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Sumer and the Sumerians
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Details

  • 87 b/w illus. 9 maps
  • Page extent: 264 pages
  • Size: 246 x 189 mm
  • Weight: 0.57 kg

Paperback

 (ISBN-13: 9780521533386 | ISBN-10: 0521533384)




Index




Abu (god), votive statue 206

Abu Salabikh 24, 38, 45

   bowls as grave goods 143

   domestic buildings 110, 112

   flint sickles 57

   Jemdat Nasr pottery at 19

   pottery kilns 166, 167

   scribes at 12

   town plan 63

Adab, city of 28, 44, 45, 47, 220

   Agade period temple 82

Adams, R. McC. 5, 37, 40

administration 16, 33, 216

   civil service at Ur 35

   increasing sophistication 100, 203, 217

   Upper Mesopotamia (middle Uruk) 119

   see also palace; temple

afterlife 140, 157, 214

   in Sumerian texts 135

Agade, city of 15, 33

   see also Akkad, kingdom of

Agade dynasty 33–4, 189

   see also Naram-Sin; Sargon

Agade period 21–2

   end of 133

   historical dating 24

   metallurgy 171–3

   public buildings 100–3

   radiocarbon dating 24

   seal impressions 203, 202–3

   settlement patterns 45–7

   stelae 210

   temples 82–3

   trade 189–90

agate 175

agriculture 52–9, 218

   arable (cereals) 6, 7, 54–7

   crops 53, 55, 55–6

   dairy 57, 58

   decline in Ur III period 35

   economic surplus 15, 17–8

   harvesting 55

   labour for 57, 59

   manuring 55

   pastoralism 7, 11, 12–13, 17, 57–9, 93

   rain-fed 7, 115

   settled farmers 12–13

   tools 56–7

   see also irrigation

Akkad, river port 15

Akkad, kingdom of 8, 26

   Urkesh and 126

   see also Agade

Akkadian language 13

alabaster

   Nippur votive statue 207

   Uruk vase 55, 204

alloys

   bronze 17, 167

   copper arsenic 168

   electrum 139, 139, 167

   true tin bronze 168, 171, 190

Altyn Tepe, Turkmenia, ziggurat 88

Amar-Sin (Bur-Sin), king of Ur 83, 156

Amarna archives 197

Amorites 23, 35, 219

Anatolia

   copper from 11

   gold beads from 187

   links with Upper Mesopotamia 8, 115

   megaron buildings 82

   obsidian from 139

   raw materials from 180

   Sumerian conquests in 33

   trade with 182, 184

   Uruk sites 23

Anu (sky god), at Uruk 28

Arabia

   copper from 11

   stearite/chlorite from 185

   trade with 184

   Ubaid pottery finds 182

   see also Dilmun; Magan; Meluhha

Arabian Gulf

   position of head of 9–10, 38, 48

   trade routes 15, 181–3

Aratta, lord of 184

archaeological dating 16

   historical 24

   radiocarbon dating 16, 23–25

archaeological interpretation

   of buildings 30–1, 75, 89–90, 98, 105–6, 117

   of funerary evidence 136, 137, 157

archaeological techniques

   German 3

   modern 4–5

   surveying 5, 37–9, 41 map, 42 map, 43 map

   use of computers 5, 39, 221

archaeology

   costs 4, 5

   and destruction of sites 38

   early 2 map, 1–2

   effect of salt on sites 38

   modern Iraq 4, 220–1

architects 69, 70

architecture

   circular structures 93, 92–6, 183

   corbel vault 36, 69

   dome 36, 69

   Early Dynastic 19, 96

   megaron buildings 82, 118, 117–8

   pillars 69

   true arch 36, 69

   Ur III period 22

   see also buildings; domestic buildings; palaces; public buildings; temples

armies see warfare

Arparchiyah, Syria, pottery 164

Arslantepe/Malatya, Anatolia 178, 180

art, Ur III period 22

art objects 213, 219

   see also pottery; seals; statuary; stelae; stone objects

Asimah, Arabia 188

Assur (Ashur) 2

   Ishtar temple 79, 189

Assyrian kingdom 35

cAtij, site 121

Babylon 2, 219

Bad Tibira 45

Badakshan, lapis lazuli from 139, 180

Baghdad 1, 54

Bahrain

   Barbar temples 191

   City II (Ur III period) 190, 191

   as entrepôt 182, 187

   see also Dilmun

Banat 127

   White monuments 154

Banks, E. J. 3

barley, as currency 159

basketry 160

beads

   carnelian 175, 178, 181, 186

   on clothing 161, 161

   gold 187

   grave goods 139, 145

   pottery 138

Bell, Gertrude 4

Beydar (Nabada)

   Kranzhugel town 125, 125–6, 133

   seal impression 126

Bi’a, stone tomb 154

bitumen 6, 7

   as mortar

boat building 160

boats

   barges for transport 15

   model 152, 153

Botta, Émile 2

Bouqras, stamp seal 198

Brak see Tell Brak

bricks

   baked 66–7

   name stamps on 82, 103

   plano-convex, Early Dynastic 19, 66, 67

   unbaked mudbricks 66

British School of Archaeology in Iraq 4

bronze 17, 167

   arsenical 168

   true tin 168, 171, 190

Buckingham, J. S. 1

building materials 66–9

   baked bricks 66–7

   mortar 67

   mudbrick (unbaked) 66

   plaster 67

   roof timbers 68

   surveying equipment 68

   tools 68, 68

building plans 69

   see also house plans; temple plans

buildings

   floors 67

   roofs 67–8, 106

   upper storeys 97–8, 114, 132

   windows 106

   see also architecture; domestic buildings; house plans; public buildings; temple plans

