257, 263, 278, 285, 292, 293, 295, 296, 301, 312, 323, 326, 329, 331, 333, 337, 350, 355, 356, 358, 360, 368, 370, 400, 419

   of analysis, 96, 308, 316

   developmental, 162, 278, 279, 355

   ontogenetic, 91

   social, 6, 202, 309

leverage, 188, 190

Levy-Bruhl, 202, 210, 404

Lewin, 25, 38, 283

liberal, 79, 100, 126, 128, 129

Lichtenberg, 50

life, 2, 4, 6, 9, 12, 14, 23, 26, 28, 29, 30, 34, 37, 39, 47, 56, 61, 70, 71, 73, 76, 78, 79, 83, 84, 88, 89, 101, 102, 104, 105, 111, 117, 120, 121, 124, 125, 126, 128, 137, 145, 155, 167, 173, 178, 183, 198, 199, 200, 202, 204, 206, 207, 209, 218, 241, 246, 248, 249, 252, 254, 259, 262, 263, 273, 282, 285, 287, 300, 309, 314, 324, 326, 332, 333, 344, 348, 352, 384, 387, 395, 396, 398, 402, 410, 415, 416, 421, 422

   active, 56

   activity, 206, 252

   human, 125, 196, 199, 206, 207, 208, 251, 252

   institutional, 113, 125

   mediated, 198

   societal, 3, 21, 253, 324

lifeways, 194, 195, 197

linear, 17, 62, 71, 74, 368, 369

linguistic, 7, 52, 69, 72, 98, 123, 124, 129, 137, 143, 144, 146, 147, 148, 149, 152, 166, 202, 230, 249, 312, 336, 394, 399, 400

   relativity, 138, 144

linguistics, 6, 10, 33, 49, 99, 101, 109, 136, 143, 145, 150, 155, 232, 406

linguists, 29, 143, 144, 148, 150, 209, 239

links, 7, 60, 105, 204, 301, 308, 364

Lisina, 167

literacy, 120, 123, 124, 142, 210, 393, 394, 405, 409, 411

literary, 7, 24, 26, 146, 147, 155, 180, 193, 415

loans

   functional, 14, 280, 292, 302

Locke, 80

logic, 54, 111, 126, 220, 229, 230, 235, 239, 252, 266, 283, 300, 311, 314, 336, 381

logico-semantic, 231

   analysis (LSA), 9, 14, 155, 156

Lopatin, 32

Lorenz, 48

Losev, 32

Losskiy, 29

lower, 6, 12, 28, 35, 38, 43, 102, 139, 164, 168, 195, 287, 338, 339, 351, 355, 411

   forms, 164

lower mental functions, 168

Lunacharsky, 39

Luria, 11, 27, 34, 36, 37, 43, 89, 93, 161, 176, 183, 199, 200, 202, 203, 209, 210, 212, 358

magic, 159, 160, 164, 173, 175, 177, 222, 241

Malebranche, 50

Mamardashvili, 24, 60, 215, 225, 226, 231, 232, 235, 242

Mandel’shtam, 150, 214, 217, 230

manipulation, 61, 112, 152, 180, 274, 319, 369, 382

manual, 46, 263, 265, 418

marginalization, 1, 17, 329, 382

Martsinkovskaya, 184

Marx, 4, 5, 10, 27, 28, 39, 42, 45, 49, 58, 60, 66, 84, 97, 155, 200, 205, 206, 325

Marx and Engels, 7, 46, 47, 50, 197, 199

Marxism, 7, 35, 36, 37, 41, 50, 64, 70, 86, 99, 212, 290

Marxist, 1, 40, 42, 64, 205, 210, 213, 314

Marxist–Leninist, 5, 205, 212

mastery, 53, 54, 58, 66, 68, 87, 118, 121, 138, 141, 161, 165, 169, 187, 188, 190, 250, 260, 261, 280, 298, 312, 340, 342, 349, 361, 367

matching, 266, 268, 269, 272

material, 13, 28, 35, 44, 53, 80, 84, 86, 91, 92, 102, 105, 125, 142, 159, 180, 185, 186, 188, 189, 190, 191, 193, 206, 207, 208, 216, 218, 219, 225, 255, 265, 266, 267, 268, 269, 272, 273, 274, 276, 282, 284, 287, 289, 299, 308, 316, 339, 348, 370, 375, 380, 394

materialism, 5, 25, 26, 27, 29, 33, 34, 35, 36, 44, 75, 206, 222, 283, 289, 290, 315, 404

materiality, 207, 236, 289

materials, 60, 129, 145, 203, 265, 266, 268, 269, 272, 273, 274, 360

   educational, 266, 274

   play, 86, 255, 265

math, 69, 120, 121, 139, 168, 175, 202, 319

   activity, 121

   calculation, 202

   concepts, 69, 87

   curriculum, 322

   operations, 312

maturation, 1, 52, 53, 65, 73, 87, 108, 111, 277, 292, 310, 317

Mead, 6, 7, 77–100, 101, 103, 105, 108, 109, 117, 135

   early life, 79

Meadian, 103, 104, 105, 107, 108, 109, 114, 115, 117, 120, 128, 130, 133, 134

meaning, 16, 22, 23, 25, 30, 31, 54, 55, 56, 61, 63, 64, 79, 89, 90, 94, 97, 98, 99, 103, 106, 108, 109, 110, 112, 113, 114, 115, 117, 120, 123, 124, 125, 128, 134, 137, 138, 139, 142, 144, 146, 147, 148, 151, 155, 157, 160, 161, 165, 166, 171, 179, 182, 183, 185, 186, 189, 190, 191, 194, 195, 206, 207, 212, 215, 220, 221, 222, 223, 224, 225, 226, 227, 228, 229, 230, 231, 232, 233, 236, 250, 260, 261, 262, 293, 295, 296, 297, 300, 325, 337, 345, 346, 374, 382, 399

   and action, 261, 288, 320

   cultural, 11, 12, 28, 102, 113, 115, 184, 287

   making, 63, 82, 84, 97, 99

   negotiation, 63, 118, 327

   pure, 141, 217, 221, 222, 223, 227

   shared, 146, 327

   signs, 166

   words, 137

means, 53, 111, 165, 173, 190, 203, 345, 346, 364, 365

   emotional, 166

   sign, 165

measurement, 69, 251, 359, 377, 421

mechanisms, 27, 56, 75, 89, 90, 110, 157, 166, 168, 169, 190, 209, 210, 243, 281, 284, 289, 292, 295, 301, 302, 303, 333, 342, 344, 356, 365, 396

mechanistic, 68, 157, 284, 333

mediation, 53, 101, 105, 114, 117, 178, 180, 182, 184, 191, 288, 289, 290, 291, 292, 293, 294, 295, 297, 298, 299, 300, 301, 302, 303, 309, 311, 318, 322, 336, 337, 338, 339, 340, 342, 347, 348, 349, 352, 357, 360, 362, 365, 366, 367, 373, 374, 380, 410

   concepts, 7, 58

   cultural, 56, 206, 208, 211, 287, 289, 363

   educational, 277

   explicit, 17, 180, 181, 185, 188, 191

   implicit, 180, 181, 182, 185, 188, 189, 190, 191, 192

   internal, 289, 293, 294, 299, 300

   of preferences, 54

   semiotic, 2, 7, 101, 105, 109, 111, 114, 115, 116, 123, 125, 134, 299, 300

   and signs, 158, 159

   social, 321, 342

mediational

   devices, 110

   functions, 88, 94

   means, 17, 53, 54, 55, 71, 162, 166, 170, 172, 173, 175, 188, 191, 202, 206, 208, 209, 210, 226, 285

   potentials, 93

medium, 283, 284, 287

   natural, 288, 290

Mehan, 318

membership, 32, 56, 64, 70, 71, 113, 114, 120, 123, 126, 129, 131, 134, 184, 207, 230, 256, 257, 320, 321, 325, 327, 339

   societal, 1, 84, 97, 196

memorization, 175, 336, 343

memory, i, 39, 53, 54, 55, 87, 107, 110, 116, 139, 141, 142, 144, 148, 166, 168, 174, 175, 176, 179, 180, 202, 209, 215, 234, 235, 237, 240, 299, 312, 336, 340, 342, 366, 367

   logical, 161, 249, 279, 309, 342

   natural, 179, 202, 209

   tasks, 191

mental, 3, 12, 22, 28, 42, 55, 56, 87, 95, 102, 149, 165, 209, 277, 280, 287, 298, 355

   action, 287, 290, 294, 295, 296, 297, 298, 301

   activity, 27, 281, 297

   development, 5, 10, 86, 156, 278, 315

   functions, 58, 87, 88, 157, 159, 160, 168, 177, 178, 179, 184, 185, 186, 204

   operations, 297, 298, 301

   processes, 11, 21, 152, 178, 186, 237, 238, 292, 309

   structures, 88, 91, 98

messages, 169, 187, 188, 202

metaphors, 94, 138, 150, 152, 237

metaphysical, 6, 28, 96, 97

   Metaphysical Club, 81, 82

methodology, 1, 2, 16, 48, 59, 78, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 157, 223, 363

