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 (ISBN-13: 9780511286988)

Pre-eclampsia
Cambridge University Press
978-0-521-83189-5 - Pre-eclampsia: Etiology and Clinical Practice - by Fiona Lyall and Michael Belfort
Front Matter

Pre-eclampsia
Etiology and Clinical Practice

Pre-eclampsia is one of the leading causes of death and disability in mothers and babies. Over four million women worldwide will develop the disorder every year. This book, written by an international team of experts, focuses on both the scientific basis of pre-eclampsia and its management. The basic science section contains up-to-date reviews of the most exciting research developments in pre-eclampsia. The clinical chapters provide a comprehensive review of the pertinent literature, highlighting recent data and new ideas or developments in current management. There is a section in each chapter (where relevant) that deals with practical management, giving clinicians a formulated treatment plan that they can implement directly. The book will be of interest to all professionals interested in the reproductive sciences, and to obstetricians and physicians with an interest in pre-eclampsia.

Fioan Lyall is Professor of Maternal and Fetal Health at the University of Glasgow. She is Chief Editor of the journal Hypertension in Pregnancy.

Michael Belfort is Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology at the University of Utah. He is also Director of Perinatal Research and Co-director of Fetal Surgery at the Hospital Corporation of America in Nashville.





Pre-eclampsia

Etiology and Clinical Practice


Fiona Lyall
University of Glasgow


Michael Belfort
University of Utah





CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS
Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore, São Paulo

Cambridge University Press
The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2 2RU, UK

Published in the United States of America by Cambridge University Press, New York

www.cambridge.org
Information on this title: http://www.cambridge.org/052183189X

© Cambridge University Press 2007

This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part may take place without the written permission of Cambridge University Press.

First published 2007

Printed in the United Kingdom at the University Press, Cambridge

A catalogue record for this publication is available from the British Library

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication data
Lyall, F.
Pre-eclampsia: etiology and clinical practice/Fiona Lyall and Michael Belfort.
p. ; cm.
Includes bibliographical references.
ISBN-13: 978-0-521-83189-5 (hardback)
ISBN-10: 0-521-83189-X (hardback)
1. Preeclampsia. I. Belfort, Michael A., 1958- II. Title.
[DNLM: 1. Pre-Eclampsia- -etiology. 2. Pre-Eclampsia- -therapy. WQ 215 L981p2007]

RG575.5.L93 2007
618.3′6132- -dc22

                2007002767

ISBN-13 978-0-521-83189-5 hardback
ISBN-10 0-521-83189-X hardback

Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence or accuracy of URLs for external or third-party internet websites referred to in this publication, and does not guarantee that any content on such websites is, or will remain, accurate or appropriate.

Every effort has been made in preparing this book to provide accurate and up-to-date information that is in accord with accepted standards and practice at the time of publication. Nevertheless, the authors, editors and publishers can make no warranties that the information contained herein is totally free from error, not least because clinical standards are constantly changing through research and regulation. The authors, editors and publishers therefore disclaim all liability for direct or consequential damages resulting from the use of material contained in this book. Readers are strongly advised to pay careful attention to information provided by the manufacturer of any drugs or equipment that they plan to use.





For my mother, Patricia Stratton Wilson Belfort, 1932–2006
  MB

For my mother, Margaret Stewart Malcolm Struthers Lyall (1935–1997) and my father, Alexander George Lyall.
  FL





