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The 1702 Chair of Chemistry at Cambridge

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Index




1702 Chair

   appointment of Alan Battersby, 270

   appointment of Alexander Robertus Todd, 200, 213

   appointment of George Downing Liveing, 168

   appointment of Isaac Pennington, 85–86

   appointment of James Cumming, 142

   appointment of John Francis Vigani, 31

   appointment of John Hadley, 45

   appointment of John Mickleburgh, 45

   appointment of John Waller, 45

   appointment of Ralph Alexander Raphael, 247, 269

   appointment of Richard Watson, 60

   appointment of Smithson Tennant, 107

   appointment of Steven Victor Ley, 280, 283

   appointment of William Farish, 103

   appointment of William Jackson Pope, 190

   death in office of James Cumming, 156

   death in office of John Francis Vigani, 37

   death in office of John Hadley, 60

   death in office of John Mickleburgh, 45

   death in office of John Waller, 10

   death in office of Smithson Tennant, 134

   death in office of William Jackson Pope, 199

   election procedure in 1771–73, 85

   election procedure in 1813–15, 1, 142, 205

   endowed by BP, 270

   endowment, 61

   possible appointment of Alan Battersby, 269

   renamed BP 1702 Chair, 280

   renamed Chair of Organic Chemistry, 216

   resignation of Alexander Robertus Todd, 233, 247, 269

   resignation of George Downing Liveing, 184

   resignation of Isaac Pennington, 103

   resignation of Richard Watson, 66

   resignation of William Farish, 105, 142

   retirement of Alan Battersby, 280

   retirement of Ralph Alexander Raphael, 253

aaptamine, 249, 250

actomyosin, 224

Addenbrooke’s Hospital, Cambridge, 85, 87, 253

adenosine triphosphate, 222, 223

Agricola, Georg, 44

Alchemists’ Club, Glasgow, 245

Alexander, Albert Ernest, 204

alkaloids, 259, 263, 265, 266, 269, 273, 274

   and chemotherapy, 264

   biosynthesis of, 261, 263, 264

   indole family, 264

Allan Glen’s School, Glasgow, 210

Amati, Nicola, 253

amatol, 204

Ampère, André-Marie, 157, 159

Anderson’s College, Glasgow, 179

Andrew, Raymond, 204

Anglicanism, 2, 3, 15

anthocyanins, 210, 217, 232

anti-gas respirators, 181

anti-leukaemic compounds, 248

anti-malarials, 204

Antiphlogistians, 85, 93

anti-tumour agents, 295

aphids, 232

apothecaries, 32, 37, 38, 39, 45, 53

Apothecaries Act, 148

arachidonic acid, 241

Arigoni, Duilio, 277

Armstrong, Henry Edward, 184, 190

Ashby, Eric, 244

Askesian Society, 131

AstraZeneca, 244

Astronomer Royal, 153

asymmetric quaternary ammonium salts, 183, 184

Atherton, Alice, 138

atomic theory, 141, 143, 144

ATP. See adenosine triphosphate

Avery, Oswald T., 219

Avogadro, Amadeo, 152

Axford, Douglas, 204

B12. See vitamin B12

Babbage, Charles, 24, 134, 142, 146

Bacchus, Henry, 155

Bacon, Francis, 65, 67

Baddiley, James, 221, 223, 224

   research student of Todd, 234

   synthesis of ATP, 222–223

Bader, Alfred, 189

Bailey, Kenneth, 224

Baker, Wilson, 261

Bamford, Harold Firth, 204

Banks, Joseph, 113, 114, 127

Banks, Robert, 45

Barger, George, 210

Barlow, William, 190

Barrow, Isaac, 5

Bartoli, Daniello, 35

Barton, Derek, 244

Battersby, Alan Rushton, 217, 257–282

   and Alexander Todd, 259, 267, 268

   and Ralph Raphael, 270

   appointed to second chair of organic chemistry at Cambridge, 267

   appointed to 1702 Chair, 60

   biosynthesis of morphine, 261–263

   biosynthesis of plant alkaloids, 264–266

   biosynthesis of the Pigments of Life, 266, 270–275

   biosynthesis of vitamin B12, 276–280

   early life, 259

   portrait, 258

   possible move to 1702 Chair, 269

   University of Bristol, 261

   University of Liverpool, 266

   University of Manchester, 259

   University of St Andrews, 260

Baumé, Antoine, 61

Bayle, Pierre, 32

Beale, John, 5

Becher, Johann Joachim, 17, 84

Beddoes, Thomas, 20, 21, 22, 49, 50

Bedford College, London, 202

Belasyse, Thomas. See Fauconberg

Bell, Henry, 154

Bene’t Hall. See Corpus Christi College, Cambridge

Bentham, Jeremy, 23

Bentley, Richard, 3, 8, 9, 10, 13, 24, 37, 38, 41

Benwell, John, 45

benzylisoquinoline, 262, 263

Bergman, Torbern Olof, 48

Berington, Joseph, 21

Bernal, John Desmond, 198, 206

Berthollet, Claude Louis, 84, 119

Berzelius, Jöns Jacob, 130, 132, 144, 146

Bible Society, 90

   formation at University, 90

Birkbeck Laboratory, University College, London, 148

Bishop of Lincoln. See Tomline, George

bismuth compounds, 179

Black, Joseph, 20, 23, 45, 48, 65, 92

Blackburn, G. Michael, 231

Blackett, Patrick Maynard Stuart, 198

Blagden, Charles, 63

Blanche, Francis, 279

Blanes, Lord, 15

Bletchley Park, 204

Board of Longitude, 24

Boerhaave, Hermann, 8, 17, 31, 45, 92

Bond, Henry, 148

Borsche, Walther, 210

Botanic Garden, Cambridge, 149, 168

   1784 building, 90

   establishment, 90

   head gardener, 91

   lecture room, 168

Botany, professor of, 91, 168

Boyle, Robert, 5, 6, 8, 10, 13, 35, 36, 37, 41, 43, 44

BP 1702 Chair, 280

   endowment, 270

Bradley, Richard, 90

Brady, Robert, 35

Bragg, (William) Lawrence, 228

brewing, 176

Brewster, David, 3

Brigham, Samuel, 45

Bristol, University of

   and Alan Battersby, 261

British Association for the Advancement of Science, 159, 160, 174

British Dyestuffs Corporation, 201

British Mineralogical Society, 131

British Museum, 182

Brodie, Benjamin Collins Sr, 144

Brougham, Lord, 130

Brown, Daniel M., 215, 226

