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The Frontal Lobes
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 (ISBN-13: 9780511345791)

The Frontal Lobes
Cambridge University Press
978-0-521-67225-2 - The Frontal Lobes: Development, Function, and Pathology - by Jarl Risberg and Jordan Grafman
Index

Index



action, specialized effector systems 43–8

adaptive coding model 73–4

age-based functional plasticity 130

akinetic mute syndrome 33

akinetic mutism 164

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) 201, 202

clinical characteristics 212

frontal lobe features 212–13

neuropathological characteristics 212

amygdala 31–3, 45, 48

anterior orbitofrontal areas 48

areal interconnections, laminar pattern 36

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) 15

Attentional control model 74–5

Norman and Shallice’s model 74

attentional processes 33

attention network 106

attractor dynamics 100

atypical prefrontal development 135–8

brain injury 135, 151

cerebellar lesions 136

dentate nuclei 137

developmental brain insult 135

frontal lobe injury 136

auditory association area 26, 27

autism 54

autonomic homeostasis 49

axonal terminations 39

balanced excitation/inhibition 101

behavior, specialization of prefrontal cortices 32–4

behavioral distractibility 116

behavioral symptomatology 53

big brain, advantages/disadvantages of 4–5, 7–9

brain diseases 5

Binswanger’s disease 214

blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal change 183

brainstem autonomic centers 45

brainstem vocalization centers 45

Brodmann areas 128, 129, 183

calbindin neurons 42

case studies

Patient EVR 170, 175

Patient KM 168, 175

post-traumatic epilepsy 168

Phineas Gage 129, 165, 174

catechol gene 136

caudal lateral areas 44

caudal orbitofrontal areas 49

CB positive neurons 41

cerebellar cognitive-affective syndrome 137

cerebellar-frontal connection 137

cerebral blood flow measurements (rCBF) 211

cognition, domains 29

connectionist model 76

cortical system, levels 76

conscious perception of emotions 34

cortical atrophy 199

cortical sensory projections 31

cortical structure, laminar organizations of connections 34–43

cortical types in development, specification 53–4

corticocortical connections, laminar pattern 36

corticocortical pathways 33

corticothalamic neurons 50

confabulation 208, 209

creative explosion 1, 3

decision-correlated neural activity 109

decision-making 109–10

associated neural networks 80

prefrontal microcircuitry 109

delayed oculomotor task 95, 99

dendrite-targeting calbinding-containing interneurons 113

dendritic/somatic inhibition ratio 116

developmental frontal lobe functions, modeling 149

path analysis 150

frontal lobe integrity 150

developmental psychology 131

disinhibition mechanism 113, 115

distractors, resistance against 107

disynaptic inhibition 42

dopamine 135

dorsolateral frontal syndrome 164

dynamical attractors 95

early prefrontal injury 173

early-processing sensory areas, projections 34

early-processing sensory cortices 54

electroresponsiveness 105

emotion binding 146–8

emotion messaging 147

intentional-affective language 147

typical/atypical development 148

emotion regulation 147. See emotion binding

emotional expression 147

emotive communication 147

typical/atypical development 147

emotional communication 33

emotional memory 31

emotions, socially expressed 147. See emotion binding

empathy 147, 148

encoding/ retrieval, healthy and psychiatric populations 178

environmental dependency syndrome 172, 173, 175

epilepsy 54

epileptiform activity 43

episodic memory

functional imaging 182. See memory

semantic processing/prefrontal function 183

evolution of human brain, genetic changes 11–3

Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT) gene 12

CMAH genes 11

prefrontal cortex, evolution of 12

exchange of signals 34

excitation-inhibition balance (E-I balance) 100–3

multistability 100

rhythmogenesis, neural networks 102

excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) 104

executive function 150. See also theory of mind

feedback inhibition 104

feedback synaptic inhibition 100

feedforward inhibition 104

focal lesions’ effect, memory systems 178

focal pre-frontal lesions 163

frontal eye field 28

frontal lobe 1–16, 137

damage 117

function, research 131

processing model 132

symptoms, organic dementing disorders 199, 201

vulnerability 200

frontal lobe degeneration (non-Alzhemer type), FLD 202

cortical changes 203

frontal atrophy 202

frontal lobes Funahashi experiment 97

frontotemporal dementia (FTD) 201. See also Alzheimer’s disease ; FTD and AD, differences