Meynert, 29

microgenetic, 10, 156, 183, 310, 315, 328, 409

Mill, 80

mimicry, 169, 259

mind, 8, 14, 27, 51, 52, 55, 56, 57, 62, 64, 66, 70, 73, 75, 76, 77, 81, 82, 83, 86, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 94, 199, 214, 215, 216, 219, 245, 283, 296, 301, 302

   and culture, 5, 62, 76

   development of, 7, 75

   formation of, i, 1, 15, 78, 82, 84, 87, 88

   and society, 83, 96, 98

   theory of, 57, 156

   and world, 78, 80, 81, 83, 86, 89, 92, 93, 98

Minkovsky, 243

mirror, 137, 224, 297, 370, 372, 373, 374, 375, 379, 392

mnemonic, 54, 110, 175, 178, 179, 202, 225, 231, 297

   functions, 172

model, 55, 105, 128, 135, 140, 150, 152, 252, 263, 264, 277, 278, 280, 285, 288, 295, 296, 298, 302, 311, 312, 319, 320, 324, 329, 334, 340, 345, 351, 353, 359, 367, 369, 370, 371, 372, 374, 375, 376

   conceptual, 371, 374, 379, 382

   core, 252, 260

   cultural, 279

   ideal, 280, 281, 282

   mediational, 3, 295

modernity, 78, 83, 84, 85, 201

modifiability, 340, 355, 418

   cognitive, 339, 340, 347

modification, 17, 55, 58, 89, 109, 146, 155, 194, 204, 208, 308, 346, 348, 351, 369, 380

Moffett, 142

monism, 59, 68, 74, 75

Montessori, 39

moral, 26, 39, 56, 71, 84, 97, 104, 130, 133, 196, 277, 302, 313, 344, 392, 397

   philosopher, 105

Morgan, 197

motion, 143, 152, 216

motivation, 109, 112, 113, 117, 134, 146, 215, 216, 253, 255, 259, 261, 263, 274, 275, 300, 327, 345, 358, 361, 381

   and activity, 65, 104, 109

motor, 147, 225, 226, 231, 235, 241, 285, 291, 292, 294, 295, 296, 297, 342, 343, 358

   actions, 297

   biographies, 297

movement, 42, 46, 53, 70, 71, 87, 97, 101, 115, 118, 128, 135, 136, 142, 143, 151, 152, 167, 170, 183, 201, 213, 214, 222, 230, 236, 237, 239, 241, 284, 286, 291, 296, 297, 300, 314, 320, 347, 350, 363, 372, 374, 379, 383, 395, 397, 406, 410, 413

movements, 118

   social, 127, 128

Müller, 25

multiple, 4, 7, 17, 104, 117, 119, 128, 130, 131, 132, 134, 138, 151, 203, 241, 252, 325, 326, 368, 371, 380, 381

multiscreening, 156, 157

music, 23, 69, 225, 237, 242

mysticism, 9, 90

Nabokov, 24

naïve, 26, 61, 127, 164, 172, 173, 174, 175, 177, 203

naming, 137, 229

narrative, 53, 86, 115, 119, 131, 151, 152, 250, 252, 255, 268, 269, 273, 274, 278, 399

nations, 6, 49, 79, 125, 126, 195, 394

natural, 16, 26, 30, 31, 38, 42, 48, 56, 60, 67, 68, 71, 74, 75, 110, 157, 162, 164, 166, 168, 177, 179, 181, 184, 185, 195, 197, 200, 201, 202, 207, 208, 209, 210, 211, 231, 247, 250, 257, 258, 274, 284, 285, 287, 288, 289, 290, 292, 293, 296, 297, 299, 301, 319, 327, 335, 336, 337, 338, 340, 342, 344, 347, 355, 410, 411

   laws, 31, 75

   sciences, 4, 48

naturalistic, 37, 58, 60, 68, 307, 368, 399

nature, 5, 10, 27, 28, 31, 39, 42, 44, 51, 52, 53, 54, 57, 60, 61, 64, 65, 66, 68, 71, 72, 82, 85, 88, 89, 92, 110, 118, 122, 133, 143, 147, 152, 155, 159, 165, 172, 175, 176, 177, 180, 196, 197, 198, 199, 202, 204, 208, 213, 217, 224, 226, 231, 232, 234, 240, 245, 249, 278, 290, 294, 297, 300, 311, 313, 333, 334, 335, 342, 344, 346, 356, 357, 359, 365, 376, 380, 392, 397, 404, 409, 421, 424

   active, 37, 38

   human, 7, 84, 193, 205, 208, 209

needs, 64, 65, 68, 184, 204, 207, 214, 215, 246, 253, 255, 259, 262, 263, 296, 313, 350

neglect, 8, 337

   pedagogical, 1, 333, 350, 357, 360

   social, 80, 333, 338

negotiation, 72, 132, 187, 318, 319

Nelson, 15, 256

Nemeth, 184

neoformations, 309

networks, 129, 251

Neurath, 50

neurological, 25, 26, 29, 30, 37, 47, 157, 205, 283, 291, 297, 303, 335, 340, 342

Nietzsche, 50

nominalism, 82, 91, 95

nonliterate, 123, 159, 172, 209

normative, 10, 33, 40, 52, 56, 57, 64, 65, 75, 92, 106, 130, 156, 166, 218, 230, 277, 318, 335, 336, 337, 340, 343, 358

notation, 202, 358

novel, 24, 49, 105, 106, 140, 320, 370, 374, 424

novices, 140, 186, 187, 243, 317

object, 364

   oriented, 185

objectification, 111, 216, 225, 255, 259, 364, 367

objective, 25, 44, 229, 248, 258

   meanings, 224, 231

objectivists, 25–31

objects, 22, 53, 55, 61, 64, 67, 69, 70, 78, 79, 86, 87, 91, 92, 93, 94, 96, 97, 98, 103, 107, 108, 110, 112, 138, 140, 144, 145, 149, 157, 164, 165, 169, 173, 174, 175, 176, 180, 181, 184, 185, 200, 206, 207, 215, 217, 219, 223, 224, 228, 229, 234, 236, 245, 246, 248, 250, 251, 252, 253, 255, 256, 257, 258, 259, 260, 261, 262, 263, 265, 266, 267, 268, 269, 271, 273, 281, 286, 289, 293, 294, 295, 296, 297, 298, 300, 301, 311, 314, 315, 319, 336, 358, 360, 364, 366, 367, 373, 374, 377, 379, 381, 392, 396, 406, 423, 424

   meanings, 110, 227

   pure, 218, 219

   real, 258, 260, 296

   and signs, 99

   and tools, 167

observable, 125, 135, 223

   behavior, 40, 43, 135

observation, 14, 36, 38, 40, 48, 90, 98, 107, 116, 140, 214, 215, 227, 251, 266, 272, 297, 330, 348, 352

ontic, 229, 230, 236

ontogenesis, 10, 48, 156, 167, 223, 310

   individual, 281

ontogeny, 159, 203, 209, 211

   of imitation, 105

ontological, 215, 218, 229, 230, 231

   spheres, 229

operational, 230, 237, 302, 308, 359

   meanings, 226, 231

operations, 14, 98, 139, 143, 162, 169, 175, 176, 179, 182, 193, 200, 223, 226, 242, 250, 259, 260, 280, 281, 292, 293, 294, 296, 298, 302, 315, 365

