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Clinical MR Neuroimaging

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 (ISBN-13: 9780521515634)

Clinical MR Neuroimaging
Cambridge University Press
9780521515634 - Clinical MR Neuroimaging - Physiological and Functional Techniques - Edited by Jonathan H. Gillard, Adam D. Waldman and Peter B. Barker
Index

Index

abscess

See brain abscess

absolute concentration 40–41

Abu Ali Ibn Abdallah Ibn Sina (Avicenna) 380

ACA

See anterior cerebral artery

accelerated methods 40

acetazolamide 219–221,

N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) 3, 6–8

acute disseminated encephalomyelitis 480, 486

adrenoleukodystrophy 809–810

aging 618

alcohol abuse/dependence 581

Alexander disease 815

Alzheimer’s disease 619–622, 628, 629

amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 637–638

animal models 174

anti-inflammatory action 528

astrocytoma 317

biochemical pathways 7

bipolar disorder 574–577

brain

detected in 7

levels 16–17

normal maturation 728–729

brain tumor marker 298–299

calcium chelation 528

Canavan’s disease 710, 828–830

carotid stenosis 171

cerebral ischemia 177

cerebral malaria 446

cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis 483–484

concentration 7–8

Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease 564

cryptococcoma 510

deficiency 829

dementia

frontotemporal 624

with Lewy bodies 623, 628

vascular 622–623

encephalitis

herpes simplex 436

levels 415

epilepsy 528, 534–535

extratemporal lobe 532

temporal lobe 529–531,

glioma 773–774

classification 304

levels 313–314

global deficiency with mental retardation 828

gray matter 16

herpes simplex encephalitis 436

HIV infection 501, 503, 504,

children 504–505

Huntington’s disease 635–636

hypoxia–ischemia 739–741

cascade 738–739

injury 739

ischemia 177

ischemic penumbra imaging 170

leukodystrophy with ovarian dysgenesis 484

maple syrup urine disease 830–831

megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts 818–819

MELAS 794

metabolite peak area determination 24

MRS 173–176, 177

MRSI pulse sequence 14

multiple sclerosis 475, 476–479, , , , , , 480

multiple system atrophy 633

neonates

brain injury 732

hypoxia–ischemia 709

neuronal marking 6

obsessive compulsive disorder 579

panic disorder 578–579

parkinsonism 633–634

pathway 829

pediatric brain 705, 706

changes with age 786–787

tumors 706–709 , 773–774

post-traumatic stress disorder 579

progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy 509, 518

radiation necrosis 318

reversible reduction 8

reversible signal loss 828

Salla disease 484, 830

schizophrenia 584–585

stroke levels 177, , 179, 183

measurement 179

subacute sclerosing panencephalitis 437

temporal lobe epilepsy 529–531,

traumatic brain injury 657–660, , 659

vascular dementia 622–623

white matter 16

N-acetyl aspartate/choline (NAA/Cho) ratio 179

border-zone infarcts 254

carotid stenosis 251–252, 253

primary collateral flow 253

severe obstructive carotid disease 254

transient ischemic attack 249–250, 251–252

See also choline-N-acetyl aspartate index (CNI)

N-acetyl aspartate/creatine (NAA/Cr) ratio

carotid stenosis 251–252, 253

HIV infection 501

temporal lobe epilepsy 532

transient ischemic attack 249–250, 251–252

N-acetyl aspartate/total creatine (NAA/tCr) ratio 25

N-acetylneuramininic acid (NANA) 830

acquired immuno deficiency syndrome

See underAIDS, HIV

activation maps 857 , 859

acute brainstem infarcts 169

acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) 437–438, 438

case study 486

diffusion-weighted imaging 489–490, 491–492

MRS 480, 486

perfusion-weighted imaging 489–490, 491–492

West Nile virus differential diagnosis 472

acute necrotizing encephalopathy (ANE) 437–438

ADC

See underapparent diffusion coefficient

adenosine triphosphate (ATP) 535–536

adiabatic-fast passage (AFP), flow-driven 96

adolescents, traumatic brain injury 677–678

adrenoleukodystrophy 808–810, 811

case study 822

lesion location 825

X-linked 719–721, 721 , 733, 808

affective disorders

general 577

MRS 571–579,

aging

anatomical variations 16–17

apparent diffusion coefficient 596

brain anatomical variations 16–17

brain volume shrinkage 595

diffusion tensor MRI 595–596

regions of interest 596

diffusion-weighted imaging 593–609

diffusivity 598

fractional anisotropy 595–596, 598, 599–600

fMRI 593

HIV infection 504

normal adult 595–600

proton MRS 618–629

normal 618, 619

quantitative fiber tracking 597–598

white matter microstructure degradation 595

AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome)

AIDS dementia complex 503

See underHIV infection

AIF

See underarterial input function

alanine (Ala)

abscess marker 301

brain tumor marker 300–301

cerebral malaria 446

meningeal tumors 316

spin coupled 34–35

alcohol abuse/dependence/alcoholism

diffusion tensor imaging 605–607

diffusion-weighted imaging 607

diffusivity 606–607

fractional anisotropy 606–607, 606

HIV infection 608–609

MRS 581

quantitative fiber tracking 607, 608

studies 583

white matter 605–606, , 607

Alexander disease 814–815, 816 , 824–825

alpha fetoprotein (AFP), germinomas 769–771

Alzheimer’s disease 563, 601 , 648

amnestic mild cognitive impairment 620–622

amyloid imaging 646

amyloid sensitive PET ligands 563

anisotropy 600,

apparent diffusion coefficient 563

arterial spin labeling 562–563

case studies 628–629

cognitive decline 620

dementia progression 620

Dementia Rating Scale Total Scores 620

diffusion imaging diagnostic specificity 600

diffusion tensor imaging 600–602

diffusivity 600, ,

disease-modifying therapies 563, , 620

fractional anisotropy 600–601,

hippocampal volume 563,

iron signal in MRI 646, 646

lattice index 600

management 563

mouse model 647

MRS 562, 563,

PET 563

physiological MRI 562

posterior cingulate 621

preclinical predictors 621–622

prodromal 620–622

progression 621

proton MRS 619–622, 628–629

metabolites 623

rate of change 622

proton spectra 620

quantitative volumetric analysis 563

SPECT 563

white matter damage 601–602

amino acidopathies 838–839

amino acids, brain abscess 428

amnesia, post-traumatic 698

amyloid angiopathy 646

microbleeds 274 , 278, 646

amyloid imaging, Alzheimer’s disease 646

beta-amyloid precursor protein 691–692

amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 636–638

apparent diffusion coefficient 637

corticospinal tract degeneration 636–637,

dementia 637

diffusion MR 636–637

fractional anisotropy 637

magnetization transfer imaging 637

MRS 637–638

anaplastic astrocytoma 289

fractional anisotropy 325–326

anatomical variations in brain spectra 16–17

angiogenesis 289

brain tumors 341–342, 375–376

glioblastoma multiforme 360

gliomas 360

VEGF 375

angiogenesis inhibitors

cerebral blood flow 341

cerebral blood volume 341

delivery 291

imaging endpoints 290–291

See also antiangiogenic therapy

angioplasty devices 267

angiostatin 289

anisotropy 756

Alzheimer’s disease 600,

developmentally delayed infants 734

diffusion tensor MRI 68

diffusion-weighted images 79

directionally encoded color maps 241

fiber crossings 80

gray matter 236

heritability 598–599

lesion border masking 79

modification by partial volume effects 79–80

normal brain development 729, 730–731

parkinsonism 630

white matter 236

as artifact 79

white matter tracts 321–322

See also diffusion anisotropy

See underfractional anisotropy

anisotropy indices 55

diffusion tensor MRI 54–55

HIV dementia 505–506

anterior cerebral artery territory

border-zone infarctions 249

edema 264–266

anterior communicating artery 252–253

antiangiogenic agents

biomarkers 360

brain tumors 376

targeted therapies 776–777

antiangiogenic therapy

gliomas 349

response assessment 290–291, 376

ultra-small particles of iron oxides 376

See also angiogenesis inhibitors

antiepileptic drugs 522

pharmacodynamic effects 522

antihypertensive agents, cerebral perfusion 219

antiretroviral therapy

See undercombined antiretroviral therapy

anxiety disorders, MRS 577–579,

apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) 47–48

aging 596

Alzheimer’s disease 563

amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 637

anisotropic tissue 49–50

astrocytoma 769

brain abscess 458

brain development 715

brain infarcts 259

brain lesions 323 , 324

brain tumors 292, 321, 322–324, 329

children 717, 773–774

treatment-induced changes 326

b-values 58

change following radiosurgery 329

Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease 463–464

demyelination 488

developmentally delayed infants 734

diffusion tensor off-diagonal element 51

Diffusion-Weighted Imaging 714–715

boxing 678–679

brain tumors 321–322, 324–325

cerebral abscess 406

pyogenic infections 406

stroke 191, 194–195, , 237

diffusivity 49–50

estimation 58

gliomas 773–774,

gradient orientation 68

hemorrhagic stroke 180

herpes simplex encephalitis 435–436

HIV dementia 505–506

HIV infection 608

hypoxic–ischemic encephalopathy 755

inborn errors of metabolism 719–721

inflammation 488

ischemic stroke 236–238

ischemic tissue 49

maple syrup urine disease 830–831

maps 69 , 406, 456, 714

brain abscess 458

Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease 463–464

pediatric brain tumors 774–776

perinatal asphyxic injury 765

quantitative 324–325, 329

traumatic brain injury 674

tumor response to therapy 327

measurement 68–69

neonates 751

brain injury 733, 760

normal brain 750–751

neoplastic/non-neoplastic lesion differentiation 771

neurodegenerative diseases 564

normal brain development 729, 730

para-infectious encephalopathy 438

Parkinson’s disease 631

pediatric brain 730 , 731

traumatic brain injury 677–678

tumors 774–776

perinatal stroke 752–755

preterm infants 729–730

progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy 490

pseudo-normalization 237–238

pyogenic infections 406

rotationally variant 49–50

seizure disorders 548

extracellular space 553

ictal period 549–550

interictal 550

mechanisms of change 552–553

postictal period 549–550

statistical parametric mapping 551552

stroke

hemorrhagic 180

ischemic 236–238

perinatal 752–755

severity 192

subacute sclerosing panencephalitis 436–437

threshold method 194–195

Trace(D) 79

traumatic brain injury 674

children 677–678

experimental models 673–674

outcome prediction 676–677

variance minimizing 57–58

white matter 715

aquaporins 375

arabitol 834

arachnoid cysts, diffusion-weighted imaging 335–336

arbovirus 416

arcuate fasciculi, infarction 242

area under peak (AUP), dynamic susceptibility contrast MRI 144

arginine:glycine amidinotransferase (AGAT) deficiency 825–828

arterial input function (AIF) 90, 114

cerebral artery vascular abnormality 140

dispersal 90

dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI 115, 116–117, 118

measurement 120–121

dynamic susceptibility contrast MRI 90

bolus delay/dispersion 138–139

error sources 137

partial volume effects 139–140

peak saturation 139–140

internal carotid artery 115

measurement 123

neonates 760–761

peak saturation 139–140

perfusion MRI 711

stroke 185

tissue time-to-peak 144

arterial magnetization 96

labeled (Ma (t)) 96,

arterial occlusion, susceptibility imaging 278–279

arterial spin labeling (ASL) 96

3D imaging 100

adiabatic pulses 147–148

Alzheimer’s disease 562–563

applications to brain 99–105

arterial magnetization 96

arterial transit time 217–218

artifacts 145–151, 711–712

blood flow measurement 104–105

blood spin–lattice relaxation time 150

blood volume imaging 103

blood–brain partition coefficient 150

brain tumor microvasculature 291

carotid endarterectomy 220–221

cerebral blood flow 103–105, 163–164

measurement 215

cerebrovascular disease

chronic 218–219

pediatric 221

cerebrovascular reserve testing 219–221

comparison with other techniques 99

continuous labeling 96–98, , 101

crusher gradients 147

diffusion pulse gradients 147

elderly people 562

errors 145–151

extraction fraction 100

fast spin-echo methods 222

frontotemporal degeneration 562–563

fMRI 103–105

HIV dementia 505

hybrid pulsed–continuous 221–222

hypoperfusion 215, 219,

image acquisition schemes 222

improving for clinical applications 221–222

individual vascular territory labeling 219

inflow time 146–147

internal carotid artery disease 259–260

intravascular signal 147

inversion pulses 222

labeling efficiency 147–148

selective 150

magnetization transfer 96–98, 148, 149–150, 711–712

model 95–96

movement of subject 150–151

multidimensional radiofrequency pulse 102–103

partial volume effects 150

pediatric 221, 786

perfusion

quantification 148–149

regional 95

perfusion MRI 358–359, 711–712

anaplastic oligodendroglioma 367

perfusion-based fMRI 163

pharmacological perfusion augmentation 220–221

principles 163164

pulsed labeling 96, 98–99

quantification model 148–149

quantitative resting state functional connectivity mapping 105

regional blood flow 94–95, 95 , 103–105

MRI detection 94–95

regional perfusion 95

selected inversion 102

selective 150, 215–216

signal-to-noise ratio 221–222

stroke 215–222

acute 218

subtraction errors 149–150

T 1 relaxation time 100

transit artifact 216–218

transit times 100, 145–146

traumatic brain injury, experimental models 674

vessel territory mapping 100–103

white matter cerebral blood flow quantification 150

whole–brain coverage 100

See undercontinuous arterial spin labeling, pulsed arterial spin labeling

arterial transit time (ATT)

arterial spin labeling 217–218

delayed 146

arteriovenous malformations

brain plasticity 388–389

children 389

cortical function localization 388

fMRI for presurgical planning 388–389

motor cortex 389

motor-related structures 389

artifacts

arterial spin labeling 145–151

cerebrovascular arterial spin labeling 216–218

dynamic susceptibility contrast MRI 137–144

echo planar imaging 142–144

motion 81–82

perfusion MR 137

susceptibility-induced 59

vessel misregistration with contrast agent bolus 143

ASL

See underarterial spin labeling

Aspergillus (aspergillosis) 411, , 413414

brain abscess 438–439

granuloma 441, 441

asphyxic injury, perinatal 765

astrocytoma 299 , 304 , 772

biological behavior 303–304

cellular density 322–324

Cho 317, 769

citrate levels 774

classification 301–303,

dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI following antiangiogenic treatment 126

malignant transformation 305

misclassification 303

N-acetyl aspartate deficit 317

pediatric 707 , 708 , 769, 782

progressive disease 776

recurrent 317

white matter fiber tracts 326

WHO grade 767

See also anaplastic astrocytoma, pilocytic astrocytoma

atherosclerosis

internal carotid artery 260–267

perfusion 261–262

plaque 260

vascular reserve 262–263

atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (AT/RT) 769

autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (ADNFLE) 526

Avastin

See bevacizumab

Avicenna 380

axon(s) 593

axonal fibers 68

branching 73

diffusion-weighted imaging 456

line propagation 72

branching 73

termination 72–73

tract editing with multiple ROIs 73, 75

reconstruction protocols 74–75

reconstruction techniques 71–72

tract-tracing techniques 76

wrong estimated direction 80

axonal injury

multiple sclerosis 479

shear 654, , 694

traumatic 656, 673–670, 684–686

See undertraumatic axonal injury

axonal retraction balls 691–692

b-factor 46–47

echo time relationship 58

increasing 47

b-value

diffusion-weighted images 48

echo time 58

optimal 57–58

optimal number of measurements 58

bacterial infections 405–406

glycolytic pathway 428

granulomatous disease 408

meningitis 406–407

perfusion MRI 352

Bacteroides fragilis 430

balloon protection catheter 267

Balo’s concentric sclerosis 421–422

band-selective inversion with gradient diphasing (BASING) 35

basal ganglia

hemorrhage 276

HIV infection 608

hypoxia–ischemia 741, 743

infantile lesions 754

iron deposition

Huntington’s disease 645–646

parkinsonism 645

multiple sclerosis 490–491

white matter hyperperfusion 761

baseline correction 23

behavior, diffusion tensor MRI correlation 599

betaines 659

bevacizumab 349, 360, 776–777

brainstem glioma treatment 776

biopsy

brain tumors 374–375

guiding stereotactic in perfusion MRI 347

bipolar disorder

MRS 574–577,

studies 575

Bloch equations 95–96, 99, 100

modification 148–149

blood

cerebrovascular supply in internal carotid artery disease 258–259

deoxygenated 157

See undercerebral blood flow, cerebral blood volume

blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) fMRI 103–105, 156–157, 386–387

cerebral blood flow dynamic measurement 163–164

cerebral blood volume 158

confounding influences 165

fMRI paradigm 160

gradient-echo planar imaging 158–159

hyperoxygenation 157

initial dip 158

magnetic susceptibility sensitivity 161

motor ROI 105

neuronal activity 156–157, 158

orientation column mapping 104

physiological processes 158

signal 157

contrast source 161

intensity 158

measurement 158, 164–165

spontaneous low-frequency oscillations 105

static field strength 158

stimulus paradigm 165

temporal properties of fMRI 104

traumatic brain injury 844

venous oxygen saturation 157

blood spin–lattice relaxation time 150

blood volume, fractional 370

map 373

blood volume imaging

arterial spin labeling 103

See undercerebral blood volume

blood volume-based fMRI (fMRI) 164

blood–brain barrier

breakdown

bolus tracking 90

dynamic susceptibility contrast MRI 141

disruption 488

radiotherapy-induced 349

impairment by vasoactive substances 375

integrity assessment 100

leakage artifacts 488

leaks

bolus tracking 90–91

perfusion MRI 343

traumatic brain injury 670

permeability

cerebral ischemia 259

parameters 113

radiotherapy-induced disruption 349

blood–brain partition coefficient, arterial spin labeling 150

BOLD

See underblood oxygen level dependent fMRI

bolus arrival time (BAT)

