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 (ISBN-13: 9780511282454)

The Nutritional Psychology of Childhood

Cambridge University Press
9780521827874 - The Nutritional Psychology of Childhood - by Robert Drewett
Index


Index

Abecedarian project 217

Adair, L. S. 101

ADHD (attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder) 84

Adiels-Tegman, M. 90

adiposity 148–58

   and birthweight 165

   Body Mass Index (BMI) 150, 154, 165

   and breast-feeding 165–8

   causes 154, 218–19

   critical periods 163–5, 168

   development 163–78

   and eating disorders 205

   gender 205

   heritability 159, 163

   measurement 148–9

   over the lifespan 155

   prevalence 151, 154

   and puberty 205

   and self-esteem 156–8

   and weight 149

   see also obesity

adiposity rebound 3, 5, 168

adolescence 1

   body image 195, 197, 199

   calcium intake 56

   dietary restraint 201

   dieting 200, 201

   eating disorders 191

   energy expenditure 11

   energy intake 12

advertising 174

aggression 102

Agran, P. F. et al. 50

Agras, W. S. et al. 168, 201, 212

Ainsworth, M. D. S. et al. 134–6

alcohol

   in breast milk 23

   and depression 192

   and dieting 200

   during pregnancy 73

   and sexual abuse 204

Algarin, C. et al. 94

Allison, D. B. et al. 158, 165

ALSPAC see Avon Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood (later Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children)

Alzheimer’s disease 146

amenorrhoea 188

amnesia 16

amok 189

anaemia

   iron deficiency anaemia 89, 102

   sickle cell anaemia (HbSS) 119

   without iron deficiency 90

Andersen, R. E. et al. 173

Anderson, J. W. et al. 37, 38, 215

Angelson, N. K. et al. 38

angular stomatitis 102

Ani, C. 94

Anliker, J. A. et al. 58

Anoop, S. et al. 139

anorexia 63, 67

anorexia nervosa 63, 186

   binge-eating/purging type 187

   diagnostic criteria 186, 188–9

   genetic factors 202

   media influences 194

   mortality 191

   mothers 210

   psychiatric disorders 191

   risk factors 202, 208

   symptoms 190

   trends 193

anxiety 53, 192, 204, 205

appetite 62, 218

Armstrong, J. A. et al. 165

attachment 134–6, 138

attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) 84

Attie, I. 206

Auckett, M. A. et al. 94

Auestad, N. et al. 42

Austin, S. B. et al. 219

Australia 40, 200

Avon Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood (later Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children) (ALSPAC) 91, 92, 120, 137–40


Baby Facial Action Coding System 21

Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative 36

Bandini, L. G. et al. 12

Barker, D. J. P. et al. 144, 146

Barker, M. et al. 200

basal metabolic rate 11

Bavaria 166

Bayley Scales of Infant Development 6, 7–8

Beales, S. 197, 201

Bearman, S. K. 199

Beauchamp, G. K. 23, 24

Becker, A. E. et al. 194

Bekhof, J. et al. 116

Belizan, J. M. 73

beri-beri 88

Bernstein, I. L. 24

Berwick, D. M. et al. 126, 131

Beumont, P. et al. 188

Bhutta, A. T. et al. 84, 217

Bickel, H. 112–14

binge eating disorder 187–8, 205

Birch, L. L. et al. 30, 52, 55, 62, 133, 175, 176, 201

birth 1

   see also preterm births

birthweight 70, 74, 80

   and adiposity 165

   and IQ 215

   and maternal nutrition 210

   twins 79, 165

   see also small for gestational age (SGA)