   reaction to double helix, 228

   research with Todd, 234

Brown, Roger F. Challis, 214

Brownrigg, William, 96

Buchanan, George, 245

Buchanan, J. Grant, 232

Bun Shop (public house), 226

Burke, Edmund, 21

Bykhovsky, Vladimir, 277

Byron, Lord, 144

Cain, Tubal, 31

Calgarth Park, Westmorland, 71, 73, 76, 77

calico-printing, 176

California Institute of Technology, 231

Calzolari, Francesco, 32

Cambridge Chemical Society, 203

Cambridge Mathematics Laboratory, 203

Cambridge Philosophical Society, 96, 105, 156, 157, 158, 159, 160, 183

   and Farish, 156

Cambridge School of Agriculture, 174

Cambridge Training College for Women, 181

Cambridge University Act, 150

Cambridge University Rifle Volunteers, 174

Cameron, Alastair, 204

Campbell, Hugh, 204

camphor, 265

camphor derivatives, 184

camphorsulphonic acids, 184

cannabis, 219

Cannizzaro, Stanislao, 152

Cannon, Jack, 232, 276

carbon-13, 272, 273, 276, 279

carbon-14, 261, 262, 263, 273

Carlisle Grammar School, 96

Carlisle, Anthony, 113

carpanone, 296

Carter, Herbert, 261

Catharine Hall, Cambridge. See St Catharine’s College, Cambridge

Cavendish family, 138

Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge, 215, 228

Cavendish, Henry, 95

   determination of density of the Earth, 97

Central Institution, London, 184

Chambers, Ephraim, 58

Chaptal, Jean Antoine, 85

   Elements of Chemistry, 99

Chapter Coffee House Society, 49

charcoal cylinders, 75

Charles II, 31

Charterhouse School, 17, 46, 95

chemical elements

   year of discovery, 114

chemical engineering, 205

Chemical Society, 153, 183

   James Cumming as a founder member, 159

Chesterfield, Philip Stanhope, Earl of, 33

chlorophyll, 257, 261, 270, 271, 275

Christ’s College, Cambridge, 35, 178, 232, 245, 250, 251

   and Alexander Todd, 232

chromatography, 214, 232

chrysanthemic acid, 246

Church Missionary Society, 90

Churchill College, Cambridge

   and Alexander Todd, 233

Churchill, Winston Spencer, 205

   as Minister of Munitions, 202

City and Guilds College, London, 190

Clapham Sect, 89

Clare College, Cambridge, 182

Clark, William, 146

Clarke, Edward Daniel, 21, 22, 142, 143, 147, 156

Clarke, Samuel, 69

Classical Tripos, 147, 153

Clausius, Rudolf, 177

Clothworkers’ Company, 178

coal gas, 176

cobalt complexes, 297

codeine, 263

codeinone, 263

Cohn, Waldo E., 225

Colchester, Henry, 41

colchicine, 264

college laboratories, 168, 169, 174, 195

combinatorial chemistry, 286

Committee on Scientific and Industrial Research, 201, 202

Commonwealth Fund Fellowship, 260

Congreve, William, 75

contraceptive pill, 214

convergent synthesis, 292, 297

Cook, James W., 243

copperas, 65

cordite, 204

Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, 14, 45, 180

   and Hales, 37, 41

   and Mickleburgh, 14

   and Stukeley, 37, 40

   and Waller, 45

corynantheal, 264, 265

Cotes, Roger, 9, 37

Cottenham, Charles Christopher Pepys, 1st Earl of, 99

Coulson, Charles, 160

Covel, John, 35

Craig, Lyman, 260

Crane, John, 38

Cremonese violins, 252

Crick, Francis, 215, 228

Croucher Foundation, 233

Crouzet, Joel, 279

Crum Brown, Alexander, 171

Cudworth, Ralph, 5

Cullen, William, 17, 23, 48

Cumming, George William, 140

Cumming, Hannah Sophia, 155

Cumming, Isabella, 155

Cumming, James, 21, 138–165, 168

   admitted to Trinity College, Cambridge, 140

   appointed to 1702 Chair, 142–143

   course structure, 143

   death, 156

   friendship with F. J. H. Wollaston, 142

   portrait, 139

   religion, 141

   withdraws from 1702 Chair election, 132, 142

Cumming, James John, 155

Cumming, James Sr, 138

Cumming, Joseph Notzel, 140

Cumming, Revd Joseph George, 140, 154

Cumming, William George, 140

Cusano, Maffeo, 32

Cuthbert, George, 45

cyanine dyes, 202

cytochromes, 270

D’Oyly, George, 145

Dainton, Frederick Sydney, 203, 204

Dale, Henry Hallett, 199, 212

Dalton, John, 74, 113, 141, 215

Darwin, Charles, 141, 146, 168

Darwin, Erasmus, 49, 145, 146, 160

Daubeny, Charles Giles Bridle, 151, 152, 153

David, George E., 205

Davy, Humphry, 19, 22, 24, 62, 66, 102, 114, 141, 146, 152

   isolation of Na, K, Ba, Sr, Ca and Mg, 114

Dawson, John, 74

Day, Thomas, 38

DDT, 205

de Kok, Johan Egbert Frederik (‘Frits’), 201

De La Pryme. See Pryme

de Morveau, Louis Bernard Guyton, Baron, 84

de Quincey, Thomas, 73

Dealtry, William, 145

deaminase, 274

Debussche, Laurent, 279

Dee, John, 4

Dekker, Charles (Chuck) A., 226, 228

Delamethérie, Jean Claude, 119

Demonferrand, Jean Baptiste Firmin, 159

Dent, Peter, 38

Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, 199

   creation of, 201

Desaguliers, John Theophilus, 46

Descartes, René, 13, 35

Deville, Henri Sainte-Claire, 160

Devonshire, 5th Duke of, 138

Devonshire, 7th Duke of, 150

Devonshire, William Cavendish, Earl of, 33

Dewar, James, 150, 170, 171, 172, 177, 182, 183, 195, 199

   book on spectroscopy, 183

   spectroscopic work with Liveing, 183

Diderot, Denis, 47

dienol, 263

Divinity, Regius chair of,

   appointment of Richard Watson, 66

DNA, 219, 220, 228

   discovery by Friedrich Miescher, 219

   work of Oswald Avery, 219

Dollar Academy, Scotland, 171

double helix, 228

Downing College, Cambridge

   laboratory, 169

Downing, Catherine, 166

Downing, George, 166

Doyle, Peter, 244

Drake, Richard, 4

duck’s blood, 274

Dulong, Pierre Louis, 146

Dundonald, Earl of, 64

Dunlop, John, 200

Dunthorne, Richard, 87

dyestuffs, 176

Eachard, John, 35