dynamic susceptibility contrast MRI 144

perfusion timing 261

bolus injection 88

bolus tracking 86, 89

blood–brain barrier breakdown 90–91, 90

cerebral blood volume measurements 87

flow 91

transit time 91

border-zone infarcts 248, 249

MRS and hemodynamic failure 253–254

border-zone perfusion timing 261–262

boxing, traumatic brain injury 678–679

occult 689

brain

hemodynamic status 258–259

pulsatile motion 58

ring-enhancing mass lesion differential diagnosis 357

brain abscess 406, 407 , 427–428, 430

amino acids 428

Aspergillus 438–439

Bacteroides fragilis 430

brain tumor differential diagnosis 459–460

capsule 406, 456–458

case study 468–469

causative organisms 427, 428

children 718

development 427, 456–458

diagnosis 357, 459–460

diffusion-weighted imaging 406, 456–460

children 718

echinococcosis differential diagnosis 446

edema 406

fungal 438–439, 439 , 458

aspergillosis 440

cryptococcoma 509–510

MRS 406, 428, 434

diffusion-weighted imaging combination 428

perfusion MRI 352

presentation 456

PRESS 407

Pseudomonas aeruginosa 429

pyogenic 457 , 458, 468–469

temporal lobe 460

tuberculous 434, 435 , 458

HIV infection 510–511

vasogenic edema 457

brain development 715

anatomical variations 16–17

diffusion tensor MRI 729–732

MRS 728–729

physiological MRI 727–734

proton MRS 728–729

brain function mapping 380–387

history 380–381

brain injury

focal contusions 653–654, 692

hypoxic secondary 739

neonatal 732–733

See also non-accidental injury

See undertraumatic brain injury

brain metabolism, seizure disorders 526

brain tumors

alanine marker 300–301

angiogenesis 341–342, 375–376

angiogenic therapy response assessment 290–291

antiangiogenic agents 376

apparent diffusion coefficient 292, 321, 322–324, 329

maps for response to therapy 327

treatment-induced changes 326

arterial spin labeling perfusion MRI 358–359

biomarkers of biological behavior 303–304

biopsy 374–375

brain abscess differential diagnosis 459–460

burden 326

capillary permeability 290–291

case studies 313–318

pediatric 780–782

cellular density 322–324

cerebral blood flow 341–342

cerebral blood volume 341–342

in children

applications 768–777

case studies 780–782

diagnosis accuracy 768–772

diffusion imaging 717

genetic risk 766

incidence 766

MRS 706–709

neoplastic 771

outside posterior fossa 769–771

pathology 766

perfusion MRI 712

physiological MR 766–782

posterior fossa 768–769, 772

prognosis 766–768

risk assessment 772–777

targeted therapy assessment 776–777

therapy effectiveness assessment 774–777

treatment response 774–776

WHO grade 767

Cho marker 295–297, 301–303

chemotherapy response 306

Cr marker 297–298

cytotoxic agent treatment 326

diagnosis 324–325

diffusion MRI 292, 304

diffusion tensor MRI 325–326, 329

diffusion-weighted imaging 321–339

case studies 332–339

diagnostic 324–325

therapeutic monitoring 326–329,

drug development 290

imaging endpoints 291

dynamic susceptibility contrast enhanced perfusion MRI 342

edema 325, 326

epileptogenic 526

extra-axial 350–351, 374

VEGF expression 377

functional diffusion map analysis 326–329,

fractional anisotropy 325–326

fMRI for presurgical planning 389–392

glutamate marker 300

glutamine marker 300

histological features 303

imaging endpoints 289–291,

drug development 291

incidence 289

indicator dilution theory 342

K trans parameter 341–342

lactate marker 299–300, 301–303

chemotherapy response 306

lipid marker 299–300, 301–303

mean transit time 341–342

metabolic markers 295–301

metastases 351

microcirculation 290–291

MRS 291–292

biochemical signature 303–304

biopsy/biopsy guidance 292, 304

chemotherapy response 306–307

Cho signal 304

classification 301–303

diagnosis 292, 301–303,

disease burden 291–292

grading 292

long echo 301

N-acetyl aspartate level 304

neoplastic/non-neoplastic lesion differentiation 301

pediatric brain 706–709

post-therapeutic evaluation 305–307

pre-therapeutic role 301–304

prognosis 301–303,

radio-necrosis 306

radiotherapy planning 292

radiotherapy response assessment 305–306

radiotherapy target delineation 305

recurrence 306

short echo 301

spectral abnormality location 303–304

surgical resection planning 305

treatment planning 304

tumor borders 291–292

multiparametric–algorithmic approach 357

multiple sclerosis differential diagnosis 476

myo-inositol marker 300

N-acetyl aspartate marker 298–299

non-glial 350

non-invasive correlates of histological grade 374–375

outcome 289

pathological patterns of infiltration 289

patient stratification for treatment monitoring/efficacy 375–376

perfusion

parameters 351

pathophysiology 341–342

perfusion MRI 304, 341–368

clinical applications 344–357

standardized methods 359

permeability imaging 369–378

extra-axial 374

limitations 377–378

non-invasive correlates of histological grade 374–375

patient stratification for treatment monitoring/efficacy 375–376

therapeutic response 375–376

phosphocreatine marker 297–298

proton MRS 528–529

pseudo-progression 306, 348–349,

recurrence 368

relative cerebral blood flow 291

relative cerebral blood volume 291

risk assessment

inoperable/partially resectable tumors 773–774

resectable tumors 772–773

seizures 528–529

signaling pathways 290

spectral variability 302

surgical treatment planning 325–326, 329

diffusion tensor MRI 325–326

MRS 305

susceptibility-weighted imaging 357

therapy-induced necrosis 348–349,

radio-necrosis 306

treatment planning

diffusion tensor MRI 325–326, 329

MRS 304

tumefactive demyelinating lesion differential diagnosis 353–354

vascular endothelial hyperplasia 341–342

vascular proliferation 341

vasculature 291

V e parameter 341–342

white matter tract location 325, 329

branched-chain alpha-keto acid 830–831, ,

branched-chain amino acids 830–831, ,

Broca, Pierre Paul 1, 380

Brodman, Korbinian 380–381

Brownian motion 44, 321, 594

CADASIL (cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy) 242–243

MRS 482

calcium chelation, N-acetyl aspartate 528

callosal agenesis 758, 758

non-ketotic hyperglycinemia 758

Canavan’s disease 528, 814 , 828–830, 830

infantile 828

lesion location 824

maple syrup urine disease differential diagnosis 831

MRS 710, 812, 828–830

capillary permeability, radiotherapy-induced 349

cardiac cycle, brain pulsatile motion 58

cardiac output, cerebral perfusion 267

cardiovascular reserve

carotid intervention effects 266

CASL 263

carotid artery

plaque 252–253

traumatic dissection 682–684

See also internal carotid artery

carotid artery disease, chronic 258–269

atherosclerosis 260–267

diffusion imaging 263–264

imaging techniques 259–260

types 260–269

carotid artery disease, severe obstructive

hemodynamic changes 248

MRS 248–254

asymptomatic patients 249–251

cerebrovascular reactivity 253

clinical relevance 254

collateral flow patterns 252–253

flow 251–252

symptomatic patients 249–251

value 248–249

carotid artery occlusion 175

hemodynamic changes 248

N-acetyl aspartate/Choline ratio 179

carotid endarterectomy

altered hemodynamics 264–266

arterial spin labeling 220–221

internal carotid artery occlusion 249

internal carotid artery stenosis 249, 250–251, 264

patient selection 179

carotid stents 264, 266

devices 267

internal carotid artery disease 265 , 267

CASL

See undercontinuous arterial spin labeling

caudate atrophy, Huntington’s disease 634

cavernous malformations 274

CD4 T cells 507, 608

cellular density, diffusion-weighted imaging 322–324

central nervous system infections 352

perfusion indices 352

central pontine myelinolysis 490, 605

central volume theorem 710–711

cerebellar reversal sign, non-accidental injury 849

cerebral amyloid angiopathy

See amyloid angiopathy

cerebral arteriopathy

autosomal dominant 483

pediatric stroke 784, 791–793

cerebral basal region, collateral circulation 267–268

cerebral blood flow (CBF) 2, 113, 488

acetazolamide 219–221,

angiogenesis inhibitors 341

arterial input function 138–139

arterial spin labeling 103–105, 163–164, 215, 711

measurement 104–105

autoregulation 219–220

brain tumors 341–342

cerebral ischemia metabolic changes 176–177

constants 138

contrast leakage 141

CT perfusion imaging 170

dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI measurement 113–114, 115–116, 116–117, 122

dynamic measurement with BOLD MRI 163–164

dynamic susceptibility contrast MRI 138

fMRI 165

HIV dementia 505

hypertension 219

internal carotid artery disease 258–259

ischemia 186 , 356–357

mean transit time 90

multiple sclerosis 489

clinical correlations 492

normal appearing white matter 491

neonates 760–761

pediatric 786

pediatric stroke in sickle cell disease 791

perfusion MRI 3, 710–711

perfusion timing 261

perfusion-based fMRI 162–164

perfusion-weighted imaging 196–197

PET 138

quantification in white matter 150

quantitative maps 163

relative 291

residue function 87–88

model-dependent solutions 89–90

model-independent determination 88–89

seizures 552–553

sickle cell disease 713 , 714

temporal lobe epilepsy 547–548

traumatic brain injury 670,

experimental models 674

cerebral blood volume (CBV) 113, 488

angiogenesis inhibitors 341

astrocytoma 769

BOLD fMRI 158

brain tumors 341–342

pediatric 712, 769, 773–776, ,

contrast leakage 141

CT perfusion imaging 170

dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI measurement 113–114, 115–116, 122

dynamic imaging 164

dynamic susceptibility contrast MRI 376

glioblastoma multiforme 714

gliomas 773–774,

HIV dementia 505

indicator dilution theory 342

internal carotid artery disease 258–259

ischemia 356–357

measurements 87

multiple sclerosis 489

clinical correlations 492

normal appearing white matter 491

neonates 760–761

neoplastic/non-neoplastic lesion differentiation 771

perfusion MRI 710–711

perfusion timing 261

relative 291, 351

extra-axial neoplasms 350–351

glioma grading 344–347

histogram analysis 359

mapping 291

seizure disorders 546–547

traumatic brain injury 670

experimental models 674

tuberculoma 433–434

vascular space occupancy 360–361

cerebral dysfunction

interictal 520

postictal 519

cerebral ischemia

See ischemia/ischemic injury

cerebral malaria 445 , 446

cerebral metabolic rate oxygen (CMRO2) 248, 258–259

cerebral palsy 716–717

cerebral perfusion

See perfusion

cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP)

carotid artery occlusion 248

internal carotid artery disease 258–259

reduced 249 , 672

cerebritis 406

perfusion MRI 354

progression to brain abscess 427, 456–458

cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)

Aspergillus brain abscess 438

diffusion 52

diffusivity of water 47–48

mean phase values 131

phase image 131

pulsatile motion 81

volume dilution effect 26–27,

cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis 483

MRS 482–484

cerebrovascular autoregulation 219–220

cerebrovascular blood supply, internal carotid artery disease 258–259

cerebrovascular disease 169–171

arterial spin labeling 217

chronic disease 218–219

continuous 217

pediatric disease 221

pulsed 217

ischemic penumbra 169–170

imaging 170

screening methods 169

thrombolytic therapy 169–170, 171

transient ischemic attacks 170–171

See also ischemia/ischemic injury, stroke, transient ischemic attacks

cerebrovascular injury, perfusion imaging 354–357

cerebrovascular reactivity 219–220

arterial spin labeling 220–221

MRS in carotid artery disease 253

cerebrovascular reserve 266

atherosclerosis 262–263

internal carotid artery disease 258–259

testing in arterial spin labeling 219–221

ceroid lipofuscinoses 824

cervical cord spectroscopy 480 , 854

chemical shift bandwidth 31–32

chemical shift error 38

chemical shift imaging (CSI)

See magnetic resonance spectroscopy imaging (MRSI)

