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Ecology and Applications of Benthic Foraminifera
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 (ISBN-13: 9780511331978)

Ecology and Applications of Benthic Foraminifera

Cambridge University Press
978-0-521-82839-0 - ECOLOGY AND APPLICATIONS OF BENTHIC FORAMINIFERA - by John W. Murray
Contents


Contents

Preface  ix

1Introduction  1
1.1   Objectives and strategy  1
1.2   Taxonomic scope of foraminifera  1
1.3   Historical development of ecological studies  2
1.4   Major developments over the past decade  4
1.5   The future  6

2Methods  7
2.1   Planning general field surveys  7
2.2   Planning surveys to address a specific question  8
2.3   Types of sampler, taking and handling samples  8
2.4   Collecting live individuals  9
2.5   Distinguishing live from dead foraminifera  10
2.6   Preservation and fixing  13
2.7   Processing modern sediments for foraminifera  13
2.8   Foraminiferal separation using trichloroethylene  14
2.9   Splitting samples  15
2.10   Census data, standing crop and biomass  15
2.11   Analysis of field data  17
2.12   Multivariate analysis  21
2.13   Designing and running experiments in field and laboratory  22
2.14   Essential data in publications  24
2.15   Selection of data used in this book  24

3Aspects of biology and basic ecology  27
3.1   Introduction  27
3.2   Biology  27
3.3   Basic ecology  51

4Marginal marine environments  61
4.1   Introduction  61
4.2   Marsh and mangal/mangrove  62
4.3   Intertidal–subtidal brackish lagoons and estuaries  77
4.4   Deltas  98
4.5   Fjords  100
4.6   Isolation basins  107
4.7   General attributes of faunas  108
4.8   Summary  113

5Shelf seas  116
5.1   Introduction  116
5.2   Europe and Africa  117
5.3   Atlantic North America  136
5.4   Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean  140
5.5   South America  142
5.6   Pacific Americas  142
5.7   West Pacific  149
5.8   Australia  150
5.9   New Zealand  150
5.10   Pacific Ocean  150
5.11   Indian Ocean  151
5.12   Southern Ocean  152
5.13   Stable isotopes  156
5.14   Summary  157

6Carbonate environments  163
6.1   Introduction  163
6.2   Warm-water carbonate environments  163
6.3   Cool–temperate carbonate environments  177
6.4   Distinction between warm and cool–temperate carbonate shelf faunas  177
6.5   Summary  178

7Deep sea  180
7.1   Introduction  180
7.2   Foraminifera  183
7.3   Summary and conclusions  227

8Summary of living distributions  238
8.1   Introduction  238
8.2   Major new findings  238
8.3   Response of foraminifera to environmental factors  239
8.4   Microdistribution patterns  243
8.5   Interdependent controls on microdistributions  245
8.6   Time-series datasets and environmental variability  247
8.7   Large-scale distribution patterns  249
8.8   Species diversity  250
8.9   Colonisation/recolonisation  254
8.10   The species pool  257
8.11   Biogeography  257
8.12   Standing crop and biomass  260
8.13   Role of benthic foraminifera in modern ecosystems  261
8.14   Comments on other topics  261
8.15   Final conclusions  264

9Taphonomic processes: formation of dead and fossil assemblages  265
9.1   Introduction  265
9.2   Life processes influencing the contribution of tests to the sediment  266
9.3   Postmortem processes affecting the preservation of foraminifera  266
9.4   Summary  280

10Applications  281
10.1   Introduction  281
10.2   The present as a key to the past  282
10.3   Sequence stratigraphy–biostratigraphy  283
10.4   Palaeoecology  285
10.5   Palaeoceanography  288
10.6   Environmental monitoring  304
10.7   Deformed tests  317
10.8   Summary and conclusions  319

Glossary  320
Appendix  327
References  344
Taxonomic Index  412
General Index  422



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