Eagle (public house), 215

East Anglia, University of, 251

East India Company

   saltpetre, 76

Edinburgh Review, 58

Edinburgh, University of, 146, 171, 210

Edleston, Revd James, 141, 154, 155, 156

Eglinton, Geoffrey, 244

Eirich, Frederick Roland, 203

Eley, Daniel Douglas, 204

Elliston, William, 103

Emeléus, Harry Julius, 203, 216

emetine, 259, 260, 264

Emmanuel College, Cambridge, 5

epothilone C, 298

Euglena gracilis, 274

Fage, John, 38

Faraday, Michael, 144, 157

Farish, William, 22, 24, 66, 103–107, 121, 142, 146, 147

   accident with hydrogen, 146

   appointed to 1702 Chair, 103

   appointed to Jacksonian chair, 105, 132

   appointed to Observatory Syndicate, 97

   appointed vicar of St Giles’ Church, 105

   awarded Smith’s Prize, 96

   competes for Jacksonian chair, 95

   death, 106

   education by his father, 96

   engineering ingenuity, 106

   enters Magdalene College, 96

   examination marking, 106

   first president of Cambridge Philosophical Society, 156

   lectures, 103, 142–144

   Plan of a Course of Lectures, 105

   portrait, 104

   residence at Merton Cottage, 106

   resignation from 1702 Chair, 142

   University offices, 96

Fauconberg, Thomas Belasye Earl of, 33, 35

Fenton, Henry John Horstman, 178

   books on chemistry, 179

Fenton’s reagent, 178

Fersht, Alan, 270

Fisons, 233

flavin adenine dinucleotide, 224

Folkers, Karl, 276

Forbes, James David, 171

forestry, 76, 78

Fourcroy, Antoine François de, 84, 85, 99

Fownes, George, 151, 153

Frank, Charles, 204

Franklin, Benjamin, 17, 96

Franklin, Rosalind Elsie, 203, 206

Freind, John, 14, 31, 44

Frend, William

   expulsion from University, 95

Freund, Ida, 181

Fry, Elizabeth Gurney, 155

Fuller, Watson, 229

Fullerian Chair, Royal Institution, 171

Gahn, Johann, 119

galvanoscope, 144, 157, 158

Gassendi, Pierre, 35

Gatebeck, Cumbria, 75

Gatty, Oliver, 204

Gay-Lussac, Joseph Louis, 143

gene cassettes, 290

genome, 286

Geoffroy, Etienne-François, 47, 61

Geological Society of London, 131, 145, 159

George I, 8

George III, 72

   and Richard Watson, 58

George, Philip, 204

geraniol, 264

Gibbon, Edward, 70, 121

Gibbs, Josiah Willard, 177

Gilson, Ralph, 213

Girton College, Cambridge, 180, 181

   laboratory, 169, 181

Glasgow, University of, 179, 210

   Ralph Raphael appointed lecturer, 242

Glaxo laboratories, 232

Glisson, Francis, 4

Glynn, Robert, 1, 3, 87

Goldsmiths’ Company, 196

Goldsmiths’ Institute, London, 184, 190

Goldsmiths’ Metallurgy Laboratory, Cambridge, 216

Goldsmiths’ Professorship, 198

Goldsmiths’ Reader in Metallurgy, 180, 186

Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge, 4, 14, 96, 155, 179

   laboratory, 169, 174, 179, 182

Gough, John, 74

gout, 90

Gowland Hopkins, Frederick, 198, 200, 206

Grafton, Duke of, 70

Graham Commission, 148, 151

gramicidin S, 260

Granick, Sam, 261

Grantchester Meadow, 204

Gray, Stephen, 37

Greene, Robert, 3, 13, 14

Gregory, Duncan Farquharson, 145

Gregory, William, 153

Gren, Friedrich Albrecht Carl, 99

Gresham College, 3, 5, 8

Griffith, Fred, 219

Grossmith brothers, 138

Gunning, Henry, 92

gunpowder, 57, 65, 74, 75, 78, 102

   British inferiority to French, 74

   Cumbrian manufactories, 75

   improvement by Watson, 74

   manufacture, 94

Gurney, Daniel, 153, 154

Gurney, Revd William Hay, 154

Guthrie, Frederick, 202

Guy’s Hospital, London, 45

Gyles, Henry, 35, 36

Hadley, John, 15, 17, 18, 23, 24, 45–48, 50, 60, 87

   and Charterhouse School, 46

   and practical chemistry, 47

   and St Thomas’s Hospital, London, 46

   appointed to 1702 Chair, 45, 85

   death, 59

   description of chemistry, 47

   lectures, 46

   portrait, 16

haem, 270, 271

Hales, Stephen, 9, 14, 37, 40, 44, 45, 46, 47, 63, 64

Hamer, Neil Kenneth, 231

Harris, John, 46

Harrison, Thomas, 145

Hartley, David, 21

Hartley, Harold, 201

Hartley, W. N., 180

Harvard University, 231

Harvey, William, 4

Harwood, Busick, 96, 119, 134

hashish, 219

Hatchett, Charles, 114

Hauksbee, Francis, 46

Haviland, John, 147, 148

Heck reaction, 296

Heilbron, Isidor (Ian) Morris, 238

Helm Crag, Cumbria, 63

Helmont, Johann van, 37

Henckel, Johann, 17

Henry, Thomas, 65

Henslow, John Stevens, 141, 145, 146, 147, 148, 154, 156, 160

Herschel, John, 142, 143, 145, 147

Heversham, 58, 62

Heycock, Charles Thomas, 172, 179

   election to Royal Society, 180

Hinchliffe, John, 85

histone deacetylase inhibitors, 295

Hodgkin, Dorothy Crowfoot, 232, 276

Hodson, William, 85

Hoffmann (Richard Watson’s assistant), 61, 108

Hoffmann-La Roche, 222, 267

Hofmann Prize

   won by Ralph Raphael, 238

Hofmann, August Wilhelm, 167

Holland, Lord and Lady, 130

Hooker, Joseph Dalton, 168

Hopkins, Frederick Gowland, 212

Horne, George, 21

Horner, Francis, 131

Horner, Leonard and Francis, 130

Hughes Hall, Cambridge, 181

Humfrey, Sarah, 153

Hutchinson, Arthur, 181

Hutchinson, Eric, 204

Hutchinsonianism, 14

Hyde, West, 123

hydroxamic acids, 295

Hyson Club, 88

Hythe firing range, 74

Illinois, University of, 261

immobilised reagents, 290, 293

Imperial College, London, 238, 240

indole, 264

Ingram, Rowland, 168

Institute of Chemistry, London, 176

International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, 196

iridium, 114, 137

iridium complexes, 297

isocyanate monomers, 293

Jackson, Richard, 170

   endowment of Jacksonian chair, 90

Jacksonian chair, 19, 20, 88, 142, 147, 148, 156, 158, 168, 170, 171, 172, 182, 185, 186, 195