chemical shift selective water suppression (CHESS) 35

chemical tracer techniques 76

chemotherapy

radiotherapy combination 306

temozolomide 348–349

response assessment 306–307

CHESS pulse 13 , 15

children

accidental injury 677–678, 843

mechanisms of injury 843

apparent diffusion coefficient 730 , 731

arterial spin labeling 221, 786

arteriovenous malformations 389

astrocytoma 707 , 708

brain abscess 720

brain focal lesions 771

brain tumors

applications 768–777

case studies 780–782

diagnosis accuracy 768–772

diffusion imaging 717

genetic risk 766

incidence 766

MRS 706–709

neoplastic 771

outside posterior fossa 769–771

pathology 766

perfusion MRI 712

physiological MR 766–782

posterior fossa 768–769, 772

prognosis 766–768

risk assessment 772–777

targeted therapy assessment 776–777

therapy effectiveness assessment 774–777

WHO grade 767

cerebral palsy 716–717

cerebrovascular disease 221

choroid plexus carcinoma 707

congenital brain malformations 718–719

CASL 221

developmentally delayed 733–734

diffusion anisotropy 731

diffusion tensor MRI 712–721

cerebral palsy 716–717

changes with age 786

stroke 789–791

diffusion-weighted imaging 712–721

changes with age 785–786

stroke 787–789

epilepsy 530

fast spatial encoding 721–723

fetal alcohol spectrum disorders 607

fMRI 389

gliomas 376 , 706–709

HIV infection 504–505

hypomyelinating leukodystrophy 812–819

inborn errors of metabolism

diffusion tensor imaging 719–721

MRS 823–842

lysosomal disorders 807–808

medulloblastoma 719

mitochondrial encephalomyopathies 810

MRS 705–710,

HIV infection 504–505

inborn errors of metabolism 823–842

white matter disease 806–822

nephritic syndrome 790

neurodegenerative disease 712

normal brain maturation

diffusion tensor MRI 729–732

MRS 728–729

obsessive compulsive disorder

perfusion MRI 710–712

applications 712

perfusion-weighted imaging 786

peroxisomal disorders 808–810

physiological MRI 705–723

normal values 785

pilocytic astrocytoma 718

posterior fossa lesions 768–769

practical issues of imaging 784–785

proton MRS 706

Rasmussen’s encephalitis 544

relative anisotropy 731

seizures 708

stroke

case studies 798–802

cerebral arteriopathy 784, 791–793

diffusion tensor MRI 789–791

diffusion-weighted imaging 787–789

etiology 784

MRS 793–794

perfusion MRI 712, 791–793

physiological MRI 784–802

Sturge–Weber syndrome 802

traumatic brain injury 666–667, 843–850, 848

accidental 677–678, 843

imaging protocol 850

imaging schedule 849–850

mechanisms 843

non-accidental 678, 843, 846–850

outcome prediction 843–844

white matter disease

case study 822

classification 807

MRS 806–822

proton MRS 819

See also infants, non-accidental injury, preterm infants

See underneonates

choline (Cho) 3, 8

acute disseminated encephalomyelitis 486

adrenoleukodystrophy 809–810

aging 618

Alexander disease 815

Alzheimer’s disease 619–622

amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 637

astrocytoma 317, 782

bipolar disorder 574–577,

brain levels 16–17

cellular density/proliferation index 304

brain tumor marker 295–297, 301–303

chemotherapy response 306

pediatric 769,

carotid stenosis 171

cerebral malaria 446

cryptococcoma 510

dementia with Lewy bodies 623, 628

detected in brain 7

epilepsy 528, 534–535

glioma 773–774

classification 304

levels 313–314, 774

gray matter 16

hemispheric mass 305

HIV infection 501–502, 503, 504

children 504–505

leukodystrophy with ovarian dysgenesis 484

lymphoma 509

megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts 818–819

meningiomas 316

metabolite peak area determination 24

MRS 176

MRSI pulse sequence 14

multiple sclerosis 475, 476, 477

neonatal hypoxia–ischemia 709

normal brain maturation 728–729

pediatric brain 706

changes with age 786–787

tumor marker 769,

tumors 706–709, 709 , 773–776,

progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy 509, 518

radiation necrosis 318

Salla disease 484, 830

temporal lobe epilepsy 529–531

traumatic brain injury 659–660,

tuberculoma 511

tumor-associated cysts 301

white matter 16

See underN-acetyl aspartate/choline ratio

choline-N-acetyl aspartate index (CNI) 298, 298

chordoma 323

cellular density 322–324

choroid plexus carcinoma 780

pediatric 707

WHO grade 767

choroid plexus papilloma 769, , 770 , 780

WHO grade 767

chromosome disorders 823

cingulum

cingulate gyrus part 73–74

region-of-interest 74

circle of Willis

arterial branches 102

collateral flow 248, 252–253, 261, 262

collateral pathways 253

functional anatomy 261

citrate, pediatric brain tumors 774

cognitive defects

Alzheimer’s disease 620–622,

HIV infection 501, 502 , 503

See undermild cognitive impairment

coherence

control 32–33

elimination of out-of-band 34

PRESS 32

STEAM 32

unspoiled artifacts 33

color maps 71

combined antiretroviral therapy (CART) 501, 504, 504

efficacy marker 462–463

HIV aging population 504

metabolite abnormality reversal 504

progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy 509

compartmental models, metastases 118

computed tomography (CT) 2

non-accidental injury 849–850,

perfusion imaging 170

spiral 170

stroke screening 169

traumatic brain injury 673–670

xenon 169–170

computed tomography angiography 170

computed tomography scanners, multislice 170

concentration gradients 44

congenital brain malformations

diffusion tensor imaging 718–719

diffusion-weighted imaging 758

inheritance 823

congenital central hypoventilation syndrome 758

continuous arterial spin labeling (CASL) 96–98, 101 , 711

3D imaging 100, 101

cardiovascular reserve 263

carotid stenosis 220

cerebrovascular disease 217

cerebrovascular reactivity 220–221

comparison with other techniques 99

crusher gradients 147

errors 145–151

flip angle radiofrequency pulses 98

hybrid pulsed 221–222

inflow time 146–147

internal carotid artery stenosis 217

intravascular signal 147

labeling efficiency 147–148

magnetization transfer 100, , 148

middle cerebral artery stenosis 217

motor ROI 105

multislice perfusion maps 216

PASL comparison 99

pediatric 221

pediatric stroke in sickle cell disease 791

perfusion MRI 219 , 359

cerebrovascular reserve testing 220

post-labeling delays 148

pseudo-continuous 148

quantitative resting state functional connectivity mapping 105

single radiofrequency coil 96–98,

subtraction errors 149–150

transit times 145–146

two-coil system 98

whole-brain coverage 100

contrast agents 39

blood concentration measurement 86–87

cerebral perfusion imaging 86–91

dynamic susceptibility contrast MRI 86

concentration 137

extravasation 142

recirculation 140–141

residual effects 141

kinetics 374

leakage in blood–brain barrier breakdown 141

lymphoma 508

susceptibility gradients 86–87

toxoplasmosis 508

vessel misregistration artifact 143

corpus callosum 598

diffusion 52

traumatic brain injury 677678

See also callosal agenesis

cortex

diffusion 52

hyperintensity with hemiparesis 789

normal brain development 732

thinning in Huntington’s disease 634

cortical dysplasia, focal 527 , 534

cortical vein thrombosis, hemiparesis 279

corticobasal degeneration, abnormal iron store imaging 644–645

corticospinal tract 74–75

centrum semiovale 638

degeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 636–637,

ischemic lesion relationship 241

region of interest 74

Wallerian degeneration 242

corticosteroids

administration in perfusion MRI 343

dynamic contrast MRI permeability measurement 376

coupled spin systems 34–35

PRESS 11

STEAM 11

coxsackievirus 416

Cramer–Rao bounds 31,

craniopharyngioma 767

creatine (Cr) 8–9

adrenoleukodystrophy 809–810

aging 618

Alzheimer’s disease 619–622

amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 637

bipolar disorder 574–577,

brain

detection in 7

levels 16–17

brain tumor marker 297–298

carotid stenosis 171

cryptococcoma 510

deficiency 827

deficiency syndrome 825–828

dementia with Lewy bodies 623

developmentally delayed infant 733

epilepsy 528, 534–535

frontotemporal dementia 624

function 825

gray matter 16

hemispheric mass 305

HIV infection 503, 504,

children 504–505

Huntington’s disease 635–636

hypoxia–ischemia 709, 739–741

cascade 738–739

megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts 818–819

metabolite peak area determination 24

MRS 176

MRSI pulse sequence 14

multiple sclerosis 475, 476, 478–479

multiple system atrophy 633

neurocysticercosis 443

obsessional–compulsive disorder 579

parkinsonism 633–634

pathway 827

pediatric brain 705, 706

changes with age 786–787

progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy 509

Salla disease 484, 830

supplementation 827–828

temporal lobe epilepsy 531

total concentration 26

traumatic brain injury 659–660

vascular dementia 622–623

white matter 16

See underN-acetyl aspartate/creatine ratio

creatine phosphate, pediatric brain 705

creatine transporter 1 gene mutations 825–827

Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease 418–419, 420 , 463

case study 473–474

chronological changes 463–464

clinical course 463

diffusion-weighted imaging 463–464, 473–474, 564

MRS 419, 454–455, 564

neurodegeneration markers 463

pulvinar sign 473–474, 563

signal intensity abnormalities 463

sporadic 563

variant 454–455, 473–474, 563

crusher gradient 10–11

coherence control 32–33

slice ordering 33–34

cryptococcal meningitis 410–411, 412

cryptococcoma, HIV infection 509–510

CT

See undercomputed tomography

Cushing, Harvey William 380–381

cysticercosis 413, 442–443

cysticercus cysts 442–443, 442 , 443

Damasio H and Damasio AR 2

data acquisition 31

data analysis 15

DCE-MRI ,

See underdynamic contrast-enhanced MRI

deconvolution

analysis 116

cerebral blood flow and residue function 88–89

dynamic susceptibility contrast MRI 139

one-compartment model fit 117

delayed radiation necrosis 348

dementia

amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 637

causes 618

cost-efficiency of imaging 563

diffusion-weighted imaging 562

HIV infection 501–502, , , 502 , 503, 503

diffusion-weighted imaging 505–507

perfusion MRI 505

with Lewy bodies 623, 628

proton MRS metabolites 623

management 563

microbleed imaging 646

MRS 562

perfusion MRI 562–563

physiological MRI 562

progression 620

proton MRS 618–629

subtypes 618

syndromes 618

See also Alzheimer’s disease, vascular dementia

See underfrontotemporal dementia

Dementia Rating Scale Total Scores 620

demyelination/demyelinating diseases 419–422

case studies 486–487, 498–500

central pontine myelinolysis 490

cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis 482–484

diagnosis 419

diffusion 488

diffusion-weighted imaging 488–500

FLAIR 191 , 419

leukodystrophy with ovarian dysgenesis 484

MRS 419, 475–487,

mucolipidosis type IV 480–482

perfusion-weighted imaging 488–500

physiological imaging 405

progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy 490

proton MRS 807

Salla disease 484

Sjögren–Larsson syndrome 484

treatment outcome 419

See underacute disseminated encephalomyelitis, CADASIL, multiple sclerosis, tumefactive demyelinating lesions

deoxyhemoglobin 157

depression

diffusion tensor imaging 609

fractional anisotropy 609

major

MRS 571–574

studies 571

white matter 609

depth resolved surface coil spectroscopy (DRESS) 568–569

Descartes, René 1

development

brain anatomical variations 16–17

brain changes 17

developmental delay, physiological MRI 727–734

diagonalization 69

diffuse axonal injury

See undertraumatic brain injury

diffuse excessive high signal intensity (DEHSI)

preterm infants 244–245, 755–758, 755

white matter injury of prematurity 244–245

diffuse intrinsic brainstem glioma (DIBSG) 769, 774,

diffuse Lewy body disease, abnormal iron store imaging 644–645

diffuse small vessel ischemic disease 237 , 242–243

diffusion 44–46, 236

Brownian motion 44, 321, 594

concentration gradients 44

demyelination 488

inflammation 488

isotropic 68

mean 236

diffuse small vessel ischemic disease 242–243

evolution in ischemia 236–238

fractional anisotropy 239–241

perinatal hypoxemic–ischemic injury 243–245

stroke 237

MR signal 46

normal brain 236

orientation 594

principles 712–714

random walk 44–46

stroke characteristics 187

susceptibility gradients 82

time 45–47,

time dependence 82

water 47–48

white matter 236, 325

See undermean diffusion

diffusion anisotropy 49, 68, , 236

brain tumors 325–326

case study 206

characterization 70–71

corticospinal tract 241–242

diffuse small vessel ischemic disease 242–243

diffusion tensor elements 50–51, 594

evolution in ischemia 238–241

HIV dementia 505–506

internal carotid artery disease 260

measurement 68

myelin sheath 71

pediatric 731

prematurity 732

source 49

voxel-averaged tensor 63–64

white matter tracts 321–322

diffusion coefficient 44, 46

See underapparent diffusion coefficient

diffusion ellipsoid 51–52, , 52 , 54 , 68, 715

anisotropic 70

characterization 70

isotropic 70

orientation 71

parameters for defining 70

diffusion encoding 46

diffusion map, functional (fDM), brain tumors 326–329,

diffusion mismatch 218

diffusion MRI 3, 44

brain tumors 292, 304

combination with conventional MRI 357

ischemia sensitivity 3

diffusion tensor 49–57, 715

calculation 69, 70

data set registration/normalization 84

diagonal elements | 54

diffusion ellipsoid 51–52

eigenvalues 51, 55, 55 , 236

secondary white matter degeneration 242

eigenvectors 80, 236

secondary white matter degeneration 242

elements 50–51, 53 , 69

estimation 52

orientation 55–57

rotationally invariant 52–53

trace 79

diffusion tensor MRI 715

2D visualization 70–71

aging 595–596

changes 786

alcoholism 605–607

Alzheimer’s disease 600–602

amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 636–637

anisotropy 68, 206, 236

indices 54–55

brain abscess diagnosis 450

brain development 715

brain tumors 292

children 717

surgical treatment planning 325–326, 329

therapeutic monitoring 329

treatment planning 325–326, 329

children 712–721

applications 715–721

cerebral palsy 716–717

changes with age 786

stroke 789–791

color map 71

combination with conventional MRI 357

congenital brain malformations 718–719, 758

connectivity maps 594

correlation with behavior 599

demyelinating diseases 419

depression 609

developmentally delayed infant 734

diffuse excessive high signal intensity 244–245

directionally encoded color anisotropy maps 241

epileptic focus identification 559

epileptogenic brain tissue localization 550–551

fetal 759

fractional anisotropy 206

glioma infiltration 333–334, 337

herpes simplex encephalitis 436

HIV encephalitis 418

HIV infection 607–609

Huntington’s disease 634

inborn errors of metabolism 719–721

infants 728, 759

iron signal 644

limitations 75–76

line propagation approaches 72

low birth weight preterm 715–716

measurement 593–594

meningitis 426–427

metrics 236

reliability 599

middle cerebral artery infarction 760

myelinated neuronal cells 325

neonates 728

brain injury 733

normal brain 751

normal brain maturation 729–732

optimal echo time 58

optimal repetition time 58

parkinsonism 631–633,

perinatal hypoxemic–ischemic injury 243–245

preterm infants 756, 756

low birth weight 715–716

process 70

qualitative validation 76

quantitative fiber tracking 597–598, 607

quantitative measurements 52–57

regions of interest 594

aging 596

alcoholism 606

depression 609

neonatal brain injury 733

traumatic brain injury 671

relative anisotropy 206

sampling vectors 58

schizophrenia 602–605

metrics 602–603

seizure disorders 548

sequence optimization 57–58

statistical parametric mapping 559

stroke 236–245

evolution of changes 237

ischemic 238

parameters 237

pediatric 789–791

tissue viability prediction 241

subacute sclerosing panencephalitis 437

tensor calculation 69

therapeutic monitoring of brain tumors 329

tissue viability prediction 241

trace 53–54

tractography 76, 241

traumatic brain injury 671, 675 , 846

functional correlates 677

longitudinal changes 674

mild 654

neuropsychological correlates 677

non-accidental injury in children 850

outcome prediction 676–677

white matter secondary degeneration 241–242

diffusion tensor MRI-based tractography 492

diffusion tractography

See undertractography

diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) 47–48, 47 ,

acute disseminated encephalomyelitis 489–490, 491–492

acute head injury 674

adult neoplasia 321–339

aging 593–609

changes 785–786

alcoholism 607

anisotropic diffusion 49

anisotropy

lesion border masking 79

white matter as artifact 79

apparent diffusion coefficient 714–715

boxing 678–679

brain tumors 321–322, 324–325

cerebral abscess 406

pyogenic infections 406

stroke 191, 194–195, , 237

arachnoid cysts 335–336

axonal fibers 456

brain abscess 427, 428, 456–460

Aspergillus 439

brain tumor differential diagnosis 459–460

children 718

diagnosis 459–460

differentiation from non-abscesses 458

sensitivity 458, 459

specificity 459

brain development 715

brain infarcts 259, 263–264

brain tumors 321–339

case studies 332–339

children 717

clinical management 322

diagnosis 324–325, 329

pediatric 769

therapeutic monitoring 326–329,

b-value 48

carotid artery disease 263–264

case studies 206, 468–474, 498–500, 557–559

neonates 765

cellular density 322–324

central pontine myelinolysis 490

cerebral abscess 406

children 712–721

applications 715–721

infections 718

combination with conventional MRI 357

congenital brain malformations 758

coregistered trace 222

Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease 419, 463–464, 473–474, 564

cysticercosis 413

dementias 562

demyelinating diseases 488–500

diffusion sensitizing gradients 50

diffusion tensor estimation 58

diffusion time dependence 82

eddy currents 83–84, 83

embolic stroke 188, 268

encephalitis 415, 461

herpes simplex 435–436, 461

epidermoids 335–336

epidural empyema 408

epileptogenic brain tissue localization 550–551

Epstein–Barr virus 436

fetal 758–759,

field gradient pulses 81

flow 80–82, 81

fractional anisotropy 170

glioma recurrence pattern 332

gradient field non-linearity 84

gradient pulses 321

gray matter occult damage 490–492

herpes simplex encephalitis 435–436, 461

herpes simplex virus 1 415–416

high T 2 sensitivity 58–59

hippocampal sclerosis 550

HIV infection 461–463

dementia 505–507

Huntington’s disease 634

hypoxia–ischemia 716

hypoxic–ischemic encephalopathy 750

stroke 752–755

term baby 751–752

imaging gradients 82

infarct growth 199 , 279

infections 456–474

children 718

intracerebral hemorrhage 192

ischemic penumbra imaging sequences 170

left hemiparesis 191

low birth weight preterm 715–716

management system-related sources of error 82–84

maple syrup urine disease 830–831

meningitis 406–407, 460

complications 406

motion 80–82

multiple sclerosis 419–421, 488–489

clinical correlations 492

gray matter occult damage 490–491

gray matter pathology 492

normal-appearing white matter occult damage 490–491

optic nerve 492–493

spinal cord 492–493

tumefactive 500

navigated 59–61

neonates 750–765

brain injury 733

normal brain 750–751

stroke 752–755

neuroborreliosis 492

neuromyelitis optica 492

normal-appearing white matter occult damage 490–492

multiple sclerosis 490–491

object-related sources of error 79–82

optic nerve in multiple sclerosis 492–493

para-infectious encephalopathy 438

parenchymal disease 411

parkinsonism 630–631

partial volume effects

anisotropy modification 79–80

wrong estimated fiber direction 80

perfusion 80

perfusion-weighted imaging combination 197–200

perinatal stroke 752–755

periventricular leukomalacia 755–758

preterm infant brain injury 755–758

progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy 416, 490

psychiatric disease 593–609

pyogenic infections 406

quantitative 462–463

rigid-body object rotation 82

seizures/seizure disorders 548–553, 765

abnormalities 557–558

experimentally induced 548–549

ictal 549–550

interictal 550

mechanisms of change 552–553

postictal 549–550

status epilepticus 550

temporal lobe epilepsy 550

sensitivity 458, 459

sequence optimization 57–58

signal attenuation 81

signal loss 321

spinal cord in multiple sclerosis 492–493

status epilepticus 550

stroke 177–179, 184, 198 , 236, 263–264

cardioembolic 188

diagnosis 189

diagnostic yield 188

embolic 188, 268

evolution of changes 237

feasibility 187

hyperintense lesions 191

hypoxic–ischemic encephalopathy 752–755

lesion volume measurement 194–195

mild/late-presenting lesions 187, 188 , 189

multiple recent infarcts 190

negative imaging 188, 190

neonatal 752–755

outcome prediction 192–194

pediatric 787–789

perfusion-weighted imaging combination 197–200

perinatal 752–755

permanent brain damage 191

prognosis 179

recurrent infarct 188

signal duration 192, 193

specificity 190

transient ischemic attack 188–190

time intervals of imaging 193

uses 187

subacute sclerosing panencephalitis 436–437

subdural empyema 408, 460–461

susceptibility gradients 82

systematic error due to noise 84

T 2 effect 79

temporal lobe epilepsy 550

therapeutic monitoring of brain tumors 326–329

toxoplasmosis 414, 507

transient ischemic attacks 170–171

negative imaging 188

stroke differentiation 188–190

traumatic brain injury 670–689

acute head injury 674

boxing 678–679

children 843

chronic changes 674–675

experimental models 673–674

focal lesions 674

non-accidental injury in children 678, 846, 847–849, 850

tuberculosis 470–471

brain abscess 458

un-navigated 59–61

water motion 456,

white matter

normal appearing, occult damage 490–492,

tracts 456

diffusion-weighted imaging/perfusion-weighted imaging (DWI/PWI)

mismatch 170, 177–179, 184, 185, 200

assessment 200

thrombolytic therapy 197–200

MRS integration 177–179

See underperfusion-weighted imaging

diffusivity

aging 598

changes with 785–786

alcoholism 606–607

Alzheimer’s disease 600, ,

mean 55

normal brain development 732

quantitative estimates 49, 63

water 47–48

digital subtraction angiography (DSA) 370, 370

2D-J acquisition oversampled in T 1 37

2D-J-resolved PRESS 39

dopamine uptake transporter imaging 564

dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) 568

repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation 574

dot product maps 594

Down’s syndrome, hemiparesis 788

DRESS (depth resolved surface coil spectroscopy) 568–569

drug abuse, psychiatric disease 568

drug development for brain tumors 290

imaging endpoints 291

DSC-MRI

See underdynamic susceptibility contrast MRI

DSM-IV classification of psychiatric disease 567

dual-band spectral-spatial 35

Duret hemorrhages 692

DWI

See underdiffusion-weighted imaging

dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) 114

corticosteroid use 376

derived permeability estimation 369

hemodynamic parameters 114

limitations 377–378

permeability maps 372

permeability measurements 376

residue functions 116

signal changes in metastases 114

T 2*-weighted 370–374

temporal resolution speed 377

translational research 377

tuberculoma 433–434

dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI), T 1-weighted 113–128, 370–374

acquisition time 120

arterial input function 115, 116–117, 118

measurement 120–121

astrocytoma following antiangiogenic treatment 126

brain tumor microvasculature 291

case studies 126–128

cerebral blood flow measurement 113–114, 115–116, 116–117, 122

cerebral blood volume measurement 113–114, 115–116, 122

cerebral metastases after radiation therapy 127–128

contrast-to-noise ratio 113

corticosteroid use 376

data collection 120

extracellular volume measurement 116, 122

field strength 120

mean transit time 115, 116–117, 118

model-free methods 115–116

one-compartment models 116–117

partial-volume error 121

Patlak model 118

perfusion MRI 343

perfusion parameter measurement 113

permeability parameter measurement 113

signal analysis 119–121

stereotactic radiation therapy of cerebral metastasis 127–128

strategies 114–115

T 1-measurement 119–120

Tofts model 116–117

modified 118

tracer-kinetic analysis 114–118, 115

two-compartment models 117–118

use 113–114

water exchange 121

dynamic susceptibility contrast MRI (DSC-MRI) 86

area under peak 144

arterial input function 90

bolus delay/dispersion 138–139

error sources 137

partial volume effects 139–140

peak saturation 139–140

artifacts 137–144

blood–brain barrier breakdown 141

bolus arrival time 144

bolus tracking 86

cerebral blood volume measurements 87

flow 91

leaky blood–brain barrier 90–91

transit time 91

bookend technique 138

carotid artery occlusion 252

cerebral blood flow 138

residue function 87–90, ,

cerebral blood volume measurements 87, 376

contrast agents

concentration 137

extravasation 142

injection 86

recirculation 140–141

residual effects 141

deconvolution method 139

dementia 562–563

errors 137–144

gamma-variate fitting 140–141

HIV dementia 505

maximum peak concentration 144

mean transit time 90

measurement calibration 138

movement of subject 144

non-negligible T 1 effects 141–142

perfusion MRI 342

glioma grading 345–347

permeability maps 376

proportionality constant 137–138

R 2/R 2* changes 137

relaxation rate 137

singular value decomposition 139

summary parameters 144

susceptibility contrast 86–87

T 1 effects 142

time to peak 144

tumefactive demyelinating lesions 498–499

tumor map 303–304

unknown constants 137–138

vessel misregistration 142–144

voxel shift 142–144

dysfunctional imaging 1

echinococcosis 444–446

echo planar imaging (EPI)