bulla (clay ball), enclosing tokens 193

Bur-Sin see Amar-Sin

bureaucracy see administration; officials

burials

   body position 141, 154

   bone preservation 142, 148

   cart (Kish) 143–5

   of children 135, 138, 140, 147

   funerary evidence 136, 157

   inhumations 137, 138, 140, 142, 147

   multiple 95, 145, 147, 153

     retinues (Ur) 154, 156

   pisé 137, 138

   rituals and ideology 142, 143, 154, 155, 156

   and social status 32, 138, 142, 157

   vessel 138, 140

   within private houses 110, 113, 155

   see also cemeteries; graves; tombs

calendar

   Sargon’s reform of 33

   year-names 24

camel 59

canals

   building and maintenance 54

   linked with Euphrates 47

   for transport and communication 14

   see also irrigation

Carchemish, route from 14

carnelian

   from Aratta 184

   beads 175, 178, 181, 186

   grave goods 139, 145

   stamp seals 199

carts 15, 153

   burials (Kish) 143–5

Çatal Hüyük, Anatolia, clay tokens 193

cattle 55, 58

cemeteries

   extramural 135, 155

   Kheit Qasim 136, 140–1, 142

   Shahdad 187

   Tepe Gawra 137–40

   Ur (Jemdat Nasr) 141–2

   see also Kish; Ur, Jemdat Nasr cemetery; Ur, Royal Cemetery

cereal cultivation see agriculture

chapels, private 113–4, 155

chlorite see steatite/chlorite

cire perdue (lost wax) casting of metals 167

cities

   and satellite towns 10

   Sumerian plain 27 map

   see also town plans; towns

citizens, assemblies of 30

city-states

   as political concept 20

   small 126

   Upper Mesopotamia 217

   Uruk period 16, 28

clay

   for tools (sickles) 57

   see also plaques; tablets

climate fluctuation 6, 17, 221

   end of Agade period 133

climate zones 7 map, 6–9, 17

clothing 149

   decoration (embroidery) 161, 161

   evidence from royal graves at Ur 148–9

   head-dresses 149, 161

   on statues 149, 150, 160–2, 207

   see also textiles

colours 74–5

   pigments 6

communications 14 map

   east–west routes 13–4

   hollow ways (Upper Mesopotamia) 115, 124

   north–south routes 14–5, 50

   waterways 61

   see also trade routes

cone mosaics see mosaics

copper 6, 11, 13, 167

   Arabia 182, 184, 188, 191

   imported 173, 180, 181

   to price exchanges 159

   for tools 56

   see also alloys

copper objects

   figurines 169

   lattice-work stand (grave good) 144

   in public buildings (Tell Asmar) 100

   statuary (Agade period) 21, 171, 172, 171–3

cosmetics 149

councils, of citizens 30

counting system, sexagesimal 36, 139

craftsmen 158

   apprenticeship system 69

   private enterprise 159, 166

   state employees 173

   tools 158, 174

crops 53, 55, 55–6

   harvesting 55

cuneiform writing 195, 196, 197–8, 215

cylinder seals 17, 199–4, 215

   agricultural scenes 56, 200, 201

   at Bahrain 190

   banquet scenes 150, 152, 202, 204

   combat scenes 202, 202, 203, 204

   drilled 201

   in graves 141, 144, 147

   Jemdat Nasr 18, 92

   Ninevite V 121

   north Mesopotamia 120, 134

   Piedmont style 183, 183, 201

   regional styles 201

   ritual scenes on 200

   scenes of pottery making 165

   showing ziggurats 86, 86

   subject-matter on 200–1, 203–4

   see also seal impressions

date palm 52, 53

   cultivated 52–3

Death of Gilgamesh, text 135, 156

Death of Ur-Nammu, text 135, 156

deer 7, 58

deforestation 6

diet

   evidence from bones 148

   evidence from graves 150

   see also food and drink

Dilmun (Bahrain)