   appointment of Francis Wollaston, 97

   appointment of Isaac Milner, 90

   appointment of William Farish, 105, 142

   death in office of William Farish, 106

   endowment, 90

   first accommodation for, 90

   increased stipend, 91

   resignation of Francis Wollaston, 142

   resignation of Isaac Milner, 95

Jacksonian demonstrators, 172, 182

James, Keith, 244

Jesuits’ bark, 38, 42

Jesus College, Cambridge, 95

John Humphrey Plummer bequest, 198

Johnson, Paley, 204

Johnson, Samuel, 62, 70

Jones oxidation, 240

Jones, Ewart Ray Herbert, 238

Jones, Humphrey Owen, 172, 181, 182

Jones, Muriel, 182

Jurin, James, 15, 44, 45

Kekulé, August, 171

Kelvin, William Thomson, Baron, 177

Kemp, George, 146

Kenner, George Wallace, 221, 231, 266, 270

Khorana, H. Gobind, 224, 230

King of Clubs, 130

King’s College, Cambridge, 90, 179

King’s College, London, 178

Kingsley, Revd Charles, 141

Kipping, F. Stanley, 184

Kirby, Anthony John, 231

Kirwan, Richard, 49

Königliche Gewerbeschule, Berlin, 167

Kunitz, Moses, 261

Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge, 198

Lapworth, Arthur, 231

latitudinarianism, 67, 141

laughing gas, 102, 146

lavender oil, 265

Lavoisier, Antoine Laurent, 23, 47, 50, 65, 84, 99, 113, 141, 143

   adoption of his chemical nomenclature in Cambridge, 97

   chemical nomenclature, 84

   oxygen as the principle of acidity, 98

   Traité Élémentaire de Chimie, 84, 85, 99

Lawrence, Arthur Stuart Clark, 204

Le Bel, Joseph, 190

Le Clerc, Jean, 13

lead smelting, 63, 64

Lefèvre, Nicolas, 31, 37, 39

Leigh Grammar School, Lancashire, 259

Lennard-Jones, John Edward, 198, 199, 206, 210, 216

   Chief Superintendent of Armament in World War II, 203

Lensfield Road laboratory, 217

   departmental structure, 216, 247, 268, 270

   departmental unification, 217

Levene, Phoebus A., 220, 225

Ley, Steven Victor, 283–303

   appointed to BP 1702 Chair, 280, 283

   portrait, 284

   research group, 288

   synthesis of carpanone, 296–297

   synthesis of histone deacetylase inhibitors, 295

   synthesis of plicamine, 297–302

   use of polymer beads in synthesis, 290–293

Leyden, 31, 37, 45

liberal education, 150, 151, 152, 153, 160, 176, 190

Lincoln’s Inn, London, 166

linoleic acid, 240

linolenic acid, 241

liquid air, 184

liquid oxygen, 184

Lister Institute of Preventive Medicine, London, 210, 231

Little Go examination, 147, 152

Little Stonham Rectory, 106

Liveing née Ingram, Catherine, 168, 175

Liveing, Edward, 166

Liveing, George Downing, 152, 153, 160, 166–188, 190

   appointed to 1702 Chair, 168

   as magistrate, 174

   assumes duties of James Cumming, 150, 156

   book on chemical equilibrium, 177

   book on spectroscopy, 183

   death, 174, 175

   lectures on agricultural chemistry, 174

   lecturing style, 177

   national scientific offices, 174

   performance in Natural Sciences Tripos, 150

   portrait, 167

   resignation from 1702 Chair, 174, 184

   spectroscopic work with Dewar, 183

   visits to European laboratories, 173

Liverpool, University of

   and Alan Battersby, 266

   and George Kenner, 266

   second chair of organic chemistry, 266

Llandaff, 18, 73

   See also Watson, Richard

   dilapidation of cathedral, 71

   poverty of See, 71

