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 (ISBN-13: 9780511282522)

The Geology of Mars
Cambridge University Press
978-0-521-83292-2 - The Geology of Mars: Evidence from Earth-Based Analogs - by M. G. Chapman
Front Matter

The Geology of Mars Evidence from Earth-Based Analogs


With the prospect of a manned mission to Mars still a long way in the future, research into the geological processes operating there continues to rely on interpretation of images and other data returned by unmanned orbiters, probes, and landers. Such interpretations are necessarily based on our knowledge of processes occurring on Earth. Terrestrial analog studies therefore play an important role in understanding the origin of geological features observed on Mars.

This book presents contributions from leading planetary geologists to demonstrate the parallels and differences between these two neighboring planets, and to provide a deeper understanding of the evolution of the Solar System. Mars is characterized by a wide range of geological phenomena that also occur on Earth, including tectonic, volcanic, impact cratering, aeolian, fluvial, glacial, and possibly lacustrine and marine processes. This is the first book to present direct comparisons between locales on Earth and Mars and to provide terrestrial analogs for newly acquired data sets from Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Odyssey, Mars Exploration Rovers, and Mars Express.

The results of these analog studies provide new insights into the role of different processes in the geological evolution of Mars. This book will therefore be a key reference for students and researchers of planetary science.

MARY CHAPMAN is a research geologist with the Astrogeology Team at the United States Geological Survey in Flagstaff, Arizona. She is also the Director and Science Advisor for the NASA Regional Planetary Image Facility there. Her research interests center on volcanism and its interactions with ice and other fluids, and she has a keen interest in the development of future robotic and human exploration of the Solar System.




Cambridge Planetary Science

Series Editors: F. Bagenal, F. Nimmo, C. Murray, D. Jewitt, R. Lorenz and S. Russell

F. Bagenal, T. E. Dowling and W. B. McKinnon Jupiter: The Planet, Satellites and Magnetosphere
L. Esposito Planetary Rings
R. Hutchinson Meteorites: A Petrologic, Chemical and Isotopic Synthesis
D. W. G. Sears The Origin of Chondrules and Chondrites
M. G. Chapman The Geology of Mars: Evidence from Earth-based Analogs





THE GEOLOGY OF MARS

Evidence from Earth-Based Analogs


Edited by

M. G. CHAPMAN
United States Geological Survey





CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS
Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore, São Paulo

Cambridge University Press
The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2 8RU, UK

Published in the United States of America by Cambridge University Press, New York

www.cambridge.org
Information on this title: www.cambridge.org/9780521832922

© Cambridge University Press 2007
This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part may take place without the written permission of Cambridge University Press.

First published 2007

Printed in the United Kingdom at the University Press, Cambridge

A catalog record for this publication is available from the British Library

Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication data

The geology of Mars : evidence from earth-based analogs / edited by M. G. Chapman.
p. cm. – (Cambridge planetary science series)
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN-13: 978-0-521-83292-2 (hardback)
1. Mars (Planet)–Geology. 2. Mars (Planet)–Surface. 3. Mars (Planet)–Volcanoes. I. Chapman, Mary G. II. Title. III.
Series.

QB641.G435

559.9′23–dc22

                               2006021246

ISBN-13 978-0-521-83292-2 hardback

Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence or accuracy of URLs for external or third-party internet websites referred to in this publication, and does not guarantee that any content on such websites is, or will remain, accurate or appropriate.