   timber imported from 68, 187

   trade with 15, 53, 182

diorite, black 182, 184

   for royal statuary 21, 189, 190, 207

diplomatic links

   marriages 177, 216

   and trade 177, 191

Diqdiqqa, artisans’ quarter (Ur) 64

divination 58

Diyala valley 8

   domestic buildings 110

   Early Dynastic sites 19

   Jemdat Nasr sites 19

   settlement pattern 49–50, 51

   see also Eshnunna; Kheit Qasim

dogs 58, 59

domestic buildings 106–4

   chapels 113–4, 155

   compared with modern traditional houses 106, 132

   Early Dynastic period 110–2

   elite houses 118, 119

   as evidence of social status 32

   hearths and ovens 107, 108, 111, 112

   kitchens 111

   resemblance to temple plans 77–9, 109–10

   room functions 107–8

   tombs within 110, 113, 135, 155

   Ur III period 113–4

   Uruk period 109–10

   village houses 107, 107

   see also house plans

donkeys 58, 59, 153

draught animals

   cattle 180

   donkeys 153

   oxen 59, 153

dreams, interpretation of 31

Ea (god of Eridu) 28

   on seal impressions

   and The Flood 28

Eannatum of Lagash, stele 209, 219

Early Dynastic (ED) period 19–1

   domestic buildings 110–2

   north–south divergence 28

   political power 30, 33

   public buildings 96–100, 105

   radiocarbon dating 24

   settlement patterns 41 map, 42 map, 44, 45, 50

   temple plans 76–82

   trade (exports) 187–9

   urbanisation 45

   votive statues 207

   see also Jemdat Nasr; Ninevite V period

Ebla/Mardikh, Syria 33

   palace 98, 213

economy

   agricultural surplus 15, 17–8

   control of 31–2

   exchange system 159

   and external trade 46

   market forces and prices 159

   surpluses traded 159

   see also industry; trade

Edin, uncultivated land 57

Egypt 181, 221

Elam

   cedarwood from 68

   and cuneiform script 197

   Sargon’s attack on 33

electrum (natural alloy), wolf’s head 139, 139, 167

elite groups 216

   burials (Upper Mesopotamia) 154

   and cylinder seals 201

   at Tepe Gawra 118

Enheduanna, daughter of Sargon 155, 197, 197, 216

Enki (god of Eridu) 48

Enkidu 135

Enlil (god, patron of Sumer) 28, 33

Enmerkar, myth of 184

Entemena of Lagash 163

Entu priestesses, at Ur 83

Erbil 60

Ergani Maden, copper production 13

Eridu, city of 28, 48–9

   Portico building 91

   Priests’ house 90, 91, 110

   public buildings 96, 99

   tripartite temple plan 69

   Ubaid period 52

Eshnunna, Diyala valley 35, 50, 51, 217

   law code 159, 170

   Shu-Sin shrine 83, 85

ethnography, for modern comparisons 5, 60, 106

Euphrates 152

   canal links 47

   course changes 9, 48

   as trade route 14, 179

exchange system 159

   prices 159

Failaka island, Arabian Gulf 191

family

   extended 32, 59, 116

   nuclear 32, 111

   see also households

Farmer’s Instructions (Sumerian text) 55, 56

festivals 152

figurines

   copper 169

   Ur III period 22

fish 11, 153

fishing and fishermen 151, 160, 212

flint

   for blades 170

   sickles 57

Flood, story of 28, 36

flooding

   and arable farming 54

   lower Mesopotamian plain 10

   and salinisation 47

food and drink 53, 150

   feasts 152

   see also diet

France, archaeology in Iraq 2, 3

Frankfort, Henri 19, 60

fuel

   dung as 57

   scrub and thorn for 11

   for smelting 167

funerary monuments, Upper Mesopotamia 127–8

funerary offerings, on platforms 141

furniture

   evidence from royal graves at Ur 149–50

   model 23

Gabristan, Iran 168

game 11, 58

gaming boards and gaming pieces 152

Garden of Eden 1, 8

gardens 52–4

Gawra see Tepe Gawra

gazelle, as food supply 58

Germany, archaeology in Iraq 2

Gilgamesh, mythical ruler of Uruk 30, 36, 135

Girsu, text 173

Godin Tepe, Iran 49, 180

gods 28

   portrayed on seals 203

   temples as homes of 79

   see also Abu; Anu; Ea; Enki; Enlil; Ishtar/Inanna; Marduk; Nannar/Sin; Ningirsu

gold 167

   beads 187

   grave goods 127, 139

   at Tepe Gawra 167

   tumblers 163, 163

gold leaf, for plaster inlay 67, 173

Göltepe, Anatolia 190

Grai Resh, Uruk site 119

grave goods

   with cart burials (Kish) 143

   as evidence for everyday life 135, 136–7, 214

   precious materials 127, 139, 143

   and social status 118, 140–1, 150, 157

graves

   ‘burnt’ (Ur) 147

   cist 127, 138

   as evidence of social status 32

   mass (Tell Gubba) 95

   shaft 127

   sidewall 140

   under houses (Khafaje) 142–3

grazing land 57–9

   middle zone 7

   southern zone 11

Great Britain, and Ottoman empire 1

Great Zab river 8

Gudea, prince of Lagash 34, 47, 70, 207, 209

   and trade 68, 190

Gungunum, king of Larsa 190

Guti tribes (hordes of Gutium), overthrow of Agade kings 21, 34, 133, 219

Habuba Kabira, Syria 62, 109, 120

   abandoned 182

   cylinder seals 201

   Uruk colony town 61, 75, 179, 180

Habur valley 120

   Kranzhugel towns 122–6

Hacinebi Tepe, Turkey, middle Uruk site 16, 164, 179, 180

Halaf period 215

   stamp seals 198

Hammurabi of Babylon 25, 35, 211

Hamrin valley 8

   circular structures 92–6, 183

   route through 14, 183

   settlement patterns 50–1

   Ubaid houses 109

Harappan culture

   decline 191

   trading contacts 190

harbours, Ur 61

Hassek Huyuk, Uruk site 75, 120, 179, 180

Hassuna period 162

Hatra 220

   route through 14

helmets 170, 210

Herodotus, descriptions of ziggurats 85, 219

al-Hiba see Lagash

Hili 8 site 187, 190

historical dating

   King Lists 24

   Sumerian King List 24

Hit–Samarra line (zone boundary) 6, 26, 115

horses 59

   wild 58

house plans 106, 135, 218

   compounds (Tell Taya) 130, 131, 131

   courtyard type 110, 112, 114

   modern compound 107

   T-shaped 109

   tripartite 110, 114

   see also domestic buildings

household objects, reused 135

households

   composition of 107

   extended families 59, 116

   see also family; house plans

human sacrifice, evidence for 145, 154, 156, 157, 217

Hurrian peoples 219

Ibbi-Sin, last king of Ur 35, 159, 219

ideology, and Intercultural decoration 185

Imdugud (lion-headed eagle) 163

Imdugud relief 81

imported goods

   metals 167, 173, 178, 180, 181

   stone 175, 178, 180

   timber 11, 68, 180, 187

Inanna see Ishtar/Inanna (goddess)