BITE scale 190, 206

Black, A. E. et al. 12

Black, M. et al. 141

Black, R. E. et al. 56

Blair, C. et al. 209

Blair, P. S. et al. 128, 144

Blass, E. M. 22

Boddy, J. et al. 142

body image 195–202

   adolescents 195, 197, 199

   children 156, 195, 196, 207

   and depression 199

   and dieting 197, 199–201

   gender 195, 196, 197, 199

   young women 196, 199–201

Body Mass Index (BMI) 150

   and adiposity 150, 154, 165

   heritability 158–60

   and mortality 150

   and obesity 150

   and self-esteem 157

Boerge Prien test 76

Boomsma, D. I. et al. 79

Booth, D. A. 54

Bornstein, M. H. et al. 7

Boskind-Lodahl, M. 187

Boynton-Jarrett, R. et al. 174

Braddon, F. E. M. et al. 165

brain

   composition 148

   effects of malnutrition on 5, 8, 103

   growth 5

   perinatal injury 84

Brazil 74, 106, 151

breast-feeding

   and adiposity 165–8

   and alcohol 23

   cognitive benefits 38–42, 215

   and colic 31, 32

   and diarrhoeal disease 35–7, 40, 66

   duration 39, 166

   feeding problems 28

   frequency of feeding 19

   and health 33–7, 215

   incidence 34

   initiation of feeding 19, 28

   milk composition 11, 18, 40, 89–91

   milk intake 11, 26, 28

   milk production 20, 28, 29, 43

   and mother’s diet 23, 32

   and mother’s exercise 24

   perceived breast milk insufficiency 29–30

   prevalence 35

   promotion programmes 36

   readiness to feed 25

   rooting reflex 19, 25

   and sleeping patterns 30

   and social class 34

   sore nipples 29

   sucking 19–21, 30, 167

   ‘Ten Steps’ 36

   twins 26

   weaning 43–5

Brinch, M. et al. 211

Broman, S. H. et al. 38

Brooks-Gunn, J. et al. 206, 217

Brown, A. S. et al. 83, 119

Brown, K. H. et al. 66

Bulik, C. M. et al. 192, 210

bulimia nervosa 186–7, 188

   diagnostic criteria 187

   genetic factors 202

   media influences 194

   and psychiatric disorders 192

   risk factors 202, 204, 208

   and sexual abuse 204

   symptoms 190, 202

   trends 193

Burgard, P. 112, 113

Butte, N. 165

Butterworth, G. 45, 46


Cachelin, F. M. 189

Cadogen, J. et al. 57

Calam, R. 206

calcium 56, 64

calories 9

Campbell, F. A. et al. 217

Canfield, R. L. et al. 216

carbohydrates 17

Carlson, S. E. et al. 41

Carper, J. L. et al. 201

Carriger, M. S. 7

Carruth, B. R. et al. 64

Casaer, P. et al. 86, 87

Cass, H. et al. 120

CATCH (Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health) 183

Cattarin, J. A. 206

Cauffman, E. 201

cerebral palsy 120–2

   feeding problems 121–2

   nutrition 120, 122

   preterm infants 84

   size of children 120, 121

ChEAT see Children’s Eating Attitudes Test

Cheung, Y. B. et al. 81, 146

child abuse/neglect 133

Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health (CATCH) 183

child feeding practices 175–8

   see also breast-feeding; feeding problems; food choice; food preferences; infant feeding; weaning

childhood 3

Children’s Eating Attitudes Test (ChEAT) 118, 190, 194, 197, 207

Chile 91, 136

China 106, 189

cholecystokinin 16

choosy, faddy, finicky, picky eaters 63, 64–5, 208

Christchurch Health and Development Study 204

Christchurch obesity prevention project in schools 181

chronic illness 110, 122

   see also cerebral palsy; cystic fibrosis; diabetes; phenylketonuria (PKU); sickle cell disease