   psychological, 226, 299

operators, 14, 280, 281, 290, 291, 293, 301, 302

   cultural, 14, 288

opportunities, 344, 349

opposition, 33, 106, 110, 127, 135, 179, 183, 185, 213, 215, 243, 252

   activity in, 128

order, 3, 84, 97, 124, 125, 138, 142, 165, 179, 233, 311

   social, 122, 190

organic, 178, 195, 230, 284, 334, 335, 336, 340, 342, 345, 357, 407

organization, 11, 27, 71, 84, 85, 87, 91, 103, 110, 111, 112, 113, 116, 143, 148, 181, 182, 183, 184, 197, 199, 208, 257, 285, 290, 294, 297, 299, 302, 320, 321, 348, 364, 369, 372, 375, 379, 424

   social, 96

orientation, 255, 263, 273, 348

original, 1, 157, 165, 166, 244

origins, 16, 24, 31, 48, 58, 80, 94, 99, 133, 161

paradox, 64, 164, 169, 223, 234, 237, 238, 277, 334

Parmenides, 215

participant, 134

   structures, 327, 330

participation, 2, 6, 7, 12, 15, 28, 102, 112, 113, 114, 115, 118, 119, 120, 121, 122, 124, 140, 141, 146, 148, 151, 187, 215, 219, 237, 238, 239, 246, 253, 260, 262, 265, 267, 269, 271, 272, 273, 275, 287, 294, 303, 307, 311, 319, 322, 325, 327, 328, 329, 330, 344, 370, 372, 373, 374, 375, 379, 391, 396, 397

passions, 65, 236, 237, 261

passive, 39, 121, 146, 159, 168, 169, 382

Pasternak, 24, 240

path, 56, 62, 71, 120, 122, 146, 156, 196, 293, 300, 334, 342, 345, 401

   developmental, 182

pathogenesis, 10, 156

paths

   developmental, 278, 344, 346

patterns, 16, 33, 106, 142, 143, 186, 203, 307, 331, 350, 360, 367

   institutional, 148

Paulhan, 226

Paustovsky, 24

Pavlov, 4, 25, 26–28, 29, 31, 35, 37, 38, 40, 43, 46, 48, 289, 290

Pavlovian, 27, 290

pedagogic, 252, 307, 308, 316, 319, 329

   interaction, 15

   practices, 15

pedagogical, 265

   analysis, 331

pedagogy, 15, 16, 61, 72, 99, 276, 307, 308, 309, 312, 313, 316, 317, 318, 320, 322, 323, 329, 330, 331, 361, 397, 407, 413

Pedersen, 39

pedology, 37, 39, 40, 41, 162, 212, 383, 393, 421

peers, 122, 132, 140, 252, 278, 321, 323, 333, 334, 340, 342, 344

Peirce, 77, 78, 81, 82, 83, 94, 95, 99

perception, 52, 53, 55, 64, 108, 146, 148, 166, 210, 219, 221, 225, 237, 238, 249, 255, 258, 259, 284, 285, 287, 289, 292, 293, 294, 296, 300, 342, 348

   and action, 287, 288, 293, 295, 296, 297

   of objects, 219, 258, 260

perceptual, 231, 237, 263, 287

   field, 287, 295

perfection, 57, 239, 241

performance, 84, 87, 88, 105, 107, 111, 113, 115, 120, 125, 131, 144, 157, 182, 186, 189, 210, 219, 235, 236, 280, 321, 325, 336, 337, 339, 340, 352, 354, 355, 356, 357, 358, 359, 361, 370, 378, 397

   assisted, 318, 353

   nonassisted, 354

persistence, iv, 131, 361

personality, 39, 101, 106, 111, 280, 316, 342, 351

   development, 7, 315

perspective, 252

   societal, 15, 254, 263

phases, 160, 256

philosophy, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 10, 32, 34, 39, 40, 42, 49, 50, 51, 57, 59, 60, 63, 66, 67, 68, 74, 75, 80, 81, 82, 136, 150, 155, 205, 215, 239, 240, 244, 255, 283, 315, 392, 402, 403, 404, 406, 408

phylogenesis, 10, 48, 91, 93, 156, 201, 203, 208, 209, 283, 288, 291

phylogeny, 48, 208, 211

physiological, 26, 29, 44, 90, 168, 201, 205, 223, 242, 243, 294, 297

   functions, 168

physiologists, 2, 29, 48

physiology, 31, 180

   animal, 26

Piaget, 10, 38, 138, 160, 164, 177, 211, 223, 230, 315

   and cognition, 137

   neo-Piagetian, 282

pictures, 87, 174, 202, 260, 268, 371

Pinker, 147

Pisarev, 26, 29

planes, 162, 222, 279, 293

   ontogenetic, 163

planning, 116, 137, 138, 140, 141, 223, 285, 293, 340

   actions, 294

Plato, 39, 40, 50, 166, 215, 219, 220, 244

Platonov, 24

play, 22, 38, 66, 86, 92, 112, 113, 255, 260, 261, 263, 265, 266, 269, 273, 274, 278, 296, 320, 328

   world, 112, 113

Plekhanov, 204

Plotinus, 39

poetry, 69, 70, 145, 150, 180, 182, 226, 235, 237, 240, 252

poets, 24, 193, 214, 225, 235, 236, 240, 241, 242, 244

political, 1, 7, 8, 10, 16, 23, 74, 79, 80, 93, 102, 119, 123, 125, 126, 127, 128, 129, 196, 205, 282, 307, 324, 328, 331, 352, 369, 394, 397

Popper, 215

positioning, 12, 28, 102, 106, 107, 109, 112, 113, 121, 127, 168, 287

   social, 107, 121, 124, 125, 129, 130, 132

possibilities, 2, 3, 7, 11, 16, 21, 66, 67, 71, 75, 83, 116, 117, 120, 129, 152, 164, 188, 213, 218, 229, 230, 231, 232, 235, 248, 251, 258, 260, 262, 267, 268, 269, 272, 274, 275, 284, 286, 293, 312, 319, 321, 328, 329, 361, 368, 411, 415

postmodernist, 130, 131

poststructuralist, 117, 130, 131

Potebnya, 194, 202, 216, 222, 232, 233, 234, 235, 237, 241, 407

potential, 13, 16, 28, 63, 71, 74, 98, 102, 119, 148, 239, 278, 279, 282, 287, 293, 315, 316, 318, 323, 326, 328, 338, 347, 349, 352, 355, 359, 365, 366, 373, 374, 379, 381, 417, 421

   developmental, 315

poverty, 1, 29

power, 51, 54, 56, 69, 81, 82, 84, 88, 89, 97, 106, 117, 119, 127, 130, 135, 152, 187, 324, 365, 369

   relations, 132, 330

practical, 46, 80, 90, 92, 95, 98, 111, 127, 138, 168, 170, 173, 203, 210, 236, 243, 244, 258, 293, 295, 302, 311, 314, 317, 334, 336, 337, 349, 350, 353, 363, 368, 374, 379

practices, 1, 9, 13, 16, 28, 35, 54, 56, 57, 65, 75, 80, 86, 89, 90, 102, 103, 107, 109, 111, 116, 117, 121, 122, 124, 129, 130, 133, 134, 135, 146, 198, 206, 208, 211, 246, 251, 253, 258, 260, 261, 262, 273, 274, 287, 307, 313, 319, 321, 327, 330, 334, 340, 349, 361, 366, 369, 370, 372, 377, 379, 391, 394, 395, 396, 408, 409, 411, 413, 414, 416, 418, 421, 423

   institutional, 15, 86, 247, 251, 253, 255, 259, 263, 264

   societal, 251, 253, 263

pragmatism, 6, 77, 80, 81, 82, 83, 86, 92, 93, 94, 343

praxis, 259, 260, 313

preconcepts, 250, 257

preconditions, 73, 75, 90, 129, 249

prediction, 78, 354, 355

preferences, 21, 23, 307

preparation, 138, 178, 272, 292, 366, 367, 382, 424

pressures, 48, 328

presuppositions, 31, 67, 177, 252

preverbal, 168, 169

primary, 16, 33, 42, 52, 63, 114, 121, 183, 198, 216, 244, 252, 259, 260, 261, 263, 319, 328, 331, 333, 340, 342, 343, 345, 347, 349, 355, 356, 361, 380, 423

   functions, 181

primates, 45–46, 47, 168, 169, 170, 196, 203, 204, 293, 294

primitive, 55, 62, 71, 158, 159, 160, 164, 165, 168, 175, 186, 193, 199, 201, 202, 335, 336, 343

problem solving, 16, 55, 78, 98, 110, 111, 137, 138, 139, 140, 173, 174, 176, 191, 223, 225, 231, 239, 251, 278, 294, 295, 316, 321, 323, 342, 349, 353, 358, 364, 372

