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New Theory of the Earth
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 (ISBN-13: 9780511271298)




Index




410-km discontinuity, 105,112

650-km discontinuity, 106,112,116

ABM, 251,252

Absorption, 104

Absorption band, 249

Absorption band model, 251

Acccretion, 5,7,27,30,123,167,n:305

Accretion, Earth, 27,30

Achondrites, 24

Activated processes, 248

Activation energy, 277

Activation volume, 277,278

Adiabatic decompression melting, 11

Adiabatic gradient, 280,342

Adiabatic temperature gradient, 150

Akimotoite, 286

Alkali basalt, 181

Andesite, 183

Anelasticity, 235,241,246,250

Anharmonicity, 235,274

Anisotropy, 98,102,105,256,273

Anisotropy, azimuthal, 267,269

Anisotropy, crystals, 260

Anisotropy, intrinsic, 257,263

Anisotropy, theory, 261

Anisotropy, transverse, 263,264,n:265

Anti-plume, 57

Ar-40, 164,225,343,350

Archean, 15

Archons, 37,131

Arclogites, 61,114

Argon, 199

Asthenosphere, 38,98,102

Atmospheres, 15

Attenuation, 246

Attenuation, frequency dependence, n:247

Attenuation, mechanisms, 249,250

Averages, 144

Azimuthal anisotropy, 135

BABB, 184,172,210

Barriers, 113

Basalt source rocks, 197

Bayes, 146

Bayesian statistics, 146

Bénard convection, 44

Birch’s law, 83

Blobs, 170,212

Blobs, enriched, 310

Boninites, 173

Boussinesq, 56,83

Box models, 212

BSE, 154,161,165,301

Bubbles, 44

Building blocks, 153,155,167

Building blocks, planets, 22

Bulk attenuation, 251

Bullen’s Regions, 89,302

Bullen’s Region C (see TZ)

Bullen’s Region D, 116

Bullen’sRegionD(seeLowermantle)

Buoyancy, 49,82

Buoyancy Parameter, 82

Buoyancy, negative, 115

Buoyant shallow mantle, 9

C (Common component), 158,304

C1, 22,23

Carbonaceous chondrites, 6,17,22,23

Carbonatite, 157,173

CC, 155

Central Limit Theorem (CLT), 143,209,210,316

CFB, 173,182

Chaos, 79

Chemical barrier, 134

Chemical boundaries, xi,108

Chemical discontinuities, 113

Chemical heterogeneity, 126

Chemical stratification, 9,110,117,134,168,320,323

Chemically stratified mantle, 76,350,353,354

Chondrites, 17,22

Chondrites, enstatite, 153

CI, 22,23

CLT(see;also;Central;Limit;Theorem), n:143,158,209

CMAS, 291

CMB, 119

CO2, 103,177,199,293,343

Cold accretion, 6

Color images, 139

Comparative planetology, 12

Complexity, 46,73

!

Complexity theory, 33

Components, 155,158

Composition, 151

Composition, upper mantle, 30

Condensation, 3

Condensation, Elements, 3,4

Condensation, Solar gas, 3

Continental flood basalts, 182

Continental keels, 37

Convecting mantle, 154

Convecting upper mantle, 154

Convection, 73

Convection, mantle, 218

Convection-style, 351

Convective planform, 45

Cooling, Earth, 353

Cooling, mantle, 335

Coordination, 283

Core, 118

Core, formation, 123,213

Core, heat, 344

Core, light elements, 122

Core, Mars, 16

Core, radioactive elements, 123

Core-forming ‘event’, 8

Core–mantle boundary (CMB), 80

Core–plume hypothesis, 49

Correlations, 131,134

Cosmic abundances, 25

Cosmic dust, 204

Cosmochemistry, 153

Cracks, 263

Cratons, 37,131,133

Crust, 13,91

Crust, continental, 340

Crust, radioactivity, 340

Crystal structure, 282

Crystallization, Earth, 11

Cumulate layers, 320

Cumulates, 176,325

D′, 138

D′ (see lower mantle)

