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Mind, Brain, and Education in Reading Disorders
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 (ISBN-13: 9780511276309)




Index




accommodation 85

accuracy 198,220,244

acoustic skills 31

adaptation 190–1

adult–child interactions 192

adults with dyslexia 264–7

   as avid readers 269–71

   development of high literacy 268

   gendered interests 271–2

   pathways to literacy 267–8

   retrospective deduction from 18–19,23,154

   study of mathematics and science 273–4,277–8

Aequus AspireREADER program 290

agraphia 18,63

alexia 63

algebra courses 273–4,277

alphabetic principle 17

Alzheimer Disease 39

animal models 47–53,141,142

anterior–posterior gradients of development 126

aphasia 135

APM analysis 42

Arbib, M. 142–3

Ashby, J. 83

Ashley, L. 200

Asperger’s syndrome 287

assistive technologies 289, 290–1

attentional capacity 85,86,88

attractor pattern 113

Aubertin, E. 134

auditory processing 64,84

   in dyslexics 45,151–2

   fMRI studies of 161–2

   integration with visual 107–9

   see also acoustic skills; deaf people; listening comprehension

autism 287

automated processes 23,25,26

Baldwin, J. M. 85

behavior–brain relations see brain–behavior relations

behavioral development

   empiricist approach 81

   genes and 37–40

   rationalist approach 86

   sociohistoric approach 91

   see also cognitive development

behavioral phenotype of dyslexia 43–5

behavioral research

   on learning disorders 83

   on reading disorders 87–9,92–4

‘being with’ approach 188,189–90

Bender, L. 66

Bereiter, C. 94

Biddle, K. 71–2

biology see neuroanatomy; neurological development; neurological research

Birch, H. G. 66

blind students 286–7

Bowers, P. 70,71–2

Braille 286–7

brain

   anatomy see neuroanatomy

   development see neurological development

   study of see neurological research; neuropsychological research

brain damage

   and language processing 21

   see also compensation; lesion studies

brain volume 30–3

brain–behavior relations 6–7,114–15,116–19,168,185–7

   brain-acts-on-world approach 185

     see also ‘looking at’ approach

   brain-context-development approach 186–7

     whole child 190–1

     see also ‘being with’ approach

Broca, P. 134

Broca’s area 135

Brown, A. L. 256,258

Byrne, B. 200,210

Camp, D. 277

Caramazza, A. 139

case studies 196–8

   clinical analysis 185–90,217–24,229–33,243

   complex figure tasks 229,230,231,246–7

   double dissociation in interpreting 284–8

   for interdisciplinary dialogue 182–3,248–9

   making videotape 183–5

   motor tapping tasks 229,233,246–7

   nature of disabilities 227–8,244

   paragraph reading task 220,221,222,230,244–6

   rapid naming tasks 205–6,219,220,221,222,248

   word reading tasks 198–205,219–21,222

CAST (Center for Applied Special Technology) 282,288,290

cerebral asymmetry 20,46,48,137,230

Chall, J. S. 65,262

child–adult interactions 192

childhood maltreatment 176–7

children

   applying adult data to 18–19,23,154

   see also case studies

Clements, S. D. 66

clinical analysis see case studies; double dissociation; whole child approach

clinician, role of 192–3

Cobb, C. 277

cognitive abilities, study of 228

cognitive deficits

   genetic studies of 38–9

   and neuroanatomy 48–9

   and reading disorders 43–4,53,234

cognitive development

   growth cycles 115,119–22

   link with brain development 114–15,116–19

   see also behavioral development; dynamic models of development

cognitive function, link with genes 37–40

cognitive science, neuroscience, education and 4–6,7

coherence see EEG

collaboration see interdisciplinary dialogue

color naming 69

compensation 21,25–7,137,154–5,231,233

complex figure tasks 229,230,231,246–7

comprehension 27,244–6,256–7,258–60,270

conduction aphasia 135

constraint, and plasticity 7–9

constructional dyspraxia 144

constructive webs of development 103–9

constructivist approach see rationalist approach

context

   in brain–behavior relations 185–7,257

   future research 234–5

   role of clinician 192–3

   to gain meaning 270

   whole child approach 190–1

coordination 86,88

copying task see complex figure tasks

cortical connectivity 86–7,135

   cycles of growth 115–19

   impact of maltreatment on 176–7

   and language processing 142

   and learning disorders 169–75

   research methodology 169–70

cortical ectopias 46–53

Critchley, M. 66

Csikszentmihalyi, M. 271,278

culture see sociohistoric approach

cusp-catastrophe analysis 114

cycle of learning in reading acquisition 209–11

cycles of development see development

Damasio, H. 138–9

deaf people 67,136–7,286