   practical, 293, 336

problems, 138, 225, 231, 314, 342, 370, 371

processes, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 10, 14, 22, 25, 26, 30, 35, 38, 42, 43, 44, 46, 53, 55, 66, 68, 72, 78, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 92, 93, 94, 95, 98, 99, 101, 102, 104, 106, 109, 110, 111, 112, 115, 116, 117, 118, 119, 123, 127, 128, 131, 132, 133, 136, 137, 138, 139, 140, 141, 146, 148, 149, 150, 151, 152, 157, 158, 159, 160, 161, 162, 166, 168, 169, 170, 173, 174, 175, 177, 178, 179, 180, 182, 185, 186, 187, 191, 193, 194, 200, 202, 203, 207, 208, 209, 211, 216, 217, 219, 221, 222, 224, 227, 230, 236, 237, 238, 239, 240, 242, 243, 245, 247, 249, 250, 256, 257, 258, 278, 280, 283, 284, 285, 286, 287, 288, 290, 292, 293, 295, 297, 298, 299, 300, 301, 303, 307, 308, 309, 311, 314, 315, 317, 318, 321, 322, 323, 325, 327, 330, 331, 336, 339, 340, 342, 343, 344, 345, 346, 349, 351, 354, 355, 356, 358, 359, 360, 361, 364, 366, 367, 368, 369, 370, 371, 372, 373, 374, 375, 376, 378, 379, 380, 386, 395, 396, 400, 403, 406, 409, 412, 415, 416, 418, 424

   developmental, 14, 76, 109, 137, 185, 248, 279, 310, 322, 354

   lower, 35, 38

   mediational, 2, 276

   multilineal, 1, 177

   ontogenetic, 166, 183

production, 45, 86, 104, 105, 109, 110, 114, 118, 128, 134, 193, 201, 206, 207, 210, 257, 259, 313, 323, 344

productive, 9, 11, 39, 94, 106, 179, 203, 228, 235, 329, 345

proficiency, 139, 141, 400

profiles, 119, 344, 345, 362

progress, 62, 71, 74, 197, 335

progressive, 26, 29, 30, 40, 41, 134, 150, 211, 369

projection, 143, 157, 236, 276

projects

   institutional, 123, 126, 135

   state, 10, 123, 124, 135

prolepsis, 166, 167, 169, 322

psyche, 16, 26, 79, 85, 230, 260, 283, 295, 307, 331

psychiatry, 29, 30, 119, 401

psychoanalysis, 43, 51, 165

psychodynamic, 102, 104, 133

psychological, 5, 16, 24, 30, 32, 33, 34, 35, 39, 48, 50, 51, 53, 56, 57, 58, 60, 61, 62, 63, 66, 69, 71, 73, 75, 91, 92, 95, 98, 102, 110, 112, 117, 130, 133, 136, 137, 138, 145, 146, 151, 156, 159, 160, 162, 164, 165, 166, 171, 172, 175, 177, 179, 182, 183, 187, 193, 194, 197, 199, 202, 205, 212, 213, 221, 226, 230, 232, 243, 249, 277, 279, 280, 281, 282, 283, 285, 286, 289, 290, 292, 294, 295, 296, 297, 299, 300, 302, 303, 308, 309, 310, 323, 330, 332, 336, 337, 339, 340, 342, 343, 344, 346, 347, 348, 349, 351, 352, 353, 354, 355, 358, 360, 361, 362, 364, 366, 367, 373, 395, 398, 399, 400, 401, 402, 403, 407, 408, 411, 412, 416, 417, 419, 420, 423

   analysis, 206, 316

   functions, 7, 113, 159, 193, 200, 201

   instruments, 365

   processes, 194, 203

   tasks, 175

   tools, 173

psychologists, 25, 40, 57, 59, 180, 203, 239, 277, 297

psychology, 3, 4, 6, 12, 14, 24, 28, 30, 31, 33, 35, 36, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 51, 57, 59, 61, 65, 74, 75, 79, 83, 86, 90, 102, 148, 180, 205, 219, 223, 244, 272, 283, 287, 296

   comparative, 45, 46, 47, 48, 62

   crisis in, 25, 36, 44, 51

   cultural, 179

   developmental, 47, 86, 128, 147, 203, 280, 309

   frontiers, 279

   genetic, 40, 203

   human, 133

   idealist, 32, 44, 289

   mainstream, 74, 78

   Marxist, 27, 32, 33, 36, 41, 42, 44, 84, 94, 204, 205

   materialist, 33, 34, 35, 36, 39

   naïve, 159, 175, 177

   Russian, 8, 25, 32, 34, 40, 84, 90, 205

   scientific, 197, 205

   social, 30, 31, 90, 93, 96, 99, 103, 107

   subjective, 36, 44, 51, 228

   terms, 44, 191

   transformational, 79, 86, 97

psychosocial, 131, 132

public, 63, 123, 124, 126

purpose, 65, 207, 285

Pushkin, 8, 155, 214, 242

quantification, 251, 268

race, 103, 106, 125, 126, 129, 130, 196

rational, 64, 65, 66, 73, 81, 126, 239

rationalist, 5, 11, 51, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 68, 74, 312, 379, 383

rationality, 53, 55, 65

reactions, 27, 36, 38, 41, 42, 43, 44, 85, 90, 168, 172, 173, 200, 216, 228, 243, 290, 291, 297, 312

   mediated, 176

reactive, 159, 236, 247, 363

reactology, 28, 41, 43

readiness, 171, 234, 262, 355

reading, 2, 8, 9, 22, 39, 49, 50, 56, 66, 69, 73, 94, 105, 123, 228, 241, 266, 297, 307, 309, 317, 320, 322

realism, 5, 61, 67, 82, 97, 99

reality, 55, 60, 61, 67, 68, 82, 83, 92, 95, 144, 146, 206, 229, 236, 240, 243, 252, 301

   social, 309, 326

realization, 138, 142, 148, 162, 229, 242, 292, 356

reason, 5, 65, 66, 68, 220, 230

   and words, 220

reasoning, 53, 55, 72, 210, 266, 336, 346, 349, 356, 368

   abstract, 9, 62, 68, 342

reasons, 64, 68

recall, 110, 172, 283, 320

reciprocal, 313

   teaching, 320, 323

reconstruction, 53, 156, 167, 211, 288, 292, 299, 309, 321, 367

reductionist, 25, 26, 30, 43, 232

referents, 168, 300, 311

reflection, 43, 57, 85, 89, 95, 96, 185, 214, 265, 313, 315, 337

reflexes, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 36, 44, 46, 47, 48, 52, 90, 108, 168

   conditional, 26, 27, 28, 38, 47

   conditioned, 169, 179, 366

reflexive, 55, 87, 89, 109, 134, 158

reflexology, 2, 30, 31, 35, 48, 51, 289

reform, 30

   educational, 39, 41, 315, 316

   psychology, 4, 213

   social, 25, 26, 29, 40, 79, 212

regulation, 95, 111, 116, 135, 140, 161, 170, 173, 189, 236, 291

relations, 5, 6, 7, 14, 15, 38, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 62, 63, 64, 65, 67, 70, 73, 76, 78, 84, 86, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 110, 112, 113, 114, 115, 124, 125, 127, 128, 130, 131, 132, 174, 184, 193, 194, 201, 205, 206, 207, 208, 217, 220, 221, 228, 229, 230, 234, 240, 246, 247, 248, 249, 252, 253, 257, 258, 261, 262, 263, 266, 267, 268, 269, 271, 273, 274, 284, 285, 289, 290, 297, 299, 309, 312, 314, 315, 326, 330, 343, 345, 362, 397, 409

   emotional, 263

   mediated, 202, 252

   societal, 131, 133, 148

relationships, 2, 6, 7, 8, 10, 15, 22, 68, 78, 83, 84, 86, 87, 88, 90, 93, 94, 103, 106, 107, 110, 120, 121, 122, 127, 132, 135, 136, 139, 143, 149, 151, 152, 183, 184, 185, 186, 191, 200, 202, 203, 206, 208, 222, 226, 227, 247, 250, 256, 287, 308, 309, 310, 311, 312, 313, 321, 324, 327, 329, 335, 337, 340, 343, 345, 346, 359, 361, 385, 397