arterial signal changes 87

artifacts 81–82, 142–144

diffusion-weighted imaging 184

ischemic penumbra 170

dynamic susceptibility contrast MRI 86

eddy currents 83–84

fMRI data acquisition 158–159

geometric distortion 160

ghost 160–161

gradient-echo 161

interleaved 59–61 , 60

internal carotid artery disease 260

parallel imaging 61

perfusion MRI 342–343, 373

perfusion-weighted imaging 185

ischemic penumbra 170

PERMEATE sequence 140, 141

phase gradients 81–82

sensitivity 456

signal intensity 87

specificity 456

spin echo 86

echo planar spectroscopic imaging (EPSI) 13, 40

shortening train 59

T 2* decay 59

echo time (TE)

averaging 39

optimal for diffusion tensor MRI 58

PRESS 10–11, 36

spectroscopic imaging technique 12–13

STEAM 10–11

susceptibility-weighted imaging 132–133

echovirus 416

eddy currents

correction 21

diffusion-weighted imaging 83–84, 83

ghosting 84

eigenvalues

diffusion tensor elements 51, 55, 55 , 236, 594

metrics 594

normal brain development 731–732,

secondary white matter degeneration 242

seizure disorders 548

eigenvector

diffusion tensor elements 236, 594

fiber tract orientation 594

direction 80

normal brain development 732

secondary white matter degeneration 242

seizure disorders 548

Einstein equation 45–46

elderly people

neurodegenerative diseases 562,

vascular disease 562

electrical stimulation mapping (ESM) 380, 381

fMRI reference standard 391–392

intraoperative direct 382–383

electroencephalography (EEG) 156

epilepsy 520

seizures/seizure disorders 520, 546

traumatic brain injury 654–655

ellipsoid

See diffusion ellipsoid

empyema 407–408

encephalitis 414–415

acute disseminated encephalomyelitis 437–438

acute necrotizing encephalopathy 437–438

brain lesions 773

diffusion-weighted imaging 461

Epstein–Barr virus 436

glioma differential diagnosis 781

herpes 415–416

herpes simplex 417 , 435–436, 461

HIV infection 416–418, 418

Japanese encephalitis 437, 437

MRS 781

perfusion MRI 354

Rasmussen’s 529 , 544

subacute sclerosing panencephalitis 436–437

viral 414–415, 416

West Nile virus 416, 472

encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis (EDAS) 267–268

encephalopathy

acute necrotizing 437–438

neonatal 732, 753

para-infectious 437–438

See underhypoxic–ischemic encephalopathy, MELAS

endostatin 289

enteroviruses 416

ependymoma 770

diagnosis accuracy 768–769

WHO grade 767

epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), gliomas 291–292

epidermoids

diffusion-weighted imaging 335–336

recurrent 719

epidural empyema 407–408

diffusion-weighted imaging/MRS 408

epilepsy 519–520

ablative lesions 520

acquired 526

alien tissue lesions 520

autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe 526

carbon-13 MRS 537

case studies 544–545

classification 520

cortical development malformations 520

diagnosis 520

electroencephalography 520

extratemporal lobe 532

fMRI for presurgical planning 387–388

genetics 526

interictal cerebral dysfunction 520

intracerebral electrode implantation 520–521

investigations 526–527

pathophysiological 521–522

ion channel mutations 537–538

lesion detection 520

limbic temporal lobe 520, 521–522

localization of seizure focus 550–551

MRS 534

contralateral abnormalities 531–532

data analysis 534–535

magnetic field strength 538

nuclei for investigations 537

single–voxel techniques 534

spectral deconvolution 535

myoclonic juvenile 532

pathophysiological investigations 521–522

pediatric 530

phosphorus-31 MRS 535–537

postictal switch phenomenon 520–521

presurgical evaluation 520–521

proton MRS 528–529

widespread abnormalities 532

refractory focal 527

sodium-23 MRS 537

subdural electrode implantation 520–521

thalamus 532

therapeutics research 522

traumatic brain injury 843–844

ultra high field MRI 522–523

Wada test 387–388

See undermyoclonus epilepsy with ragged red fibers, seizures/seizure disorders, status epilepticus, temporal lobe epilepsy

EPISTAR (echo planar imaging-signal tragging with alternating radiofrequency) 146–147

Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) 416, 436

lymphoma in AIDS 507–509

Ernst RR 2

Erofilo 380

evidence-based medicine, MRS in hypoxic–ischemic encephalopathy 744–746

exchange model, two-compartment 118 , 123

experimental neuroanatomy 1

extracellular volume (ECV)

dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI 116, 122

total 113

extraction fraction, arterial spin labeling 100

extratemporal lobe epilepsy, proton MRS 532

FA

See underfractional anisotropy

FACT (fiber assignment by continuous tracking) 72

FAIR (flow-sensitive alternating inversion recovery) 146–147

fast spatial encoding, pediatric brain 721–723

3D fast spoiled gradient recalled echo acquisition at steady state (3D-SPGR) 526–527

fast-spin echo (FSE)

arterial spin labeling 222

PROPELLER 61–63

signal enhancement by extravascular protons 162

fetal alcohol spectrum disorders 607

fetus, diffusion-weighted imaging 758–759,

fiber orientation, powder averaging 63

fiber orientation maps 55–57, 57 , 71

flow contribution 81

fiber tracking

quantitative 608

See undertractography

fiber-tract trajectories 594

fibroblast growth factor 289

Fick’s first law 44

FID

See underfree induction decay

field dependent R 2 increase 643

field gradient pulses, diffusion-weighted imaging 81

field gradient spin echo 47

field of view (FOV), extended 33–34

first–pass pharmacokinetic modeling (FPPM), vascular permeability 342

FLAIR (fluid attenuated inversion recovery) 63

Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease 419

cysticercosis 413

demyelinating diseases 191 , 419

encephalitis 415

epilepsy 526–527

Epstein–Barr virus 416, 436

HSV-1 415–416

inborn errors of metabolism 824

leptomeningeal enhancement 264–266

meningitis 409

multiple sclerosis 477

multislice perfusion images 149

non-accidental injury 850

progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy 416

stroke 187

subdural empyema 408

toxoplasmosis 414

traumatic brain injury 699

tuberculoma 431

flow, diffusion-weighted imaging 80–82, 81

flow-sensitive alternating inversion recovery (FAIR) 146–147

fluid attenuated inversion recovery

See underFLAIR

fluid suppression 63

flumazenil 522

carbon-11 labeled 521

Fourier transform (FT) 2, 5, 22

cerebral blood flow and residue function 88–89

fractional anisotropy (FA) 55, 56 , 70, 79, 236, 595 , 597 , 599

aging 595–596, 598, 599–600

alcoholism 606–607, 606

Alzheimer’s disease 600–601,

amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 637

brain abscess 450

brain tumors 325–326

depression 609

diffusion tensor imaging 206, 594, 636

cerebral palsy 716–717

correlation with behavior 599

diffusion-weighted imaging 170

HIV infection 506–507, 608–609

hypoxic–ischemic encephalopathy 244, 755

inborn errors of metabolism 719–721

internal carotid artery disease 260

ischemia 238–241

ischemic stroke 239 , 240

low birth weight preterm 715–716

maps 325–326, 594

mean diffusion 239–241

meningitis 426–427

parkinsonism 630–631

Parkinson’s disease 631

perinatal hypoxic–ischemic encephalopathy 244, 755

prematurity 732 , 757

preterm infants 756

schizophrenia 602

seizure disorders 548

interictal 550

stroke 237

clinical outcome 241

ischemic 239 , 240

traumatic brain injury 674

children 677–678

longitudinal changes 674

outcome prediction 676–677

variance 598–599

Wallerian degeneration detection 170

white matter 594, 599–600

fractional blood volume 370

map 373

free induction decay (FID) 21

signal in coherence control 32–33

frontal lobe 523

myo-inositol 532

frontotemporal degeneration 562

arterial spin labeling 562–563

MRS 562

frontotemporal dementia, proton MRS 624

metabolites 623

functional diffusion map (fDM) 327 , 328

brain tumors 326–329,

radiological response 329

functional MRI (fMRI) 3, 383–387

age-related brain changes 395

aging 593

anatomy variability 383–386

applications 383–386

arterial spin labeling-based 103–105

arteriovenous malformations 388–389

biophysics 156–158

blood volume-based 164

BOLD 103–105

contrast 386–387

response 391–393, ,

brain coverage 161

brain tumors 389–392

cerebral blood flow 165

children 389

clinical 164–165

combination of techniques 389, 392

correction for motion misregistration 159

data acquisition 158–159

data analysis 160, 164, 393

design matrix 160

electrical stimulation mapping as reference standard 391–392

echo planar imaging

data acquisition 158–159

ghost 160–161

pulse sequence 160

epilepsy 387–388

geometric distortion 160

hemodynamic response function 164, 165

HIV infection 511

image analysis 159–160

language-related cortical regions 389–390

lesion-related brain changes 395

machine stability 160–161

maps

interpretation 392

task-related signal changes 390–391

mean signal variability 160–161

medial temporal lobe assessment 388

medication-related brain changes 395

model construction 160

movement of subject 159

neuronal function correlation lack 392–393

neurophysiology 156–158

perfusion-based 104 , 162–164

phantom sample 160–161

pitfalls 160–162

pixel-by-pixel temporal stability 160–161

positive BOLD response 391

pre-statistics 159–160

presurgical planning 380–395

arteriovenous malformations 388–389

brain tumors 389–392

epilepsy 387–388

limitations 392–395

reproducibility 393–395

sensitivity/specificity 391–392

pseudo experiment 160–161

psychiatric disease 593

quality assurance 161

quantification of activation lack 392–393

results availability 383

safety assessment for resection 391

sensorimotor activation detection 389–390

signal to noise 160–161

slice timing correction 159

spine 161–162

static field strength 158

statistical analysis 160

statistical thresholding 160, 164

stimulus presentation 159

structural registration 160

surgical outcome prediction 391

temporal properties 104

temporal signal to noise 160–161

traumatic brain injury 844

Z-maps 160

See underblood oxygen level dependent fMRI

fungal infections 438–441

brain abscess 438–439, 439 , 458

aspergillosis 440

cryptococcoma 509–510

granulomatous disease 408, , 441

parenchymal disease 411

vascular disease 411

gabapentin 522

gadolinium chelated contrast agents 39

dynamic susceptibility contrast imaging 86

leaky blood–brain barrier penetration 90–91

nephrogenic systemic fibrosis 377

gadolinium DTPA tracer

image acquisition timing 370

permeability imaging 369–374

galactosemia 824

Galen, Claudio 380

Gall, Franz Joseph 380

Galvani, Giovanni 380

gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)

alcohol abuse/dependence 581

antiepileptic drug effects 522

epilepsy 528

panic disorder 579

parkinsonism 634

psychiatric disease 585

spin coupled 34–35

gamma-aminobutyric acidA (GABAA) receptor complexes 521, 526

gamma-knife radiosurgery 306

ganglioglioma 350, 531

WHO classification 350

GBM

See underglioblastoma multiforme

general affective disorder, MRS 577

germinomas 766

pineal 769–771

WHO grade 767

Gerstmann–Straussler–Scheinker (GSS) disease 563, 564

ghosting, eddy currents 84

Gibbs ringing 84

glial cells

glutamate 300

metabolic activity 157

glial tumors

glutamate 300

mixed neuronal 350

glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) 289, 298 , 772

angiogenesis 360

cerebral blood volume 714

DCE-MRI residue functions 116

glutamate 300

lacetate peaks 299–300

non-invasive grading 374

patient stratification for treatment monitoring/efficacy 375

refractiveness to therapy 360

temozolomide plus radiotherapy 348–349

Tofts model for DCE-MRI 117

gliomas 296

angiogenesis 360

antiangiogenic therapy 349

response assessment 290–291, 376

biological behavior 303–304

biopsy 374–375

brainstem 371 , 772 , 775 ,

bevacizumab treatment 776

diffuse intrinsic 769, 774,

chemotherapy response 306–307

cho signal 304, 313–314

classification 301–303,

differentiation between low-/high-grade 346

diffuse intrinsic brainstem 769, 774,

diffuse pontine 766

diffusion tensor imaging

infiltration 333–334, 337

metastasis differential diagnosis 339

encephalitis differential diagnosis 781

grade 341

histological grading 344–347

imaging endpoints 290–291

immunohistochemistry 352

lacetate peaks 299–300

malignancy degree 341

metabolic heterogeneity 313–314

metastasis differential diagnosis 339, 351

microvascular permeability 376

correlation with grade 374

misclassification 303

molecular markers 291–292

MRS 291–292

multiple sclerosis 421–422

N-acetyl aspartate levels 304, 313–314

non-invasive grading 374

pathological patterns of infiltration 289

patient stratification for treatment monitoring/efficacy 375

pediatric brain 376, 706–709, 709

perfusion indices 352

perfusion MRI 344–350

radiotherapy 376

recurrence pattern 332

recurrent 376

anaplastic 360

relative cerebral blood volume grading 344–347

risk assessment 773–774

rodent model 377

signaling pathways 290

surgery 389

temozolomide treatment 307

tumefactive demyelinating lesion differential diagnosis 353–354

WHO classification 344–345

gliomatosis cerebri, perfusion MRI 347

globoid cell leukodystrophy

See Krabbe’s disease

glucose metabolism

seizures 552–553

traumatic brain injury 658–659

glutamate (Glu) 9

adrenoleukodystrophy 809–810

bipolar disorder 574–577

brain tumors 300

detected in brain 7

epilepsy 528

excitotoxicity 739

general affective disorder 577

hypoxic–ischemic cascade 738–739

hypoxic–ischemic injury 739

multiple sclerosis 475–476, 477

obessive–compulsive disorder 579,

pediatric brain 705–706

changes with age 786–787

release in seizures 553

spin coupled 34–35

traumatic brain injury 659

glutamine (Gln) 9

bipolar disorder 574–577

brain tumor marker 300

detected in brain 7

epilepsy 528

general affective disorder 577

hypoxic–ischemic cascade 738–739

hypoxic–ischemic injury 739, 742

multiple sclerosis 475–476, 477

obessive–compulsive disorder 579,

parkinsonism 634

pediatric brain 705–706

changes with age 786–787

psychiatric disease 585

spin coupled 34–35

traumatic brain injury 659

Glx (glutamate plus glutamine) peak 300

glycerophosphocholine 619, 659

pediatric brain 705

glycine amidinotransferase (AGAT) deficiency 733

glycogen storage disease 824

glycolytic pathway, bacterial infections 428

GM1/GM2 gangliosidosis 825

Golgi, Camillo 1–2

gradient cycling, water sidebands 37

gradient echo (GRE) imaging 129

axonal shear injury 654

neurocysticercosis 443

R 2* and R 2 changes 87

traumatic brain injury 694, 695 , 696

gradient echo sequence 162

magnitude signal response 129

perfusion MRI 342–343

gradient fields, non-linearity 84

granulomatous disease 408

aspergillosis 441

CNS involvement 408

fungal 408, , 441

hematogenous spread 408

MRS 409

vascular 411

gray matter (GM)

anisotropy 236

Cho signals 16

Cr signals 16

Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease 563

diffusion-weighted imaging 490–492

occult damage quantification 490–491

electron density 2

Huntington’s disease 634

inborn errors of metabolism 824–825

ischemic injury 241

mean phase values 131

metabolite concentrations 26

MRS in epilepsy 535

multiple sclerosis 477

N-acetyl aspartate signals 16

normal brain development 730

partial volume effects 79–80, 150

perfusion-weighted imaging 490–492

occult damage quantification 490–491

phase image 131

PRESS 40

preterm infants 729–730

pure concentration determination 27

schizophrenia 602

signal intensity 2–3

traumatic axonal injury 691–692,

traumatic brain injury 657, 674

guanidinoacetate 825–826

guanidinoacetate methyltransferase (GAMT) 733

deficiency 734 , 825–828, 827

guiding stereotactic biopsy, perfusion MRI 347

Hahn, Erwin 46

Hallervorden–Spatz syndrome 645, 824

head injury

acute 674

See also non-accidental injury

See undertraumatic brain injury

heart disease, cerebral perfusion 267

hematopoietic stem cell transplantation 808–809

hemiparesis

cortical hyperintensity 789

cortical vein thrombosis 279

diffusion-weighted imaging 191

Down’s syndrome 788

middle cerebral artery infarction 788

tractography 242

hemiplegia, microbleeds 278

hemorrhage

See underintracerebral hemorrhage, microbleeds, microhemorrhages

See susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI)

hemosiderin 646

traumatic brain injury 693

hereditary leukoencephalopathy

with choline elevation as a sign of active demyelination 836–837

with depletion of the main metabolite secondary to cavitations 836

herpes simplex encephalitis 435–436

diffusion-weighted imaging 461

Japanese encephalitis differential diagnosis 437

herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV1) 415–416, 462

encephalitis 417 , 435–436, 461

herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV2), encephalitis 435–436

herpes viruses 415–416

herpes zoster 416

high T 2 sensitivity 58–59

highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)