decoding 233

   see also rapid naming tasks; word reading tasks

Dejerine, J. 20,63

Demb, J. 161

Denckla, M. B. 69

Denenberg, V. 152

development

   of brain see neurological development

   cognitive cycles 115,119–22

   dynamic models of

     constructing 109–14

     constructive webs 103–9

     hierarchical skills 112–14

     and learning disorders 122–3

   linear model of 103–4,267

   mindbrain correlations 114–15,116–19

   role of genes 38,125

developmental pathways 267–8

developmental psychology 81,233–5

developmental range 120–1

Diagnostic Assessments of Reading with Trial Teaching Strategies (DARTT) 268

differentiation 86,88

diffusion tensor imaging 145

disconnection 20

Domgaard, R. M. 208

double dissociation 283–8

Double-Deficit Hypothesis 70,72,207–8, 265

drawing task see complex figure tasks

dynamic modeling of action 111

dynamic models of development 102–3

   constructing 109–14

   constructive webs 103–9

   hierarchical skills 112–14

   and learning disorders 122–3

dynamic skill model 119

dyslexia

   in adults see adults with dyslexia

   behavioral phenotype 43–5

   biological bases of 18

     see also neuroanatomy

   fMRI studies 137,148–9,155–62

     approaches and goals 152–3

     methodological confounds 153–5

   future research on 73

   genetic studies of 40–3

   and imaging studies 137–41

   multiple features of 65,144,149–52

   nested model of 28–9

   research history

     early 63–5,133

     middle 65–7

     recent 67–73

ectopias see cortical ectopias

Eden, G. F. 161

educational intervention

   analyzing case studies 200–1,203,205

   applying research to 72–3,151,261–2,282–3,288–91

   approaches to 93–4,257–60

   assistive technologies 289,290–1

   cognitive science, neuroscience and 4–6,7

   future policy 238

   impact of 210–11,235

   remedial technologies 288–9

   universal design 290–1

   use of twin texts 276–7

EEG (electroencephalography) 115,118,124

   coherence 87,124,126–7,169–70,171,172–4,176

empiricist approach 81–4

energy discontinuities in brain 118–19

environment see context

evolutionary approach 16–19,28–9

   integrating perspectives 24–7

experience 6,82,87,176–7,234–5

experimental theoretical psychology 111

Farmer, M. 152

Fast ForWord program 151,288–9

Field, L. L. 42

Fielding-Barnsley, R. 200

Fildes, L. G. 64

Fink, R. P. 109,265

Fischer, K. W. 70,86,88,116,267–8

Fisher, S. E. 42

flow experience 271

fluency 202,205,209–11,222,244–6, 266

   see also naming speed; Test of Word Reading Fluency

fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging) 136,137,148–9,162–3

   methodological confounds 153–5

   research approaches and goals 152–3

   research relating to dyslexia 155–62

Frith, U. 40

frontal–posterior coherence 87,89

functional level of development 120–1

functional neuroimaging studies 8

   see also fMRI

Galaburda, A. M. 20,23,68,84

Gayan, J. 42

Gazzaniga, M. A. 141–2

gender

   and heritability of dyslexia 41

   and impact of child abuse 177

   and reading interests 271–2,273,275–6

   see also sex differences

genes

   and cognitive disorders 38–9

   and cognitive function 37–40

   for reading/writing 18

   role in prenatal development 125

genetic basis of dyslexia

   ectopias 50–3

   problems of studying 40

   studies 40–3

Geschwind, N. 20,63,68,69,283

Grigorenko, E. L. 42

growth cycles see development

Guttman scalogram method 105

Habib, M. 154

hearing impaired 67,136–7,286

Hebb, D. O. 82

heritability, and dyslexia 40–1

Herman, A. E. 49

hierarchical skills 112–14

Hinshelwood, J. 64

Hutsler, J. J. 141–2

hyperlexia 27

imaging see neuroimaging techniques

instruction see educational intervention

intellectual leadership 94

interdisciplinary dialogue 4–6,181–2

   and modes of clinical analysis 185–91

   use of case studies 182–5,187–90,248–9

interests and motivation 269–70

   discovering interests 274–6

   gender differences 271–2,275–6

   importance of access 277–8

   study of mathematics and science 273–4,277–8

intervention see educational intervention

IQ-achievement discrepancy formula 237

Johnson, D. J. 66

Kant, I. 84

Kaplan, B. J. 42

Kemper, T. L. 20

Klein, R. 152

Knight, C. C. 88

ladder metaphor of development 103–4,267

language

   genetic basis 37–8

   see also linguistic deficit

Language Learning Impairment (LLI) 151

language processing

   brain bases of

     cellular and circuitry level 141–3

     and dyslexia 144–6

     imaging studies 136–41

   localization in adults and children 21

language production

   brain bases of 134–6

   see also spoken language

Larsen, F. 153

lateralization 64,94