   developmental, 183

   mediated, 122

religion, 126, 194

remediation, 322, 336, 339, 344, 345, 346, 347, 349, 352, 353, 357, 417

remembering, 172, 176, 181, 185, 274

   mediated, 174, 176

reorganization, 111, 292, 295

repetition, 143, 171, 172, 334, 360

re-presentation, 15, 55, 71, 86, 88, 95, 99, 125, 130, 132, 136, 146, 152, 157, 173, 183, 184, 234, 251, 255, 256, 257, 258, 259, 260, 261, 263, 278, 289, 291, 292, 297, 298, 299, 300, 301, 322, 370, 374, 375

   shared, 146

   sybolic, 265

reproduction, 127, 202, 259

researchers, 3, 5, 17, 21, 25, 31, 41, 45, 49, 96, 109, 114, 132, 141, 143, 144, 146, 174, 210, 247, 266, 272, 297, 331, 368, 369, 370, 375, 380, 382

resistance, 17, 218, 329, 373, 382

resources, 52, 78, 105, 114, 115, 116, 130, 140, 198, 202, 208, 301, 326, 411

responses, 27, 64, 68, 101, 116, 135, 137, 144, 182, 330, 363, 364, 372

responsibility, iv, 79, 116, 178, 322

responsive, 65, 88, 291, 316

retention, 42, 92, 203, 284, 316, 320, 346, 422

Rogoff, 187

role-play, 167, 261, 274, 342, 372

roles, 10, 21, 22, 26, 27, 43, 47, 49, 88, 89, 92, 95, 98, 103, 107, 109, 111, 113, 117, 122, 124, 125, 129, 135, 138, 143, 147, 159, 160, 165, 166, 167, 169, 176, 180, 193, 194, 204, 219, 226, 227, 234, 235, 236, 240, 245, 263, 266, 282, 287, 289, 290, 291, 293, 298, 299, 310, 316, 317, 320, 321, 333, 342, 346, 349, 361, 372, 384, 387, 395, 396, 397, 399, 406, 409, 417, 422

   cultural, 95, 109

   mediational, 2, 87

   social, 107, 108

Rommetveit, 187

Royce, 105, 107

Rubinshtein, 2

rules, 86, 112, 113, 126, 174, 181, 218, 255, 260, 261, 263, 278, 374, 381, 382

Saint Augustine, 217

Sapir, 10, 12, 28, 102, 143, 155, 287

scaffolding, 72, 138, 281, 302, 310, 317, 318, 319, 320, 321, 323, 329, 330, 343, 356, 416

scales, 91, 146, 267, 277, 360

Scheler, 50

schemes, 165, 173, 295, 312, 349

schooling, 6, 10, 17, 32, 36, 39, 40, 41, 42, 48, 50, 51, 52, 69, 103, 120, 121, 122, 132, 138, 139, 140, 209, 210, 246, 247, 248, 249, 250, 252, 253, 254, 257, 262, 263, 265, 266, 272, 273, 274, 277, 278, 286, 297, 310, 314, 319, 324, 325, 326, 328, 332, 334, 336, 337, 339, 342, 346, 351, 353, 354, 360, 366, 367, 408, 409, 414, 415, 416, 417, 419, 421, 422, 423

   formal, 310, 319

science, 5, 6, 31, 52, 57, 62, 68, 69, 81, 82, 86, 95, 96, 190, 281, 319, 326

   human, 75, 78, 136, 152, 213

scientific, 10, 15, 23, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 40, 43, 51, 52, 60, 61, 62, 68, 69, 70, 71, 75, 82, 87, 90, 95, 96, 97, 98, 151, 155, 156, 161, 196, 197, 205, 248, 249, 256, 257, 260, 283, 289, 309, 310, 311, 312, 313, 314, 316, 317, 319, 321, 324, 325, 326, 327, 328, 329, 346, 347, 350, 352, 353, 392, 403, 409

   concepts, 246, 309, 347

scientists, 21, 29, 49, 96, 205, 421

scripts, 256, 329

Sechenov, 25, 26, 27, 29, 214

self, 7, 73, 74, 84, 85, 86, 87, 90, 96, 104, 105, 106, 108, 114, 116, 131, 132, 133, 134, 138, 165, 265, 342

   and action, 80, 133

   conception, 109, 132

   control, 111, 116, 200, 203, 266, 268, 269

   dialogic, 63, 73, 105, 108, 127, 134

   formation, 103, 105, 290

   integrated, 102

   organization, 111, 112, 115, 134

   regulation, 94, 186, 321, 361

   roles, 84, 85, 108

   and society, 7, 84, 102, 105, 135

   understanding of, 74, 104

semantic, 55, 56, 91, 102, 141, 142, 145, 146, 147, 150, 155, 156, 157, 183, 224, 227, 230, 235, 238, 241, 296, 299, 300–301, 395, 399, 401

   analysis, 98, 177

semiotic, 7, 56, 63, 91, 95, 99, 105, 108, 116, 124, 129, 134, 148, 166, 167, 180, 182, 185, 187, 190, 191, 296, 299, 300, 380, 391, 396, 397, 399

   analysis, 98

   means, 135, 380

sensations, 112, 142, 214, 218, 221, 242

sense, 6, 21, 23, 27, 30, 40, 44, 53, 56, 57, 60, 63, 66, 67, 68, 72, 73, 74, 84, 85, 88, 93, 96, 98, 102, 103, 106, 107, 111, 115, 120, 122, 123, 127, 129, 184, 206, 218, 224, 227, 228, 229, 230, 231, 232, 234, 235, 237, 244

   and being, 230, 231

   and meaning, 226, 228, 230, 241, 245

   making, 99, 228, 322, 370

   of self, 103, 104, 113, 114, 119, 120, 122, 127

sensitivity

   emotional, 69

sensory, 147, 184, 219, 229, 230, 231, 236, 238, 294, 334, 340

   functions, 168

sentiments, 118, 121, 122, 129

   organizing, 113, 115

sequence, 177, 183, 184, 197, 233, 265, 274, 278, 280, 292, 299, 319, 328, 360

   developmental, 260

settings, 12, 14, 15, 17, 28, 37, 51, 69, 72, 98, 102, 112, 114, 115, 132, 150, 155, 187, 188, 191, 219, 246, 262, 263, 269, 280, 281, 287, 303, 320, 322, 324, 325, 326, 328, 329, 350, 351, 365, 368, 372, 380, 386, 418, 422

   institutional, 14

Severtsov, 4, 45, 47

shaming, 123, 124

shaping, i, 1, 2, 6, 21, 83, 88, 94, 102, 106, 108, 117, 120, 129, 130, 144, 147, 307

   active, 3

   cultural, 3

Shapiro, 38

Shcherba, 29

Shestov, 32

Shif, 310

shifts, 103, 106, 112, 122, 128, 130, 131, 141, 142, 167, 195, 210, 213, 309, 372

Sholokhov, 24

short-term, 174, 339, 340

Shpet, 10, 11, 32, 33, 34, 184, 185, 190, 191, 194, 202, 215, 217, 219, 222, 232

sign, 186

signalization, 28

signals, 168, 169, 366

   semantic, 231, 235

signification, 28, 115, 134, 182, 184, 225, 226, 329, 364

signs, 17, 28, 56, 94, 95, 108, 109, 160, 167, 173, 174, 175, 176, 177, 178, 179, 181, 182, 185, 186, 187, 189, 190, 191, 199, 200, 202, 214, 217, 220, 226, 228, 229, 233, 242, 244, 245, 247, 291, 292, 299, 345, 346, 364, 365, 373, 374, 387, 393, 412, 422, 425

   form, 186, 191

   functions, 159, 186, 188, 300, 364

   material, 180, 185

   mediating, 161, 166, 178

   and meaning, 186, 190, 191, 226, 228, 299

   organizing, 181, 182

   and thought, 244, 300

   vehicles, 188, 189, 190

simplification, 78, 129, 137, 240, 269, 282, 347, 382

simultaneous, 22, 74, 107, 109, 167, 207, 216, 233, 234, 237, 252, 281, 288, 291, 301, 311, 320, 364, 372

situated, 14, 62, 69, 70, 116, 120, 172, 178, 222, 229, 252, 288, 289, 292, 296, 301, 314, 324, 396, 424

situation, 237, 249, 255, 256, 260, 261, 264, 273, 293, 296, 374

skills, 140, 166, 200, 259, 273, 308, 310, 318, 319, 321, 322, 323, 326, 330, 338, 343, 348, 355, 358, 364, 374, 401, 409, 413, 419