chronological age 71

circumcision 22

Clandinin, M. T. et al. 42

Clément, K. et al. 160, 161

Clow, C. 110–17

cocaine 216

cognitive development

   and breast-feeding 38–42, 215

   children born too small 74–81

   and failure to thrive 141–4, 146–7, 215

   in infancy 7

   and iron deficiency 93–4

   and malnutrition 99–103, 104–6

   means–end problem solving 42

   preterm births 83, 217

   and psychosocial stimulation 104–6

   see also intelligence

cognitive reserve 146

Cohen, P. 208

Cohen, R. et al. 44

Cole, T. J. et al. 151, 169

colic 31–3, 60, 61

Collins, M. E. 195, 196

Connolly, K. 46

Connors, M. E. 204

Considine, R. V. et al. 16

Conti, J. et al. 210

Cooke, L. et al. 53

Cooley, E. 199–201

Corbett, S. S. 143, 144

Corcoran Jameson, J. 135

corrected age 71

critical periods 163–5, 168

crying 25, 31–3

Crystal, S. R. 24

Curtis, V. et al. 51

cystic fibrosis 117–18

   effects 117

   and expressed emotion 209

   gender 118

   growth of children 117

   life expectancy 118

   mealtime behaviour 117

   nutrition 117

   weight 118

Czech Republic 166


Dahl, M. et al. 61

Daley, T. C. et al. 106, 109

Dalgleish, M. 46

Dancyger, I. F. 205

Davidovicz, H. 127

Davies, S. W. et al. 169

Davis, C. et al. 196

Davis, C. E. et al. 184

De Bruin, N. C. et al. 10

DeBaun, M. 119

Deep, A. et al. 192

Delinsky, S. S. 188–90

Delparigi, A. et al. 162

DeMaeyer, E. 90

Denmark 76, 153, 211

Dennison, B. A. et al. 174

depression

   in anorexia nervosa 191

   and body image 199

   in later life 83

   maternal 137–40

   and obesity 157

   in pregnancy 73

   and sexual abuse 204, 205

developmental tests 6

   and IQ 7–8

Dewey, K. et al. 28, 30, 45, 165, 167

Deysher, M. 62

diabetes

   in childhood 117

   during pregnancy 164

Diamond, A. et al. 115

diarrhoeal disease

   anorexic effect 66–8

   and breast-feeding 35–7, 40, 66

   and failure to thrive 127

   and growth rates 66–8

   learned food aversion 67

   weaning period 66

Dickerson, J. W. T. et al. 103

diet

   monotony 67

   omnivores 50

   specialist feeders 49

   see also food choice; food preferences

dietary restraint 201

   adolescents 201

   children 201, 208

   gender 201

dieting

   adolescents 200, 201

   and body image 197, 199–201

   and eating disorders 201

   gender 199–201

   and health related behaviour 200

   and psychiatric disorders 200, 202

Dietz, W. H. 78, 163–5, 169, 172, 173

disgust 51, 66

Dobson, J. C. et al. 114

domestic violence 216

Donnelly, J. E. et al. 183

dopamine 115

Dorosty, A. R. et al. 169

doubly labelled water method 10, 12, 169–74

Dowdney, L. et al. 142

Drewett, R. F. et al. 19, 44, 129, 132, 137–40, 142, 143, 146

Drotar, D. et al. 136

drug use

   and dieting 200

   and eating disorders 204

   during pregnancy 73, 216, 217

DSM-IV 186, 187, 188

Dugdale, A. E. 30

Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire 118, 197, 201


Eating Attitudes Test (EAT) 190, 194, 206

eating behaviour (terminology) 62

Eating Disorder Examination 190

Eating Disorder Inventory 190

Eating Disorder Inventory for Children (EDI-C) 207

eating disorders 186–95

   and adiposity 205

   adolescents 191

   binge eating disorder 187–8, 205

   childhood 207–8

   classification problems 188–90

   continuities 188, 208, 217

   and dieting 201

   effects 199

   as ethnic disorders 189

   family factors 208

   gender 190, 194

   genetic factors 202–4

   infancy and early childhood 186, 207

   intergenerational aspects 209–13

   media influences 193

   ‘not otherwise specified’ (EDNOS) 186, 187

   prevention 219

   and psychiatric disorders 191, 204

   puberty 186, 205–6

   risk factors 199, 202–9

   and sexual abuse 204

   symptoms 190, 199

   trends 192, 219

   see also anorexia nervosa; body image; bulimia nervosa

Eaton-Evans, J. 30

EDI-C (Eating Disorder Inventory for Children) 207

Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) 137, 138

EDNOS (eating disorders ‘not otherwise specified’) 186, 187

education 6, 108, 119, 217

   see also school based treatment programmes

Emond, A. et al. 91

emotional development and failure to thrive 146

energy