Contents



List of contributorspage xi
Prefacexvii
Part I Basic Science1

  1 Trophoblast invasion in pre-eclampsia and other pregnancy disorders 3
Robert Pijnenborg, Lisbeth Vercruysse, Myriam Hanssens and F. André Van Assche
  2 Development of the utero-placental circulation: purported mechanisms for cytotrophoblast invasion in normal pregnancy and pre-eclampsia20
Fiona Lyall
  3 In vitro models for studying pre-eclampsia37
John D. Aplin and Ian P. Crocker
  4 Endothelial factors50
Muna Noori, Mina Savvidou and David Williams
  5 The renin–angiotensin system in pre-eclampsia78
Fiona Broughton Pipkin
  6 Immunological factors and placentation: implications for pre-eclampsia92
Ashley Moffett and Susan E. Hiby
  7 Immunological factors and placentation: implications for pre-eclampsia103
C. W. G. Redman and I. L. Sargent
  8 The role of oxidative stress in pre-eclampsia121
M. T. M. Raijmakers and L. Poston
  9 Placental hypoxia, hyperoxia and ischemia–reperfusion injury in pre-eclampsia138
Graham J. Burton, Tai-Ho Hung and Eric Jauniaux
10 Tenney–Parker changes and apoptotic versus necrotic shedding of trophoblast in normal pregnancy and pre-eclampsia152
Peter Kaufmann and Berthold Huppertz
11 Dyslipidemia and pre-eclampsia164
Carl A. Hubel
12 Pre-eclampsia a two-stage disorder: what is the linkage? Are there directed fetal/placental signals?183
Jim Roberts
13 High altitude and pre-eclampsia195
Stacy Zamudio
14 The use of mouse models to explore fetal–maternal interactions underlying pre-eclampsia209
James C. Cross
15 Prediction of pre-eclampsia215
Leslie Myatt and Lavenia B. Carpenter
16 Long-term implications of pre-eclampsia for maternal health232
Gordon C. S. Smith
Part II  Clinical Practice241

17 Classification and diagnosis of pre-eclampsia243
Robyn A. North
18 Measuring blood pressure in pregnancy and pre-eclampsia258
Andrew H. Shennan and Annemarie De Greeff
19 Immune maladaptation in the etiology of pre-eclampsia; an updated epidemiological perspective276
Gus Dekker and Pierre Yves Robillard
20 Genetics of pre-eclampsia and counseling the patient who developed pre-eclampsia295
Kenneth Ward
21 Thrombophilias and pre-eclampsia305
Isobel D. Walker
22 Medical illness and the risk of pre-eclampsia325
Catherine Nelson-Piercy
23 The kidney and pre-eclampsia339
M. C. Smith and J. M. Davison
24 Management of mild pre-eclampsia357
Tracey Glanville and James J. Walker
25 Management of severe pre-eclampsia369
Kristin H. Coppage and Baha M. Sibai
26 The differential diagnosis of pre-eclampsia and eclampsia380
Michael Varner
27 Complications of pre-eclampsia406
Gary A. Dildy III and Michael A. Belfort
28 Central nervous system findings in pre-eclampsia and eclampsia424
Diane Twickler and F. Gary Cunningham
29 Pathogenesis and treatment of eclampsia437
Joong Shin Park, Michael A. Belfort and Errol R. Norwitz
30 Anesthesia for the pre-eclamptic patient451
Jose M. Rivers and Maya S. Suresh
31 Critical care management of severe pre-eclampsia476
John Anthony
32 The role of maternal and fetal Doppler in pre-eclampsia489
J. Hornbuckle and S. Robson
33 Pregnancy-induced hypertension – the effects on the newborn506
Jonathan Coutts
34 Medico-legal implications of the diagnosis of pre-eclampsia522
Jeffrey P. Phelan
Subject Index535




Contributors



John Anthony
University of Cape Town
Department of Medicine
Division of Hypertension
Cape Town, ZA-7925
South Africa

John Aplin
Division of Human Development
Faculty of Medicine
University of Manchester
St Mary's Hospital
Manchester M13 0JH
UK

Michael Belfort
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
University of Utah Health Sciences Center
Salt Lake City, Utah
USA

Fiona Broughton Pipkin
Academic Division of Obstetrics & Gynecology
Maternity Unit, City Hospital
Nottingham NG5 1PB
UK

Graham Burton
Department of Anatomy
University of Cambridge
Downing Street
Cambridge CB2 3DY
UK