Locke, John, 58

London Association, 58

Lowry, Thomas Martin, 196, 199

Lowwood gunpowder works, Cumbria, 75

Lucasian chair of Mathematics, 24

Lucretius, 35

Lunar Society, Birmingham, 49

Luther, John, 59, 60

lycorine, 264

Lythgoe, Basil, 221, 231

Macquer, Pierre-Joseph, 17, 92

   Dictionary of Chemistry, 99

Macrae, Thomas F., 232

Maddock, Alfred Gavin, 204

Magdalene College, Cambridge, 96

Maier, Michael, 5

Malthus, Thomas, 130

Manchester, University of, 184, 210, 212, 213, 231

   arrival of Alan Battersby, 259

Manhattan Project, 205

Mann, Frederick George, 204, 206

Margaret, H.R.H. Princess, 218

Marggraf, Christiaan, 17, 28

Markham, Roy, 226

Marlborough School, 140

Martin, Archer, 206, 232

Martin, Benjamin, 18, 47

Martineau, Harriet, 76

Martyn, Henry, 141

Martyn, Thomas, 91, 97

Mary, Queen of Scots, 138

Maskelyne, Nevil, 153

Mason, Charles, 45

mass spectrometry, 259

Mathematical Tripos, 141, 145, 147, 151, 166

Maxwell, James Clerk, 159, 177

Maxwell, James Rankin, 244

May & Baker Ltd, 239

McKillop, Alexander (Sandy), 244

McKillop, Tom, 244

Meldola Medal

   receipt by Ralph Raphael, 240

Merck laboratories, 232

Merton Cottage, 106

metallurgy, 180, 186

Méthode de Nomenclature Chimique, 84

Michell, John

   torsion balance, 97

Michelson, A. Michael (Mick), 228

Mickleborough. See Mickleburgh

Mickleburgh, John, 14, 15, 17, 23, 24, 45–47, 50, 60

   appointed to 1702 Chair, 45

   death, 45

   students of, 45

   trade as dispensing chemist, 45

microanalysis, 214

microwave reactors, 297

Miescher, Johann Friedrich, 219

Miller, William Hallowes, 147

Mills, William Hobson, 183, 199, 202

Milner, Isaac, 18, 19, 20, 21, 23, 24, 76, 88–95, 96, 121

   appointed Dean of Carlisle, 94

   appointed to Jacksonian chair, 90

   appointed to Lucasian chair, 106

   collection of scientific instruments, 97

   death, 106

   early years and education, 88

   elected President of Queens’ College, 94

   elected Vice-Chancellor, 95

   election to Royal Society, 88

   illness, 94

   improvement in health, 106

   inhales noxious gas, 88

   lecturing style, 88, 92

   low-church evangelism, 89

   oxidation of ammonia by manganese dioxide, 93

   portrait, 89

   Rector of St Botolph’s Church, 88

   resignation from Jacksonian chair, 95

   University offices, 89

Ministry of Aircraft Production, 204

Ministry of Fuel, 203

Ministry of Munitions, 201

Ministry of Supply, 203, 204

Moelwyn-Hughes, Emyr Alun, 203

Molteno Institute, Cambridge, 215, 226

Money, Tom, 244

Moore, Stanford, 261

More, Henry, 5

Morgan, John, 45

morphine, 261, 262, 263, 265

Moses, 31

Muir, Matthew Moncrieff Pattison, 179

   textbooks by, 179

Müller, Gerhard, 277

mustard gas, 196, 201

Napoleonic Wars, 74

narcotine, 264

National Gallery, London, 253

Natural Sciences Tripos, 149, 150, 151, 152, 153, 161, 166, 168, 175, 176, 178, 179, 180, 181

Needham, Joseph, 206

nerol, 264

nerve gases, 204

Neville, Francis Henry, 180

New Museums Site, 91, 168, 173

Newark-on-Trent, 32, 35, 37

Newborough, Thomas, 36

Newcastle, 1st Duke of, 60

Newnham College, Cambridge, 180, 181, 182

   laboratory, 169, 181

Newton, Humphrey, 6

Newton, Isaac, 2, 5, 6, 8, 13, 14, 15, 21, 32, 36, 39, 40, 43, 44, 45, 46, 48, 64, 68, 140, 150