India, introduced crops and cattle from 55

individuals, influence of 17, 221

Indus valley

   archaeological dates 25, 145

   carnelian beads from 186

   Intercultural style chlorite finds 187

   see also Harappan culture

industry

   cottage industries 111, 158

   specialised production 158

   standardisation of utilitarian goods 158

   within public buildings 98, 102

   workshops 102, 111, 158, 162

   see also raw materials; tools

inscriptions

   for dating 24

   royal 24, 47

   on statues 207

   from Urkesh 126

Iran 6, 8, 215

   metals from 11, 93, 168

   routes to 49

   turquoise from 139

   ziggurats 88

   see also Tepe Yahya

Iraq 2, 6

   British mandate 3

   effect of second Gulf war 220

   modern archaeology 4

Iraq National Museum

   antiquities laws 4

   looting from 171, 220

iron-working 168

irrigation 17, 47, 215

   and flooding 54

   methods of 54

   middle zone 7, 115

   and salinisation 6, 35, 47

   and settlement patterns 40, 47

   southern zone 10

   see also canals

Ishqi-Mari (Lagmi-Mari), king of Mari 207

Ishtar/Inanna (goddess) 28, 135

   and Sargon of Agade 29

   on Uruk vase 204

Isin

   city of 35, 47, 220

   leather-working 159

Isin-Larsa period

   statues 161

   tablet at Bahrain 190

‘itinnu’ (‘builder’) 69

Ituria of Tell Asmar 104

ivory, grave goods 139

Jarmo, Kurdistan, clay tokens 193

jasper, red, pebbles 139

Jazira region 120

Jebel Aruda 75, 120, 179

   cylinder seals 18

   houses 109, 109–10

   lapis finds at 180, 181

Jebel Hamrin hills 8

   see also Hamrin valley

Jebel Sinjar hills 6, 88

Jemdat Nasr period 18–9

   public buildings 91–6, 105

   radiocarbon dating 24

   settlement pattern 44–5, 50

   temple plans 75–6

   trade routes 182–4

   trading colonies 182

   see also pottery

Jemdat Nasr, site 91–2

jewellery

   agate necklace 173

   as grave goods 151, 154

   see also beads

Jezirah, Roman province 6–8

Karrana 3 site 120

   grain storage 121

Keith, Sir Arthur

Kerma, site 121

Kestel, Anatolia 190

Khafaje 60, 63

   Abu temple 82

   graves (under houses) 142–3, 144

   House D 90

   Nintu temple 82

   Sin temple 76, 77, 78, 186

   Temple Oval 64, 80, 80, 82

   votive statue 205

Kheit Qasim, Diyala valley 96

   cemetery 136, 140–1, 142

   Ubaid houses 110, 119–20

Khorsabad, French archaeology at 2

kilns, lime (Khafaje) 90

kilns, pottery 92, 158, 165

   domed 165

   domestic 166

   Eridu 90

   two-storey 162

‘King of the Four Quarters’, title of 29, 34

‘King of Kish’, title of 30

King Lists 99, 196

   and dating 24

   Sumerian 24

kings 201, 216–7, 221

   assumption of divine status 21, 34, 89, 155, 217

   as military commanders 21, 216

   relations with religious power 89–90, 216–8

Kish 26, 28

   A cemetery 136, 166

   Palace A 97, 98, 213, 218

   Plano-Convex Brick building 98

   public buildings 96

   wall plaque 213

   Y cemetery (cart burials) 143–5

   ziggurats 86

Kranzhugel towns, Habur valley 125, 122–6, 133

labour

   for agriculture 57, 59

   for building 69

   for irrigation 47

Lagash 10, 28, 99

   date gardens 52

   Inanna temple 80

   as independent state 34, 47

   rivalry with Umma 30, 45

   slave trade 159

Lagash dynasty 24, 29

   see also Gudea; Ur-Nanshe

land

   grants to craftsmen 159

   grants to officials 57, 218

   unused 57

land ownership

   by palace 31

   private 32, 57, 218

languages see Akkadian; proto-Elamite; Semitic; Sumerian; writing

lapis lazuli 175

   grave goods 127, 128, 139

   traded 180–1, 184, 188

Larsa, city of 28, 35, 45, 47, 220

‘lavatories’