See combined antiretroviral therapy (CART)

hippocampal sclerosis 527

diffusion-weighted imaging 550

temporal lobe epilepsy 521

hippocampal volume

Alzheimer’s disease 563,

temporal lobe epilepsy 527, 548

hippocampus

coronal T 1 image 522

hypoxia–ischemia 743

temporal lobe epilepsy 521, 531

histological techniques 2

HIV encephalitis 416–418, 418

HIV infection

alcoholism comorbidity 608–609

apparent diffusion coefficient 608

basal ganglia 608

case studies 518

children 504–505

cognitive defects 501, 502 , 503

comorbidities 608–609

cryptococcal meningitis 410–411

cryptococcoma 509–510

dementia 501–502, , , 502 , 503, 503

diffusion-weighted imaging 505–507

perfusion MRI 505

diffusion tensor MRI 607–609

diffusion-weighted imaging 461–463, 505–507

Epstein–Barr virus 416

focal brain lesions

combined etiology 511

differential diagnosis 507

opportunistic 507–511

fractional anisotropy 608–609

fMRI multimodality imaging 511

HIV encephalitis 416–418

hydrogen-1 MRS 501–503

lymphoma 461–462, 507–509, 508

toxoplasmosis combination 511

mean diffusion 608–609

metabolite abnormalities 501–503

regional variations 503

reversal with antiretroviral treatment 504

MRS 501–503

aging population 504

children 504–505

multimodality imaging 511

multimodality imaging 511

neuropsychiatric impairment 462–463

perfusion MRI 505, 506

PET multimodality imaging 511

physiological imaging 501–518

progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy 509, 510 , 608–609,

SPECT multimodality imaging 511

toxoplasmosis 414, , 461–462, 507, 508 , 608

lymphoma combination 511

tuberculosis 510–511

white matter 608,

HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) 501, 502

holoprosencephaly 720

Horsley, Victor 380

human beta-chorionic gonadotrophin 769–771

huntingtin 634

Huntington’s disease 634–636, 635

caudate atrophy 634

cortical thinning 634

diffusion MR 634

diffusion tensor fractional anisotropy 636

gray matter 634

iron levels 645–646

juvenile 824

mitochondrial dysfunction 634–635

MRS 634–636

hydatid disease 444–446

cysts 444

fertile cysts 446

hydrocephalus

cysticercosis 413

meningitis 408–409

1H MRS

See underproton MRS

3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA lyase (HMG-CoA lyase) deficiency 839

L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria 824, 838, 838

hyperemia syndrome 264–266

hyperfusion syndrome 220

hyperglycinemia, non-ketotic 733

hyperoxygenation, BOLD fMRI 157

hypertension, cerebral blood flow 219

hypervolemic hypertensive therapy, patient selection 179

hypoglycemia 824

hypomyelinating leukodystrophy 812–819

hypomyelination

with atrophy of the basal ganglia and cerebellum 814

proton MRS 807

hypoperfusion 262

arterial spin labeling 215, 219,

ischemic injury 219

transient ischemic attacks 219

hypothalamic hamartoma 532, 535

hypoxia–ischemia

cascade 738–739

pathobiology 739

hypoxic brain injury, secondary 739

hypoxic–ischemic encephalopathy

adult 738, 741–742

apparent diffusion coefficient 755

case studies 748–749, 765

diagnosis 741–742

diffusion-weighted imaging 716, 750

case study 765

stroke 752–755

term baby 751–752

infants 738–749, 755

MRS 709, 738–749

diagnostic value 743–744

efficacy 744–746

neuronal–glial substrate cycling 742

perfusion-weighted imaging 750

perinatal 243–245, 244 , 716

seizures 751–752

stroke 752–755

image selective in vivo spectroscopy (ISIS) 568–569

imaging at high-field strength 759

imaging endpoints for brain tumors 290–291

drug development 291

imaging gradients, diffusion-weighted imaging 82

Imhotep 380

inborn errors of metabolism

case study 842

clinical diagnostic criteria 823–824

diagnosis 825

diffusion tensor imaging 719–721

diseases

with nonspecific MRS findings 837–838

with specific MRS findings 825–834

with suggestive MRS findings 834–837

genetics 823

gray matter 824–825

inheritance 823

laboratory investigations 826

MRI 824–825

pediatric MRS 709–710, 823–842

proton MRS 733

region of involvement 824–825

selective vulnerability 824

time of presentation 823–824

white matter 824–825

indicator dilution theory, brain tumors 342

infants

basal ganglia lesions 754

developmentally delayed 733–734

diffusion tensor MRI 734

perfusion MRI 734

proton MRS 733

diffusion tensor MRI 728, 759

diffusion-weighted imaging, changes with age 785–786

holoprosencephaly 720

ischemia 754

metabolic disorders 758

middle cerebral artery infarction 761

MRS 727

hypoxia–ischemia 738–749

normal brain maturation

diffusion tensor MRI 729–732

MRS 728–729

porencephalic cysts 757

sedation 727

signal-to-noise ratio 727

technical aspects of MRI 727–728

thalamus lesions 754

transportation 727

venous sinus thrombosis 717

Wallerian degeneration 753

See underhypoxic–ischemic encephalopathy

See also preterm infants

infarction

acute brainstem 169

apparent diffusion coefficient 259

arcuate fasciculi 242

diffusion-weighted imaging 199 , 259, 263–264, 279

hemorrhagic transformation 277 ,

lactate 176

middle cerebral artery 278

left hemiparesis 788

neonatal 717 , 752 , , 753

MRS 248–249

patterns 263

stages 259

subacute 709

types 254

See underborder-zone infarcts

infections

case studies 450–455, 468–474

CNS 352

perfusion indices 352

children 718

Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease 418–419

diffusion-weighted imaging 456–474

children 718

epidural empyema 407–408

epilepsy 526

granulomatous disease 408

meningitis 408–411

vascular 411

immunohistochemistry 352

MRS 426–450

parenchymal disease 411

perfusion indices 352

physiological imaging 405

pyogenic 405–406

MRS 426–428

See also bacterial infections, brain abscess, parasitic infections, viral infections

See underencephalitis, meningitis, subdural empyema, tuberculosis

infectious mononucleosis 436

inflammation/inflammatory lesions

diffusion 488

MRS 475

perfusion MRI 354

physiological imaging 405

inflow time, arterial spin labeling 146–147

inositol

See undermyo-inositol (under M)

inositol monophosphatase 574

intensity projections, minimum 131

interferon 289

internal carotid artery

aneurysms 269

arterial input function 115

MR angiography 252

occlusion 177

brain infarction 248–249

carotid endarterectomy 249

cerebrovascular reactivity 253

dynamic susceptibility contrast MRI 252

flow volume 251–252

hemodynamic changes 248

pediatric stroke 784

plaque 260

proton MRS 250

susceptibility imaging 278

regions supplied 260

stenosis 170–171, 248, 265

carotid endarterectomy 249, 250–251, 264

CASL 217

cerebrovascular reactivity 253

flow volume 251–252

hemodynamical measures 251

interventional techniques 264

MRS 251, 251 ,

percutaneous transluminal angioplasty 264

plaque 260

proton MRS 250

stenting 265

time to peak 266

transient ischemic attack 249–250

stenting 265 , 267

internal carotid artery disease, chronic 258

atherosclerosis 260–267

impairment 260–261

perfusion 261–262

vascular reserve 262–263

cardiac output 267

cerebrovascular blood supply 258–259

collateral macrovascular flow 261

diffusion imaging 263–264

heart disease 267

hemodynamic failure 258–259

imaging techniques 259–260

interventional techniques 264

altered hemodynamics 264–266

ischemia 266–267

mean transit time asymmetry 262

microvascular compromise patterns 261–262

middle cerebral artery territory 262

moyamoya disease 267–268

parenchymal hypoperfusion 261–262

perfusion 261–262

Takayasu arteritis 268

types 260–269

vascular abnormalities 269

intracarotid amobarbital injection

See Wada test

intracerebral hemorrhage 192

diffusion-weighted imaging 192

intravascular filter system 267

intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) 80

inversion pulse, lipid suppression 15

ion channel mutations, epilepsy 537–538

iron imaging 646, 646

neurodegenerative disease 642–651

non-heme 643

iron signal in MRI 642–644

Alzheimer’s disease 646

case studies 651

diffusion tensor MRI 644

field–dependent R 2 increase 643

Huntington’s disease 645–646

magnetic field correction 644

magnitude 642

phase combination 642–643

microbleeds in dementia 646

multiple sclerosis 646–647

neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation 645

parkinsonism 644–645

phase accumulation 642

relaxation parameters 643

rotating frame relaxation parameters 644

susceptibility-weighted images 642–643

ISIS (image selective in vivo spectroscopy) 568–569

ischemia/ischemic injury

anisotropic diffusion evolution 238–241

apparent diffusion coefficient 49

carotid intervention 266–267

case study 183

cellular effects 259

cerebral blood flow 356–357

low 186

cerebral blood volume 356–357

conceptual paradigms 673

corticospinal tract 241

differential diagnosis 789

diffuse small vessel 237 , 242–243

diffusion-weighted imaging 60

gray matter 241

hypoperfusion 219

infants 754

lactate 176–177,

mean transit time 356–357

metabolic changes 176–177

microvascular/macrovascular 672

MRS applications 177

N-acetyl aspartate 177

T 2 weighted imaging 60

time to peak 356–357

white matter 241

ischemic penumbra 169–170

imaging 170

Jackson, John Hughlings 380

Japanese encephalitis 437, 437

West Nile virus differential diagnosis 472

JC virus 416

progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy 490, 509

Joubert’s syndrome 758

juvenile myoclonic epilepsy 532

juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma 706

Kearns–Sayre syndrome 824, 834–835

maternal transmission 823

ketogenic diet 522

Ki-67 protein 376–377

Korsakoff’s syndrome 607

Krabbe’s disease 719–721, 806–808

infantile 806–807, 809

lesion location 825

Krause, Fedor 380–381

k-space

phase ramp 83

speed increase 59

spiral acquisition 61

time for traverse 59–63

K trans

See undervascular permeability

lactate (Lac) 3, 9

adrenoleukodystrophy 809–810

Alexander disease 815

animal models 174

border-zone infarcts 254

brain tumor marker 299–300, 301–303

chemotherapy response 306

cerebral ischemia 176–177

cerebral malaria 446

cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis 483–484

detected in brain 7

hemispheric mass 305

Huntington’s disease 635–636

hypoxia–ischemia cascade 738–739

hypoxic–ischemic injury 709, 739–741, 742

ischemic penumbra imaging 170

lymphoma 509

maple syrup urine disease 830–831

MELAS 794

mitochondrial encephalomyopathies 835–836

MRS 3, 173, 176–177,

MRSI pulse sequence 14

multiple sclerosis 475, 476

neonates 657

brain injury 732

hypoxia–ischemia 709

non-neoplastic brain lesions 301

panic disorder 578–579

pediatric brain 706

progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy 509

severe obstructive carotid disease 254

spin coupled 34–35

stroke levels 177, , 183

traumatic brain injury 656–657

lactate/N-acetyl aspartate (Lac/NAA) ratio, carotid stenosis 253

lactic acidosis 794

lacunar infarcts (LACI) 169

diffusion tensor MRI 242–243

Larmor equation 46

Larmor frequency, deoxygenation 157

lateral sclerosis, primary 641

lateral ventricles 596

diffusion 52

lattice index 236, 594

Alzheimer’s disease 600

LCModel (linear combination model) 15, 16

Leber’s hereditary optic atrophy 834–835

maternal transmission 823

left carotid artery occlusion 175

Leigh syndrome 824, 833, 834–835

leukoencephalomyopathy, mitochondrial 836

leukoencephalopathy 814 , 835834

with ataxia, delayed dentition and hypomyelination 814

with brainstem and spinal cord involvement and lactate elevation 812

hereditary with choline elevation as a sign of active demyelination 836–837

hereditary with depletion of the main metabolite secondary to cavitations 836

megalencephalic with subcortical cysts 836

MRS 806–822

polyhydric alcohol metabolism defect 833–834

progressive multifocal 416

HIV infection 509, 510 , 608–609,

radiation 348

reversible posterior 487

ischemia differential diagnosis 789

with vanishing white matter disease 836

See underCADASIL

leukoaraiosis, ischemic 242–243

leukodystrophy

hypomyelinating 812–819

metachromatic 806–807, 808 , 825

with ovarian dysgenesis 484

See also adrenoleukodystrophy, Krabbe’s disease

Lewy bodies 623

Lewy body disease, diffuse 644–645

limbic temporal lobe epilepsy 520

hippocampal sclerosis 521

pathophysiology 521–522

line propagation

approaches 72

branching 73

linear 72

multiple ROIs 73, 75

termination 72–73, 7273

linear combination (LC) model 15, 16

line-broadening 21

lipid suppression 14–15

very selective saturation pulses 37–39, 40

lipids (Lip)

adrenoleukodystrophy 809–810

brain tumor marker 299–300, 301–303, 773–774

cryptococcoma 510

gliomas 773–774,

hypoxic–ischemic injury 739–741, , 742

lymphoma 509

MRS 176

multiple sclerosis 476

progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy 509

lithium therapy, bipolar disorder 574

low birth weight, preterm 715–716

low-flow infarctions 248

lymphoma 350

apparent diffusion coefficient 717

contrast agent 508

HIV infection 461–462, 507–509, 508

MRS 509

primary CNS 720

proton MRS 22

toxoplasmosis

combination 511

differential diagnosis 414, 461–462

lysosomal disorders

classification 807

MRS 807–808

Macewen, William 380

macromolecules, MRS 176

macrophage chemotactic protein-1 506

magnetic field correction 644

magnetic fields

distribution 157

strength

dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI 120

fMRI 158

high-field strength in MRS 538

MRS 538, 585–586

susceptibility-weighted imaging 132–133, 133

that modify phase 130

magnetic resonance (MR) angiography (MRA) 94–95

internal carotid artery 252

meningitis complications 406

pediatric stroke in sickle cell disease 791

sagittal localizer scan 252

time of flight 260 , 268 , 269

vascular infections 411

magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

conventional 2–3

development 2–3, 5

iron signal 642–644

treatment 507

See underT1-weighted images, T2-weighted images

magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) 3, 5, 10

2D maps 305

acute disseminated encephalomyelitis 480

adrenoleukodystrophy 808–810, 822

adult neoplasia 291–292, 295–318

affective disorders 571–579

alcohol abuse/dependence 581

Alexander disease 814–815

Alzheimer’s disease 563,

amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 637–638

analysis 570

anxiety disorders 577–579,

Aspergillus granuloma 441

bipolar disorder 574–577

brain abscess 406, 428

Aspergillus 439

diagnosis 450

diffusion-weighted imaging combination 428

tuberculous 434

brain tumors 291–292

biochemical signature 303–304

biopsy 292

biopsy guidance 304

chemotherapy response 306–307

Cho signal 304

classification 301–303

diagnosis 292, 301–303,

disease burden 291–292

grading 292

long echo 301

N-acetyl aspartate 304

neoplastic/non-neoplastic lesion differentiation 301

post-therapeutic evaluation 305–307

pre-therapeutic role 301–304

prognosis 301–303,

radionecrosis 306

radiotherapy planning 292

radiotherapy response assessment 305–306

radiotherapy target delineation 305

recurrence 306

short echo 301

spectral abnormality location 303–304

surgical resection planning 305

treatment planning 304

treatment response 292

tumor borders 291–292

CADASIL 482

Canavan’s disease 710, 812, 828–830

carotid artery disease 248–254

asymptomatic patients 249–251

cerebrovascular reactivity 253

clinical relevance 254

collateral flow patterns 252–253

flow 251–252

symptomatic patients 249–251

carotid endarterectomy 179

case studies 450–455, 663–660, 748–749

inborn errors of metabolism 842

pediatric white matter disease 822

cerebral ischemia metabolic changes 176–177

cerebral malaria 446

cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis 482–484

Cho signal 176

choroid plexus carcinoma 780

combination with conventional MRI 357

Cr signal 176

Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease 419, 454–455

cryptococcoma 510

cysticercosis 413

data set quantification 27

dementias 562

demyelinating diseases 419, 475–487

case studies 486–487

development 5

diffusion-weighted imaging

combination in brain abscess 428

perfusion-weighted image integration 177–179

echinococcosis 445–446,

encephalitis 415, 781

epidural empyema 408

epilepsy 521

contralateral abnormalities 531–532

data analysis 534–535

gray matter imaging 535

high-field strength 538

magnetic field strength 538

nuclei for investigations 537

single–voxel techniques 534

spectral deconvolution 535

white matter imaging 535

Epstein–Barr virus 436

general affective disorder 577

granulomatous disease 409

fungal 441

hemodynamic failure 251

border-zone infarcts 253–254

herpes simplex encephalitis 436

high-field strength 538

HIV encephalitis 418

HIV infection 501–503

aging population 504

multimodality imaging 511

pediatric patients 504–505

HSV-1 415–416

Huntington’s disease 634–636

3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA lyase deficiency 839

L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria 838

hypervolemic hypertensive therapy 179

hypomyelinating leukodystrophy 812–819

hypoxia–ischemia cascade 738–739

hypoxic brain injury 738–749

hypoxic–ischemic encephalopathy

diagnostic value 743–744

efficacy 744–746

neonatal 709

inborn errors of metabolism

case study 842

pediatric 709–710, 823–842

infants 727

infarction 248–249

infections 426–450,

inflammation 475

internal carotid artery stenosis 251 ,

hemodynamical measures 251

ischemic penumbra imaging 170

Japanese encephalitis 437

Krabbe disease 806–808

lactate imaging 3, 173

lactate signal 176–177,

leukoencephalopathies 806–822

with brainstem and spinal cord involvement and lactate elevation 812

megalencephalic with subcortical cysts 817–819

progressive multifocal 509

leukodystrophy with ovarian dysgenesis 484

lipid signal 176

lithium 586

lymphoma 509

lysosomal disorders 807–808

macromolecule signal 176

magnetic field strength 538, 585–586

major depression 571–574

maple syrup urine disease 830–831

megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts 817–819

meningiomas 316

meningitis 426–427

metabolites detected in brain 7 , 173–176

metachromatic leukodystrophy 807–806

mitochondrial encephalomyopathies 810, 834–836,

mucolipidosis type IV 480–482

mucormycosis 440–441

multislice 13

multiple sclerosis 419–421, 475–480

tumefactive 452–453

multiple system atrophy 633

multiple voxel techniques 11–14

myalgic encephalomyelitis 585

myelinopathia centralis diffusa 815–817

N-acetyl aspartate signal 173–176, 177

neonatal hypoxia–ischemia 709

neonates 727

neurocysticercosis 443

non-ketotic hyperglycinemia 832

obessive–compulsive disorder 579

panic disorder 578–579

para-infectious encephalopathy 438

parenchymal disease 411

parkinsonism 633–634

Parkinson’s disease 633–634

pediatric brain 705–710

applications 706–710

stroke 793–794

white matter disease 806–822

Pelizaeus–Merzbacher disease 812–814, 837

peroxisomal disorders 808–810

phenylketonuria 710, 831–832

phosphocreatine signal 176

polyhydric alcohols metabolism defect 834

postictal hyper/hypoperfusion 547

post-traumatic stress disorder 579

prion diseases 564

progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy 509

psychiatric disease 566–586

affective disorders 571–579

age matching 567

diagnosis 566

drug abuse 568

drug washout periods 568

medications 567–568

pulse sequence 568–569

region imaged 568

review of studies 571

sample size 566–567

sex matching 567

spectra quantification 569–571

study design 568–571

subject selection 566–567

tissue volume correction 569

voxel placement 568

pure gray/white matter concentration 27

pyogenic infections 426–428

radiation necrosis 318

ribose-5-phosphate isomerase deficiency 819

Salla disease 484, 830

schizophrenia 582–585

seizure disorders 526–545

investigation 528

single–voxel techniques 10–11

epilepsy 534

Sjögren–Larsson syndrome 484

spectral deconvolution 535

spectral pattern variability 297

stroke 173–183

applications 177

ischemic penumbra imaging 170

outcome measures 179

pediatric 793–794

potential clinical applications 177–179

prognostic indicator 179

subacute sclerosing panencephalitis 437

substance-related disorders 579–581

succinate dehydrogenase deficiency 832, 833

toxoplasmosis 507

transient ischemic attacks 170–171

traumatic brain injury 656–660

case studies 660–663

clinical application 660

non-accidental injury in children 846, 850

pediatric 844–846

tuberculoma 431–433, 511

tumefactive demyelinating lesions 452–453

vanishing white matter disease 815–817

very-high-field magnets 586

volume of interest 249250

water signal amplitude 27

See undernamed metabolites, phosphorus-31 MRS, proton MRS

magnetic resonance spectroscopy imaging (MRSI)