D′′, 118,138

Debye theory, 274,276

Deep mantle, inaccessible, 320

Deep slab penetration

Delaminates, 294

Delamination, 8,15,39,57,59,63,78,98,113,114,172,313,349

Densities, 60,61,98,110,296,319,323

Density jumps, 293

Density, eclogites, 294,296

Depleted mantle (see DM)

Depleted Upper Mantle, 303

Diapirs, 75,104

Differentiation, 7,10,214

Diffusion, 277,278

Diking, 56

Dimensionless numbers, 80

Dimensionless parameters, 240

Discontinuities, xi

Discontinuity, 410-km, 112

Discontinuity, 650-km, 112

Dislocations, 279

Dissipation, 33,35,48,82

Dissipation (seismic), 246

Dissipation controlled self-organization, 47

Dissipation Number, 82

DLA parameters, 240

DM, 144,154

DMM, 220

DMORB, 155

Driving forces, 47

DUM, 154,301

DUM idea, 303

Dunite, 189

DUPAL, 158

Dynamic topography, 64,360

Dynamics, 46

Dynamo, 344

E∗, 277

Earth, composition, 338

Eclogite, 11,40,57,99,170,189,193,287,310,317

Eclogite blobs, 170

Eclogite cumulates, 176,195

Eclogite cycle, 59

Eclogite engine, 58

Eclogite sinkers, xi,115

Eclogite, density, 296

Eclogite, melting, 61,280

Eclogite, sources, 61

Eclogite, stability field, 15

Eclogites, 110,223,296

EDGE, 83

Edge Driven Gyres and Eddies, 83

Edge-driven convection, 84

Effective elastic thickness (EET), 36,38

EH, 29

Elastic constants, 233

Elastic lithosphere, 36

Elastic moduli, derivatives, 237,238

Elasticity, 233

Elder, 83

EM, 144,158,224,304

EMORB, 156,225,306,308

Energetics, 335

Energy, 79

Enriched fluids, 324

Enriched mantle (see EM), 328

Enrichment, 304

Enstatite achondrites, 338

Enstatite meteorites, 22,28

Equilibrium phase boundary, 106

ET, 22

Eucrite parent body, 24

Evolution of a planet, 10

Extrinsic derivatives, 238

Fallacies, xi,147

Far-from-equilibrium, 33,46

Far-from-equilibrium-self-organized- systems, 48

Fe2O, 28

Fertile, 171

Fertile blob, 144,310,315,317

Fertile patches, 317

Forces, 78

Fossil heat, 335,373

FOZO, 144,158,178,225,304

Fragile matter, 44

Garnet, 287

Garnet pyroxenite, 197

Geodynamic barrier, 108

Geodynamics, 126

Geoid, 64,134

Geoid correlations, 66

Geoid highs, 65,68

Geoid lows, 65

Geotherm, 14,77

Geotomography, 124,140

Giant impact theory, 21

Global resurfacing, 15

Global tectonics, 67

Global tomography, 124,125,127,140

Googlet, 7,356

Googlets, definition, xii,xiii,33

Granular matter, 44

Grashof Number, 80

Gravitational settling, 8

Gutenberg discontinuity, 119

Harmonic solid, 235

Harzburgite, 189

He/Ar, 204

He/Ne, 204

Heat flow, 333,334,347,372

Heat flow- age, 345

Heat flow, continental, 337

Heat flow, delayed, 342

Heat flow, global, 350

Heat flow, oceanic, 337

Heat flow-‘corrections’, 347

Heat fluxes, 333,347

Heat flux-temporal changes, 348

Heat losses, 337

Heat pipe mechanism, 8,353

Heat pipes, 333

Heat sources, 338

Heat sources, minor, 343

Heat, core, 344

Heavy bombardment, 18

Helium, 170,174,198,199,226,304,341

Helium carrier, 226