   in domestic buildings (Tell Asmar) 112

   in public buildings (Tell Asmar) 100, 101

law codes, Eshnunna 159, 170

Layard, Austen Henry 1, 2

lead 167, 180

   vessels 163

leather-working 58, 159, 162

Lebanon, cedarwood from 11, 68

lists

   King Lists 24, 99, 196

   lexical 194

   Professions 27, 32

literacy, and inscriptions on seals 203

Little Zab river 8

‘lugal’, term for king 29

Lugalzagesi of Uruk 33

Lullubi people, Naram-Sin’s victory over 34

maceheads

   as grave goods 140

   metal 170

   stone 170, 175

Magan

   Naram-Sin’s conquest of 34, 189

   trade with 15, 68, 184, 188, 190

Mallowan, Sir Max 8, 122

Mandeville, Sir John 1

Manishtusu, king of Agade, statues of 161, 207

marble, votive statue (Tell Asmar) 206

Marduk (god) 56, 85

Mari 12, 121

   Ishtarat temple 77, 78, 186

   Ninni-Zaza temple 77, 186

   plaque from 160, 160, 213

   pottery at 184

   priestesses of 161

   public buildings (ED palace) 98, 99

   steatite/chlorite finds 185

   town plan 64

   votive statues 207

marriage

   diplomatic (dynastic) 177, 216

   sacred 85–6, 154

marshes

   modern drainage 38

   Shatt-el-Arab 9, 10, 11

Maysar, Arabia 188, 190

measurements see weights and measures

Mediterranean

   as boundary of Sumerian empire 33

   routes to 13, 14, 181

megaron buildings

   Anatolia 82

   Tepe Gawra 82, 117–8

Meluhha, trade with 15, 68, 184, 189, 191

merchants 191–2, 217, 218

   and supply of copper 173

Meshed (Mashhad) 180

Mesilim, king of Kish 30, 170

Meskalamdug, tomb of 148, 210

Mesopotamia, greater

   defined 6

   geographical zones 7 map, 6–9, 17

   see also Mesopotamia, Upper

Mesopotamia, Upper 116 map, 115–4, 217

   circular settlements 92–6, 183

   decline (at end of Agade period) 133

   geography 115

   Kranzhugel towns 123–6, 133

   Ninevite V period 120–2

   urbanisation 119

   see also Hamrin valley; Tell Brak; Tell Leilan; Tepe Gawra

Mesopotamian plain

   lack of natural drainage 47–8

   problems of surveying 38, 41 map, 42 map, 43 map

metal-working 167–5, 215

   ‘assay office’ 173

   cire perdue (lost wax) casting 167, 168

   smelting 167

   techniques 167, 175, 215

   tools 170, 174, 175

   Uruk period 17

metals

   all imported 167, 173, 178, 180, 181

   from Iran 11, 93, 168

   recycled 170

   see also alloys; bronze; copper; electrum; gold; lead; silver; tin

metalwork

   decorative techniques 168

   pins and hooks 167

   Puabi’s ‘diadem’ 169

   Tepe Gawra 93

   vessels 163

micromorphology 112

models

   boats (grave goods) 152, 153

   clay (Ur III period) 23

   see also figurines

Mohenjodaro, Sumerian finds 187

money 159

mosaics, cone 69, 72, 74, 75

   stone flowers 81

Mosul 13

Mozan (ancient Urkesh) 127, 126–7, 133

Mundigak, Afghanistan, ziggurat 88

musical instruments 151, 213

myths and stories

   as evidence for councils of citizens 30

   Inanna 135

   in Intercultural stylistic decoration 185

   see also Flood; Gilgamesh

Nannar/Sin (moon god), at Ur 28, 34

Naram-Sin, king of Agade 22, 33–4, 46, 126, 217

   conquest of Magan 34, 189

   copper figure of 171, 171, 172, 220

   name stamp on bricks 82, 103

   stelae 21, 34, 210

   and Tell Brak 190

Near East, Western interest in 1–4

Nebuchadnezzar I, temenos at Ur 155

Neolithic period, stamp seals 198

Nimrud 4, 220

Nineveh 2, 8, 13, 180

Ninevite V period, Upper Mesopotamia 120–32

   cylinder seals 201

   Kranzhugel towns 122–4

   pottery 121, 120–1

   see also Early Dynastic (ED) period

Ningirsu (god of battle) 210, 219

Nippur 3, 19, 28, 45, 47

   Enlil temple 83

   and Euphrates 9

   Inanna temple 77, 186

   North temple 82

   radiocarbon dates 24

   Sargon’s temple at 33, 34, 82

   scribal quarter 64

   votive statues 151, 207

   ziggurat 86

Nippur/Uruk waterway 47

nomads, pastoralists 12–3

numerical system, sexagesimal 36, 139

obsidian, grave goods 139

officials 215, 219

   land grants to 57, 218

   named on seals 203

Oman, Jemdat Nasr pottery in 19, 182

omens, interpretation of 31

onager 7, 58

   in ritual deposits (Brak) 129

Ottoman Empire 1

overgrazing 6

oxen, draught animals 59, 153

palace

   finance for trade 191

   as landowner 31, 218

   see also kings; rulers; temple

palaces

   use of term 89

   see also Kish; public buildings; Tell Asmar; temples; Ur

Palmyra, route to 14

paving (with sherds)