   balance 9–17, 218

   content of foods 43, 55

   definitions 9

   expenditure 10–11, 43, 169–74

   and food preferences 54

   glucose 15

   for growth 9

   intake 11–17, 25–8, 45, 48, 65, 168, 170, 174

   nutrients 17

   regulation 13–14, 25–8, 174–8

EPDS see Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale

Epstein, L. H. et al. 179, 180

Ericksson, J. G. et al. 145

ethnicity 153, 157, 189

Evans, K. et al. 33

executive dysfunction hypothesis 115


Fagan Test of Infant Intelligence 42

failure to thrive 124–47

   and attachment 134–6, 138

   child abuse/neglect 133

   cognitive outcomes 141–4, 215

   and cognitive reserve 146–7

   criteria 124, 125, 141

   developmental delay 140–1

   dietary intake 129

   and emotional development 146

   explanations 129–40

   feeding problems 130–3

   gastroesophageal reflux 131

   growth after birth 125

   growth before birth 125

   and heart disease 144–6

   and maternal depression 137–40

   and maternal sensitivity 136

   and medical conditions 126

   and mother’s mental health 136–40

   non-organic causes 127

   nutritional interventions 129–30

   preterm infants 138

   role of mother 133, 134–40, 211–12

   socio-economic conditions 127–8

Fairburn, C. G. et al. 188, 192, 204

Faith, M. S. et al. 176, 178

Falgiglia, G. A. et al. 53

Fallon, A. E. et al. 51, 195

family studies 159, 179, 180, 208

Farooqi, I. S. et al. 160

fat deposition 4

fats 17, 18, 19, 148

fatty acids 40–2

Feachem, R. G. 35

feeding disorder of infancy or early childhood 186

   see also failure to thrive

feeding problems

   breast-feeding 28

   in cerebral palsy 121–2

   choosy, faddy, finicky, picky eaters 63, 64–5, 208

   in chronic illness 122

   and diarrhoeal disease 66

   and failure to thrive 130–3

   in gastroesophageal reflux 131

   growth and development 61

   inconsistency of food intake 61–2

   infant feeding 28–33, 217

   terminology 62

   weaning 60–1

Feher, S. D. K. et al. 29

Feldman, J. F. 83

Fergusson, D. M. et al. 204

Fewtrell, M. S. et al. 42

Field, A. E. et al. 195

Fiese, B. H. 138

Fiji 194

Finberg, L. et al. 23

Finland 59, 145, 158

Fischhoff, J. et al. 136

Fisher, J. 176

fizzy drinks 181

flavour sensitivity 23–4

Flegal, K. M. 152

Flynn, J. R. 106, 216

Fombonne, E. 193

Fomon, S. J. et al. 4, 27, 154

food choice 49–54

   familiarisation 53

   food rejection 50–2

   fruit and vegetables 65

   neophobia 52–3, 64

   poisoning 50, 52–3

   ‘potentially eatable substances’ 50

   see also choosy, faddy, finicky, picky eaters; food preferences

food intake

   calcium 56

   capacity to regulate 62

   and failure to thrive 61–2, 129

   fruit and vegetables 57–60, 64, 174

   homeostatic control 13

   hunger 15

   inconsistency 61–2

   measurement 12–13

   and memory 16

   motivation 13

   nutrients 17, 62

   patterns 53

   satiation 15–16

   and television watching 174

   see also infant feeding

food preferences 54–60

   altering preferences 55

   continuities of habits 58

   energy density of foods 55

   and energy intake 54

   familiar foods 54

   food aversions 55, 67

   fruit and vegetables 57–60, 64, 65, 200

   milk 56

   salt 54

   sweet foods 54

Forsyth, B. W. C. 32

Fowler, M. D. et al. 119

Framlingham Children’s Study 57

Frank, D. A. 127

Freeman, J. V. et al. 124

French, S. A. et al. 157, 200

fruit and vegetables 57–60, 64, 65, 174, 183, 200

functional isolation hypothesis 94, 103


Gale, C. R. et al. 147

Galloway, A. T. et al. 53, 64

Gambia 103

Gardner, J. M. M. et al. 103

Gardner, R. M. et al. 205, 207

Garfinkel, P. E. 205

gastroesophageal reflux 127, 131

gastrointestinal reflux 31

Geleijnse, J. M. et al. 54

gender

   adiposity 205

   body image 195, 196, 197, 199

   cystic fibrosis 118

   dietary restraint 201

   dieting 199–201

   eating disorders 190, 194

   energy 9, 10

   energy intake 65

   energy regulation 175

   food preferences 65

   infancy 9, 10

   mother’s feeding practices 176

   neophobia 53

   puberty 4, 5

   reproductive development 4

   and self-esteem 156, 157

genetic disorders see cystic fibrosis; phenylketonuria (PKU); sickle cell disease