   acquisition, 313, 329

Slobin, 149

social, i, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 9, 11, 14, 15, 16, 22, 23, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 33, 37, 40, 42, 53, 54, 56, 58, 61, 63, 71, 73, 74, 75, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 96, 97, 99, 101, 102, 103, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 118, 119, 121, 122, 123, 124, 125, 127, 128, 129, 130, 131, 132, 133, 134, 135, 137, 138, 146, 147, 148, 149, 158, 160, 161, 162, 164, 170, 178, 180, 182, 184, 186, 187, 191, 194, 196, 197, 198, 199, 200, 201, 202, 206, 208, 210, 213, 246, 248, 251, 258, 259, 262, 264, 265, 266, 273, 274, 277, 279, 280, 281, 282, 290, 292, 301, 302, 307, 309, 311, 313, 316, 318, 321, 322, 323, 324, 325, 326, 327, 328, 329, 330, 331, 332, 333, 335, 342, 344, 345, 351, 352, 356, 366, 369, 375, 376, 379, 384, 385, 386, 387, 391, 392, 394, 395, 396, 397, 398, 399, 400, 402, 403, 404, 407, 409, 410, 415, 416, 418, 419, 421, 424

   construction, 67, 82

   development, 40, 147, 309

   emphasis, 308, 330

   interaction, 105, 118, 148, 187, 206

   mind, 7, 83, 89

   organization, 199, 320

   practices, 54, 57, 258, 327

   processes, 89, 186

   relations, 54, 103, 112, 206, 326

   responsibility, 79, 80, 99

   roles, 85, 96

   sciences, 1, 77, 80, 82, 93, 102, 150, 195

   suggestions, 106

   theory, i, 1, 3, 4, 84, 86, 127

   worth, 130, 133

social/adaptive

   functions, 335

socialism, 40, 79, 210

socialization, 14, 148, 150, 187, 190

society, 40, 85, 262, 391, 395, 396, 397, 398, 399, 400, 403, 404, 409, 412, 416, 424

   and culture, 74

   closed, 351

   justice, 57

sociocultural, 2, 3, 5, 8, 10, 21, 63, 74, 99, 101, 109, 117, 130, 133, 134, 156, 190, 204, 209, 257, 329, 333, 344, 349, 351

   evolution, 195, 196, 198, 208

   identity, 109, 116

socioeconomic, 21

sociogenesis, 7, 105, 107, 109, 133, 134, 158, 161, 162, 199, 282

sociohistorical, 3, 21, 75, 98, 110, 118, 163, 178

sociology, 3, 6, 80, 97, 101, 102

sociotechnical

   systems, 3, 180

Solov’ev, 32

somatic, 43, 168

sophistication, 59, 62, 71, 189, 191

sorting, 70, 246, 268, 365

soul, 21, 34, 215, 233, 237, 239, 245

   dialogue, 215, 219

sound, 165, 184, 185, 207, 220, 224, 232, 233

Soviet Union

   historical context, 1, 4, 7, 23, 29, 33, 205, 206, 333

   intolerance, 25, 29, 33, 37, 40, 43, 45, 84, 184, 204, 231, 307, 316, 334

space, 91, 123, 124, 132, 135, 144, 149, 166, 243, 289, 293, 297, 320, 329

speakers, 141, 144, 145, 147, 185, 399

special needs, 16, 332, 333, 334, 335, 337, 340, 348, 350, 351, 357

specificity, 208, 300, 346

speculation, 6, 26, 57, 60, 327, 328

speech, 2, 7, 8, 25, 28, 42, 52, 55, 73, 88, 98, 111, 117, 136, 137, 138, 139, 140, 141, 142, 145, 146, 147, 148, 149, 151, 152, 155, 160, 164, 165, 166, 169, 175, 176, 183, 185, 186, 187, 200, 216, 217, 219, 221, 222, 223, 224, 231, 242, 243, 247, 293, 298, 312, 327, 333, 342

   and action, 128, 200

   and development, 147, 170

   development, 137, 175

   egocentric, 138, 175, 176, 186

   inner, 8, 10, 11, 89, 111, 137, 138, 139, 141, 142, 143, 151, 152, 165, 180, 183, 184, 186, 216, 217, 223, 224

   intellectual, 53, 137

   interactional, 142

   private, 138, 139, 140, 297, 300

   and problem solving, 111, 139

   social, 111, 180, 186

speed, 242, 243

Spencer, 283

Spinoza, 5, 10, 50, 58, 59, 60, 86, 155, 261, 289

spirit, 81, 90, 184, 217, 219, 232, 240

spontaneous, 61, 62, 70, 88, 97, 140, 160, 164, 165, 247, 248, 249, 257, 261, 310, 311, 314, 319, 336, 338, 346, 347, 365, 409

stability, 73, 94, 102, 130, 133, 134, 139, 151, 165, 227

stages, 9, 12, 24, 28, 47, 53, 88, 102, 127, 131, 137, 146, 158, 159, 160, 163, 164, 165, 167, 168, 169, 170, 173, 174, 175, 177, 185, 187, 196, 199, 201, 222, 253, 256, 261, 278, 287, 294, 298, 299, 300, 308, 310, 318, 351, 408, 411, 418

   developmental, 10, 15, 163, 168, 172, 247, 254, 262, 279, 308, 314, 354

   ontogenetic, 161

Stalin, 29, 205

state, 128, 129

   tools, 124

static, 11, 262, 282, 354, 398

Stern, 137

stimuli, 2, 27, 28, 42, 43, 53, 64, 87, 88, 90, 93, 107, 108, 109, 115, 141, 179, 181, 182, 191, 235, 246, 285, 287, 291, 292, 364, 365, 366

   artificial, 181, 291

   environmental, 116, 291, 348

   external, 168, 287, 290

   media, 288, 289

   second, 364, 365, 382

stimulus, 364

   means, 174, 180, 191, 365

   response, 52, 55, 292

strategies, 139, 292, 321, 325, 329, 340, 342, 348, 369

   cognitive, 348

stress, 63, 108, 130, 132, 259, 382

structuralist, 38, 157, 326

structures, 10, 29, 38, 52, 55, 60, 61, 66, 72, 86, 88, 91, 97, 98, 110, 135, 137, 143, 144, 148, 150, 157, 165, 179, 184, 206, 209, 211, 213, 221, 222, 224, 225, 226, 229, 230, 235, 248, 249, 250, 256, 257, 258, 281, 283, 284, 285, 287, 290, 292, 294, 297, 299, 300, 308, 309, 311, 312, 314, 319, 320, 327, 329, 330, 342, 343, 344, 348, 364, 365, 372, 373, 374, 380, 396, 402, 406, 415

   event, 144, 256

   mediated, 158, 161

struggle, 130

   developmental, 183

students, i, 17, 32, 33, 35, 39, 72, 78, 120, 121, 122, 124, 136, 140, 142, 145, 181, 186, 188, 189, 190, 197, 203, 204, 205, 265, 314, 315, 317, 318, 321, 326, 329, 330, 332, 335, 345, 347, 348, 349, 350, 351, 352, 367, 368, 369, 370, 382, 419, 421

   active, 39

   understanding, 188, 189

Stumpf, 32

style, 24, 78, 91, 204, 210, 212, 241

   behavior, 212, 241

   telegraphic, 141, 155, 224

   of thinking, 59, 156, 157

subject, 14, 17, 42, 62, 63, 64, 69, 75, 106, 206, 216, 253, 281, 365

subjective, 25, 32, 35, 43, 44, 46, 59, 91, 108, 149, 228

subjectivism, 95, 252

subjectivists, 25, 27, 31–37

subjectivity, 60, 69, 75, 90, 130, 132, 316

substance, 238, 289

substitution, 206, 236, 343

subversion, 329, 369

survival, 259, 284

sustaining, 56, 63, 86, 116, 124, 308, 318, 320, 328

symbolic, 66, 88, 93, 96, 103, 108, 109, 143, 148, 200, 259, 263, 265, 273, 274, 282, 288, 292, 329, 337, 339, 344, 346, 349, 358, 365

   behavior, 108, 134

   forms, 105

   functions, 89

   interactionism, 93, 97, 103

   level, 263

   meaning, 347

   systems, 248, 257, 365

   tools, 336, 338, 340, 349

   violence, 123, 124

symbols, 86, 94, 97, 109, 112, 113, 116, 137, 145, 148, 225, 241, 244, 245, 247, 255, 278