acquisition times 537

adrenoleukodystrophy 808–809, 822

astrocytoma 782

bipolar disorder 574–577

demyelinating diseases 475

epilepsy 534

multislice 40

normal brain maturation 728–729

pediatric brain 706

progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy 518

psychiatric disease 585–586

temporal lobe epilepsy 545

traumatic brain injury 663–660

magnetic resonance venography

cerebral venous sinus thrombosis 279–280

meningitis complications 406

magnetic susceptibility 129–130

magnetization transfer (MT) 35

amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 637

arterial spin labeling 148, 149–150, 711–712

effects 96–98

cancellation 148, 149–150

controlling 100

herpes simplex encephalitis 435–436

neurocysticercosis 443

parkinsonism 633

progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy 509

ratio 428–429, 434, 443

parkinsonism 633

signal loss 100

toxoplasmosis 507

tuberculoma 431

tuberculous brain abscess 434

tuberculous meningitis 428–429, 431

magnetoelectroencephalography (MEG) 156

traumatic brain injury 654–655

Magnevist 39

malaria 445 , 446

maple syrup urine disease 733, 758, 759 , 830–831, 831

Canavan’s disease differential diagnosis 831

clinical phenotypes 830

MRS 830–831

Marchiafava–Bignami disease 605, 607

maximum peak concentration (MPC), dynamic susceptibility contrast MRI 144

MCA

See undermiddle cerebral artery

mean diffusion (MD) 236

brain abscess 450

changes in stroke 237

diffuse small vessel ischemic disease 242–243

evolution in ischemia 236–238

fractional anisotropy 239–241

HIV infection 506–507, 608–609

meningitis 426–427

perinatal hypoxemic–ischemic injury 243–245

pseudo-normalization 244

mean transit time (MTT) 90, 113, 488

brain tumors 341–342

dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI 115, 116–117, 118

ischemia 356–357

multiple sclerosis 491

neonates 760–761

normal-appearing white matter 491

perfusion MRI 710–711

perfusion timing 261

perfusion-weighted imaging 195, 196

measles virus 436–437

medulloblastoma 350, 770

diagnosis accuracy 768–769

grade IV 766–769,

metastatic disease 773

outside posterior fossa 769

pediatric 719

posterior fossa 708

taurine 771

WHO grade 767

megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts 817–819, 818 , 836

melanoma, metastatic 275

MELAS (mitochondrial encephalopathy with lactic acidosis and stroke) 794, 794 , 824, 834–835

case study 842

maternal transmission 823

meningiomas 350–351

alanine 316

Cho signal 316

lactate peaks 299–300

MRS 316

non-invasive grading 374

VEGF expression 377

meningitis 406–407, 408–411

carcinomatous 409

complications 460

cryptococcal 410–411, 412

diffusion-weighted imaging 406–407, , 460

FLAIR 409

granulomatous disease 408–411

hydrocephalus 408–409

intraventricular extension 460

MRS 426–427, 431

neonates 427

organisms causing 426

pyogenic 426–427, 427

subdural effusions 406–407

tuberculous 410 , 413 , 428–431, 431

ventriculitis 460

meningoencephalitis 460

mental retardation with global N-acetyl aspartate deficiency 828

Mescher–Garwood pulse (MEGA) 35

metabolic disorders

brain malformations 758

infants 758

See underinborn errors of metabolism

metabolite(s)

ratios 22 , 25–26

See undernamed metabolites

metabolite concentrations

external reference 22 , 27

gray matter 26

metabolite ratios 22 , 25–26

MRS 173–176

quantification techniques 25–27

radiofrequency coil loading 27

spectrum from control region 26

water as reference signal 22 , 26–27

white matter 26

metabolite peak area

determination 23–24

incorporation of prior knowledge of fitting algorithms 24

model spectra fitting 24

peak fitting 24

problems 24

quality assurance 24

time domain fitting 24

metachromatic leukodystrophy 806–807, 808 , 825

metastases, cerebral 351

breast cancer 275

compartmental models 118

dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI after stereotactic radiation therapy 127–128

glioma differential diagnosis 339, 351

lactate peaks 299–300

lung carcinoma 459

medulloblastoma 773

melanoma 275

signal changes 114

two-compartment uptake model 119

methemoglobin 692–693

methylmalonic acidemia 710 , 795 , 824

MIB-1 labeling index 376–377

microbleeds 274

amyloid angiopathy 274 , 278, 646

dementia 646

detection by susceptibility-weighted imaging 694

hemiplegia 278

hemosiderin 693

stroke 273–275, 277–278

microscopy 1–2

microvascular density, tuberculoma 433–434

microvascular permeability

glioma grade correlation 374

measurement 375–376

middle cerebral artery (MCA)

aneurysm 269

infarction 278

border-zone 249

diffusion tensor MRI 760

hyperacute 187

infants 761

left hemiparesis 788

neonatal 717 , 752 , , 753

low flow 177

occlusion 238 , 278

arterial spin labeling 218

pediatric stroke 784

proton MRS 175

stenosis 146

CASL 217

middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory

edema 264–266

internal carotid artery disease 262

time-to-peak shortening 267–268

mild cognitive impairment (MCI)

amnestic 620–622

MRS 562

proton MRS 620–622

rate of change 622

mitochondria 834

dysfunction in Huntington’s disease 634–635

impairment after traumatic brain injury 658

N-acetyl aspartate pathway 829

See underMELAS

mitochondrial encephalomyopathies 810

classification 807

maternal transmission 823

MRS 834–836

with predominant white matter signal abnormalities 836

mitochondrial encephalopathy with lactic acidosis and stroke

See underMELAS

mitochondrial encephalopathy with succinate dehydrogenase deficiency 833

mitochondrial inheritance 823

mitochondrial leukoencephalomyopathy 836

mixing time (TM)

PRESS 10–11

STEAM 10–11

modulation function 25

molecular movement, axes 68

Morgagni, Giovanni 1, 380

motion

diffusion-weighted imaging 80–82

image artifacts 81–82

motor neuron disease

See underamyotrophic lateral sclerosis

movement of subject

arterial spin labeling 150–151

dynamic susceptibility contrast MRI artifacts 144

fMRI 159

moyamoya disease 267–268, 792 , 793

cerebral arteriopathy 784

perfusion MRI 734, 791–793, 798

treatment efficacy evaluation 792–793

MPRAGE (magnetization prepared rapid acquisition gradient echo) 526–527

MRA

See undermagnetic resonance angiography

MRI

See undermagnetic resonance imaging

MRS

See undermagnetic resonance spectroscopy

MRSI

See undermagnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging

MT

See undermagnetization transfer

mucolipidosis type IV 480–482, 482

mucormycosis 411, , 439–441

multiparametric–algorithmic approach 357

multiple sclerosis 419–422, 478 , 481

acute phase 478

axonal injury 479

basal ganglia 490–491

brain tumor differential diagnosis 476

cervical cord tissue sparing 493

clinical disease progression 475

clinical forms 475, 479

diffusion tensor MRI-based tractography 492

diffusion-weighted imaging 488–489

clinical correlations 492

gray matter occult damage 490–491

gray matter pathology 492

normal-appearing white matter occult damage 490–491

optic nerve damage 492–493

spinal cord damage 492–493

disability 477–479,

FLAIR 477

gliomas 421–422

hypointense lesions 489

iron deposition imaging 646–647

mass lesions 421–422

metabolic abnormalities 479–480

MRS 475–480

myelin damage 479

normal-appearing white matter 476–478,

oligodendrocytes 479

perfusion-weighted imaging 488–489

clinical correlations 492

gray matter occult damage 490–491

normal-appearing white matter occult damage 490–491

plaque 419–421

primary-progressive 475, 491

progressive-relapsing 475

relapsing–remitting 475, 479 , 490

secondary-progressive 475, 491

T 2-weighted images 648

thalamus 490–491

tractography 492

tumefactive 315, 452–453, 477 , 500

Wallerian degeneration 479

white matter involvement 475, 477–478

See underN-acetyl aspartate, multiple sclerosis

multiple system atrophy

abnormal iron store imaging 644–645

MRS 633

parkinsonism differential diagnosis 631–633

proton MRS 633

tractography 632

multiple voxel techniques 11–14

single-voxel technique comparison 13–14, 14

multislice MRSI 40

multisystem atrophy 564

apparent diffusion coefficient 564

myalgic encephalomyelitis, MRS 585

myelination

diffusion anisotropy 49

white matter anisotropy 236

See also demyelination/demyelinating diseases

myelin/myelin sheath

anisotropic diffusion 71

multiple sclerosis 479

white matter 593

anisotropy 236

myelinopathia centralis diffusa 815–817

myoclonic epilepsy, juvenile 532

myoclonus epilepsy with ragged red fibers (MERRF) 834–835

maternal transmission 823

myo-inositol 9

aging 618

Alzheimer’s disease 619, 629

amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 637–638

bipolar disorder 574

brain tumor marker 300

pediatric 769,

Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease 564

cryptococcoma 510

dementia with Lewy bodies 628

detected in brain 7

encephalitis 781

epilepsy 528

frontal lobe 532

frontotemporal dementia 624

HIV infection 503, 504

multiple sclerosis 475, 478–479

pediatric brain 705, 706

tumors 706–709

spin coupled 34–35

subacute sclerosing panencephalitis 437

temporal lobe epilepsy 529–531

traumatic brain injury 659

vascular dementia 622–623

NAA

See underN-acetyl aspartate (under A)