genetic factors

   eating disorders 202–4

   obesity 158–63

gestational age 70–2

ghrelin 162

Gibson, E. L. et al. 55, 58

Gillman, M. W. et al. 166

Gilmour, J. 162

Gisel, E. G. 48, 121

Glaser, H. H. et al. 140

glucose 15, 22

Golden, M. H. N. 67, 88

Golding, J. et al. 35, 37

Goldstein, H. 71, 75

Goran, M. I. et al. 170

Gordon, A. H. 135

Gordon, R. A. 189, 192

Gorey, K. M. 193

Gortmaker, S. L. et al. 172, 183

Gottesman, I. I. 158

Grantham-McGregor, S. M. et al. 72, 74, 94, 95, 96, 103, 104–6

Graves, A. B. et al. 146

Greeves, L. G. et al. 113

Groetz, L. M. et al. 194

Groner, J. A. et al. 96

growth and development 3–8

   before birth 69–72, 125, 210

   brain growth 5

   children born too small 70, 71, 72–83

   children born too soon 70–2, 83–7

   cognitive performance in infancy 7

   critical periods 163–5

   and cystic fibrosis 117

   developmental tests 6, 7–8

   failure to thrive 140–1

   fat deposition 4

   and feeding problems 61

   infancy-childhood-puberty (ICP) model 3–4

   intelligence (IQ) tests 6

   and iron deficiency 91–7

   linear growth 3, 69

   and malnutrition 5, 8, 69, 70

   reproductive development 4

   and sickle cell disease 120

   see also height; weight

Gunther, Mavis 29


Habicht, J. P. et al. 36

habituation tasks 7

HADS (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale) 138

Halmi, K. A. et al. 191

Hamlyn, B. et al. 28, 44

hand–mouth coordination 45

Hanson, R. et al. 108

Harland, E. P. 95

Harris, G. 44, 54, 212

Harrison, K. 194

Harter Self-Perception Profile for Children 156, 157

Harvey, D. et al. 80

Hastings, G. et al. 174

HbSS (sickle cell anaemia) 90, 119

head size 70, 71, 80, 108, 146

health

   and breast-feeding 33–7, 215

   and low birthweight 73, 83

   and obesity 155

   see also mental health of mother; psychiatric disorders

Healy, M. J. R. 126

heart disease 57, 73, 144–6

height 69, 97–9

   average 98

   height-for-age 97

   secular trend 108

   stunting 98, 99, 120

Heptinstall, E. et al. 129

Herzberg, C. 115

Herzog, D. B. 188–90

heterosis 108

heterozygosity 108, 110, 118

Hill, A. J. et al. 156, 197, 201

Hillervik-Lindquist, C. 29

Himms-Hagen, J. 26

Hoffmeyer, L. B. 22

Holland, A. J. et al. 161, 203

homozygosity 160

Hong Kong 151, 189

Hopkins, B. 45

Horne, P. J. et al. 55

Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) 138

Howard, R. W. 106

hunger 15, 25, 26

Hursti, U. K. 53

hyperactivity 84, 102

hyperphagia 161

hypertension 54

hysteria 189


ICP (infancy-childhood-puberty) model 3–4

Idjradinata, P. 95

India 44, 139

Indonesia 95, 189

infancy 3

   colic 31–3, 60, 61

   crying 25, 31–3

   eating disorders 186, 207

   energy expenditure 10, 43

   energy for growth 9

   energy intake 11, 25–8

   hunger 25, 26

   iron deficiency 89–91

   pain 22, 25

   sleeping patterns 30

   thermoregulation 26

   water intake 27

   see also infant feeding; preterm births

infancy-childhood-puberty (ICP) model 3–4

Infant Breast-feeding Assessment Tool 28

infant feeding

   flavour sensitivity 23–4

   formula 24, 27, 29–30, 45

   and health 33–7

   initiation of feeding 19

   milk intake 11, 25–8, 45

   problems 28–33, 217

   readiness to feed 25

   role of mother 167, 168, 212

   sucking 19–21, 30, 86–7, 167, 168

   taste sensitivity 21–3, 24

   see also breast-feeding; child feeding practices; weaning

infant formula 24, 27, 29–30, 45

inspection time 106

intelligence

   children 38

   and developmental tests 7–8

   differences in IQ 216–17

   environmental influences 216–17

   and family size 38

   IQ tests 6

   and nutrition 108–9, 215

   parents 38

   secular trends 72, 106–9, 216

   in sickle cell disease 119–20

   and social class 38

   see also cognitive development

intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) 71, 78

iron deficiency 88–97, 214

   causes 90

   and child development 91–7

   in children 90, 97

   and cognitive development 93–4

   in infants 89–91

   iron at birth 88

   iron deficiency anaemia 89, 102

   physiological anaemia of infancy 89

   supplementation 96–7

   therapeutic trials 94–6

   without anaemia 90, 92

Israel 106, 132, 165

IUGR see intrauterine growth retardation intrauterine growth retardation


Jacobi, C. et al. 65

Jamaica 104–6

James, J. et al. 181

James, W. H. 79

Janovský, M. et al. 27

Japan 45, 106, 158

Jefferis, B. J. M. H. et al. 75

Jeffrey, A. N. et al. 180

Johnson, S. L. 175–8

Jotangia, D. et al. 152

joules 9


Kakuma, R. 44

Kaplan, K. 157