   Opticks, 14, 44

Newtonianisation, 9, 14

Newtonianism, 3, 15

Nicholson, William, 113

   Dictionary of Chemistry, 84

nicotinamide, 259

nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, 224

Nidd, Joseph, 5

nitrocellulose, 204

nitrous oxide, 102, 146

Noad, Henry, 159

Nobel Prize, 212, 219, 231

Norrish, Ronald George Wreyford, 199, 200, 206, 210, 216

North, Christopher, 74

Norton, Samuel, 4

Norton, Thomas, 4

Nottingham, University of, 240

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy. See spectroscopy: NMR

nucleic acids, 259

nucleosides and nucleotides, 212, 219, 220

Nuffield Foundation, 233

Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 225

Oersted, Hans, 157, 159

Ohm, Georg, 159

onchalum, 64

Openshaw, Hal, 259, 260

opium, 261, 262

Ordnance Department, 74, 75

organophosphorus compounds, 204

Orgel, Leslie Eleazer, 215

osmium, 114, 127

osmium tetroxide, 294

Overton, Karl, 244

Owens College, Manchester, 179, 180

Oxford, University of, 20, 21, 23, 31, 40, 48, 210, 231

Paley, William, 18, 69, 88, 95

   influence on Isaac Milner, 89

palladium, 126

palladium catalysts, 294, 295

Parker, William, 244

Parkes, Samuel, 48, 50, 62

Parkinson, James, 62

Partington, James Riddick, 203

Partridge, S. Miles, 232

Parys, William, 4

Patterson, Thomas Stewart, 210

Pauling, Linus Carl, 231

Peacock, George, 156

Pembroke Street laboratory, 172, 184, 213, 217

   1908 extension, 186

   addition of physical chemistry, 196

penicillic acid, 241

penicillin, 205, 212, 239, 246

Pennington, Isaac, 85–88

   appointed to 1702 Chair, 86

   appointed to Regius chair of Physic, 103

   death, 106

   early years and education, 87

   knighthood, 106

   elected President of St John’s College, 106

   portrait, 86

   resignation from 1702 Chair, 103

Pepper, David Charles, 204

Perkin, William Henry, Jr, 184, 190, 193

Perkin, William Henry, Sr, 160

pernicious anaemia, 232

Perry, Sam, 224

Perse School, Cambridge, 181, 196

Perutz, Max Ferdinand, 198

Peterhouse, Cambridge, 4

pharmaceutical industry, 287

Ph.D. degree

   introduction in Cambridge, 198

phlogiston, 84, 92, 93, 98, 99, 100

phosgene, 201

phosphate esters, 220

phosphorus pentoxide, 222

phosphoryl chloride, 224

phosphorylation, 215, 220, 221, 222

photographic sensitisers

   development in Cambridge, 202

Physic, Regius Professor of, 4, 14, 167, 175

phytochromes, 270

Pigments of Life, 270

Pitt, William (the younger), 21, 71, 93

Place, John, 35

plastic explosives, 204

platinum, 123–126

Playfair, Lyon, 171

plicamine, 297

Plumian chair of Astronomy (and Experimental Philosophy), 24, 36, 98

Plumptre, Russell, 15, 85, 87

   death, 103

Poggendorff, Johann, 157

Polanyi, Michael, 213, 231

poll men, 147

polyketides, 267

polymer beads

   use in chemical synthesis, 290–293

polyurea, 294

Pope, William Jackson, 184, 189–209, 210

   appointed to 1702 Chair, 190

   appointed to Manchester chair, 190

   as a collector of alchemical paintings, 189

   death, 199

   experiments with alkyl selenides, 192

   financial support from oil companies, 196

   first president of IUPAC, 196

   first president of the Solvay Chemistry Conferences, 196

   knighthood, 196

   portrait, 191

   preparation of mustard gas, 196, 201

   preparation of phosgene, 201

   Presidency of the Chemical Society, 196, 205

   trip to Australia, 196

   work on optically active non-carbon compounds, 190

Porter, Francis, 41

Porter, George, 206

Porter, Henry, 140

potassium nitrate, 94

Pott, Johann, 17

‘practising chemists’, 176

Preston, William, 58

Price, William Charles, 203

Priestley, Joseph, 21, 24, 49, 62, 65, 84, 100

Propionibacterium shermanii, 277

prostitution, 6

Prout, William, 144

Pryme, Abraham de la, 36, 39

Pseudomonas denitrificans, 279

pseudomonic acids, 247, 248, 249

public health, 180

Purvis, John Edward, 180, 186

pyrenophorin, 246

pyridine derivatives, 178

pyrolysis of coal, 64

Quarterly Review, 57, 58

Queen Mary College, London, 202, 203, 240

Queen’s University, Belfast, 244, 251

Queens’ College, Cambridge, 6, 9, 15, 20, 36, 41, 43, 88, 90

Queens’ Lane laboratory, 45, 60

Quinan, Kenneth Bingham, 205

quinine, 264, 265

radioactive labelling, 261, 273, 279

   See also carbon-14

radium, 174

Ramage, Robert, 244

Rammelsberg, Karl, 167

Raphael née Gaffikin, Prudence Marguerite Anne, 240, 250, 251, 252, 253

Raphael, Ralph Alexander, 237–256

   acetylene chemistry, 238, 239, 240

   administrative role, 251

   and Alan Battersby, 270

   appointed to 1702 Chair, 247, 269

   appointed CBE, 251

   chair at Belfast, 244

   chair at Glasgow, 244

   childhood, 237

   Ciba–Geigy Award of the Chemical Society, 251

   Davy Medal of the Royal Society, 251

   death, 253

   Fellowship of the Royal Society, 246

   ICI Research Fellowship, 240

   Imperial College, 238

   marriage, 240

   May & Baker Ltd, 239

   Pedler Lecturer, 251

   retirement from 1702 Chair, 253, 270

   sense of humour, 245, 249, 250

   synthesis of natural products, 240–243, 246–250

   Tilden Lecturer, 246

   violin manufacture, 252

   war gases, 239

   war work on Penicillin, 239

Ray, John, 5, 8, 32, 36

Read, John, 186, 199, 260

Regius Professor of Divinity, 66

Regius Professor of Physic, 14, 167, 175

reticuline, 263

Reynolds, Joshua, 77

rhodium, 126

Rhône–Poulenc Rorer company, 279

Ricardo, David, 130

Richmond, 3rd Duke of, 74

Rideal, Eric Keightly, 198, 199, 200, 203, 204, 206, 216

   war work of his group, 204

Ripley, George, 5

RNA, 220, 222, 225, 226, 227, 228

   linkage points, 226

Robertson, Andrew John Blackford, 204

Robinson, Robert, 210, 231, 232, 261

Robert Robinson Laboratories, University of Liverpool, 266, 267

Robinson, Tancred, 5, 8

Robison, John, 21

Roche Products, 233, 267

   and chair of organic chemistry at Cambridge, 267

Rockefeller Foundation, New York, 198

Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research, New York, 219, 260

Rockingham, 2nd Marquis of, 60, 61

Romilly, Joseph, 141, 154

Romilly, Samuel, 130

Romney, George, 59

Roper, John, 45

Roscoe, Henry, 179

Rouelle, Guillaume-François, 47

Rousseau, Jean-Jacques, 47

Royal (Dick) Veterinary College, Edinburgh, 171

Royal College of Chemistry, London, 148, 167

Royal College of Music, London, 240

Royal College of Physicians, London, 17

Royal College of Science, Dublin, 180

Royal Commission for the Exhibition of 1851, 212, 253

Royal Dutch Shell Company, 201

Royal Holloway College, London, 181

Royal Institute of Chemistry, London, 240

Royal Institution, London, 171, 172, 182, 183, 195, 200

Royal Navy, 74

Royal Society, 1, 5, 8, 9, 17, 20, 33, 36, 45, 48, 144, 159, 160, 174, 180, 183, 246, 251