Lavenia Carpenter
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
University of Cincinnati College of Medicine
P.O. Box 670526
231 Albert Sabin Way
Cincinnati, OH 45267
USA

Kristin Coppage
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
University of Cincinnati
231 Albert Sabin Way
M/L 0526
Cincinnati, OH 45267-0526
USA

Jonathan Coutts
The Queen Mother's Hospital
Yorkhill
Glasgow G3 8SJ, UK

Ian Crocker
Division of Human Development
Faculty of Medicine
University of Manchester
St Mary's Hospital
Manchester M13 0JH
UK

James Cross
Genes and Development Research Group
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Faculty of Medicine
University of Calgary
HSC Room 2279
3330 Hospital Drive NW
Calgary, Alberta T2N 4N1
Canada

F. Gary Cunningham
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
UT Southwestern Medical Center
5323 Harry Hines Blvd.
Dallas, TX 75390
USA

J. M. Davison
Obstetrics & Gynaecology
4th Floor, Leazes Wing
Royal Victoria Infirmary
Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 4LP

Gus Dekker
Women's and Children's Division
Lyell McEwin Health Service
Northern Campus University of Adelaide
Haydown Road
Elizabeth Vale, SA 5112
Australia

Gary Dildy
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Louisiana State University School of Medicine
1542 Tulane Avenue
New Orleans, LA 70112
USA

Tracey Glanville
Leeds Teaching Hospital Trust
St James University Hospital
Beckett Street
Leeds LS9 7TF
UK

Myriam Hanssens
Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
University Hospital Gasthuisberg
Herestraat 49
B3000 Leuven, Belgium

Susan Hiby
Department of Pathology
Tennis Court Road
University of Cambridge
Cambridge CB2 1QP
UK

J. Hornbuckle
Centre for Reproduction, Growth and Development
University of Leeds
UK

Carl Hubel
Magee-Womens' Research Institute
204 Craft Avenue
Pittsburgh, PA 15213
USA

Tai-Ho Hung
Department of Anatomy
Downing Street
Cambridge CB2 3DY, UK

Berthold Huppertz
Institute of Cell Biology, Histology and Embryology,
Medical University of Graz,
Harrachgasse 21/7
8010 Graz
Austria

Eric Jauniaux
Academic Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
University College London
89–96 Chenies Mews
London WC1E 6HX, UK

Peter Kaufmann
Department of Anatomy
University Hospital RWTH Aachen
Wendlingweg 2
D-52057 Aachen
Germany

Fiona Lyall
Maternal and Fetal Medicine Section
Institute of Medical Genetics
University of Glasgow
Yorkhill
Glasgow G3 8SJ
UK

Ashley Moffett
Department of Pathology
Tennis Court Road
University of Cambridge
Cambridge CB2 1QP
UK

Leslie Myatt
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
University of Cincinnati College of Medicine
P.O. Box 670526
231 Albert Sabin Way
Cincinnati, OH 45267
USA

Catherine Nelson-Piercy
10th floor, Directorate Office
North Wing
Guy's and St. Thomas' NHS Foundation
Lambeth Palace Road
London SE1 8EH
UK

Muna Noori
Division of SORA
Imperial College London
Chelsea and Westminster Hospital
309 Fulham Road
London SWIO 9WH
UK

Robyn North
Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
University of Auckland
Private Bag 92019
New Zealand

Errol Norwitz
Yale University School of Medicine
Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences
Yale-New Haven Hospital
333 Cedar Street
New Haven, CT 06520-8063
USA

Joong Shin Park
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Seoul National University College of Medicine
Seoul 110-744
Korea

Jeffrey Phelan
959 East Walnut Street
Suite 200
Pasadena, CA 91106
USA

Robert Pijnenborg
Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
University Hospital Gasthuisberg
Herestraat 49
B3000 Leuven, Belgium

Lucilla Poston
Maternal and Fetal Research Unit
Department of Women's Health
St Thomas' Hospital
Lambeth Palace Rd
London SE1 7EH
UK