clinical heterogeneity 203

behavioural qualities, systematic evaluation 209

case history 210–11

clinical features 204

cognitive impairment 209

FLD form 202

forms 202

clinical characteristics 204

disinhibition signs 206

early symptoms 206

neuropathological characteristics 202

neuropsychological testing 209

patient 207

hand writing 209

mimical movements 209

personality changes 207

subsyndromes 206

apathy (FTD-A) 207

disinhibition (FTD-D) 206

test profile, early 209

frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) 207

FTD and AD, differences 207–8

functional brain development 151

functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI) studies 92, 140, 183, 186, 190

effects 187

encoding strategies 190

event-related procedures 186

levels-of-processing 186, 190

GABAergic interneurons 112, 114

GABAergic neurons 31, 41, 46

gamma oscillations 116

genetic manipulation, NMDAR 112

long-term memory 112

short-term memory 112

globus pallidus 44

GO-NOGO task 140

Goldman-Rakic 81. See working memory model

guided activation theory 77–9. See representational approach

modulatory role, PFC 78

hedonic decision-making 146. See emotion binding

typical/atypical development 146

hemispheric encoding-retrieval asymmetry (HERA) model 183

hippocampal formation 30

Homo neanderthalensis 2

Homo sapiens sapiens 2

human evolution 1–4

human higher intellectual functions 10–11

ability to mimic 11

manual/facial gestures 11

sign language 11

vocalization 11, 12

Huntington’s disease 201

clinical characteristics 213

dementia 213–4

neuropathological characteristics 213

hybrid approach 70

hypothalamic autonomic centers 46

imitation behaviour 172

immunochemical analysis 111

impaired network behaviors 94

information processing 49

inhibitory control 138

cognitive inhibition 139, 149

executive inhibition 140

neuroimaging correlates 140

prefrontal grey matter thinning 141

response inhibition 139, 140

typical/atypical development 139

inhibitory neurons 46

intercalated masses (IM) 32, 46, 48, 49

interneuron-targeting calretinin-containing interneurons 113

ironic criticism 147, 148

irony 147, 148

Korsakoff’s dementia 181

laminar microenvironment of connections 41–3

excitatory/inhibitory interactions 41

laminar patterns of connections 40

language, evolution 9–10

gestural mirror neuron system, humans 9

human communication 10

non-recursive ways 10

recursive ways 10

social abilities 10

human sign language 9

mother tongue language 10

large frontal lobes 5–7

front-line brain imaging 6

white matter 6

lateral hypothalamic area 47

lateral intraparietal cortex 33

lateral prefrontal areas 44

lateral prefrontal cortex 28–9

later-processing areas 34

left prefrontal function and semantic organization 178. See memory

limbic areas 128

limbic prefrontal areas 53

lobe atrophy 199

non-fluent aphasia (PNA) 209

localization/anti-localization approaches 163

long-term memory 29, 48, 52

Lund-Manchester research group 201, 202

medial prefrontal areas 27

medial prefrontal cortices 29–31

memory 178

declarative memory 180

episodic memory 180, 181

dorsolateral prefrontal (DPFC) lesions 181

impairments 181

primate lesion studies 181

hippocampal lesions, effects 180, 181

long-term memory 178, 179

procedural memory 180

short-term memory 178, 179

types 85

memory field 95, 113

metacognition 143. See mind binding

typical/atypical development, 144

microcircuit neurodynamics 118

mind binding 143

mnemonic persistent neural activity 94–7, 102, 115, 117

molecular markers 35

inhibitory neurons 35

calcium binding proteins (CBP) 35, 41

calbindin 35

parvalbumin 35

monosynaptic excitation 42

motor cortices 44

motor memory/(schemas) 80

Motor Neuron Disease with Dementia (MNDD) 201–3

clinical characteristics 211–2

MRI studies

cross-sectional quantified 134

longitudinal quantified 134

multimodal association cortex 128

neuroimaging/electrophysiological studies 74, 76

neuronal density 36–8, 54

NMDA/AMPA ratio 103, 111

postsynaptic summation/saturation 111

presynaptic short-term plasticity 111

voltage dependence 111

NMDA, mRNA expression 111, 115

NMDA receptors 103, 115

spike-frequency adaptation 103

oculomotor delayed response task 96

orbitofrontal area 31

orbitofrontal cortex 28, 33, 52, 128

orbitofrontal lesions 53