Kasese-Hara, M. et al. 133

Kearney, P. J. et al. 32

Kelleher, K. J. et al. 138, 141, 144

Kenya 100, 106, 109

Kiel Obesity Prevention Study 183

kilojoules (kJ) 9

Klesges, R. C. et al. 156

Klump, K. L. et al. 203

Knight, S. et al. 120

Koblinsky, M. A. 35

Koch, R. et al. 114

Koenen, K. C. et al. 216

Koeppen-Schomerus, G. et al. 158

Konner, M. 19

Kopp, C. B. 7

Korean infants 99

koro 189

Kramer, M. S. et al. 36, 44, 168

Krebs-Smith, S. M. et al. 58

Kristiansson, B. 61

!Kung people 19

kwashiorkor 102


Lachenmeyer, J. R. 127

lactation 18–21

   frequency of feeding 19

   initiation of feeding 19, 28

   milk constituents 11, 18, 40, 89–91

   sucking and milk production 19–21, 28, 29, 43, 167

   see also breast-feeding

lactose 18, 22, 32

Laessle, R. G. et al. 201

Laitinen, S. et al. 59

Lawrence, M. et al. 103

lead 216

Lee, S. et al. 189

leptin 13, 16, 160

Leshem, M. 25

Lester, B. M. et al. 217

Levitsky, D. A. 62

Lew, A. R. 46

Lindberg, L. et al. 60

Lindberg, T. 32

Liu, J. et al. 102

Loewen, E. R. 52

Logan, S. 216

Lönnerdal, B. 30

Lothe, L. et al. 31, 32

Lozoff, B. G. et al. 92, 93–4, 96, 214

Lucas, A. et al. 31, 41, 85, 86

Lucas, A. R. et al. 191

Luciana, M. et al. 116

Lundgren, E. M. et al. 81

Lynn, R. 79, 95, 108


MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory 42

MacDonald, A. et al. 116

Maher, B. A. 189

Malaise Inventory 81

malnutrition protein-energy malnutrition

   and activity levels 103–4

   and anorexia 67

   causes 67

   and cognitive development 99–103, 104–6

   definition 97

   effects on brain 5, 8, 103

   identification 69

   infants born too small 70

   learned food aversions 67

   nutrient deficiencies 67

   nutritional supplementation 96–7, 104

   sensory specific satiety 67

   see also protein-energy malnutrition

Marchi, M. 208

Martin, S. et al. 157

Martinéz-González, M. A. et al. 194

maternal deprivation syndrome 136

Mathisen, B. et al. 131

Matte, T. D. et al. 79

Matthiesen, A.-S. 19

Mauritius 102

MC4R (melanocortin-4 receptor) deficiency 161

McCall, R. B. 7, 8

McCann, J. B. et al. 212

McCarthy, H. D. et al. 154

McCarthy Scales of Children’s Abilities 81

McCoy, R. et al. 87

meals 15

media influences

   advertising 174

   eating disorders 193

   see also television watching

megajoules (MJ) 9

Mehta, K. C. et al. 45

Meier, P. 87

Mendelson, B. K. 156

Mendez, M. A. 101

Mennella, J. A. 23, 24

mental development index (MDI) 6

mental health of mother 136–40, 211

metabolic syndrome (syndrome X) 73

Mexico 37

milk

   allergic reaction to 31, 56

   aversion to 56

   rejection 56

   see also breast-feeding; infant formula; lactation

Mingroni, M. A. 108

Mitchell, J. E. et al. 187

Mitchell, W. G. et al. 142

Moffatt, M. E. K. et al. 96

Montague, C. T. et al. 160

Moore, L. L. et al. 159, 170–4

Moray House Test 76

Morrow, A. L. et al. 37

Morse, W. 204

mortality

   and BMI 150

   cystic fibrosis 118

   protein-energy malnutrition 99

   psychiatric disorders 191

Motarjemi, Y. et al. 35

mothers

   and child feeding 175–8

   depression 137–40

   diet 23, 32

   eating disorders 209–13

   exercise 24

   and failure to thrive 133, 134–40, 211–12

   and infant feeding 167, 168, 212

   mental health 136–40, 211

   nutrition 72, 73, 210

   sensitivity 136

   see also breast-feeding; maternal deprivation syndrome; pregnancy

motilin 31

Motion, S. et al. 87, 121

motor disabilities 84

Mrdjenovic, G. 62

Müller, M. J. et al. 183


Negayama, K. 45

neglect 133

Nelson, M. C. et al. 167

Nelson, S. E. 4

Neonatal Oral Motor Assessment Scale (NOMAS) 87

neophobia

   and anxiety 53

   food choice 52–3, 64

   food intake patterns 53

   gender differences 53

   and shyness 52

Netherlands 79, 151, 164

Nettelbeck, T. 106, 107

neuroendocrine neurones 19

Nicolaïdis, S. et al. 24

Noel, G. L. et al. 20

Norway 38, 206

nutritional deficiencies 67, 88–106, 214

   iron 88–97, 214

   protein-energy malnutrition 97–106, 214

   Type 1 nutrients 88–97

   Type 2 nutrients 88


Oates, R. K. et al. 141

obesity

   adiposity rebound 3

   and area of residence 153

   and BMI 150

   causes 154

   criteria 150

   critical periods 168

   and depression 157

   in developing countries 154

   and ethnicity 153, 157

   genetic factors 158–63

   health problems 155

   and leptin 13, 16, 160

   and MC4R deficiency 161

   Prader-Willi syndrome 161

   prevalence 151, 154, 219

   psychological problems 156

   risk factors 218

   and self-esteem 156–8