syncretic, 250, 292, 301

syntax, 147, 150, 224, 235, 399

synthesis, 42, 49, 58, 148, 185, 208, 221, 256, 400, 401, 411, 421, 424

systematic, 10, 11, 68, 95, 143, 157, 167, 246, 248, 311, 346, 349

systems, 25, 43, 69, 78, 82, 110, 144, 149, 160, 178, 187, 202, 211, 230, 248, 251, 252, 253, 257, 262, 263, 265, 275, 281, 283, 285, 292, 299, 303, 308, 315, 327, 337, 343, 346, 424

   change, 281, 309

   mediational, 287

   theory, 100, 157

talk, 125, 138, 142, 269

talking footprints, 239

tasks, 4, 10, 33, 38, 45, 56, 66, 87, 96, 97, 98, 101, 102, 139, 140, 171, 172, 174, 176, 190, 191, 222, 228, 238, 239, 246, 265, 268, 269, 271, 272, 274, 278, 279, 293, 295, 298, 299, 301, 317, 318, 323, 329, 353, 355, 357, 359, 360, 361, 364, 370, 373

   analysis, 318

   challenging, 138, 140

teachers, 17, 62, 72, 121, 180, 188, 190, 217, 278, 310, 314, 319, 320, 329, 330

teaching, 23, 29, 33, 73, 121, 124, 138, 145, 233, 259, 277, 280, 310, 311, 312, 313, 314, 315, 316, 317, 318, 319, 320, 323, 325, 332, 334, 343, 345, 346, 348, 349, 351, 356, 357, 358, 394, 408, 413, 415, 418

   developmental, 310, 317, 331

   and learning, 314, 330

   reciprocal, 320, 321, 322

   tools, 141

technical, 61, 179, 189, 203, 289, 292, 310

techniques, 40, 54, 69, 72, 110, 173, 178, 302, 315, 330, 332, 348, 356, 357, 362, 372

   mediational, 16

technologies, 21, 66, 71, 198, 199, 202, 277, 319

   mediating, 199

teleological, 60, 65

temporal, 3, 38, 242, 293, 351, 380, 423

tension, 7, 30, 83, 104, 106, 183, 307, 331, 376

tertiary, 259, 260, 261, 263

testing, 12, 28, 85, 102, 139, 140, 145, 146, 171, 173, 174, 278, 279, 287, 339, 356, 357, 360, 361, 367, 368, 369, 419

   standardized, 338, 354

themes, 34, 228, 229, 252, 267

   philosophical, 50

theoretical, 1, 2, 8, 9, 13, 14, 15, 16, 28, 31, 34, 35, 37, 43, 57, 61, 68, 71, 86, 103, 104, 131, 137, 140, 141, 150, 152, 157, 168, 178, 180, 191, 194, 201, 210, 211, 245, 246, 250, 251, 252, 253, 255, 257, 263, 269, 273, 274, 276, 277, 278, 289, 309, 313, 314, 315, 316, 317, 319, 323, 324, 331, 334, 335, 340, 347, 349, 352, 357, 360, 361, 363, 368, 369, 370, 371, 372, 386, 391, 402, 408, 423, 424

   dialectical, 250, 260, 274

theorists, 104, 105, 108, 109, 179, 186

theory, 1, 2, 3, 4, 9, 13, 16, 21, 26, 27, 28, 31, 35, 39, 41, 42, 43, 45, 47, 49, 57, 59, 62, 67, 70, 71, 84, 86, 92, 96, 98, 103, 107, 115, 117, 150, 151, 156, 160, 162, 165, 166, 177, 180, 183, 199, 205, 208, 210, 211, 246, 247, 248, 252, 255, 257, 258, 260, 261, 263, 276, 277, 278, 280, 298, 319, 327, 334, 335, 337, 343, 345, 347, 353, 354, 355, 359, 361, 363, 368, 369, 374, 380, 383, 391, 392, 393, 394, 396, 397, 398, 403, 404, 408, 409, 413, 414, 415, 418, 420, 421, 422, 423, 425

   of culture, 11

   developmental, 137, 277, 335, 353

   folk, 252

   literary, 50

   of relativity, 216, 239

thinking, 2, 88, 92, 93, 94, 143, 145, 148, 175, 185, 201, 204, 210, 213, 214, 215, 217, 218, 219, 222, 223, 234, 237, 241, 284, 289, 302, 307, 311, 313, 321

   abstract, 249

   act of, 53, 221

   dialogical, 252

   and language, 212, 213, 235

   original, 50

   tasks, 237

Thinking and Speech (see also Thought and Language), 2, 8, 68, 97, 142, 147, 162, 181, 182, 184, 193, 212, 217, 220, 228, 310

Thorndike, 25

thought, 2, 4, 7, 8, 9, 25, 38, 39, 40, 50, 51, 53, 54, 55, 58, 59, 60, 63, 64, 66, 67, 70, 72, 73, 74, 77, 79, 80, 81, 82, 94, 106, 111, 116, 117, 136, 137, 138, 139, 141, 142, 143, 144, 145, 146, 147, 148, 150, 151, 152, 160, 161, 166, 183, 184, 186, 193, 194, 197, 202, 203, 208, 210, 211, 212, 213, 214, 215, 216, 217, 218, 219, 220, 221, 222, 223, 224, 225, 226, 227, 228, 230, 231, 232, 233, 234, 235, 236, 237, 238, 239, 240, 242, 243, 244, 245, 250, 261, 276, 282, 283, 288, 289, 297, 300, 308, 311, 312, 321, 373, 387, 399, 400, 402, 408, 409, 415

   and action, 68, 201, 202, 233, 237, 319

   conceptual, 138, 210

   and development, 55

   and language, 137, 138, 149, 205, 233

   mediated, 146, 201, 227

   movement of, 185, 213, 222

   origin of, 216, 217, 239, 313

   place, 221

   processes, 202, 208, 327

   pure, 184, 185, 218, 222, 223, 231, 233, 234

   and speech, 137, 140, 150, 152, 183, 227

   speed of, 142, 233, 234, 235

   structure of, 38, 137

   and word, 183, 185, 212, 213, 216, 219, 223, 226, 232, 234, 243

   wordless, 218, 231

Thought and Language, 7, 77, 98, 136, 150, 199, 247, 391, 392, 403, 420

Thurnwald, 202, 210

time, 6, 144, 145, 166, 243, 259, 293

Tinbergen, 48

Titchener, 34

Tolstoy, 39, 193

Tomasello, 147

tools, 2, 16, 17, 21, 40, 45, 47, 53, 58, 61, 62, 66, 67, 78, 87, 88, 91, 93, 94, 95, 187, 190, 199, 200, 202, 203, 204, 220, 246, 251, 253, 255, 259, 263, 274, 290, 292, 293, 327,

tools (cont.), 338, 339, 340, 344, 346, 347, 348, 349, 352, 355, 362, 370, 371, 372, 374, 378, 380, 420

   behavior, 179, 292

   conceptual, 96, 97

   constraints, 114, 186

   cultural, 78, 88, 94, 180, 186, 187, 189, 190, 199, 336

   educational, 263, 279, 315

   functions, 94

   and language, 94, 170, 200, 259

   and mediation, 13, 14, 28, 102, 162, 200, 246, 287, 366

   psychological, 66, 69, 72, 178, 179, 202, 289, 290, 292, 344, 345, 348, 349, 352

   scientific, 97

   and signs, 158, 179

   symbolic, 66, 343

   and symbols, 109

   use, 94, 190, 203

top-down, 62, 71

traditions, 2, 3, 9, 15, 21, 34, 38, 39, 54, 60, 63, 73, 81, 110, 121, 122, 130, 136, 159, 160, 161, 191, 193, 195, 201, 210, 247, 250, 251, 253, 257, 259, 261, 265, 272, 274, 275, 277, 289, 315, 324, 328, 350, 354, 355, 356, 357, 365, 367, 375

training, 26, 48, 111, 116, 124, 200, 266, 269, 272, 274, 277, 310, 333, 349, 424

trajectories, 121, 122, 278, 279, 309

transcendence, 34, 65, 81, 86, 97, 116, 251, 252, 255, 272, 273, 278, 288, 292, 324, 361

transference, 112, 200, 298, 299, 300, 318, 319, 320, 322, 347, 348, 358, 359

transformation, 1, 4, 42, 43, 53, 58, 60, 61, 68, 88, 91, 97, 99, 117, 127, 128, 137, 148, 166, 167, 176, 179, 182, 184, 200, 204, 216, 228, 258, 290, 294, 295, 296, 298, 303, 310, 345, 348, 369, 372, 378, 391