navigator echoes 82

neonates

brain injury 732–733

developmentally delayed 733–734

diffusion tensor MRI 728

brain injury 733

normal brain 751

diffusion-weighted imaging 750–765

brain injury 733

changes with age 785–786

normal brain 750–751

encephalopathy 732, 753

hypoxic–ischemic encephalopathy 244 , 709, 716, 716 , 754

MRS 738–749

white matter 752–753

imaging at high-field strength 759

lactate 657

low birth weight preterm 715–716

middle cerebral artery territory infarction 717 , 752 , , 753

MRS 727

normal brain 751

normal brain maturation 728–729

diffusion tensor MRI 729–732

MRS 728–729

perfusion-weighted imaging 759–761

periventricular white matter in meningitis 427

practical issues for imaging 750

sedation 727

signal-to-noise ratio 727

technical aspects of MRI 727–728

transportation 727

neoplasia, adult 289–293

case studies 313–318

diffusion-weighted imaging 321–339

MRS 291–292, 295–318

perfusion MR 341–368

permeability imaging 369–378

See underbrain tumors, metastases, cerebral, named conditions and tumors

nephritic syndrome, pediatric 790

nephrogenic systemic fibrosis 377

neural plasticity 843–844,

neuroborreliosis, diffusion-weighted imaging 492

neurocysticercosis 413, 442–443

diagnosis 442

neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation 645, 651

neurodegenerative disease 561–564

case studies 641, 651

children 712

diagnosis 630

diagnostic validation 561–562

elderly people 562,

iron imaging 642–651

patient factors 561–562

perfusion MRI 712

physiological MRI 564, 630–641

practical issues 562

technical issues 562

neurofibromatosis type 1, perfusion MRI 734

neuromyelitis optica, diffusion-weighted imaging 492

neuronal activity, BOLD fMRI 156–157, 158

neurons

hypoxic–ischemic injury 742–743

metabolic activity 157

myelinated 325

N-acetyl aspartate marking 6

Nocardia infection 468–469

noise, systematic error in diffusion-weighted imaging 84

non-accidental injury 678, 843, 846–850

cerebellar reversal sign 849

CT 849–850,

hypoxic 846 , 847

imaging protocol for suspected 849–850,

spine injury 849

subcortical pathology 848

non-ketotic hyperglycinemia 733, 758, 832, 833

nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) 2

nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy 5

nucleoside triphosphates (NTP) 535–536

major depression 573–574

obsessive-compulsive disorder

MRS 579

studies 580

ocular dominance column mapping, BOLD fMRI 104

Ojemann, George 381

oligodendrocytes

multiple sclerosis 479

progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy 490, 509

oligodendroglioma

anaplastic 367

cellular density 322–324

lactate peaks 299–300

microvascular proliferation 349–350

perfusion correlation with molecular signatures 349–350

OmniscanTM 39

optic nerve, diffusion-weighted imaging in multiple sclerosis 492–493

organic acidemias 824

organic acidopathies 838–839

outer-volume suppression pulse 37–39

lipid suppression 15

over-prescription of the PRESS volume (OverPRESS) 37–39

oxidative phosphorylation disorders 810

oxygen extraction fraction (OEF), internal carotid artery disease 258–259

oxygen metabolism

cerebral metabolic rate 248, 258–259

in seizures 552–553

oxyhemoglobin 157

PACETM (prospective acquisition and correction) 184

panic disorder

MRS 578–579

studies 578

PANK2 gene mutations 645, 645 , 651

para-infectious encephalopathy 437–438

parallel imaging 61 , 722–723

pediatric brain 705

parallel spatial sensitivity encoded spectroscopic imaging 40

paramagnetic substances, susceptibility imaging 273

parameter maps, summary 145

parasitic infections 411–414, 442–446

granulomatous disease 408

perfusion MRI 352

parenchyma

diffusivity of water 47–48

hemorrhage 274

spatial velocity gradients 58

parenchymal disease 411

parietal lobes, proton MRS 787

parkinsonism 630–634

abnormal iron store imaging 644–645

anisotropy 630

diffusion MR 630–633

diffusion tensor MRI 631–633,

diffusion tractography 631–633

diffusion-weighted imaging 630–631

fractional anisotropy 630–631

magnetization transfer imaging 633

MRS 633–634

multiple system atrophy differential diagnosis 631–633

progressive supranuclear palsy differential diagnosis 631–633

Parkinson’s disease 564, 630

abnormal iron store imaging 644–645

apparent diffusion coefficient 564, 631

dopamine uptake transporter imaging 564

fractional anisotropy 631

idiopathic 633–634

MRS 633–634

relaxograms 644

tractography 632

paroxysmal depolarization shifts (PDSs) 519–520

partial volume effect (PVE) 75, 139–140

anisotropy modification 79–80

arterial spin labeling 150

wrong estimated fiber direction 80

PASL

See underpulsed arterial spin labeling

patient position 30

Patlak model for DCE-MRI 118, 121

PCA

See posterior cerebral artery

pediatric conditions

See underchildren, neonates

See infants, preterm infants

Pelizaeus–Merzbacher disease (PMD) 812–814, 815 , 837, 837

Pelizaeus–Merzbacher-like disease 814

Penfield, Wilder 381

percutaneous transluminal angioplasty, internal carotid artery stenosis 264

perfusion 488

antihypertensive agents 219

brain tumor

parameters 351

pathophysiology 341–342

cardiac output fluctuations 267

constants for measurement 137–138

data analysis 377–378

deficit identification 169–170

diffusion-weighted imaging 80

heart disease 267

internal carotid artery disease 261–262

parameters 113

territory mapping 100–102

timing 261

vascular abnormalities 269

perfusion fMRI 104

perfusion maps 86

diagnostic quality 86

perfusion mismatch 218

perfusion MRI 3, , 195 , 196 , 546

adult neoplasia 341–368

arterial spin labeling 358–359

anaplastic oligodendroglioma 367

artifacts 137

biomarkers for antiangiogenic agents 360

blood–brain barrier leakiness 343

brain tumors 304, 341–368

clinical applications 344–357

standardized methods 359

case studies 367–368

central volume theorem 710–711

cerebritis 354

cerebrovascular injury 354–357

clinical applications 344–357

CNS infections 352

combination with conventional MRI 357

corticosteroid administration 343

delayed radiation necrosis 348

dementia 562–563

developmentally delayed infants 734

dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI 342, 343

dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced 342, 343

glioma grading 345–347

elderly people 562

encephalitis 354

exogenous contrast agents 86–91

first pass T 2* dynamic susceptibility MRI 343

gliomas 344–350

gliomatosis cerebri 347

gradient echo 342–343

guiding stereotactic biopsy 347

HIV dementia 505

HIV infection 506

ictal period 546–547

inflammatory lesions 354

internal carotid artery disease 259–260

ischemic stroke 354–357

limitations 137, 343

lymphoma 462

moyamoya disease 734

neurofibromatosis type 1 734

parameters 710–711

pediatric brain 710–712

application 712

pilocytic astrocytoma 347

postictal period 546–547

radiation leukoencephalopathy 348

radiosurgery 347

region-of-interest analysis 359

seizures/seizure disorders

interictal period 547–548

mechanisms of change 552–553

sickle cell anemia 734

signal intensity loss 343

signal–time curve 185

signal-to-noise ratio 343

spin echo 342–343

standardized methods 359

steady state T 1-weighted 343,

technical pitfalls 343

temporal lobe epilepsy 547–548

therapeutic monitoring 347–349

toxoplasmosis 414, 462, 507

tracers 710–711

tumefactive demyelinating lesions 353–354

vasculitides 354

See underarterial spin labeling, dynamic susceptibility contrast MRI

perfusion territory maps 151

color-coded 102

perfusion timing

maps 263 , 264 , 266

middle cerebral artery aneurysm 269

perfusion-based fMRI 162–164

perfusion–diffusion mismatches 170, 184

perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI) 177–179, 184

acute disseminated encephalomyelitis 489–490, 491–492

case studies 498–500

central pontine myelinolysis 490

cerebral blood flow 196–197

changes with age 786

demyelinating diseases 488–500

diffuse intrinsic brainstem gliomas 774

diffusion-weighted imaging combination 197–200

gray matter occult damage 490–492

hypoxic–ischemic injury 750

improvement 493

ischemic penumbra 170

lesion volume 196

lymphoma 509

mean transit time 195, 196

moyamoya disease 734, 791–793, 798

multiple sclerosis 488–489

clinical correlations 492

gray matter occult damage 490–491

normal-appearing white matter occult damage 490–491

tumefactive 500

neonates 759–761

normal-appearing white matter 490–492

pediatric

brain tumors 769, 774

changes with age 786

stroke 791–793

progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy 490

seizure disorders 546–548

sickle cell anemia 734, 791

stroke 177–179, 184, 198

diffusion-weighted imaging combination 197–200

feasibility 187

lesion volume measurement 194–195

metrics 195

parameters 185

pediatric 791–793

thresholds 195, 196–197

Sturge–Weber syndrome 802

time to peak 196

traumatic brain injury 670–689

experimental models 674

non-accidental injury in children 846

pediatric 844

See underdiffusion-weighted imaging/perfusion-weighted imaging

perinatal 754

periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) 244–245

diffusion-weighted imaging 755–758

prematurity 756

white matter projections 734

permeability

data analysis 377–378

estimation 369

microvascular 374 , 375–376

parameters 113

permeability imaging

brain tumors 369–378

extra-axial 374

limitations 377–378

non-invasive correlates of histological grade 374–375

patient stratification for treatment monitoring/efficacy 375–376

gadolinium DTPA tracer 369–374

mathematical basis 369–374

translational research 377

permeability maps 372

antiangiogenic treatment 375

dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI 372

dynamic susceptibility contrast MRI 376

microvascular 372

PERMEATE sequence 140, 141, 141

peroxisomal disorders 808–810

classification 807

PET

See underpositron emission tomography

phantoms 40–41

phase, magnetic fields that modify 130

phase gradients 81–82

phase images 130, 130

creating high-pass susceptibility-weighted imaging 130–131

interpretation 133

phase mask, susceptibility-weighted imaging 131–132

phenylketonuria 719–721, 733, 831–832, 832

MRS 710, 831–832

phenytoin 522

phosphatidyl-inositol 659

phosphocholine 619

pediatric brain 705

phosphocreatine 8–9

bipolar disorder 574

brain tumor marker 297–298

detected in brain 7

function 825

MRS 176

phosphorus-31 MRS measurement 535–536

temporal lobe epilepsy 531, 536–537

phosphodiesterase (PDE) 584

phosphodiesters, phosphorus-31 MRS measurement 535–536,

phosphoesters, phosphorus-31 MRS measurement 535–536,

phosphomonoesterase

bipolar disorder 574

schizophrenia 584

phosphomonoesters, phosphorus-31 MRS measurement 536

phosphorus, inorganic (Pi)

phosphorus-31 MRS measurement 535–536

temporal lobe epilepsy 536–537

phosphorus-31 MRS 5, , 535–536, , 536

epilepsy 535–537

Huntington’s disease 635–636

hypoxia–ischemia 739

infants 727

limitations 537

major depression 573–574

metabolite ratios 25

neonates 727

schizophrenia 584, 585

temporal lobe epilepsy 536–537

traumatic brain injury 660

phycomycosis

See undermucormycosis

physiological MRI

brain development 727–734

dementia 562

demyelination 405

developmental delay 727–734

HIV-associated brain disorders 501–518

infections 405

inflammation 405

neurodegenerative disease 564, 630–641

pediatric brain 705–723

normal values 785

pediatric brain tumors 766–782

diagnosis accuracy 768–772

features 768

risk assessment 772–777

therapy effectiveness assessment 774–777

pilocytic astrocytoma 347, 769, 770 , 771

diagnosis accuracy 768–769

pediatric 718

WHO grade 767

Pittsburgh compound B (PIB) 563

pixel correction approach 72

poliovirus 416

polyhydric alcohols metabolism defect 833–834

polymorphonuclear neutrophil 405–406

porencephalic cysts 757

positron emission tomography (PET) 2, 156

Alzheimer’s disease 563

amyloid-sensitive ligands 563

cerebral blood flow 138

epilepsy 520–521, , 526–527

HIV infection multimodality imaging 511

neurodegenerative diseases 564

perfusion deficit identification 169–170

traumatic brain injury 654, 844

post-contrast spectroscopy 39

posterior cerebral artery (PCA), border-zone infarctions 249

posterior communicating artery 252–253

posterior fossa lesions, pediatric 768–769

postictal switch phenomenon 520–521

postprocessing algorithms, water sidebands 37

post-traumatic amnesia 698

post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

MRS 579

studies 582

potassium channel mutations 526

prematurity

See preterm infants

pre-scan operations 30

prescription 30

post-contrast spectroscopy 39

PRESS (point resolved spectroscopy) 10–11, 30

2D 12 ,

brain abscess 407

chemical shift error 38

coherence control 32–33, 32

coupled spin systems 34–35

2DJ-resolved 39

echo time 36

echo time-averaged 37, 476

gray matter 40

hypoxia–ischemia 739–741,

lipid suppression 15

multiple sclerosis 475–476

OverPRESS 37–39

peak-to-peak inhomogeneity 36

prescription 30

pulse sequence 10, 12

relaxivity 39

single-voxel pulse sequences 11

very selective saturation 37–39

presurgical planning

arteriovenous malformations 388–389

epilepsy 387–388

fMRI 380–395

intraoperative direct electrical stimulation mapping 382–383

preterm infants

brain metabolites 728 , 729

diffusion anisotropy 732

diffusion tensor MRI 729–730, 756, 756

diffusion-weighted imaging in brain injury 755–758

fractional anisotropy 732 , 757

hypoxic–ischemic encephalopathy 741–742

low birth weight 715–716

normal brain maturation 728–729

periventricular leukomalacia 756

signal-to-noise ratio 727

tractography 757–758

primary lateral sclerosis 641

primitive neuro-ectodermal tumor (PNET) 350, 769

apparent diffusion coefficient 717

cellular density 322–324

taurine 771

prion diseases 418–419

iatrogenic 563

MRS 564

physiological imaging 563–564

Probst bundles 758, 758

progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) 416, 418

apparent diffusion coefficient 564

CART 509

case studies 518

demyelinating lesions 509

diffusion-weighted imaging 490

HIV infection 509, 510 , 608–609,

MRS 509

perfusion-weighted imaging 490

survival 509

progressive supranuclear palsy 564

abnormal iron store imaging 644–645

parkinsonism differential diagnosis 631–633

PROPELLERTM (periodically rotated overlapping parallel lines with enhanced reconstruction) 61–63, 62 , , 184, 705, 723

proton MRS 5, 6 , 21,

aging 618–629

normal 618, 619

Alexander disease 815

Alzheimer’s disease 619–622, 628–629

metabolites 623

rate of change 622

Braak neurofibrillary pathological staging 622

brain tumors

pediatric 769

seizures 528–529

case studies 628–629

compounds 6–10

dementia 618–629

dementia with Lewy bodies 623, 628

metabolites 623

demyelination 807

developmentally delayed infant 733

epilepsy 528–529

extratemporal lobe 532

widespread abnormalities 532

frontotemporal dementia 624

metabolites 623

HIV 501–503

hypomyelination 807

hypoxia–ischemia 739–741,

hypoxic–ischemic encephalopathy 741–742

inborn errors of metabolism 733

infants 727

information content 6

internal carotid artery occlusion/stenosis 250

left carotid artery occlusion 175

lymphoma 22

major depression 574

metabolite ratios 25

middle cerebral artery occlusion 175

mild cognitive impairment 620–622

rate of change 622

multiple system atrophy 633

neonates 727

brain injury 732

normal brain maturation 728–729

parietal lobes 787

parietal white matter 10

pediatric 706

Pelizaeus–Merzbacher disease 814

posterior cingulate 623

right carotid artery occlusion 178

schizophrenia 584–585

short echo time 619

single voxel 619

spatial localization 10–14

stroke 178

temporal lobe epilepsy 528, 529–531

traumatic brain injury 656–657

vascular dementia 622–623

metabolites 623

white matter disease 819

See undermagnetic resonance spectroscopy

Prussian blue staining 693–694

pseudo-diffusion 80

Pseudomonas aeruginosa, brain abscess 429

pseudo-stroke 169

psychiatric disease 561–564

diagnostic validation 561–562

diffusion-weighted imaging 593–609

DSM-IV classification 567

fMRI 593

MRS 566–586

affective disorders 571–579

age matching 567

diagnosis 566

drug abuse 568

drug washout periods 568

medications 567–568

pulse sequence 568–569

region imaged 568

review of studies 571

sample size 566–567

sex matching 567

spectra quantification 569–571

study design 568–571

subject selection 566–567

tissue volume correction 569

voxel placement 568

MRS imaging 585–586

patient factors 561–562

physiological disease 564

practical issues 562

technical issues 562

See underdementia

pulsed arterial spin labeling (PASL) 98–99

3D imaging 100

CASL comparison 99

cerebrovascular disease 217

cerebrovascular reactivity 220–221

comparison with other techniques 99

errors 145–151

hybrid continuous 221–222

ictal event 547

inflow time 146–147

labeling efficiency 147–148

proximal arterial saturation pulse 98

selective 150

subtraction errors 149–150

tissue magnetization 98

transit times 145–146

pulsed gradient spin echo (PGSE) 46, 47

pulvinar sign 473–474, 563

pure water subtraction 37

PWI

See underperfusion-weighted imaging

q-space imaging 64

quality-adjusted life year 563

quantification 15–16, 21, 24–27, 40–41

data sets 27

metabolite concentrations 25–27

QUIPSS (quantitative imaging of perfusion using a single subtraction) 145–146, 147

radiation leukoencephalopathy (RLE) 348

radiation necrosis

choline detection 318

delayed 348

MRS 306, 318

N-acetyl aspartate detection 318

recurrent tumor mimicking 376

seizures 709

tumor recurrence differential diagnosis 368

radiofrequency coil

arterial spin labeling 97

dedicated labeling 100–102

loading 27

radiofrequency pulse

180º 46, 83–84

design 31–32

flip angle 98

multidimensional 102–103

slice selection 31

radiosurgery, perfusion MRI 347

radiotherapy

chemotherapy combination 306, 348–349

CNS injury 349

delayed radiation necrosis 348

gliomas 376

planning 292

plus temozolomide 348–349

response assessment 305–306

target delineation 305

radiotracers 2

Ramon y Cajal, Santiago 1–2

random walk 44–46, 45 ,

Rasmussen’s encephalitis 529 , 544

reduced flip angle refocusing pulse 32

reflux rate (k 2) 370

regional blood flow, arterial spin labeling 94–95, 95 , 103–105

region-of-interest (ROI) analysis

BOLD 105

CASL 105

cingulum 74

corticospinal tract 74

perfusion MRI 359

superior longitudinal fasciculus 75

tract editing 74

two-compartment exchange model 123

relative anisotropy (RA) 55, 70, 236

diffusion tensor imaging 206

pediatric 731

relaxation parameters

iron signal 643

rotating frame 644

relaxivity 39

relaxometry 643

repeatability 30

repetition time (TR)