   see also cerebral asymmetry; localization

learning

   reading acquisition and cycles of 209–11

   role of genes 38

Learning Disabilities Research Center (LDRC) 168

learning disorders 13

   approaches to 185–7

   case studies 187–90,196–8

   and cortical connectivity 169–75

   dynamic models of 122–3

   and linear model of development 104

   research on 5,80–1

     empiricist 83

     rationalist 88–90

   role of clinician 192–3

   whole child approach 190–1

   see also reading disorders

lesion studies 134–5,136,138,139,141,168,283–4

Levy, B. A. 210

Liberman, I. Y. 67

linear model of development 103–4,267

linguistic deficit

   dyslexia as 43–4

   and neuroanatomy 48–9

listening comprehension 259

Livingstone, M. 23

Livingstone, M. S. 23,68

localization

   adult/child differences 21–3

   see also cerebral asymmetry; lateralization

localization perspective 19–24

‘looking at’ approach 185,187–8,189,190

Lovett, M. W. 210

Lundberg, I. 150

Luria, A. R. 91–2

McDermott, R. P. 94

macro-columns 142

magnetic resonance imaging see MRI

magnetoencephalography (MEG) 161

magnocellular deficit hypothesis 150

magnocellular systems 68–9,71

mathematics, study of 273–4,277–8

meaning see comprehension

media, reading types of 285

medio-lateral gradients of development 126

methodology and methods 81

   in cortical activity research 169–70

   double dissociation 283–8

   dynamic models of development 109–14,122–3

   in fMRI research 152–5

   of linear model 103,104

   see also case studies; neuroimaging techniques

mind see cognitive deficits; cognitive development

mindbrain development see development

mirror neurons 142–3

Mody, M. 152

Morgan, W. P. 64

Morris, R. D. 70,229

Moses, R. P. 277

motivation to read see interests and motivation

motor disorders 287

motor movements

   and brain volume 31

   and mirror neurons 142–3

motor tapping tasks 229,233,246–7

MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) 30,136,138

   see also fMRI

Myklebust, H. R. 66

naming deficits, and neuroanatomy 138–9

naming speed

   and double deficit hypothesis 207–8

   rapid naming tasks 205–6,219,220,221,222,248

   research on 69–72

Nelson-Denny Reading Test (ND) 268

neo-Piagetian approach 86

nested model of reading 25–7,28–9

neuroanatomy

   brain volume 30–3

   cellular and circuitry level 86–7,115–19,141–3,169–75,176–7

   of dyslexia 20,45–7,133,144–6, 235–6

     animal models 47–50

     genetics of animal ectopias 50–3

     re-examination of 68–72

   imaging see neuroimaging techniques

   and language production 134–6

   see also localization

neuroimaging techniques 71,115,135,136–41,145,161

   see also EEG; fMRI; MRI; PET

neurological development

   and coherence 126–7,173–4

   empiricist approach to 82

   growth cycles 115–19

     postnatal 126

     prenatal 125

   link with cognitive development 114–15,116–19

   rationalist approach 86–7

   role of experience 176–7

   sociohistoric approach 91–2

   spatial gradients

     postnatal 126

     prenatal 124–5

neurological research 96,168

   empiricist 83–4

   rationalist 88–90

   sociohistoric 94

neuronal size 47,49,141–2

neuropsychological research 228

   cognitive science, education and 4–6,7

   double dissociation in 283–8

   educational application of 282–3,288–91

Neville, H. 136

nonfiction texts 276

non-word reading tasks 199–200,201,203,219–20,221,222

observation see ‘looking at’ approach

Olson, D. R. 92

optimal level of development 120–1

oral language see spoken language

oral reading task see paragraph reading task

orthographic encoding 137,138

orthographic representations 64,71,137–8,267

Orton, S. T. 64–5

Palinscar, A. S. 258

paragraph reading task 220,221,222,230,244–6

parallel distributed processes 115

Partially Ordered Scaling of Items (POSI) 105–9

perceptual deficit

   dyslexia as 43–5,53

   and neuroanatomy 49

   see also auditory processing; visual processing

PET (positron emission tomography) 139,143

phenotype of dyslexia

   behavioral 43–5

   neuroanatomical 45–50

phoneme awareness 68,83,150,200,207–8,209–11

phonemic decoding 207–8,209–11,244

phonics-based methods 65,200

phonological code 206

phonological deficit 83–4,207–8,233,249

   in adults 268

   in case studies 223,231

   in dyslexics 43,44,45,149–50

   fMRI studies of 155–61

phonological encoding 137,138

phonological processing

   defining 206–7

   research on 67–8

phonological-core variable-difference model 231

Piaget, J. 85–6,122

Piaget effect 114

Piercy, M. 151–2

plasticity 7–9,21,154,176

   see also compensation

Poldrack, R. 162

positron emission tomography see PET