   in domestic buildings 111

   streets 61, 64, 112

pictograms 17, 194, 194

pig, wild 7, 11

pigments 6

   colours 74–5

   cosmetic 149

plants

   cereals 55–6

   garden crops 53

   prosopis 48, 56, 57

   pulses 55

plaques, clay

   mass-produced 213

   Ur III period 22

   as wall decoration 75, 81

plaques, stone 212, 211–3

   inlaid 211

plaster, mud or lime 67

   inlaid decoration 67, 81

   painted 67, 74

ploughs 56, 57

poems see texts

population

   decrease (northern plain) 44

   derived from domestic buildings 108–9

   increase (Uruk period) 16, 17

   and settlement patterns 39

potters’ marks 193

pottery

   Agade period 46

   bevelled rim bowls 120, 164–5, 180

   bowls, as grave goods 138, 143

   burnished wares 162, 164

   decline in quality 162

   fruitstands (ED III) 19

   Habur ware 133

   jars 19, 92, 165

   Jemdat Nasr painted wares 19, 92, 121, 166, 182

   local production 163

   Ninevite V ware 121, 120–1

   pilgrim flask (ED) 19

   scarlet-washed (ED I) 19, 20, 92, 184

   solid-footed goblets 143, 165, 166

   specialist (for export) 164

   stamped (Tepe Gawra) 116, 117

   storage jars 92

   transitional Ubaid/Uruk ware, Tepe Gawra 116

   see also stone bowls

pottery making 162–7

   fast wheel 17, 162, 215

   mass production 163, 164, 165–6

   shown on cylinder seals 165

   slow wheel 165, 215

   see also kilns

pottery ornaments, as grave goods 138

power, balance of

   between religious and secular 89–90, 216–8

   shifts between cities 33

   see also rulers

pre-Halaf period, stamp seals 198

priests

   administrative responsibilities 100

   power of 28, 31

   relations with secular power 89

private enterprise 32, 159, 166, 191–2

   and private wealth 32, 191, 218

private houses see domestic buildings

private landownership 32, 57, 218

professions 217

   architects/builders 69

   smiths 167, 173

   see also officials

Professions List (late Uruk) 27, 32

proto-Elamite language 180, 197

proxemics, study of living space requirements 108

Puabi, the lady

   burial at Ur 53, 147, 148, 149, 163, 163

   ‘diadem’ 169

public buildings 89–106, 218

   Agade period 100–3

   circular structures 92–6

   drainage 100

   Early Dynastic period 96–100, 105, 218

   industrial activities within 98, 102

   interpretation of functions 30–1, 89–90, 98, 105–6

   interpreted as temples 75, 117

   multi-purpose 98

   ritual sectors in 98

   storage areas 98, 102

   Ur III period 103–5, 106

   Uruk period 90–1

   see also domestic buildings; palaces; temples

Purushkanda, Anatolia 33, 190

Qalinj Agha 61, 119

   pottery production 163

Quetta, Pakistan, lapis mines near 181

radiocarbon dating 16, 23–5

Raidau Sharqi, site 60

rainfall

   lower Mesopotamian plain 10

   upper Mesopotamia 115

Raqa’i, site 121

Ras al-Amiya, Ubaid site 38

Ras al-Junayz, site 189

Ras Shamra, stamp seal 198

rations

   for agricultural labourers 57

   bevelled rim bowls for 164

   for craftsmen 173

   for industrial workers 159

   for temple workers 150

raw materials 214, 221

   for artefacts 158

   imported 178, 192

   northern zone 6

   southern zone 11

   see also industry; metals; stone; timber; trade

razors, blades 149

Razuk, circular building 183

recycling, of usable materials 135, 170, 214

reeds, marsh 11, 15

Reforms of Uruinimgina 89

Rich, Claudius, British Resident in Baghdad 1

Rimush, king of Agade 210

rivers

   and control of water supply 45

   ports and harbours 15, 61

   and settlement patterns 10

   shifting courses 5, 9

   see also canals; Euphrates; Tigris; Zab

royal titles 29, 34, 154

rulers

   administrative responsibilities 100

   Early Dynastic city-states 20, 28

   economic constraints on 31–2

   priests’ control over 31

   secular 16, 27, 28, 216

   as war leaders 21, 216

   words for 29–30

   see also kings; palace; power, balance of; priests; temple

Sabi Abyad, Burnt Village 198

sacrifice, animal 31, 58

Saddam Hussein, draining of marshes 11

Sakheri Saghir, site 60

salinisation

   and flooding 47

   and irrigation 6, 35, 47

   remedies for 48

saluki, hunting dog 58, 59

Samarra period 178, 215

Sammelfund hoard, metal objects 168

Sana’a, Yemen 132

Sargon of Agade 17, 29, 33, 216, 221

   adoptive father of 53

   bronze head of 171

   and evidence for trading contacts 189–90

   name stamp on bricks 82

   stele 210

Sarzec, M. de 3

scribal schools 35, 69

scribes 196

   at Abu Salabikh 12

   centralised training 195, 197

   female 197

seafarers 192

seal impressions

   Abu Salabikh 167

   Agade period 203, 202–3

   agricultural scenes 56, 200, 201

   banquet scenes 150, 152, 202, 204

   from Beydar (northern style) 125, 126

   Brocade style

   on bullae 193

   combat scenes 202, 202, 203, 204

   on containers 198

   depiction of crafts 162, 162, 165

   on doors 128, 198

   Piedmont style 183, 183, 201

   ritual scenes 200

   Susa 165

   from Tell Chuera 124

   from Urkesh 126

   see also cylinder seals

seals

   collective (Jemdat Nasr) 92

   as dating tool 200

   functions of 199

   Harappan (Indus valley) 189, 189

   personal 154

   Uruk 180

   see also cylinder seals; stamp seals

Semites 11, 26, 28

   personal names 12, 26

Semitic languages 13, 26, 197

settlement patterns 37–52

   Agade period 45–7

   agriculture and 59

   archaeology and 37–9

   Early Dynastic period 41 map, 42 map, 44, 45

   Jemdat Nasr period 44–5, 50

   linear (on waterways) 10, 40, 45

   and population 39

   Upper Mesopotamia 115

   Ur III period 43 map

   Uruk period 40–4, 48–9, 50

   variations in 51–2

settlements

   agricultural hinterlands 52

   correlation of size with importance 39

   erosion after abandonment 46

   excavation of 60

   fortified houses 51

   gardens 52–4

   hierarchy (Uruk period) 16, 44

   modern comparisons 60

   small rural 46–7

   see also cities; town plans; towns; villages

shaduf, for irrigation 54

Shahdad, cemetery 187

Shamshi-Adad, first king of Assyria 35

Shamshu-Iluna of Babylon 113

Shahr-i-Sokhta 180

Sharkallisharri, king of Agade 103

sharru, ‘king’ (Akkadian) 27, 29

Shatt-el-Arab waterway 9, 15

sheep and goats 11, 57, 58

Sheikh Hassan

   middle Uruk site 16

   Uruk colony site 120, 179

shells

   for decoration 11, 213

   inlay in plaques 212, 213

Shu-Sin, king of Ur 35, 104

Shulgi, king of Ur 35, 58, 83, 103

   mausoleum 83, 155, 156

Shurrupak, city of 44

Silk Road 8, 180

silt deposition 38

silver 180