   and socio-economic class 153

   treatment and prevention 178–85, 219–20

   see also adiposity

O’Brien, L. M. et al. 138

obsessive-compulsive personality 191

ochratoxin A 111

Oddy, W. H. et al. 40

oral–motor skills 48, 121–2, 130–3

Osmond, C. et al. 144, 145

osmotic stimuli 27

Oster, H. 21

overweight: criteria 150

Oxford Feeding Study 122


pain in infancy 22, 25

Pakistan 139, 160

Parkinson, K. N. et al. 129, 132

Patel, P. et al. 213

Patel, V. et al. 139

Pathways 184

Patrick, J. 121

Patton, G. C. et al. 190, 200, 202

Pawluck, D. E. 193

Paxton, S. J. 118, 196

PDI (psychomotor development index) 6

Pearson, H. A. 88, 89–91

Peckham, C. 71

Pelchat, M. L. 52

PEM see protein-energy malnutrition

perfectionism 191

perinatal brain injury 84

Perry, C. L. et al. 59, 183

Pettitt, D. J. et al. 164

phenylalanine hydroxylase 111, 115

phenylketonuria (PKU) 110–17

   cause 111

   dietary treatment 24, 112–14, 116

   executive dysfunction hypothesis 115

   heel lance test 22

   incidence 110

   normalisation of intelligence 114

   in pregnant women 114

   psychological problems 117

   recessive trait 110

   reproductive advantage 110

Philippines 101

Phillips, R. G. 156

physical activity 11, 57, 159, 170–4, 182, 183

physiological anaemia of infancy 89

pica 162, 186, 208

Pima American Indians 164

Pinilla, T. 30

PKU see phenylketonuria

Planet Health 183, 219

Pliner, P. 52

Poelmann, J. 138

poisoning 50, 52–3

Pollitt, E. 93, 95, 129

Pond, C. M. 18

poverty 103, 127–8

Prader-Willi syndrome 161

preeclampsia 73

pregnancy

   alcohol use 73

   depression 73

   diabetes 164

   drug use 73, 216, 217

   duration 70, 71

   maternal nutrition 72, 73, 210

   phenylketonuria (PKU) 114

   sickness 24

   smoking 35, 73, 210

prenatal nutrition 164

preterm births 38, 41, 70–2

   age 71

   cerebral palsy 84

   cognitive skills 83, 217

   in developing countries 73

   developmental effects 71

   early nutritional interventions 85–6

   failure to thrive 138

   feeding 85, 86–7

   identification 71

   induction 71

   and maternal nutrition 210

   survival 83

Price, R. A. 158

primiparity 73

prolactin 20

protein 18, 19, 88

protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) 97–106, 214

   height and weight 97–9

   and intellectual development 99–103, 104–6

   mortality 99

   and reduced activity levels 103–4

proteins 17

psychiatric disorders

   and dieting 200, 202

   and eating disorders 191, 204

psychological distress 81, 146

psychological problems

   children with PKU 117

   and obesity 156

psychomotor development index (PDI) 6

puberty 3

   and adiposity 205

   eating disorders 186, 205–6

   gender 4, 5

Purvis, A. 214


Rahman, A. et al. 139

Ramsay, M. et al. 131

Ransjö-Arvidson, A.-B. et al. 19

Råstam, M. 191

Ravelli, G. et al. 164

recessive traits 110

Record, R. G. et al. 74, 78

refusal to eat: weaning period 60, 61

Reilly, J. R. et al. 218

Reilly, S. M. et al. 121, 130

reproductive development 4

Resnicow, K. et al. 58

Roberts, S. J. et al. 200

Robinson, A. 201

Robinson, T. N. et al. 172, 176, 182

Rolland-Cachera, M. F. et al. 168

Rolls, B. J. et al. 62

Roncagliolo, M. et al. 93

Rose, S. A. 83, 84

Rosenstein, D. 21

Rozin, P. et al. 16, 50–2, 195

Rudolf, M. C. J. 216

rumination disorder 186

Russell, G. F. M. 187, 189, 192, 193, 210

Rutter, M. et al. 190, 191

Rydell, A.-M. et al. 63


Saelens, B. E. et al. 176

Sahota, P. et al. 182

Sallade, A. 157

salt poisoning 23

salty tastes 22, 24, 54

Sanchez-Grinan, M. I. et al. 48

Satter, E. M. 163

Saxena, S. et al. 153

Schedule for Oral-Motor Assessment (SOMA) 130

Schiff, M. et al. 216

Schnittker, J. 83

school-based treatment programmes 180–5, 219–20

Scotland 165, 192

Scriver, C. R. 110–17

scurvy 88

Seidman, D. S. et al. 165

self-esteem 156–8

sensory specific satiety 67

sexual abuse 200, 204

sexual behaviour 200, 201

SGA see small for gestational age

Shaw, H. E. 201

Shenkin, S. et al. 76, 215

Sherriff, A. et al. 92

Shields, J. 158

Shunk, J. A. 201, 208

shyness 52

sickle cell disease 118–20

   growth of children 120

   incidence 118

   and intelligence 119–20

   nutritional effects 120

   sickle cell anaemia (HbSS) 90, 119

   sickle cell trait 118

Siegal, M. 52

Sigman, M. et al. 100

Silverstein, B. et al. 189

Simeon, D. T. 103

Simpson, C. et al. 87

Singer, M. R. et al. 58

size of children

   with cerebral palsy 120, 121

   see also height; small for gestational age (SGA); weight

Sjödén, P. 53