Maarten T. M. Raijmakers
Máxima Medisch Centrum
Department of Clinical Chemistry
PO Box 7777
5500 MB Veldhoven
The Netherlands

Chris W. G. Redman
Nuffield Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
John Radcliffe Hospital
Oxford OX3 9DU
UK

Annemarie Reinders
Nieuweweg 47
7241 ES LOCHEM
The Netherlands

Jose Rivers
Department of Anesthesiology
Suite 1003
6550 Fannin Street
Houston, TX 77030
USA

Jim Roberts
Magee-Womens' Research Institute
204 Craft Avenue
Pittsburgh, PA 15213
USA

Pierre Yves Robillard
Neonatology
Center Hospitalier Sud-Reunion
BP 350 97488
Saint-Pierre cedex
Reunion
France

Stephen Robson
Surgical and Reproductive Sciences
3rd Floor Leech Building
Medical School
Newcastle upon Tyne NE2 4HH
UK

Ian L. Sargent
Nuffield Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
John Radcliffe Hospital
Oxford OX3 9DU
UK

Mina Savvidou
Harris Birthright Research Centre for Fetal Medicine
Kings College Hospital
Denmark Hill
London SE9 5RS
UK

Andrew Shennan
Maternal and Fetal Research Unit
Department of Women's Health
St Thomas' Hospital
London SE1 7EH
UK

Baha Sibai
Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology
University of Cincinnati,
Cincinnati, OH 45221
USA

Gordon Smith
Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Cambridge University
Rosie Maternity Hospital
Cambridge CB2 2SW
UK

Marie Smith
Obstetrics & Gynaecology
4th Floor, Leazes Wing
Royal Victoria Infirmary
Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 4LP
UK

Maya Suresh
Department of Anesthesiology
Suite 1003
6550 Fannin Street
Houston, TX 77030
USA

Diane Twickler
University of Texas
SouthWestern Medical Center
Department of Radiology
5323 Harry Hines Blvd
Dallas, TX 75390
USA

F. André Van Assche
Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
University Hospital Gasthuisberg
Herestraat 49
B3000 Leuven, Belgium

Michael Varner
University of Utah School of Medicine
50 North Medical Drive,
Salt Lake City, UT 84132
USA

Lisbeth Vercruysse
Department of Obestetrics and Gynaecology
University Hospital Gasthuisberg
Herestraat 49
B3000 Leuven, Belgium

Isobel Walker
Department of Haematology
Glasgow Royal Infirmary
Glasgow G4 0SF
UK

James Walker
Leeds Teaching Hospital Trust
St James University Hospital
Beckett Street
Leeds LS9 7TF
UK

Kenneth Ward
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Kapiolani Hospital
1319 Punahou Street, Room 824
Honolulu, HI 96826, USA

David Williams
Institute for Women's Health
University College London
Elizabeth Garrett Anderson Hospital
Huntley Street
London WC1E 6DH
UK

Stacy Zamudio
UMD-New Jersey Medical School
Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Women's Health
185 South Orange Ave MSB £-505
Newark, NJ 07103-2714
USA





Preface



Pre-eclampsia complicates 2–3% of primigravid pregnancies and 5–7% of nulliparous women. It is one of the leading causes of death and disability of mothers and babies. Over four million women will develop the disorder worldwide every year. This book, written by scientists and clinicians who are internationally recognized as experts in their respective fields, focuses on both the scientific basis of pre-eclampsia along with management.

The basic science section contains up-to-date reviews and theories focused on the most exciting research developments in pre-eclampsia. The clinical chapters provide a comprehensive review of the pertinent literature highlighting recent data and work that suggest new ideas or changes in current management. There is a section in each chapter (when appropriate) that deals with management on a practical level so that the clinician (residents/registrars/consultants) will be able to take away a formulated treatment plan that they can implement directly.

The book will be of interest to scientists and students interested in reproductive sciences as well as medical students, obstetricians and physicians with an interest in pre-eclampsia.


© Cambridge University Press
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