Helium paradoxes, 224,343,367

Helium statistics, 367

Helium-heat flow paradox, 343

He-rich reservoir, 29

Heterogeneity, 124,140,314,317

Heterogeneity, lateral, 135

Heterogeneity, mantle, 224

Heterogeneity, origin, 314

Heterogeneity, spectrum, 126

Heterogenous mantle

High-flux period, 14

High-MgO magmas, 173

HIMU, 158,178,223,225

History, Earth, 212

Homogenous accretion, 123

Homologous temperature, 150,279

Hotspot tracks, 67,172

Hotspots, 49,63,132,133,181,209,334,335

Hutton, James, xii

Hydrostatic flattening, 65

Hydrothermal circulation, 337

IAB, 173

Ideal world, 45

IDP, 30,204,208

Ilmenite, 286

Images, 140

Impacts, 12

Inert gases, 198,209

Inhomogenous accretion, 6,122

Initial conditions, 350

Initial state, 9

Inner core, 120,340

Inner core, formation, 121

Insulation, 68,72

Interatomic distances, 283

Interplanetary;Dust;Particles;(IDP), 30

Intrinsic anelasticity, 247

Intrinsic derivatives, 238

Irreversible chemical stratification, n:372

Irreversible differentiation, 11,353

Irreversible stratification, 320

Isotope ratios, 199

Isotopes, 158

Jamming, 44

Kelvin, 331,349

Kelvin effect, 353

KIMB, 157

Kimberlite (see also Q), 156,172,195,306

Kimberlite-KREEP, 180

Kimberlite-MORB, 179

Komatiites, 173

KREEP, 19

laminated mantle, 99,109–15

Language, 149

Large Igneous Provinces- silicic, 173

Large-ion lithophile (LIL), 10

Late veneer, 6,32,123

Lateral compression, 75

Lateral compression, 100

Lateral heterogeneity, 118

Late-stage melts, 324

Lava lamp tectonics, 112

Layered mantle, 76

Layered mantle convection, 86

Layered media, 263

Lead-isotopes, 230

Lehmann discontinuity, 101,120

Lherzolite, 189

LID, 37,97

LIL, 156,168,212,283

Lindemann melting equation, 279,280

LIPs, 57,61

Lithosphere, 35,36

Lithosphere, continental, 340

Lithospheres, 37

LM (see also Lower mantle), 154

Local Rayleigh Number, 39

Logarithmic derivatives, 240

Logic, 147

LOMU, 158,226

LONU, 158,225,226

Lord Kelvin, 331

Love waves, 127

Lower mantle, 70,106,116,118,137,202,241,289

Lower mantle, mineralogy, 297

Lower mantle, composition, 116

Low-spin Fe, 288

Low-spin iron, 117

Lumpy mantle, 109–15

Lunar basalts, 19

Lunar crust, 19

LVZ, 37,102,104

LVZ, deep, 112

Magma mixing, 326

Magma ocean, 8,9,12,19,26,180,319

Magma, origin, 280

Magmas, 168,182

Magnesiowustite, 288

Majorite, 106,285

Mantle anisotropy, 257

Mantle components, 341

Mantle discontinuities, 359

Mantle filters, 113

Mantle heterogeneity, 224

Mantle rocks, 189,197

Mantle stratigraphy, 59

Mantle, chemically inhomogenous, n:318

Mantle, components, 301,310

Mantle, composition, 156,167

Mantle, cooling, 333

Mantle, evolution, 318

Mantle, fabric, 256

Mantle, fertile, 306

Mantle, heterogenous, 312,317

Mantle, homogeneity, 313

Mantle, lower, 116,118

Mantle, magmas, 168,182

Mantle, mineralogy, 282

Mantle, prevalent, 304

Mantle, sampling, 143,145

Mantle, scale lengths, 316