Skuse, D. et al. 121, 130, 134, 135, 141, 142, 162

sleeping patterns in infancy 30

small for gestational age (SGA) 72–83

   birthweight 70, 74, 80

   causes 70, 72, 120

   and cognitive development 74–81

   definition 70, 71, 74

   in developing countries 73

   and later development 70, 71

   and later psychological functioning 81

   and maternal nutrition 210

   and physical health 73, 83

   twins 79

   ultrasound measurements 70, 71, 80

   Western countries 74–81

Smith, I. et al. 112, 113

smoking

   BMI and mortality 150

   and dieting 200

   in pregnancy 35, 73, 210

   prevention programme 60

social class

   and breast-feeding 34

   and children’s IQ 38

   and failure to thrive 127–8

   and nutrition 57, 58

   and obesity 153

SOMA (Schedule for Oral-Motor Assessment) 130

Sørenson, H. T. et al. 76

Spain 194

Spitzer, R. L. et al. 188

Spruijt-Metz, D. et al. 177

St James-Roberts, I. 31

Stamatakis, E. et al. 152

Stark, L. J. et al. 117

Stein, A. et al. 211, 212, 213

Stein, Z. et al. 79

Steinberg, L. 201

Stephenson, D. M. et al. 49

Stice, E. et al. 199, 200, 201, 207, 213

Strauss, R. S. 157

Strauss, R. W. 78

Striegel-Moore, R. H. et al. 188

Strobel, A. et al. 160

Strober, M. et al. 202

Stunkard, A. J. et al. 158, 169, 195

stunting 98, 99, 120

sucrose: analgesic effects 22

Sullivan, P. B. et al. 121, 122

Sullivan, S. A. 55

Sweden 29, 38, 60, 158, 191, 192

sweet tastes 22, 54

Swift, A. V. et al. 119

syndrome X 73


taste sensitivity

   in infants 21–3

   salty tastes 22, 24, 54

   sweet tastes 22, 54

Taveras, E. M. et al. 167

television watching 172–4, 178, 182, 183, 194

terminology (eating behaviour) 62

testosterone 4

Thailand 19

thermoregulation in infancy 26

Thommessen, M. et al. 121

Thomson, J. K. 206

Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire 65

Tinsley, B. J. 172, 174

Toray, T. 199–201

Toschke, A. M. et al. 166

Treasure, J. L. 203, 210

Troiano, R. P. et al. 150, 152

Truby, H. 118, 196, 197

Tuschl, R. J. et al. 201

twins

   birthweight 79, 165

   BMI 158–60, 165

   breast-feeding 26

   eating disorders 203

   intellectual development 79

tyrosine 115


UK

   Department of Health 58

   Food Standards Agency 174

   Health Survey for England 152

   Infant Feeding Surveys 28, 34

   National Child Development Study 71, 75, 81, 146

   National Study of Health and Growth 152

ultrasound measurements 70, 71, 80

UNICEF 36

USA

   American Indians 164, 184

   Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDS) 90

   eating disorders 192

   National Cancer Institute 58

   National Center for Health Statistics 97

   National Collaborative Perinatal Project 78

   National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 90, 152, 173

   National Health Examination Survey (NHES) 152, 172


Vaisse, C. et al. 161

Valenzuela, M. 136

Veron-Guidry, S. 197

Villar, J. 73

visual acuity 115

visual recognition memory 7

vitamins 17, 64, 88, 89, 102

von Kries, R. et al. 166


Wadden, T. A. et al. 157

Wailoo, M. P. et al. 30

WAIS (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale) 76

Walker, S. P. et al. 105

Waller, G. 190, 203, 206

Walter, T. et al. 89, 91, 92

Wardle, J. 55, 197, 201

wasting 98, 154

water intake 27

Waterlow, J. C. 44

Waugh, E. 210

weaning 1, 43–50

   amount of food 48

   feeding behaviour 43, 45–8

   feeding problems 60–1

   food choice 49–54

   independent skills 43, 45–8

   kind of food 43, 48

   refusal to eat 60, 61

   timing 43–5

   vomiting 60, 61

Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) 76

weight 70, 97–9

   and adiposity 149

   average 98

   in cystic fibrosis 118

   measurement 149

   poor weight gain in infancy 123

   wasting 98, 154

   weight-for-age 97, 99, 123, 124

   weight-for-height 98

   see also birthweight; failure to thrive

Welch, S. 204

Wells, J. C. K. et al. 149, 154

Welsh, M. C. et al. 115, 116

Wessel, M. A. et al. 31

Whitaker, R. C. et al. 169

White, D. A. 119

White, D. R. 156

Whitehouse, P. J. 212

Whitten, C. F. et al. 129

WHO 36, 44, 58, 70, 89, 97, 154

Wichstrøm, L. 206

Wilensky, D. S. et al. 132, 141

Willats, P. et al. 42

Williamson, D. A. et al. 160, 197

Wilson, C. 106

Winick, M. et al. 99

Wolff, P. H. 21

Woods, S. C. et al. 15, 17

Worthman, C. 19

Wright, C. M. et al. 126, 127, 130

Wright, P. et al. 30, 167


xerophthalmia 88


Yach, D. et al. 220

Young, B. 132


Zeisel, S. H. 127

zinc 17, 64, 67, 88, 97


© Cambridge University Press


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