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Meteorites

Details

  • 130 b/w illus. 49 tables
  • Page extent: 524 pages
  • Size: 247 x 174 mm
  • Weight: 0.823 kg

Paperback

 (ISBN-13: 9780521035392)




Contents





Preface page xi
Acknowledgements xiii
 
1   Introduction 1
    1.1   The flux of extraterrestrial material 1
    1.2   Kinds of meteoritic material 4
    1.3   Sources of meteorites 10
    1.4   Meteorite recovery: falls, finds and “super-finds” 11
    1.5   How to recognize a meteorite 13
    1.6   Meteorite names 15
    1.7   Meteorite literature 16
Select bibliography 17
2   The chondrites: chemistry and classification 18
    2.1   Historical overview 18
    2.2   Chondrite classes and groups: chemical signatures 24
    2.3   Cosmochemical classification of the elements 34
    2.4   Geochemical classification of the elements 37
    2.5   Primary variations: oxygen isotopic ratios 38
    2.6   Secondary variations: petrologic types 40
    2.7   Tertiary variations: shock facies and stages 42
    2.8   Terrestrial weathering of meteorite finds 45
    2.9   Classification: status and prospects 47
    2.10   Summary 51
Select bibliography 52
3   The components of chondrites 53
    3.1   Introduction 54
    3.2   Chondrules 55
    3.3   Refractory calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions – CAIs 75
    3.4   Other high-temperature materials in chondrites 84
    3.5   Low-temperature components in chondrites – matrix 85
    3.6   Other low-temperature material in chondrites 92
    3.7   Oxygen isotopic ratios of chondrules, CAIs and matrix 92
    3.8   Summary 95
Select bibliography 95
4   Petrography of the chondrites I: carbonaceous chondrites 96
    4.1   General introduction 96
    4.2   The carbonaceous chondrite groups 97
    4.3   Ungrouped carbonaceous chondrites 121
    4.4   Summary 123
Select bibliography 125
5   Petrography of the chondrites II: non-carbonaceous chondrites 127
    5.1   Introduction 127
    5.2   The ordinary chondrites and R group 128
    5.3   Enstatite chondrites 142
    5.4   Ungrouped non-carbonaceous chondrites 146
    5.5   Summary 150
Select bibliography 150
6   Time in the evolution of chondrites 152
    6.1   Introduction 153
    6.2   Stages in chondrite history 153
    6.3   Stages 7 to 10: Cosmic ray exposure (CRE) ages and terrestrial ages 154
    6.4   Systems based on primordial radionuclides 155
    6.5   Gas-retention ages (stages 5 to 7) 158
    6.6   Formation and metamorphic ages (stages 2 to 5) 162
    6.7   Early Solar System chronology 179
    6.8   Timing of nucleosynthesis: formation intervals 183
    6.9   Summary: early chondrite history 185
Select bibliography 187
7   Origin of chondrites and their components 188
    7.1   Introduction 189
    7.2   Origin of the chondrite groups 193
    7.3   Origin of chondrules 219
    7.4   Origin of calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) 229
    7.5   Summary 239
Select bibliography 241
8   Differentiated meteorites I: primitive achondrites, ureilites and aubrites 243
    8.1   Introduction 243
8.2 Achondrites 245
    8.3   Primitive achondrites 248
    8.4   Acapulcoites and lodranites 249
    8.5   Winonaites and chondritic silicates in IAB iron meteorites 253
    8.6   Brachinites (olivine achondrites) 256
    8.7   Ureilites (olivine-pyroxene achondrites) 257
    8.8   Aubrites (enstatite achondrites) 267
    8.9   Chemical compositions of primitive achondrites, ureilites and aubrites 273
    8.10   Summary 274
Select bibliography 275
9   Differentiated meteorites II: asteroidal, lunar and Martian basaltic meteorites 277
    9.1   Introduction 278
    9.2   Howardites, eucrites and diogenites (HEDs) 280
    9.3   Angrites: silica undersaturated Ca-rich basaltic achondrites 291
    9.4   Summary: products of asteroidal volcanism 295
    9.5   Lunar meteorites 296
    9.6   Martian (SNC) meteorites 305
Select bibliography 319
10   Differentiated meteorites III: iron and stony iron meteorites 321
    10.1   Introduction 322
    10.2   The Fe-Ni system and the structure of iron meteorites 324
    10.3   Chemical classification of iron meteorites 331
    10.4   Properties of the iron meteorite groups 338
    10.5   Stony iron meteorites 345
    10.6   Ungrouped iron and stony iron meteorites 355
    10.7   Summary 362
Select bibliography 363
11   Parent body processes and petrogenetic associations 364
    11.1   Introduction 365
    11.2   Early history of asteroids 366
    11.3   The HED-IIIAB iron-MGP-mesosiderite association 378
    11.4   Metamorphism in chondrite parent bodies 399
    11.5   Petrogenetic associations 414
    11.6   Summary 418
Select bibliography 419
12   Origin of Solar System planets: a meteoriticist’s view 420
    12.1   Introduction 421
    12.2   Protosolar matter 422
    12.3   Trapped noble gases in chondrites 427
    12.4   Composition and form of protosolar matter 433
    12.5   Timing and evidence of early hypervelocity impact 434
    12.6   Possible origins of a protojupiter 438
    12.7   Consequences for the probability of life-supporting planets 441
    12.8   Summary 442
Select bibliography 442
 
Glossary 443
Bibliography 450
Index of meteorite names 478
General index 482
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