Contents




Preface: The rationale for planetary analog studiespage vii
List of contributorsxi
  1The geology of Mars: new insights and outstanding questions1
JAMES W. HEAD
  2Impact structures on Earth and Mars47
NADINE G. BARLOW, VIRGIL SHARPTON AND RUSLAN O. KUZMIN
  3Terrestrial analogs to the calderas of the Tharsis volcanoes on Mars71
PETER J. MOUGINIS-MARK, ANDREW J. L. HARRIS AND SCOTT K. ROWLAND
  4Volcanic features of New Mexico analogous to volcanic features on Mars95
LARRY S. CRUMPLER, JAYNE C. AUBELE AND JAMES R. ZIMBELMAN
  5Comparison of flood lavas on Earth and Mars126
LASZLO KESZTHELYI AND ALFRED MCEWEN
  6Rootless volcanic cones in Iceland and on Mars151
SARAH A. FAGENTS AND THORVALDUR THORDARSON
  7Mars interior layered deposits and terrestrial sub-ice volcanoes compared: observations and interpretations of similar geomorphic characteristics178
MARY G. CHAPMAN AND JOHN L. SMELLIE
  8Lava–sediment interactions on Mars: evidence and consequences211
TRACY K. P. GREGG
  9Eolian dunes and deposits in the western United States as analogs to wind-related features on Mars232
JAMES R. ZIMBELMAN AND STEVEN H. WILLIAMS
10Debris flows in Greenland and on Mars265
FRANÇOIS COSTARD, FRANÇOIS FORGET, VINCENT JOMELLI, NICOLAS MANGOLD AND JEAN-PIERRE PEULVAST
11Siberian rivers and Martian outflow channels: an analogy279
FRANÇOIS COSTARD, E. GAUTIER AND D. BRUNSTEIN
12Formation of valleys and cataclysmic flood channels on Earth and Mars297
GORO KOMATSU AND VICTOR R. BAKER
13Playa environments on Earth: possible analogs for Mars322
GORO KOMATSU, GIAN GABRIELE ORI, LUCIA MARINANGELI AND JEFFREY E. MOERSCH
14Signatures of habitats and life in Earth's high-altitude lakes: clues to Noachian aqueous environments on Mars349
NATHALIE A. CABROL, CHRIS P. MCKAY, EDMOND A. GRIN, KEVE T. KISS, ERA ÁCS, BALINT TÓTH, ISTRAN GRIGORSZKY, K. SZABÒ, DAVID A. FIKE, ANDREW N. HOCK, CECILIA DEMERGASSO, LORENA ESCUDERO, P. GALLEGUILLOS, GUILLERMO CHONG, BRIAN H. GRIGSBY, JEBNER ZAMBRANA ROMÁN AND CRISTIAN TAMBLEY
15The Canyonlands model for planetary grabens: revised physical basis and implications371
RICHARD A. SCHULTZ, JASON M. MOORE, ERIC B. GROSFILS, KENNETH L. TANAKA AND DANIEL MÈGE
16Geochemical analogs and Martian meteorites400
HORTON E. NEWSOM
17Integrated analog mission design for planetary exploration with humans and robots424
KELLY SNOOK, BRIAN GLASS, GEOFFREY BRIGGS AND JENNIFER JASPER
Index457
Color plates are located between pages 210 and 211




Preface: the rationale for planetary analog studies



Just before I left to attend the June 2001 Geologic Society of London/Geologic Society of America Meeting in Edinburgh, Scotland, I received two e-mail messages. The first was from a UK-based freelance science writer, who was producing a proposal for a six-part television series on various ways that studies of the Earth produce clues about Mars. He requested locations where he might film, other than Hawaii. I was amazed that he seemed not to be aware of all of the locations on Earth where planetary researchers have been studying geologic processes and surfaces that they believe are analogous to those on Mars. In retrospect, his lack of knowledge is understandable, as no books were in existence on the topic of collective Earth locales for Martian studies and no planetary field guides had been published that included terrestrial analogs of the newly acquired data sets: Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Odyssey, Mars Exploration Rovers, and Mars Express. [Historically, NASA published a series of four Comparative Planetary Geology Field Guides with four locales having analog features for comparison with Mars, each book on a different subject and area (volcanic features of Hawaii, volcanism of the eastern Snake River Plain, aeolian features of southern California, and sapping features of the Colorado Plateau). However, all of these books were based on Viking data, intended for researchers in the field, were not widely distributed, and are now out of print (NASA has not published any more field guides).] The second e-mail was from Science Editor Susan Francis of Cambridge University Press, requesting that I stop by their booth at the Edinburgh meeting to discuss a possible topic for a new book on the geology of Mars. Following this e-mail correspondence, I came up with a topic that highlights the current research of geologists who study various environments on Mars using Earth-based analogs.