Mantle, statistical assemblage, 304

Mantle, stratification, 59

Mantle, structure, 124,140

Mantle, upper, 302

Mantle-cooling, 353

Mantle-core equilibration, 122

Mantle-layered convection, 353,354

Mantleplumes, 49,51,127,140

Mantle-stratified, 353,354

Marangoni, 82

Marangoni convection, 44

Mars, 15,26

Mass balance, 305,306,309

Meimmechites, 173

Melt aggregation, 304

Melt, generation, 306

Melting, 77,104,250,280

Melting anomalies (see also Hotspots), 34

Melting anomalies, 49,171,312

Melting gradient, 281

Melting point, 280

Melting relations, 281

Melting temperature, 150

Mercury, 13,26

Mesosphere, 116

Meteorites, 22

Mg/Si ratio, 28

Mid-Atlantic ridge, 127,128

Midmantle, 116

Midocean;ridge;basalts,;composition, n:169

Midplate volcanism, 49

Mineral physics, 233,241

Mineralogy, lower mantle, 297

Minerals, 30

Minimal surfaces, 44

Minimum energy surfaces, 44

Mixing, 226

Mixing arrays, 226

Mixtures, 158

Moho, 91

Moon, 18,26

MORB, 144,154,156,224

MORB eclogite, 296

MORB reservoir, 145

MORB source, 154,301

MORB sources, 309

MORB, ancient, 203

MORB-eclogite, 112

MORB-reservoir, 354

MORB-source, 220

MU, 215

Multiple mantle discontinuities, 112

Nd, 218

Neon, 203

NMORB, 155

Noble gases, 198,209

Nusselt Number, 81

Occam’s razor, xii,9

Oceanic plateaus, 61

Ocean-island basalts, 171

OIB, 171,302

OIB source, eclogite, 317

Origin, Earth, 3

Origin, Moon, 20

Os, 217

Outer core, 120

Oxygen isotopes, 221

P′P′, 112

Paradigm, xi,xiii

Paradigm, 313

Paradigms, 149

Paradox, ix–xii

Paradox, 343

Paradox, lead, 220

Paradox, missing element, 157

Paradoxes, 208,218,354

Parameters, 151

Partial melting, effect on attenuation, 250

Pattern selection, 45

Pb, 214

Pb paradox, 220

Peclet Number, 80

Perched eclogite, 287

Peridotites, 189

Perisphere, 100,115

Perovskite, 116,287,288

Phase changes, 116,151,282,297

Phase changes, isobaric, 292

Phase changes, thermal, 295

Phase equilibria, 289

Phase relations, 285

PHEM, 158

Piclogite, 105,196

Picrite, 192

Picrites, 173

PKJKP, 120

Planetary accretion, 321

Planetary crusts, 12

Planetary accretion, 27,30

Planetary differentiation, 123

Planetary formation, 5

Planetary perspective, 1,11

Planetesimals, 5,7

Planetology, 12

Planets, building blocks, 22

Planform, 79

Plate, 35,37

Plate boundaries, 42

Plate creation rates

Plate driven flow, 85

Plate hypothesis, 36

Plate tectonic mode, 8

Plate tectonics, 33,45

Plate tectonics, planets, 18

Plate, semi-permeable, 347

Plates, 33,85

Platonic number, 85

Plume, 152,347

Plume hypothesis, 36,225

Plumes, 39,50,56,87,114,n:127

Plumes, anti-, 57

Plume-type, 209

PM, 154,155,301

PMORB, 172

Polar wandering, 70

Popping rock, 205

Post-perovskite, 288

Post-spinel, 106

Post-spinel perovskite, 288

Potential temperature, 77,150

Prandtl, 81

Prandtl Number, 81

Precursors, 112

PREM, 92,362

PREMA, 158,304

Pressure, 56,151

Primitive mantle (see PM)