   election of Watson, 63

   election of Battersby, vii

   election of Cumming, 144

   election of Hadley, 17

   election of Ley, ix

   election of Liveing, 174

   election of Milner, 88

   election of Pope, 190

   election of Raphael, 246

   election of Tennant, 119

   election of Watson, 63

   election of Wollaston, Francis, 96

   election of Wollaston, William, 103, 123

   presidency of Dale, 199

   presidency of Todd, 233

   Wollaston family connections, 95

Rubio, David, 252

Ruhemann, Siegfried, 182

Rumford, Benjamin Thompson, Count, 99

Runcton, Parish of North, 150, 153, 154, 156

Rupe rearrangement, 248

Rutherforth, Thomas, 66

Rutland, Duke of, 18, 62, 70

salmon sperm, 219

Salò, Mario, 32

salutaridine, 263

Sanders, Jeremy Keith Morris, 253

Sandhurst, Royal Military College, 168

Sandys, Francis, 45

Sanger, Frederick, 232

Saunders, Bernard Charles, 204

Saunders, John Tennant, 198

Scheele, Karl Wilhelm, 48, 119

   experiments with Vital Air (oxygen), 98

   On Air and Fire, 97

   theory of heat and light, 97

Schulman, James Herbert, 204

Schweigger, Johann Salomo Christoph, 157

Science Research Council, 246

Scott, (Alastair) Ian, 243, 245, 277

Scott, Alexander, 182

Scott, Walter, 74

Sedburgh School, 87

Sedgwick, Adam, 60, 146, 151, 156, 160

Sedgwick Gunpowder Works, Cumbria, 75

Seebeck, Thomas, 157, 159

Sell, William James, 178

Senate House examinations, 106

Sendivogius, Michael, 5

sesamol, 296

Shaw, Peter, 46

Shelburne, Lord, 70

Shemin, David, 277

Shepherd, Anthony, 98

shikimic acid, 246

Shrewsbury, Earl of, 138

Sidgwick, Henry, 141

Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge, 95, 180

   and Francis Wollaston, 95, 103

   laboratory, 169, 174, 180

   Mastership regulations, 103

Simeon, Charles, 73, 90, 141

Sir William Dunn Institute of Biochemistry, Cambridge, 198

sizars, 14, 58, 87, 88, 96, 140

Slaughterhouse Lane laboratory, Cambridge, 167

Sloane, Hans, 8, 17

Smart, Christopher, 14

Smith, Adam, 17

Smith, Herchel, 206, 214

   endowment of chair of organic chemistry, 270

Smith, John, 226

Smith, Lester, 276

Smith, Samuel, 36

Smith, Thomas, 130

Snow, Charles Percy, 198, 206

soap making, 22, 176

Society for the Abolition of Ethyl Esters, 249

Society for the Promotion of Philosophy and General Literature, 96

Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, 69

Socinians, 95

Solvay Chemistry Conferences, 196

Sondheimer, Franz, 240

Southey, Robert, 73, 146

Special [Gas] Service, World War I, 201

spectroscopy, 172, 177, 180, 183

   infrared, 259, 268

   NMR, 217, 249, 259, 272, 273, 274, 276, 279

   ultraviolet, 183, 238, 260, 268

Spivey, William Thomas Newton, 182

Sprat, Thomas, 5

St Andrews, University of, 259, 260, 261, 268

   and Alan Battersby, 260

St Bartholomew’s Hospital, London, 202

St Catharine’s College, Cambridge, 35, 88

St Giles’ Church, Cambridge, 105

St John’s College, Cambridge, 145, 150, 166, 175, 180, 181

   baths, 175

   contested 1702 Chair, 85

   laboratory, 168, 169, 175, 178

   observatory, 87

St Thomas’s Hospital, London, 17

staganacin, 248

Stahl, Georg Ernst, 17, 84

Staunton, Jim, 267

staurosporinone, 232, 249

steganacin, 247, 248

steganone, 248

Stein, William H., 261

stereochemistry, 183, 184

steroids, 210, 217

Stevenson, J. J., 173, 184

Stirling, University of, 251

Stokes, George Gabriel, 146, 160

Stradivarius violins, 252

Strathclyde, University of, 233

Streptococcus pneumoniae, 219

strigol, 247, 248

strychnine, 264

Stukeley, William, 8, 9, 36, 37, 39, 40, 41

Sugden, Morris, 204

sulphur wells, 64

sun-spots, 183

Sydenham, Thomas, 36

Synge, Richard, 206

synthetic rubber, 205

Tate, Thomas, 159

Technische Hochschule, Berlin, 167

Telford, Thomas, 62

Temple, William, 10, 13

Tennant, Smithson, 20, 107, 113–137, 142, 143, 145

   analysis of emery, 127

   and Jacksonian chair, 107

   antiphlogistic doctrine, 119

   appointed to 1702 Chair, 132

   award of Copley Medal, 114

   becomes Vice-President of Geological Society, 132

   character, 115, 122

   childhood and schooling, 116

   continental travels in 1784/5, 119, 204

   continental travels in 1792, 121, 204

   death in France, 134

   discovery of osmium and iridium, 114, 127

   early interaction with W. H. Wollaston, 121

   election to Geological Society of London, 131

   enters Christ’s College, Cambridge, 117

   friendship with Berzelius, 130, 132

   lectures as Professor of Chemistry, 134

   lectures on mineralogy, 131

   membership of ‘King of Clubs’, 130

   membership of Society for the Promotion of Philosophy and General Literature, 97

   obtains M.B., 121

   paper on the action of nitric acid on gold and platina, 122

   paper on the nature of diamond, 122

   partnership with W. H. Wollaston, 122, 123, 126, 128

   platinum, 123

   receives Cambridge M.D., 121

   studies in Edinburgh, 117

   studies on latent heat, 119

   transfer to Emmanuel College, 119

   withdraws candidacy for Jacksonian chair, 121

terpenes, 264

Test and Corporation Acts, 58

tetrapyrroles, 266, 269, 273, 276

Texas A&M University, 274

thebaine, 263

thiamine. See vitamin B1

Thibaut, Denis, 279

Thomas, Mary Beatrice, 181

Thomson, Thomas, 143

Thorpe, Edward, 179

TNT

   production at Oldbury, 205

Todd née Dale, Alison, 199, 212

Todd, Alexander Robertus, 190, 210–236, 247

   advisory roles, 232

   and Alan Battersby, 259, 267, 268

   and Christ’s College, Cambridge, 232

   and deoxynucleoside structure, 228

   appointed to 1702 Chair, 200

   arrival at Cambridge, 213

   death, 233

   description of Pembroke Street Laboratory in 1944, 189, 224

   early work, 217

   honours received, 233

   job offer from Caltech, 206

   Nobel Prize, 219

   nucleosides and nucleotides, 219

   offered Cambridge chair of biochemistry, 212

   portrait, 211

   Presidency of the Royal Society, 233

   relationship with Norrish, 216

   resignation from 1702 Chair, 233, 269

   role within department, 216

   style of management, 214, 215

   suffers heart attack, 269

   views about synthesis, 221

‘Toddlers’, 213

toluene

   manufacture of explosives from, 201

Tomline, George, 141

Tottenham County School, London, 237

Trevelyan, Walter Blackett, 99

trichodermin, 246

Trinity College, Cambridge, 5, 9, 10, 23, 35, 37, 38, 41, 44, 45, 58, 59, 61, 90, 140, 141, 142, 144, 153