Planetary geologists commonly perform terrestrial analog studies in order to better understand the geology of extraterrestrial worlds, in order to know more about our solar system. Especially Mars, because although the radius of Mars is about half that of the Earth, its gravity is about a third of our own, and the current Martian atmosphere is very thin, dry, and cold – it is the one planet in the solar system whose surface is most similar to our own. The geology of Mars is characterized by a wide range of geological processes including tectonic, volcanic, impact cratering, aeolian, fluvial, glacial and possibly lacustrine and marine. However, other than the ongoing processes of wind, annual carbon dioxide frosts, and impact cratering, most active geologic processes on Mars shut down millennia ago, leaving a red planet frozen in time. Many of the almost perfectly preserved surface features and deposits of Mars appear visually very similar to analogous terrestrial locales, leading researchers to propose similar processes and origins for deposits on both planets. In order to test their hypotheses, logically researchers visit and study these analog areas on Earth to determine characteristics that (1) provide evidence for the origin of surfaces on Mars and (2) can be detected by instruments and astronauts on current and future missions. Currently, the Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Odyssey, and Mars Express spacecraft and onboard instruments continue to orbit the planet and acquire data, while the active Mars Exploration Rovers explore the surface of Gusev Crater and the Meridiani plains. Recent data from these missions show that our earlier interpretations of Mars geology need to undergo expansion and revision. In this book, examples of new insights into these processes on Mars underline the need for study of Earth processes and analogs and the application of these results to a better understanding of the geological evolution of Mars. In addition, future rover and spacecraft missions are also being planned for upcoming launch opportunities. Within the next 20 years, perhaps astronauts may be sent to Mars. Missions to Mars are expensive. It is necessary and cost effective to attempt to be certain that our mission instruments and personnel are equipped and trained to detect and discern the nature of Martian terrains before they are deployed on that planet. Therefore, research geologists investigate terrestrial analog environments to develop criteria to better identify the nature of planetary deposits from remote surface measurements and orbiting spacecraft data.

The first chapter in this book by Jim Head discusses how our Viking-based view of Mars has changed based on the new data we are receiving from the current Mars missions. The rest of the chapters detail how specific rocks and environments on Earth are studied in order to better interpret data from Mars. I would like to thank all the authors that participated in this long-overdue book. The chapters in this book were improved by helpful comments and suggestions from our peer reviewers and I appreciate and want to thank for their time and efforts Devon Burr, Nathalie Cabrol, Bill Cassidy, Dean Eppler, Sarah Fagents, Paul Geissler, Trent Hare, Jeff Kargel, Lazlo Keszthelyi, Goro Komatsu, Nick Lancaster, John McHone, Dan Milton, Bill Muehlburger, Kevin Mullins, Horton Newsom, Tom Pierson, Jeff Plescia, Sue Priest, Susan Sakimoto, Ian Skilling, Jim Skinner, Ken Tanaka, Tim Titus, Wes Ward, Lionel Wilson and Jim Zimbelman.