optimal 58

short 32–33

short with 3D imaging 141–142

spectroscopic imaging technique 12–13

re-prescription 30

residue function, cerebral blood flow 87–88

model-dependent solutions 89–90

model-independent determination 88–89

reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy 487

ischemia differential diagnosis 789

Reye’s syndrome 748–749

ribitol 834

ribose-5-phosphate isomerase deficiency 819

right carotid artery occlusion 178

ROI

See underregion of interest

rotating frame relaxation parameters 644

safety, MRI in stroke 187

Salla disease 484

MRS 484, 830

sampling time 31

sarcoidosis 409–410, 411

scaling factor 25

schizophrenia

diffusion tensor MRI 602–605

metrics 602–603

fractional anisotropy 602

gray matter 602

MRS 582–585

review articles 584

white matter 602, 603–605

schwannoma 350–351

SD25 maps 342

sedation

infants 727

neonates 727

seizures/seizure disorders 519–523,

acquired causes 526

apparent diffusion coefficient 548

extracellular space 553

mechanisms of change 552–553

bicuculline-induced 549

brain metabolism 526

brain tumors 528–529

case studies 557–559

cerebral blood flow 552–553

diffusion tensor MRI 548

diffusion-weighted imaging 548–553, 765

abnormalities 557–558

experimentally induced 548–549

ictal 549–550

interictal 550

mechanisms of change 552–553

postictal 549–550

electroencephalography 520

electroshock-induced 549

encephalitis 781

fluorothyl-induced 549

gelastic 532

genetic causes 526

glucose metabolism 552–553

glutamate release 553

hypoxic–ischemic encephalopathy 751–752

kainic acid-induced 549

localization of focus 550–551

MRS 526–545

investigation 528

oxygen metabolism 552–553

pathophysiology 519–520

pediatric 708

perfusion MRI

interictal period 547–548

mechanisms of change 552–553

perfusion-weighted imaging 546–548

perinatal 765

phenomenology 519

pilocarpine-induced 549

postictal cerebral dysfunction 519

postictal hyper-/hypo-perfusion 547

radiation necrosis 709

Rasmussen’s encephalitis 544

soman-induced 549

types 519

white matter tractography 551–552

See underepilepsy

selected inversion 102

selective vulnerability concept 824

SENSE (sensitivity encoding)-MRSI 13, 15 , 722 , 723

Sherrington, Charles 380–381

shimming 30–31

Shinnar–LeRoux (SLR) refocusing pulse 32

short R 1 inversion recovery (STIR) 843

sialic acid 830

sickle cell disease

cerebral blood flow 713 , 714

perfusion MRI 734, 791

stroke risk in children 712, 734, 784, 791

signal attenuation 47–48

diffusion-weighted imaging 49

signal enhancement by extravascular protons (SEEP) 162

signaling pathways, gliomas 290

signal-to-noise ratio, infants 727

single diffusion tensor model 63–64

single photon emission tomography

See underSPECT

single voxel technique 10–11

multiple voxel technique comparison 13–14, 14

pulse sequences 11

sampling time 31

singular value decomposition (SVD) 89

Sjögren–Larsson syndrome 733

MRS 484

skull fracture 844

slice order 33–34

SMASH (simultaneous acquisition of spatial harmonics) 723

sodium channel mutations 526

sodium-23 MRS 538

epilepsy 537

spatial sensitivity encoded spectroscopic imaging 40

SPECT (single photon emission tomography) 654, 844

Alzheimer’s disease 563

epilepsy 520–521, 526–527

HIV infection multimodality imaging 511

lymphoma 509

neurodegenerative diseases 564

perfusion deficit identification 169–170

toxoplasmosis 414, 507

traumatic brain injury 654, 844

spectral analysis 21–24

processing steps 23

spectroscopic imaging acquisition mode (SIAM) 33–34

spectroscopic imaging technique 11–14

single-voxel technique comparison 13–14, 14

spectroscopy phantom 40–41

spectrum from control region 26

spin echo sequence

field gradient 47

perfusion MRI 342–343

See underfast-spin echo

spinal cord, diffusion-weighted imaging in multiple sclerosis 492–493

spinal cord injury without radiological abnormality (SCIWORA) 845

spine

fMRI 161–162

non-accidental injury in children 849

spin–lattice relaxation time, arterial spin labeling 150

statistical parametric mapping (SPM) 551552 , 559, 594

status epilepticus 519, 547

diffusion-weighted imaging 550

extracellular space reduction 552–553

limbic temporal lobe epilepsy 521

STEAM (stimulated echo acquisition mode) 10–11, 30

coherence control 32–33, 32

coupled spin systems 34–35, 35

hypoxia–ischemia 741

internal carotid artery disease 260

lipid suppression 15

single-voxel pulse sequences 11

T2 relaxation minimizing 58–59

very selective saturation 37–39

Stejskal–Tanner sequence 46–47, , 57–58, , 714

pulsed bipolar gradient 715

spoiler gradients 83–84

stents

See carotid stents

stimulated echo acquisition mode

See underSTEAM

STIR (short TI inversion recovery) 843

striatum 523

stroke 169–171

arterial input function 185

arterial spin labeling 215–222

acute patients 218

cardioembolic 188

case studies 183

pediatric 798–802

diagnosis

T 1-weighted images 169

T 2-weighted images 169

diffusion characteristics 187

diffusion tensor MRI 236–245

evolution of changes 237

ischemic disease 238

parameters 237

tissue viability prediction 241

diffusion-weighted imaging 177–179, , 184, 198 , 236, 263–264, 752–755

cardioembolic stroke diagnosis 188

diagnosis 189

diagnostic yield 188

embolic 268

evolution of changes 237

feasibility 187

lesion volume measurement 194–195

mild/late-presenting lesions 187, 188 , 189

multiple recent infarcts 190

negative imaging 188, 190

outcome prediction 192–194

pediatric 787–789

perfusion-weighted imaging combination 197–200

perinatal 752–755

permanent brain damage 191

recurrent infarct 188

signal duration 192, 193

specificity 190

transient ischemic attack differentiation 188–190

time intervals of imaging 193

uses 187

embolic 268

epilepsy 526

etiology 784

feasibility of MRI 185–187

FLAIR 187

fractional anisotropy in clinical outcome prediction 241

hemorrhage assessment 275–276

hemorrhagic 179, 180 , 273–275

microbleeds 273–275

hypoxic–ischemic encephalopathy 752–755

infarct expansion 199

ischemic 121

apparent diffusion coefficient 236–238

fractional anisotropy changes 239 , 240

mean diffusion evolution 236–238

pediatric 221, 793–794

perfusion imaging 354–357

susceptibility imaging 275

ischemic penumbra 169–170

imaging 170

lactate 177, , 183

mean diffusion changes 237

metabolic 794

microbleeds 273–275, 277–278

MRS 173–183

applications 177–179,

ischemic penumbra imaging 170

metabolite signals 173–176

pediatric 793–794

transient ischemic attacks 170–171

N-acetyl aspartate levels 177, , 179, 183

measurement 179

pediatric

case studies 798–802

cerebral arteriopathy 784, 791–793

diffusion tensor MRI 789–791

diffusion-weighted imaging 787–789

etiology 784

ischemic 221, 793–794

metabolic 794

MRS 793–794

perfusion MRI 712, 791–793

physiological MRI 784–802

sickle cell anemia 712, 734, 784, 791

perfusion-weighted imaging 177–179, 184, 198

diffusion-weighted imaging combination 197–200

feasibility 187

lesion volume measurement 194–195

metrics 195

thresholds 195, 196–197

perinatal, diffusion-weighted imaging 752–755

progression staging 177–179

proton MRS 178

recurrent infarct 188

right carotid artery occlusion 178

screening methods 169

severity, apparent diffusion coefficient 192

sickle cell anemia risk 712, 734, 784, 791

susceptibility imaging 273–280

arterial occlusion 278–279

hemorrhage assessment 275–276

hemorrhagic 273–275

ischemic 275

microbleeds 277–278

thrombolytic therapy 276–277

thrombolytic therapy 169–170, 171, 197–200

hemorrhagic transformation 276–277

patient selection 276–277

white matter secondary degeneration 241–242

See also ischemia/ischemic injury

See undertransient ischemic attacks

Sturge–Weber syndrome 802

subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) 436–437

subdural empyema 407–408, 409 , 461

diffusion-weighted imaging 408, 460–461

FLAIR 408

substance-related disorders, MRS 579–581

substantia nigra, iron deposition 645

succinate dehydrogenase deficiency 790 , 792 , 810, 813 , 832–833

superior longitudinal fasciculus 75

region-of-interest 75

susceptibility clot sign 278–279

susceptibility gradients, diffusion effects 82

susceptibility imaging

arterial occlusion 278–279

cerebral venous sinus thrombosis 279–280

dynamic perfusion 278–279

paramagnetic substances 273

principles 273

stroke 273–280

arterial occlusion 278–279

hemorrhage assessment 275–276

hemorrhagic 273–275

ischemic 275

microbleeds 277–278

thrombolytic therapy 276–277

susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) 129–133, 643

axonal shear injury 654

blood product verification 694

brain tumors 357

case studies 703

contrast-to-noise ratio 131–132

data

creation 132

interpretation 133

epilepsy 522–523

field strengths 132–133, 133

fields that modify phase 130

imaging parameters at different field strengths 132–133, 133

iron signal 642–643

magnetic susceptibility 129–130

microhemorrhages

branch point/bifurcation 696

detection 694

gray–white matter junction 696

perivascular 694–696

periventricular 696

traumatic brain injury 696 , 697

venous vessel relationship 694–696

minimum intensity projections 131, 132

phase data 133

phase images

creating high-pass filtered 130–131

interpretation 133

phase mask 131–132

processed data set creation 131

Prussian blue staining 693–694

traumatic axonal injury 703

traumatic brain injury 691–703, 692700

capacity 692–693

experimental models 674

image interpretation 692–693

lesion location 699

long-term outcome prediction 698–699

microhemorrhage 696 , 697

sensitivity to hemorrhagic lesions 694

severity stratification 697–698

temporal evolution of hemorrhage 692–693

tumefactive demyelinating lesions 357

T 1 relaxation time, arterial spin labeling 100

T 1rho 644

T 1-weighted images

brain abscess 427, 456–458

Aspergillus 439

demyelinating diseases 419

echinococcosis 445

Epstein–Barr virus 436

herpes simplex encephalitis 435–436

iron signal 642,

Japanese encephalitis 437

meningitis 426

tuberculous 428–429

multiple sclerosis 419–421

neurocysticercosis 442–443

subacute sclerosing panencephalitis 436–437

tuberculoma 431

T 2* decay 59

T 2 effect 79

T 2* relaxation 527

iron signal 642,

minimizing 58–59

T 2 shine-through 48, 48

T 2rho 644

T 2-weighted images

brain abscess 427, 456–458,

Aspergillus 439

Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease 419

demyelinating diseases 419

diffuse excessive high signal intensity 244–245

echinococcosis 445

Epstein–Barr virus 416, 436

iron signal 642,

Japanese encephalitis 437

neurocysticercosis 442–443

progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy 416

subacute sclerosing panencephalitis 436–437

toxoplasmosis 414

tuberculoma 431

Takayasu arteritis 268

taurine, brain tumor marker 771

pediatric 769,

TBI

See undertraumatic brain injury

TE

See underecho time

temozolomide 306–307,

glioma treatment 307

plus radiotherapy 348–349

temporal lobe 523

temporal lobe epilepsy 520, 521

case study 545

conventional MR 527–528

diffusion-weighted imaging 550

hippocampal sclerosis 521

hippocampal volume 527, 548

MRS contralateral abnormalities 531–532

MRS imaging 545

pathophysiology 521–522

perfusion MRI 547–548

pH reduction 536–537

phosphorus-31 MRS 536–537

proton MRS 528, 529–531

widespread abnormalities 532

thalamocortical projections 757

thalamus 523

bilateral activation in epilepsy 522

epilepsy 532

infantile lesions 754

multiple sclerosis 490–491

volume of interest 479

white matter hyperperfusion 761

thalidomide 360

thrombolytic therapy 169–170

hemorrhagic transformation 276–277

ischemic stroke 171, 197–200

patient selection 177–179, 276–277

thrombospondins 289

time dependence, diffusion 82

time-domain preprocessing 21

time-domain spectral analysis, free induction decay 21

time-to-peak (TTP)

arterial input function 144

dynamic susceptibility contrast MRI 144

internal carotid artery stenosis 265

ischemia 356–357

middle cerebral artery territory 267–268

perfusion timing 261

perfusion-weighted imaging 196

tissue structure 69

tissue viability prediction, diffusion tensor MRI 241

Tofts model for DCE-MRI 116–117, 117

modified 118, 120

topiramate 522

toxoplasmosis 413–414, 414 , 461–462, 463

in AIDS 508

contrast agent 508

in HIV infection 414, , 461–462, 507, 508 , 608

lymphoma combination 511

hyperintense foci 414

lesions 507

lymphoma

combination 511

differential diagnosis 414, 461–462

MRS 507

perfusion MRI 414, 462, 507

SPECT 414, 507

TR

See underrepetition time

Trace(D) 79

diffusion tensor MRI 53–54

tract based spatial statistics (TBSS) 756

tract editing 74

tractography

brain tumors in children 717

congenital brain malformations 718–719

developmentally delayed infants 734

diffusion tensor imaging-based 76, 237 , 241

amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 638

parkinsonism 631–633

diffusion tensor MRI-based 492

hemiparesis 242

internal carotid artery disease 260

multiple sclerosis 492

multiple system atrophy 632

Parkinson’s disease 632

preterm infants 757–758

probabilistic 758 , 855

seizure disorders 551–552

traumatic brain injury 675–676

validation 75–76

white matter

connectivity 732

seizure disorders 551–552

tract-tracing techniques 76

transcranial magnetic stimulation, repetitive (rTMS) 574

transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) 170–171

diffusion-weighted imaging

negative imaging 188

stroke differentiation 188–190

hypoperfusion 219

internal carotid artery stenosis 249–250

N-acetyl aspartate/choline ratio 249–250

N-acetyl aspartate/creatine ratio 249–250

transit times

arterial spin labeling 100, 145–146

metrics 91

transmitter gain setting 31

transportation of infants/neonates 727

trauma

epilepsy 526

pediatric 843–850

traumatic axonal injury (TAI) 654, 656, 670–673, 684–686, 687, 691

case study 703

location 692

radiological markers 691–692

shear injury 654, , 694

susceptibility-weighted imaging 703

traumatic brain injury (TBI) 653–655, 657 , 670–673

accidental 677–678, 843

N-acetyl aspartate 657–660,

acute edema resolution 676

acute head injury 674

adolescent accidental 677–678

apparent diffusion coefficient 674

children 677–678

experimental models 673–674

outcome prediction 676–677

arterial spin labeling experimental models 674

axonal damage 656, 670–673, 684–686

diffuse injury 654, 656, 670–673, 684–686, 687, 691–692,

shear injury 654

behavioral effects 653

biomechanics 671

BOLD 844

boxing 678–679

occult damage 689

burden 691

carotid artery dissection 682–684

case studies 663–660, 682–689, 703

Cho signal 659–660,

cognitive function 659–660

corpus callosum 677678

creatine 659–660

CT 670–673

diagnosis 653, 654–655

diffusion longitudinal changes 674

diffusion tensor MRI 654, 671, 675 , 846

functional correlates 677

longitudinal changes 674

neuropsychological correlates 677

non-accidental injury in children 850

outcome prediction 676–677

diffusion-weighted imaging 670–689

acute head injury 674

boxing 678–679

chronic changes 674–675

experimental models 673–674

focal lesions 674

non-accidental injury in children 678, 846, 847–849, 850

electroencephalography 654–655

FLAIR lesions 699

focal lesions 674

contusions 653–654, 692

fractional anisotropy 674

children 677–678

longitudinal changes 674

outcome prediction 676–677

fMRI 844

glucose metabolism 658–659

glutamate 659

glutamine 659

gradient echo imaging 694, 695 , 696

gray matter 674

hemorrhage 673

hemosiderin 693

lactate 656–657

lesion depth 698–699

magnetoelectroencephalography 654–655

mechanisms 653–654

metabolic cascade 656

mild 653, 654

N-acetyl aspartate 657–658

mitochondrial impairment 658

MRI 670–673

MRS 656–660

clinical application 660

non-accidental injury in children 846, 850

pediatric 844–846

MRS imaging 663–660

myo-inositol 659

N-acetyl aspartate levels 659

neurocognitive effects 653

non-accidental 678, 843

outcomes 656, 659–660, 691

lesion depth 698–699

prediction 676–677, 698–699

susceptibility-weighted imaging 698–699

pathophysiology 670, 672

pediatric 666–667, 843–850, 848

accidental 677–678, 843

imaging protocol 850

imaging schedule 849–850

mechanisms 843

non-accidental 678, 843, 846–850,

outcome prediction 843–844

perfusion-weighted imaging 670–689

experimental models 674

non-accidental injury in children 846

pediatric 844

periventricular hemorrhage 697

phosphorus-31 MRS 660

proton MRS 656–657

secondary brain injury 843–844

severity 659–660

assessment 656

stratification with susceptibility-weighted imaging 697–698

spectroscopic imaging 658 ,

splenium hemorrhage 697

survival 691

susceptibility-weighted imaging 691–703, 693 , 694695 , 696

capacity 692–693

experimental models 674

image interpretation 692–693

lesion location 699

long-term outcome prediction 698–699

microhemorrhage 696

microhemorrhage relationship with venous vessels 694–696, 697

sensitivity to hemorrhagic lesions 694

severity stratification 697–698

temporal evolution of hemorrhage 692–693

tractography 675–676

traumatic axonal injury 654, 656, 670–673, 684–686, 687, 691

radiological markers 691–692

white matter 674

See also non-accidental injury

tuberculoma 413 , 431–434, 432 , 433 , 434

dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI 433–434

HIV infection 510–511

MRS 431–433

pontine 458

tuberculosis 408, 428–434

brain abscess 434, 435 , 458

HIV infection 510–511

case study 470–471

diffusion-weighted imaging 458, 470–471

HIV infection 510–511

meningitis 410 , 428–431

miliary 510–511

perfusion MRI 352

tuberculous meningitis 410 , 413 , 428–431, 431

tumefactive demyelinating lesion (TDL) 353–354, 421–422, 422

case study 498–499

MRS 452–453

perfusion MRI 353–354

susceptibility-weighted imaging 357

TUNEL apoptotic index 304

ultra-high-field MRI, epilepsy 522–523

ultra-small particles of iron oxides (USPIO) 291

antiangiogenic therapy response 376

uncinate fasciculus mapping 551–552

uptake model, two-compartment 119

validation

qualitative of diffusion tensor imaging 76

tractography 75–76

valproate 522,

vanishing white matter disease 815–817, 817

varicella, cerebral arteriopathy 784

Varolio, Costanzo 380

vascular abnormalities, perfusion deficits 269

vascular dementia 562, 648

proton MRS 622–623

metabolites 623

vascular disease/vasculitides 411

perfusion MRI 354

vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) 289, 341

angiogenesis 375

expression in meningiomas 377

targeted therapies 776–777

tuberculoma 433–434

vascular endothelial hyperplasia, brain tumors 341–342

vascular permeability (K trans) 116–117, 341, 351

brain tumors 341–342

extra-axial neoplasms 350–351

first-pass pharmacokinetic modeling 342

glioma grading 346–347

tuberculoma 433–434

vascular permeability factor

See undervascular endothelial growth factor

vascular proliferation, brain tumors 341

vascular space occupancy (VASO) 103, 162, 360–361

cerebral blood volume dynamic imaging 164

vascular space occupancy-dependent fMRI 360–361

VEGF

See undervascular endothelial growth factor

venous magnetization (Mv (t)) 96

venous oxygen saturation, BOLD fMRI 157

venous sinus thrombosis 279

infant 717

susceptibility imaging 279–280

ventriculitis, meningitis complications 460

very selective saturation (VSS) pulses 37–39

vessel territory mapping 100–103

dedicated labeling radiofrequency coil 100–102

multidimensional radiofrequency pulse 102–103

selected inversion 102

video-electroencephalogram (EEG) telemetry, epilepsy 526–527

vigabatrin 522

viral infections 435–438

encephalitis 414–415, 416

enteroviruses 416

herpes viruses 415–416

HIV encephalitis 416–418

JC virus 416

meningitis 406

volume ratio 236

voxel(s)

bulk-averaged diffusion properties 63

fiber orientation 55–57, 79–80

intra-voxel motion 58

multiple fiber populations 63–64

size 26

voxel shift 142–144

V e parameter, brain tumors 341–342

Wada test 381, 382

epilepsy 387–388

Wallerian degeneration 241–242, 243242

corticospinal tract 242

fractional anisotropy 170

infants 753

multiple sclerosis 479

water

arterial 96

brain tissue

longitudinal magnetization 95–96

pathophysiology 671

diffusion in white matter 325

diffusivity 47–48, 259, 321,

white matter fibers 593

exchange in dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI 121

mobility 327

motion 456

parasitic artifact removal 37 , 37

reduction 31

methods 35

reference 35

as reference signal 22 , 26–27

sidebands 35–37

signal amplitude 27

See underapparent diffusion coefficient

water suppression 14–15, 31, 35

magnetization transfer 35

PRESS 11

STEAM 11

water suppression enhanced through T 1 effects (WET) 35

Wernicke encephalopathy 607

West Nile virus differential diagnosis 472

West Nile virus 416, 472,

white matter (WM)

aging 595

alcoholism 605–606, , 607

Alzheimer’s disease 601–602

anisotropy 236,

apparent diffusion coefficient 715

arcuate fasciculi infarction 242

cerebral blood flow quantification 150

Cho signals 16

concentration time 114

connectivity measures 594, 597–598

Cr signals 16

curve 115

depression 609

developmentally delayed infants 734

diffusion 52, 236

electron density 2

epilepsy 535

fractional anisotropy 594, 599–600

HIV infection 608,

hyperperfusion in basal ganglia and thalami 761

hypoxic–ischemic encephalopathy 752–753

inborn errors of metabolism 824–825

ischemic injury 241

low birth weight preterm 715–716

mean phase values 131

metabolite concentrations 26

MRS in epilepsy 535

multiple sclerosis 475, 477–478, 479

N-acetyl aspartate signal 16

neonates

hypoxic–ischemic encephalopathy 752–753

normal brain 750–751

seizures 751–752

non-cystic abnormalities of prematurity 244–245

normal-appearing 476–478, , 479

diffusion-weighted imaging 490–492,

multiple sclerosis 490–491

perfusion-weighted imaging 490–492,

normal brain development 729, 730–731,

connectivity 732

partial volume effects 79–80, 150

phase image 131

preterm infants 729–730

pure concentration determination 27

schizophrenia 602, , 603–605

secondary degeneration 241–242

seizures 751–752

signal intensity 2–3

structure 593

traumatic axonal injury 691–692,

traumatic brain injury 657, 674

water content 785

water diffusion 325

white matter (WM) color maps 718–722

white matter disease

children

case study 822

MRS 806–822

proton MRS 819

classification 807

white matter fiber maps 715

white matter fibers

orientation 594

trajectories 594

water molecules 593

white matter tracts

anatomy 76

anisotropy 321–322

astrocytoma 326

branching 73

color maps 71

diffusion-weighted imaging 456

editing 73, 75

fiber reconstruction techniques 71–72

location for brain tumor treatment planning 325, 329

reconstruction protocols 74–75

tract-tracing techniques 76

trajectories 594

See undertractography

Willis, Thomas 1

Wilson’s disease 824

xenon computed tomography (CT), perfusion deficit identification 169–170

X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy

See adrenoleukodystrophy

zero quantum interference

PRESS 11

STEAM 11

zero-filling 21

zero-order phase correction 23




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