   as currency 159

   vessels (votive jar) 163

‘simug’ (smith) 173

Sippar, nomadic camps near 12

skeletons, evidence from 11, 148, 157

slaves 32, 57

   trade in 159

sledge, for transport 153

Sleimah 96

   circular building 183

social system

   development of 9, 217

   evidence from burials 32, 136, 138, 142

   stratified 16, 18, 32–3, 217, 218

   see also elite groups

soil erosion 6, 10, 38

   see also flooding

soil fertility, southern zone 10

specialisation 217

   of material production 18, 158

sports, wrestling 152, 153

stamp seals 198, 198–9, 215

   designs 199

   Jemdat Nasr 92

   materials for 199

   Tepe Gawra 116, 198

stamps

   on mudbrick 82, 103

   on pottery 116, 117

standardisation 203

   of scripts 82

   of temple plans 82

   of units of measurement 68

   of utilitarian goods 158

statuary and statues 175, 204–8, 215

   Agade period 21

   animal figures 204

   copper 21, 171, 172, 171–3

   metal insets 176

   naturalism 206, 207, 208

   nude male figures 187, 188, 204

   royal (black diorite) 21, 176, 189, 190, 207

   in shrines 78

   votive 161, 175, 184, 204, 205–7

   Warka head (mask of woman’s head) 204, 205, 220

   see also figurines; stelae

steatite/chlorite (stone) 182

   bowls 175, 183, 184–6

stelae 210, 209–11, 215

   Eannatum of Lagash 209, 219

   Hammurabi 211

   Lion Hunt 178, 179, 209

   Naram-Sin 21, 34, 210

   Sargon 210

   Ur-Nammu 211

   of the Vultures 209, 219

stone

   diorite 21, 182, 189, 190

   imported 175, 178, 180

   steatite/chlorite 175, 182

   supplies (northern zone) 6, 68

   for tools 56

   see also statuary and statues; stelae; stone bowls; stone objects

stone bowls 175, 184

   decoration 185–6

   grave goods 141

   hut pots 185, 186

   Intercultural style 184, 185

   steatite/chlorite 175, 183, 184–6

stone objects 175

   blades 170

   maceheads 170, 175

   plaques 212, 211–13

   Uruk vase 55, 204

   vase (ED III) 52, 53

   see also seals; statuary and statues

stone-working 175–6

storage and storehouses

   Hamrin valley 93

   in public buildings 98, 102

   Upper Mesopotamia 121

stylus 195

   and cuneiform writing 195

sulphur 7

Sumer, kingdom of 8

   cultural legacy 36, 219–20

   fall of 35–6

   outline history 25–36

Sumerian language 11, 12, 25

   no longer spoken 13, 26, 35

   syllabic 195

   written (cuneiform) 196, 197

Sumerians 11, 214

   personal names 12, 26

surveying (archaeological) 5, 37–9, 41 map, 42 map, 43 map

   air photographs 5, 37

   satellite imaging 5, 37

surveying (Sumerian) 69

   equipment 68

Susa 165, 180, 181, 184

   black diorite statues 207

   depiction of pot 165

   proto-Elamite tablets 197

   steatite/chlorite from 185

Syria 6, 25, 219

   links with 51

   trade with 184

   Uruk sites 23

systems theory, in archaeology 221

tablets, clay 17, 194–6

   as evidence of administrative centres 99

   Jemdat Nasr 19, 92

   layout of 195

   numerical signs on 194

   pictograms on 19, 194, 194

   superseding tokens 193

   at Ur (Isin-Larsa period) 103

   from Urkesh 126

   Uruk-type 180

   see also texts; writing

taboos 136

Tarut (island) 185, 187–8

   statue 187, 188

Taurus mountains 6

Taylor, J. E. 3

Tchoga Zambil, Iran, ziggurat 88

technology, Uruk period 17, 215

Tell Abada

   pottery kiln 163

   Ubaid houses 110, 119

Tell Abraq, port 188

Tell Abu Qasim, circular building 183

Tell Adhaim 95

Tell Agrab

   copper figure 169

   Shara temple 77

Tell Asmar

   Arch house 112, 111–12

   Archaic shrine 76

   domestic buildings 111–12

   Early Dynastic town 60

   forge 175

   Nintu temple 176

   Northern palace (Agade) 101, 101–2, 162

   Northern palace (earlier) 100

   Palace of Rulers (Ur III period) 104, 104–5

   Square temple 78, 83, 106, 206

   votive statues 205–6

Tell Brak, Syria 128–9, 133

   and Beydar 126

   clay tablets at 194

   ‘Eye’ idols 122, 123

   Eye temple 122, 128, 173

   middle Uruk site 16, 119, 120, 122

   Naram-Sin palace 102–3, 129, 190

   Ninevite V pottery 128

   seal impressions 120, 202

   Ur III period 35

Tell Chuera, Syria

   Kleine Antentempel 81, 124

   Kranzhugel town 124–5

   votive statues 184, 188

Tell edh Dhiba’i, old Babylonian site 174, 175

Tell es-Sawwan 178

Tell esh-Shoke 95

Tell Gubba 51

   circular building 93, 94, 94–5, 183

   scarlet ware vase 20

Tell Hawa 122

Tell Leilan 122, 133

   abandoned 133

   acropolis 132

Tell Maddhur, circular building 183

Tell Ouelli, Ubaid period 52

Tell Rimah 4

   ziggurat 88

Tell Rubeidheh 180

   pottery kiln 166

Tell Taya 107, 130, 129–32

   abandoned 133

   citadel 129

   house plan (compound) 130, 131, 131

   pottery kiln 166

   tomb (rock-cut) 132

Tell Uqair 40, 74, 75, 91

Tell-i-Iblis, Iran 168

Telloh 3, 169, 170

   Maison des Fruits 76

   votive statue 206, 206

tells 61

   Assyria 8

   formed by disintegrating mudbrick 66

temple

   as centre of government 216

   finance for trade 191

   as landowner 21, 32, 218

   power of in city-states 21, 27, 30

temple plans 76, 78

   Agade period 82–3

   compared with domestic buildings 77–9, 82

   Early Dynastic 76–82

   Jemdat Nasr (third millennium) 75–6

   megaron (Tepe Gawra) 82, 117–18

   T-shaped 73, 73

   Temple Ovals 76, 80, 79–81

   tripartite 69, 73, 117

   Upper Mesopotamia 124

   Ur III period 83–5

temples

   multiple shrines 77, 79

   position of altars 82, 104

   as ‘public buildings’ (interpretation) 30–1, 75

   raised platforms 85

   as self-contained unit 77

   Uruk period 69–75

   see also palaces; public buildings; temple plans

Tepe Gawra 60, 75, 116–19

   burials 137–40, 142

   lapis finds at 180

   megaron buildings 82, 118, 117–18

   non-urban settlement 132

   pottery 164

   Round house 92, 116, 117, 137–8

   stamp seals 58, 198

   watch-tower 116

   wells 64

   wolf’s head (electrum) 139, 139, 167

Tepe Hissar 180

Tepe Yahya, Iran 68, 180, 184, 185

textiles 18, 57, 160–2

   evidence from royal graves at Ur 148–9

   felt 161

   weaving 160, 162, 162

   workshops 102, 162

   see also clothing

texts 177, 196

   Death of Gilgamesh 135, 156

   Death of Ur-Nammu 135, 156

   descriptions of afterlife 135

   dictionaries 196

   evidence of date palms 53

   evidence of manufacturing 158

   historical 196

   lamentation 46

   poems on destruction of Ur 23

   reference to copper imports 181

   treatises 196

   see also poems

Tigris

   course changes 9, 45

   as trade route 14