   and Mastership of Sidney Sussex, 103

   contested 1702 Chair, 85

   laboratory for Vigani, 37, 38

Trinity Hall, Cambridge, 96

tropolones, 243

Troutbeck, John, 33

trypanocides, 204

Tübingen University, 179

Tuckett, Ronald Francis, 204

Tutte, William, 204

tyrocidine, 260

UCNW Bangor, 182

ultraviolet spectroscopy. See spectroscopy

UMIST, 184

University Arms Hotel, Cambridge, 175

University of Liverpool, Robert Robinson Laboratories, 266, 267

uridine diphosphate glucose, 224

uroporphyrinogen III, 270, 271, 272, 273, 274, 275, 277

   role in biosynthesis, 271

Utrecht, 37

Valentine, Basil, 5

van’t Hoff, Jacobus, 190

Venice, 32, 33, 41

Verona, 31, 32

Vigani, Giovanni Francesco. See Vigani, John Francis

Vigani, John Francis, 5–9, 13–14, 24, 31–44

   and Henry Gyles, 35

   and John Covel, 35

   and Robert Boyle, 35

   and Roger Cotes, 37

   and Stephen Hales, 37

   and William Stukeley, 37

   appointed to 1702 Chair, 31

   cabinet of materia medica, 7, 38, 41, 42, 43

   death, 37

   laboratory in Trinity College, 37, 38

   links with printers, 36

   Medulla Chymiae, 8, 24, 32

   patrons, 33

   reputation, 32

vinblastine, 264

Vinca rosea, 264

Vince, Samuel, 97, 98

vincristine, 264

violins, manufacture of, 252

virantmycin, 232, 249

vitamin A, 238

vitamin B1, 217, 221, 231

vitamin B12, 231, 243, 270, 271, 275, 276, 279

   crystallisation, 276

   French experiments on biosynthesis, 277

   production by bacteria, 277

   structure announced, 232

Vogel, Emanuel, 245

volcanic ash, 252

Volta, Alessandro, 113

voltaic piles, 113

vortex theory, 177

Wales, University of, 182

Waley Cohen, Robert, 201

Walker, Richard, 90

Waller, John, 9, 10, 13, 23, 45

   appointed to 1702 Chair, 45

Walsh, Arthur Donald, 204

Waltham Abbey, 75

war. See World War I and World War II

war gases, 196, 201, 204, 239

Warburton, Henry, 117, 118, 142, 144

Ware, Edgar, 237

Waring, Edward, 87, 88, 106

Warren, Stuart G., 231

water, spectrum of, 183

Watson, James, 215, 228

Watson, Richard, 1, 3, 18, 19, 24, 47, 48, 50, 57–83, 87, 88, 142

   absenteeism, 70, 71, 72

   appeals for increased stipend for Jacksonian professor, 91

   appointed to 1702 Chair, 60

   appointed Bishop of Llandaff, 70

   appointed to Regius chair of Divinity, 66

   arrival at Cambridge, 58

   burning of books, 67

   character, 58, 62, 79

   Chemical Essays, 62, 63, 65, 66

   chemical philosophy, 65

   communication of chemistry, 66

   complaints of examiners’ bias, 106

   dress, 58

   election to 1702 Chair, 60

   examiner of Isaac Pennington, 87

   friendship with George Wollaston, 95

   gunpowder manufacture, 94

   industrial practice, 66, 76

   influence on Isaac Milner, 89

   Institutiones Metallurgicae, 62

   landscaping, 76, 77

   metal smelting, 63

   political views, 57, 58, 69, 72

   portrait by George Romney, 59

   portrait by Joshua Reynolds, 78

   preferments, 71

   residence, 60, 71, 73

   resignation from 1702 Chair, 85

   theology, 66, 67, 70

Watt, James, 49

Weedon, Basil Charles Leicester, 240

Wesley College, Dublin, 237

Wesley, John, 73

Westheimer, Frank H., 231

Whewell, William, 23, 24, 147, 150, 151, 153, 156, 159, 160

Whigs, 57, 58, 59, 60, 62, 67, 70, 72

Whishaw, John (biographer of Tennant), 115, 116, 117, 122, 130, 131, 133, 134, 145

Whiston, William, 3, 8, 13

Whitefield, George, 73

Wilberforce, William, 94, 106, 110

Wilkinson, Geoffrey, 238

Williams, Dudley Howard, 217

Willis, Robert, 146, 147, 158, 160, 170

Wilson, Dorothy, 62

Wilson, Woodrow, 205

witchweed, 247

Wollaston, Charlton, 17, 95

Wollaston, Francis (1694–1774), 95

Wollaston, Francis (1731–1815), 95

Wollaston, Francis John Hyde, 21, 121, 142, 143, 144

   acts as examination moderator, 96

   adoption of Lavoisier’s system of chemistry, 97, 98, 100

   appointed to Observatory Syndicate, 97

   archdeacon of Essex, 106

   appointed to Jacksonian chair, 95

   fellowship of Trinity Hall, 96

   Mastership of Sidney Sussex College, 103

   on the manufacture of charcoal, 102

   problems with phlogiston theory, 98

   proof of the composition of water, 101

   publication of A Plan of a Chemical Course of Lectures, 99

   resignation from Jacksonian chair, 103, 132

   synthesis of ammonia, 101

   synthesis of laughing gas, 102

   view on the nature of heat, 99

Wollaston, George (1738–1826), 95

Wollaston, George Hyde, 123

Wollaston, William (1659–1724), 95

Wollaston, William Hyde, 19, 95, 114, 142, 143, 145

   declines to stand for 1702 Chair, 103

   discovery of palladium, 126

   discovery of rhodium, 126

   early interaction with Smithson Tennant, 121

   medical student at Caius, 96

   partnership with Smithson Tennant, 122, 123, 126, 128

   platinum, 123

women’s suffrage, 181

Women’s University Settlement, 181

Woodward, Robert Burns, 231

Woodwardian chair, 97, 151

Wordsworth, Christopher, 141, 147

Wordsworth, William, 73, 140

World War I, 181, 182

   impact on Cambridge chemistry, 200

   mustard gas, 196, 201

   phosgene, 201

   photographic sensitisers developed in Cambridge, 202

   Special [Gas] Service, 201

World War II, 238

   high-octane gasoline production, 205

   impact on Cambridge chemistry, 202

   Manhattan Project, 205

   synthetic rubber programme, 205

Young, Douglas Wilson, 245

Zerewitinoff determination, 239

Zinsser Sophas Synthesiser, 296


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