postmortem studies 141

postnatal development 126

predator–prey models 114

prenatal development 124–5

psycholinguistic studies of dyslexia 67–8

psychological development see developmental psychology

pyramidal neurons 141–2

Rabinovitch, R. D. 66

rapid naming tasks 205–6,219,220,221,222,248

Rasch scaling 109

rationalist (structuralist) approach 84

reading

   assessing developmental webs for 105–9

   as captivating 270–1

   case studies see case studies

   diverse processes involved in 24–7,40,62,95,102

   evolution and history of 17–19

   localization perspective of 19–24

   motivated by personal interest 269–70

     discovering interests 274–6

     gender differences 271–2,275–6

     importance of access 277–8

   and phonological processing 206

reading acquisition, cycle of learning 209–11

reading disorders

   approaches to evaluation 256–8

   brain bases see neuroanatomy

   case studies see case studies

   detection of 237,238,256

   and developmental psychological research 233–5

   diverse processes involved in 24–7, 28–9,62,65,144–6,237,248–9, 284–5

   interventions see educational intervention

   link with other deficits 284–5

   misconceptions 236–7

   research 5–6

     future 73

     neuroscientific 235–6

     rationalist 87–9

     sociohistoric 92–4

   research history

     early 63–5,133

     middle 65–7

     recent 67–73

   retrospective deduction 18–19,23,154

   subtypes 229,231,232

   see also dyslexia

reading instruction see educational intervention

Reading Reform Foundation of New York 261

reading skills

   of adults with dyslexia 268

   continuum of 237

   hierarchical model 112–14

   and localization 22–3

real word reading tasks 199–200,201,203,219,221,222

Reciprocal Teaching 258,259

reflective abstraction 85

reframing 274

remedial instruction see educational intervention

remedial technologies 288–9

Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure (ROCF) 229,230,231,246–7

Rieben, L. 88

Rizzolatti, G. 142–3

romantic fiction 275–6

Rose, S. P. 86,116

Rosen, G. D. 49,68

Ruff, S. 162

Scarborough, H. S. 208

Scardamalia, M. 94

schema theory 270,272

Schilder, P. 65

science, study of 273–4,277–8

self-regulatory function 92

self-teaching hypothesis 220

semantic encoding 137,138

sensory deficit

   dyslexia as 43–5,53

   and neuroanatomy 49

   see also auditory processing; visual processing

sex differences

   in development 119

   and neuroanatomy 31,49–50,54

   see also gender

sexual abuse 176,177

Shankweiler, D. P. 67

Share, D. L. 220

Shaywitz, B. A. 137–8

Shaywitz, S. E. 137–8,237,262

sign language 136–7,286

skill development see cognitive development

skills see reading skills

Smith, S. D. 41

socioeconomic status 92–4

sociohistoric approach 90–5

speeded processing 83,88,95

   see also naming speed

spelling 202,205,221

spoken language

   brain bases of 134–5

   deficit 149,189

   development of literacy and 27

   evolution of 17

   and phonological processing 206

standardized testing 192

Stanovich, K. E. 220,222,231,234

Stein, J. 144

strephosymbolia 64

structuralist approach see rationalist approach

supportive context 120–1,188

Tallal, P. 151–2,288

technologies

   assistive technologies 289,290–1

   remedial technologies 288–9

Temple, E. 162

temporal rate processing deficit 151–2, 161–2

Test of Word Reading Fluency 196,199

Teuber, H.-L. 283

thalamus 49–50

Thatcher, R. W. 86–7,88,95,114,116,126,127

theoretical approaches 96

   empiricist 81–4

   rationalist 84

   sociohistoric 90–5

Thinking Reader program 290

training

   impact on brain activation patterns 154–5

   see also educational intervention

transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) 143

twin studies 41

twin texts 276–7

twisted symbols 64

universal design 290–1

van Baal, C. 127

visual processing 84

   in dyslexics 45,63–4,150–1

   fMRI studies of 161

   integration with auditory 107–9

   and mirror neurons 142–3

   and naming speed 71

   sign language 136–7

Vygotsky, L. S. 91,120

Walsh, V. 144

web-like pathway of development 267,268

Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children 248

Wenger, J. 248

Wernicke, K. 135

Wernicke’s area 135

whole child approach 186–7,190–1

whole-language movement 72

WiggleWorks program 290

Williams Syndrome 39

Wise, B. 210

Wittelson, S. 94

Wolf, M. 70,71–2,83,207

Woodcock-Johnson Psychoeducational Battery 197,199,200

word blindness 64

word reading tasks 198–205,219–21, 222

words, encountering new 203

working memory 86,88

writing task 229,230,247

written language 17–18,24

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