Til Barsib, stone tomb 127, 154

timber 6

   imported 11, 68, 180, 187

tin

   supplies of 190

   see also bronze

tokens, clay, accounting 139, 193, 194

tombs

   libn (Tepe Gawra) 118, 138–9

   mausoleum at Umm al-Marra 128, 128, 154

   multi-chambered 127

   prestige (Tepe Gawra) 118

   rock-cut (Tell Taya) 132

   Shulgi’s mausoleum 83, 155, 156, 173

   superstructures 141, 147, 155

   vaulted (Khafaje) 142–3

   vaulted (Ur) 156

   within domestic buildings 110, 113, 135, 155

   see also burials; cemeteries; grave goods; graves

tools

   agricultural 56–7, 92

   for building 68, 68

   craftsmen’s 158, 174

   flint 166

   as grave goods 150

   smiths’ 170, 174, 175

town plans 60–6

   Habuba Kabira 61, 62

   Kranzhugel 125, 123–6, 133

   Tell Taya 130

   Ur (Ur III period) 61–2, 63, 65

   see also building materials

towns

   administrative quarters 61

   artisans’ quarters 64

   drains 64

   functional areas 64

   public spaces 64

   rubbish disposal 64

   streets (paved with sherds) 61, 64, 112

   suburbs 63

Toynbee theory (‘stimulus and response’) 9

trade 9, 17, 46, 177–92, 214

   Agade period 189–90

   internal 18, 159

   in manufactured goods

   mechanisms of 179

   metals 167, 173

   north Mesopotamia 134

   pottery 164

   private 32, 191–2

   Uruk period 178–82

   world systems theory 178

   see also raw materials

trade routes 8, 181 map

   Arabian Gulf 15, 181–3

   for lapis lazuli 180–1

   see also communications

trading colonies, Uruk 120, 178, 179

transport

   animal-power 153, 180

   by water (for bulk goods) 14, 59, 179

turquoise, grave goods 139

al-Ubaid 58

   graves 145

   Ninhursag temple 80–1

   wall plaque 81, 212, 213

Ubaid period 18

   pottery 215

   settlement patterns 40, 48, 49, 50

   stamp seals 198

   standard units of measurement 68

Uch Tepe 51

   circular building 96, 95–6

Umm al-Aqarib, temple plan 82

Umm al-Jir 107

Umm al-Marra, stone mausoleum 128, 128, 154

Umm an-Nar 187, 188, 190

Umma 45, 47, 220

   rivalry with Lagash 30, 45

   votive statue 206

United States, early archaeology in Iraq 3

Ur III period 22–3, 34–5

   domestic buildings 113–14

   historical dating 25

   public buildings 103–5

   radiocarbon dating 24

   seal impressions 203–4

   temple plans 83–5

Ur 3, 10, 28, 48–9

   city layout 61–2, 63, 64, 65

   domestic buildings 113, 113–14

   early (ED) ziggurat 86

   Ehursag (Ur-Nammu palace) 103

   Enunmah temple 83

   extramural cemetery 155

   fall and destruction of city 23, 35, 219

   Gigparku chapels 83

   Giparu palace 162

   Isin-Larsa merchant’s house 173

   Jemdat Nasr cemetery 141–2, 184, 186

   Nannar/Sin (moon god) at 28, 34

   Ningal temple 192

   pottery production 165

   private graves (in houses) 155

   residential quarter 113

   Royal Cemetery 137, 146, 145–52, 153–7, 218

     cylinder seals 203

     dating of graves 25

     the lady Puabi 53, 147, 148, 149, 163, 163

     Meskalamdug 148, 210

     metalwork finds 153, 168

     royal graves 155–7

     Sargonid period 154–5

     skeletal evidence from 11, 142, 148

     Ur III period 83, 84, 155–7

     Ur standard 213

   Shulgi’s mausoleum 83, 155, 156, 173

   wall against Amorites 35

   ziggurat 61, 67, 87, 87–8

Ur-Nammu of Ur 135, 155, 190, 217

   builder of ziggurats 87

   founder of Ur III dynasty 22, 34, 83

   stele 211

   use of baked bricks 67

Ur-Nanshe, singer 207, 208

Ur-Nanshe of Lagash 29, 187

   plaque 211

Ur-Zababa, king of Kish 33

urbanisation 51

   Early Dynastic period 45

   factors in (Uruk period) 17

   Upper Mesopotamia 119

Urkesh 126–7, 133

Urkesh dynasty (Akkadian) 126, 127

‘uru’, city (Sumerian) 60

Uruinimgina, ruler of Lagash 89

Uruk, city of 28, 45

   Eanna III compound 92, 99

   Eanna precinct IV 73, 72–3, 90, 165, 194

   Eanna precinct V/VI 71, 69–73, 218

   Hall of Pillars 31

   interpretation of ‘temples’ 30

   Ishtar/Inanna (goddess) at 28

   Limestone temple 69, 71, 72

   Palace E 31

   public buildings 72

   Red temple 72

   Riemchengebaude 76

   size of 44

   Stampflehmgebäude 97

   Steingebaüde 76

   Stone Mosaic temple 69, 71, 72, 168

   Temple A 72, 73

   Temple B 72

   Temple C 73, 74, 90

   Temple D 73

   White temple 74, 76

   ziggurat 86, 168

Uruk colony sites 120, 178, 179

   abandoned 44, 182

   see also Habuba Kabira; Sheikh Hassan

Uruk period 16–8, 27

   cylinder seals 200–1

   discontinuities at end of 182

   domestic buildings 109–10

   public buildings 90–1

   radiocarbon dating 23

   settlement patterns 40–4, 48–9, 50

   standard units of measurement 68

   syllabic writing 195

   technological innovation 17, 215

   temples 69–75

   trade 178–82

Utnapishtim of Shurrupak 28

Utuhegal of Uruk 34, 49

Venus, astronomical observations of 25

villages

   in archaeological record 10

   use of space in 60

votive statues 161, 175, 204, 205–7, 215

   commissioned by officials 219

   named 207

   at Tell Chuera 184

Wadi Batin, trade route 15

wall decorations

   clay plaques 75, 81, 213

   frescoes 74, 75

   Shulgi’s tomb 156

   see also mosaics

walls, city 35, 62, 64, 132

wand, ceremonial 139, 140

warfare 170

   depicted on stelae 210, 210–11

   Early Dynastic period 202

   Uruk period 17, 18

Warka see Uruk

Warka head (mask of woman’s head) 204, 205, 220

water supplies 45, 64

wealth

   distribution of 18, 218

   private 32, 191, 218

weapons

   as grave goods 140, 151

   metal 163, 170

weights and measures 35, 68

   sila bowls (Leilan) 132

wells and cisterns 64

wheel, first use of 36, 180

wheels

   solid (cart) 15, 153

   see also pottery making

Wilaya, public buildings (ED) 96, 99

women

   diplomatic marriages 177, 216

   as landowners 32

   priestesses 83, 161

   as scribes 197

   as weavers 160, 160

wood

   for roof timbers 68

   for tools 56

wood-working 160

wool 18, 57

Woolley, C. L., on ziggurats 87

world systems theory of trade 178

writing

   cuneiform 195, 196, 197–8, 215

   development of 182, 215

   early recording system (tokens) 139, 193, 194

   lexical lists 194

   standardisation of signs 195

   syllabic 195

   use of stylus 195

   see also pictograms; scribes; tablets; texts

Yemen, modern 132

Zab rivers 8

Zagros mountains 6

   funerary rites 141

ziggurats 86, 85–8

   concept of 88

   origins in Early Dynastic period 20, 86

   Ur 61, 67, 87, 87–8

Ziusudra (Sumerian equivalent of Noah) 36


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