orbitomedial PFC neurons, role 81

orbital frontal syndrome 164

orientation selectivity 95

parvalbumin neurons 41, 42

phenylketonuria 135

perception 116

perisoma targeting parvalbumin-containing interneurons 113

PEMA-syndrome 209

Pick’s disease (PiD) 202

positron emission tomography (PET) studies 182–4

episodic retrieval 183

posterior orbitofrontal cortex 32, 46, 48

prefrontal areas, connectional association with basal ganglia 43–4

prefrontal cortex (PFC) 16, 21, 22, 69, 94, 106

abilities 128

behavior, synergistic action 48–50

development 133–5

magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) 134

myleogenesis 133

structural development 133

synaptic development 133

developmental issues 133

dopaminergic signaling

function, studies 129–31

Broca 130

Kennard 130

lesions 148–9

developmental sociopathy 148

long-term representations 69, 70

memory representations 71

modality specificity of projections 24–8

neural machinery 71. See PFC neurons

neurons 73

principal pathways 21–54

processes 70

roles in memory 28–34

serial pathways 47

structure and evolution 70–2

topographic specificity of sensory cortical projections 28

prefrontal function processing resources 138–41

prefrontal functional model 132–3

assumptions 132

prefrontal microcircuitry 110–15

degree of plasticity 112

prefrontal sectors in neurologic/psychiatric diseases 50–3

premotor cortices 44

progressive dynamic aphasia 208, 209

projections from visual cortices 25

processing approach 82

psychiatric diseases 53

pyramidal cells, local disinhibition 113

regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) 183

repetition priming 186

representation vs. processing 72–3. See processing approach

representational approach 70, 76, 78, 83

action 71

reverberation 97, 103

schizophrenia 54, 94

prefrontal dysfunction 115–17

schizophrenia/ADHD, evolutionary aspects 13–15

Homo sapiens 14

maturation, delay 14

social brain 14

symptoms 15

selective complete white matter infarction (SIWI) 214

semantic associative encoding 185

semantic dementia 202, 207. See also frontotemporal lobar degeneration

semantic encoding strategy 189, 192

semantic information encoding 182

semantic processing 185

schizophrenia, effect 187. See also schizophrenia

brain function 189

deep encoding 186

encoding strategies 188

patient overactivation 191

patients, memory deficits 188

residual retrieval problems 189

‘strategic memory’ 188

verbal episodic memory tasks 188

verbal memory deficits 192

sensory association cortices 24

sensory modalities 24

sensory system, flow of information 34

serial position effect 179

social problem solving 145. See mind binding

typical/atypical development 145

somatic marker hypothesis 79, 146

ventromedial PFC, role 79

somatosensory association cortices 26

spatially tuned network activity pattern 98

specialization event 3

species-specific vocalization 33

stimulus selectivity/resistance 104–9, 117

prefrontal neurons, spatial tuning 104

structured event complex (SEC) framework 76–7

predictions 77

representational form 75

supervisionary attentional system (SAS) 74

survival of the fittest 16

synaptic inhibition 99, 102

synaptic potentiation/depression 112

temporal organization model 80–1

temporal integration 80

terminations, laminar pattern 42

theory of mind 143, 144, 150. See mind binding

typical/atypical development 144, 145

time-binding 141

autobiographical memory 141

typical/atypical development 141

planning 142

typical/atypical development 142, 143

prospective memory 142

typical/atypical development 142

time travel/chronesthesia 141. See time-binding

traumatic brain injury (TBI) 136

children/childhood 139, 143–5, 147, 149

typical/atypical development 128

utilization behaviour 172

vascular dementia (VaD) 201

clinical characteristics 214

frontal lobe features 214

neuropathological characteristics 214

ventromedial area 128

visual association area 24

visual recognition, deficits 52

visuomotor functions 33

vocalization 45

Wood and Grafman, criteria 70

working memory 28, 48, 94, 95, 97, 98, 102, 109, 111, 115, 117, 138, 149, 179

impairment 112

spontaneous state 95

stimulus-selective memory 95

working memory model 81–2

sub-processes 75


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