Mary Chapman





Contributors



E. Ács, Hungarian Danube Research Station of Institute of Ecology and Botany of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Göd, Hungary
Jayne C. Aubele, New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, Albuquerque, NM, USA
Victor R. Baker, Department of Hydrology and Water Resources, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA
Nadine G. Barlow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ, USA
Geoffrey Briggs, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA, USA
D. Brunstein, CNRS UMR 8591, Laboratoire de Géographie Physique, Meudon, France
N. A. Cabrol, Space Science Division, MS 245-3, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA, USA; and SETI Institute, 515 N. Whisman Road - Mountain View, CA 94043, USA
Mary Chapman, US Geological Survey, Flagstaff, AZ, USA
G. Chong, Departamento de Geología, Universidad Católica del Norte, Avda., Antofagasta, Chile
François Costard, UMR 8148 IDES, Université Paris-Sud, Orsay, France
Larry S. Crumpler, New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, Albuquerque, NM, USA
C. Demergasso, Laboratorio de Microbiología Técnica, Departamento de Química, Universidad Católica del Norte, Avda., Antofagasta, Chile
L. Escudero, Laboratorio de Microbiología Técnica, Departamento de Química, Universidad Católica del Norte, Avda., Antofagasta, Chile
Sarah A. Fagents, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI, USA
D. A. Fike, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA
François Forget, Laboratory for Dynamic Meteorology, CNRS, Paris, France
P. Galleguillos, Laboratorio de Microbiología Técnica, Departamento de Química, Universidad Católica del Norte, Avda., Antofagasta, Chile
Emmanuele Gautier, CNRS UMR 8591, Laboratoire de Géographie Physique, Meudon, France
Brian Glass, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA, USA
Tracy K. P. Gregg, The University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, USA
I. Grigorszky, Debrecen University, Botanical Department, Debrecen, Hungary
B. H. Grigsby, Schreder Planetarium/ARISE, Redding, CA 96001, USA
E. A. Grin, Space Science Division, MS 245-3, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA, USA; and SETI Institute, 515 N. Whisman Road - Mountain View, CA 94043, USA
E. B. Grosfils, Department of Geology, Pomona College, Claremont, CA, USA
Andrew J. L. Harris, Hawaii Institute of Geophysics and Planetology, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI, USA
James W. Head, Department of Geological Sciences, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912, USA
A. N. Hock, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA
Jennifer Jasper, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA, USA
Vincent Jomelli, CNRS UMR 8591, Laboratoire de Géographie Physique, Meudon, France
Lazlo Keszthelyi, US Geological Survey, Flagstaff, AZ, USA
K. T. Kiss, Hungarian Danube Research Station of Institute of Ecology and Botany of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Göd, Hungary
Goro Komatsu, International Research School of Planetary Sciences, Universita' d'Annunzio, Pescara, Italy
Ruslan O. Kuzmin, Vernadsky Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
Nicolas Mangold, UMR 8148 IDES, Université Paris-Sud, Orsay, France
Lucia Maninangeli, International Research School of Planetary Sciences, Universita' d'Annunzio, Pescara, Italy
Alfred McEwen, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA
C. P. McKay, Space Science Division, MS 245-3, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA, USA
D. Mège, Laboratoire de planétologie et géodynamique, Université de Nantes, Nantes cedex, France
Jeffrey E. Moersch, Department of Geological Sciences, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, USA
Jason M. Moore, William Cotton & Associates, Los Gatos, CA, USA
Peter J. Mouginis-Mark, Hawaii Institute of Geophysics and Planetology, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI, USA
Horton E. Newsom, Institute of Meteoritics and Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, USA
Gian Gabriel Ori, International Research School of Planetary Sciences, Universita' d'Annunzio, Pescara, Italy
Jean-Pierre Peulvast, UMR 8148 IDES, Université Paris-Sud, Orsay, France
Scott K. Rowland, Hawaii Institute of Geophysics and Planetology, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI, USA
R. A. Schultz, Department of Geological Sciences, University of Nevada, Reno, NV, USA
Virgil Sharpton, Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK, USA
John L. Smellie, British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge, UK
Kelly Snook, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771, USA
K. Szabò, Eötvös L.University, Microbiological Department, Budapest, Hungary
C. Tambley, Department of Astrophysics, Universidad Católica del Norte, Avda., Antofagasta, Chile
K. L. Tanaka, US Geological Survey, Flagstaff, AZ, USA
Thorvaldur Thordarson, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI, USA
B. Tóth, Hungarian Danube Research Station of Institute of Ecology and Botany of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Göd, Hungary
Steven H. Williams, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC, USA
J. Zambrana Román, Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERGEOMIN), La Paz, Bolivia
James R. Zimbelman, Center for Earth and Planetary Studies, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC, USA


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