   of activity, 122, 207, 381

   qualitative, 179, 182

transition, 76, 159, 162, 163, 164, 165, 191, 203, 223, 247, 294, 308, 355

transitivity, 108

transmission, 54, 138, 226, 259, 312, 315

transparency, 191, 239

triangle, 239, 240

   mediational, 179

   semiotic, 186

Trubetskoy, 32

truth, 60, 61, 67, 71, 106, 133, 217, 218, 222, 237

Tulviste, 211

Turgenyev, 25

Tylor, 197

types, 111, 118, 134, 196

   social, 103, 114, 133

Uexküll, 283, 290

Ukhtomsky, 242

unaided, 63, 356

underdevelopment, 336, 342

underestimation, 326

   of competence, 330

underprivileged, 17, 80, 382

understanding, 3, 4, 5, 7, 10, 17, 21, 25, 31, 35, 59, 64, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 75, 78, 79, 83, 90, 91, 94, 99, 101, 104, 108, 113, 121, 126, 127, 130, 133, 138, 140, 146, 149, 155, 157, 160, 168, 174, 178, 186, 187, 188, 189, 190, 196, 199, 205, 213, 220, 222, 224, 227, 230, 240, 244, 257, 258, 261, 268, 276, 277, 282, 290, 292, 301, 319, 321, 323, 325, 335, 340, 344, 349, 351, 368, 369, 373, 394, 409, 411, 413

   academic, 325

   intercultural, 71

uniformity, 40, 243, 315, 323

unit of analysis, 2, 55, 58, 63, 96, 114, 185, 206, 220, 221, 227, 228

   frontier-breaking, 281

   word meaning, 183, 205, 221

United States, 6, 8, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 84, 85, 90, 99, 338, 352, 360

unity, 68, 70, 71, 80, 81, 127, 168, 195, 214, 222, 224, 225, 227, 238, 241, 250, 284, 349

universal, 28, 62, 69, 70, 91, 96, 117, 130, 133, 148, 170, 219, 353

universalism, 5, 62, 82

unmediated, 176, 178, 202, 221

upbringing, 71, 253, 315, 344, 418

utility, 416

utterance, 55, 73, 188, 207, 217, 220, 228, 229, 243

Uznadze, 2

Vagner, 29, 45, 46, 47–48, 49

valency, 287, 288

   emotional, 113

Valsiner, 58, 59, 61, 66, 75, 90, 91, 95, 106, 117, 386, 387, 389, 392, 393, 396, 397, 400, 401, 405, 411, 413, 421, 424

values, 40, 108, 113, 116, 127, 128, 133, 195, 316, 327

   societal, 132

van der Veer, 105

vector, 293

Venger, 358

verbal, 136, 138, 141, 158, 169, 172, 173, 184, 222, 233, 235, 241, 242, 294, 300, 312, 342, 346

   definition, 311, 347

   meanings, 226, 337

   mediation, 173, 176

   thinking, 137, 138, 170, 183, 211, 213, 215, 220, 221, 222, 227, 228, 300

verbalization, 140, 231, 242

visual, 136, 141, 152, 169, 210, 214, 237, 239, 247, 260, 265, 274, 288, 293, 342, 358, 360, 402, 408, 411

   field, 295

voice, 17, 73, 117, 118, 214, 239, 327, 375, 382, 393, 395, 400, 404

   active, 127

volition, 52, 54, 55, 109, 161, 214, 215, 241, 249, 279, 313

Volkov, 239

voluntary, 53, 54, 160, 161, 164, 165, 169, 176, 239, 249, 279, 287, 291, 297, 309, 311, 312, 342, 365, 366, 413, 424

Von Uexküll, 284

Vvedensky, 34

Vygotskian, 8, 15, 17, 21, 58, 64, 71, 74, 75, 91, 92, 104, 109, 113, 116, 117, 123, 134, 187, 206, 207, 282, 288, 319, 323, 327, 329, 330, 334, 335, 337, 338, 347, 348, 349, 354, 356, 358, 361, 363, 370, 373, 380, 391, 393, 394, 396, 400, 405, 410, 414, 415, 416, 417, 418, 419

Vygotsky, 24, 50, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 64, 66, 70, 77, 81, 86, 87, 90, 91, 92, 95, 96, 98, 107, 110, 112, 199, 201, 248, 250, 288, 291, 383, 385, 386, 387, 388, 389, 390, 391, 392, 393, 396, 397, 398, 399, 400, 401, 403, 404, 405, 406, 407, 408, 409, 410, 411, 412, 413, 414, 415, 416, 417, 418, 419, 420, 421, 422, 423, 424, 425

   consciousness, 52, 55

   early death, 8

   early life, 4

   evolutionary psychology, 283

   generative, 9

   legacy, 3, 74

   literary interests, 50

   metaphors, 151, 216

   methodology, 86, 91

   open-minded, 290

   original interests, 77, 332

   personality, 111

   Russian cultural life, 24

   scientific school, 212

   Shpet’s student, 212

   significance, 51

   terminology, 155

   turn to psychology, 24

Wartofsky, 251, 255, 263

Watson, 10, 25, 155, 205

Weber, 230

well-being, 94, 102, 378, 396

Werner, 25

Wertsch, 98, 203, 206, 298

Western, 5, 12, 13, 28, 45, 60, 72, 74, 77, 99, 102, 110, 122, 130, 132, 136, 193, 201, 205, 252, 263, 277, 287, 288, 294, 334, 338, 353, 357, 358, 394, 395, 399

   society, 262

Westphal, 29

wholeness, 42, 131, 157, 394

Whorf, 7, 143, 144, 147, 150

Whorfian, 143

   hypothesis, 143, 145

will, 53, 54, 64, 65, 90, 119, 168, 237, 290, 365

   and emotion, 214

   mediated, 111

wisdom, 58, 62, 72, 320

withdrawal, 120, 123, 319

words, 7, 11, 36, 52, 54, 69, 87, 98, 108, 110, 112, 136, 137, 141, 145, 146, 147, 150, 151, 159, 175, 183, 185, 186, 195, 206, 212, 213, 214, 215, 216, 217, 218, 219, 220, 221, 222, 223, 224, 225, 226, 227, 229, 232, 235, 236, 237, 242, 245, 293, 297

   and actions, 238, 239, 240, 241, 245

   and consciousness, 206, 219

   forms, 218, 229

   functions, 220, 228

   inner, 184, 212, 226, 231, 234, 242

   meaning, 98, 107, 123, 148, 205, 213, 232, 250

   sense, 224, 228

   and signs, 111

   structures, 219, 220

   and thought, 136, 137, 139, 143, 183, 186, 218, 225, 235, 237

work, 15, 16–17, 42, 85, 113, 252, 253, 262, 269, 274, 363, 376

   activity, 246, 269, 370, 371

   practices, 253, 370

world, 89, 91, 99, 109, 123, 132, 133, 206, 208, 209, 229, 248, 260

   conceptualizing, 60, 67, 148

   construction, 85, 285

   cultural, 115, 121

   imagining, 112, 115, 261

   mediated, 258

   natural, 60, 128, 202

   relation, 14, 200, 253

worlds, 3, 44, 78, 79, 81, 87, 88, 91, 94, 113, 115, 120, 125, 132, 148, 284, 394, 395, 408

   figured, 113, 115, 121, 125, 128

writing, 141, 142, 176, 178, 202, 203, 342, 373

Wundt, 25, 29, 32, 34, 35, 41, 79, 197, 200

Würzburg, 35

Würzburg school, 31, 41, 297

Yaroshevsky, 75

Yerkes, 45

Zabolotsky, 241

Zamyatin, 24

Zaporozhets, 10, 212, 226, 287, 294, 358

Zazzo, 14, 280

Zinchenko, 184, 206, 294, 295

zone of proximal development, vi, 13, 14, 15, 63, 72, 172, 249, 276, 277, 278, 279, 280, 281, 282, 283, 289, 294, 298, 301, 302, 303, 309, 310, 313, 314, 317, 318, 319, 320, 325, 330, 349, 352, 353, 354, 355, 357, 358, 359, 360, 361, 410, 414, 415, 417

   diagnostic, 303

   mental age, 278

   misinterpretations, 310

   multiple, 326

zone of syncretic representation, 296


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