Primitive mantle, 26

Primordial, 1,13

Primordial mantle, 203

Primordial material, 22

Primordial reservoir, 9,198

Principle of economy, 43

Probabalistic tomography, 124,126,364

Propagating cracks, 56

PUM, 31,301

Pyrolite, 31,58,105,193,366

Pyroxene system, 290

Pyroxenite, 192

Pyroxenites, 115

Q (heat flux), 353

Q (quality factor), 103,119,247

Q (quintessence), 303

Q (quintessential component), 155

QCT, 124,125

Quasi-harmonic, 235

Radial zone refining, 9

Radioactive elements, 211

Radioactive;heating,;distribution, 340

Radioactivity, 115,338

Radioactivity, core, 123

Rare gases, 198,209

Ratio fallacy, 148

Ratios, 151

Rayleigh, 81

Rayleigh fractionation, 187

Rayleigh Number, 39,81,289

Rayleigh waves, 127

Rayleigh–Bénard, 73

Rayleigh-like Numbers, 82

Rayleigh-Taylor, 75

RAZOR, 9,309

Recycle time, 59

Recycling, 171,207,224,315

Red Sea-Afar, 127,130

References explained, xii

References, notes on, xii

Refertilization, 59

Region D, 106

Region D′′, 118

Relaxation times, 250

Relaxed moduli, 104

Relaxed modulus, 37

Repetti Discontinuity, 105,131,294

Reservoirs, x,155,223

Reservoirs vs. components, 318

Reservoirs, noble gases, 205

Residence time, 115

Residual depth, 63

Resistance to plate motions, 47

Resurfacing, 15

Reynolds Number, 81

Rhyolites, 173

Ridge migration, 344

Rigidity, plates, 35

Rocks, mantle, 189,197

Sampling, 207

Sampling theory, 103,143,145

Scale, 144

Scale of heterogeneity, 67

Scale of mantle heterogeneity, 316

Scaling relations, 80

Scatterers, 112

Scattering, 139

Scientific truth, 147

SCLM, 37

Scrabble statistics, 144,145

Seafloor flattening, 346

Secular cooling, 335,342

Seismic velocities, 98

Seismic velocity, 150

Seismic wave, attenuation, 246

Self-organized, xii

Self-organized systems, 33

Semantics, 149

Shear wave splitting, 272

Simplicity, x

Slab anisotropy, 260,272

Slab-pull, 75

Slabs, 39,131,132,293,294

SLIPs, 173

SNC, 16,24

SNC meteorites, 16

SOFFE, 48,74

Soft matter, 44

Solar nebula, 3,213

Solar neon, 198

Spherical harmonics, 129

Spherical ions, 282

Spinel, 284

Sr, 218

Sr-isotopes, 230

Stagnant slabs

Standard model, x,9,29,87,100,109,116,126,223

Standard model, noble gases, 199,202,208

Standard models, 149

Statistical upper mantle, 145

Statistics, 143,200,209

Stealth layer, 86,301

Stealth layers, 350

Stealth reservoir, 354

Stirring, 8,11,152,304

Stishovite, 294

Stokes’ Law, 76,323

Stratification, 9

Stratification of the mantle, 320,n:323

Stratified mantle, 10,109,111

Stratigraphy, mantle, 59

Stress, 33,34,45,74

Stress-crack hypothesis, 49

Subadiabatic, 342

Subduction, 131

Subduction barrier, 9,204,208,298

Subsidence, 348

SUMA, 145,170,200,371

Sun, 25

Supercontinents, 69,75

Superplumes, 138

Superswell, 347

Surface tessellation, 43

Surface waves, 127

S-wave discrepancy, 372

TBL, 37,50,55,333

TBLs, 37

Tectonosphere, 37

Tectosphere, 37

Temperature, 150

Terrestrial tessellation, 43

Tessellation, 43

Theory, xii

Theory of the Earth, 155,302

Thermal boundary layer, 33,36,98,333

Thermal catastrophe, 373

Thermal conductivity, 274

Thermal coupling, 134

Thermal evolution, 10

Thermal expansion, 234

Thermal history, 352,353

Thermal rejuvenation, 347

Thermodynamics, 241

Thermoelasticity, 363

Thick basalt crust, 8

TOE, 155

Tomography, 124,140

Tomography, qualitative, 124,125

Tomography, quantitative, 124,125

Top-down tectonics, 84,372

Topography, 16,62

TPW, 71

Trace element modeling, 187

Transition region (see TZ)

Transition region, 105,108,287

Transition zone, 302

Transition zone, eclogite, 296

Transport properties, 274,280

Transverse isotropy, 261

Triple junctions, 44

True polar wander (TPW), 34

Two-reservoir model, 206,214

TZ, 105,287,302

U, 215

UDS, 166

Ultramafic rocks, 189

UM, 154

UMR, 161,189

Undegassed mantle, 198

Uniformitarianism, xii

Upper mantle, 26,96,165,302,n:341

Upper mantle composition, 30,305

Upper mantle, convecting, 301

Upper mantle, enriched, 308

Upper mantle, heterogenous, 303

Upper mantle, lithology, 318

Upper mantle, radioactivity, 341

Urey ratio, 352,353

V*, 278

Venus, 14

Venus, 26

Vigor of convection, 86

Viscosity, 48,66,277,352

Volatiles, 30,32

Volume, 151

Whole mantle convection, 75,134

Xenoliths, 114

Yellowstone, 130

Zone refining, 9,10,35

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