Cambridge Catalogue  
  • Help
Home > Catalogue > Cognition and Intelligence
Cognition and Intelligence
Google Book Search

Search this book

Details

  • 27 b/w illus. 8 tables
  • Page extent: 0 pages

Adobe eBook Reader

 (ISBN-13: 9780511261879)




Author Index




Abad, F. J., 22

Abe, O., 302

Abel, L., 84

Ackerman, P. L., 139, 156–157, 158, 246

Acton, G. S., 65

Adams, J. A., 157

Adams, R. A., 265

Ahmed, A., 48–49, 84, 101, 318

Alderton, D. L., 50, 246

Alexander, R. A., 157

Allison, P., 184

Alper, K. R., 101

Altas, S. W., 303

Amthauer, R., 182

Anderson, B., 84

Anderson, J. R., 100, 182

Anderson, M., 182, 285, 286, 287

Anjoul, F., 24

Anstey, K., 65, 67, 302

Anthony, J. C., 24

Anzai, K., 182

Aoki, S., 302

Apicella, A., 86, 103

Aranibar, A., 86

Ashford, J. W., 103

Aso, T., 102

Atkinson, R. C., 119

Atkinson, T. M., 304

Atran, S., 22–24

Augustine, A. M., 24

Austin, E. J., 22

Axelrod, R. M., 204–205

Aylward, E. H., 24

Ayton, P., 204

Backman, L., 302

Badcock, R. L., 249

Baddeley, A., 22, 23, 48–49, 119, 138

Bahrick, H. P., 221

Bahrick, P. O., 221

Baird, J. A., 140

Baltes, J. M., 66

Baltes, P. B., 65, 119, 221, 303

Barata, P., 24

Barch, D. M., 302

Barker, W. W., 86, 103

Barlow, J., 285

Barnett, S. M., 221

Barrett, G. V., 157

Barrett, P. T., 84

Basser, P. J., 100

Bauer, H., 87

Baumeister, A. A., 48–50

Beattie, B. L., 103

Beatty, J., 205

Beauducel, A., 182, 185

Becker, R. E., 103

Beckmann, J. F., 182

Begg, I. M., 223

Beier, M., 246

Beig, S., 303

Bejar, I. I., 265

Bell, B. G., 159

Bennett, R. E., 265

Bennett, S., 184

Berg, C. A., 187

Berish, D. E., 304

Berman, K. F., 303

Bernstein, L. J., 303

Berry, D. C., 182–183

Bethell-Fox, C. E., 246

Bettman, J. R., 207

Bhaskar, R., 183

Bien, S., 103

Binet, A., 119, 157

Bjorklund, D. F., 285

Bleckley, M. K., 120

Blieszner, R., 119

Blythe, T., 224

Bobbit, B., xi

Boekaerts, M., 246

Boies, S. E., 24

Bor, D., 48–49, 84, 101, 318

Borges, B., 204

Boring, E. G., 22

Boyd, R., 204

Boyle, C. B., 182

Boyle, M. O., 246

Brand, C. R., 22

Braver, T. S., 101, 302

Bregman, E. D., xii

Brehmer, B., 140

Brinley, J. F., 48

Broadbent, D. E., 119, 182–183

Brocke, B., 182

Bröder, A., 204

Brody, N., 22, 101, 246

Bronfenbrenner, U., 221, 318

Brown, A. L., xi, 138

Brown, I., 303

Browning, H. L., 84, 101

Bruner, J., 246

Buchel, C., 101

Buchner, A., 182, 183

Buchsbaum, M. S., 84, 101, 303

Bucik, V., 85

Buhrmann, S. C., 207

Bullemer, P., 186

Bundy, D. A., 187, 207

Bunting, M. F., 119, 139, 247

Burgess, P., 84

Burns, B. D., 187

Busch, C., 287

Buss, R. R., 186

Butterfield, E. C., 265

Campbell, K. B., 102

Cancro, R., 101

Cannon, T. D., 48–50

Cantor, J., 119

Card, S. K., 157

Carling, E., 140

Carlson, J. S., 49, 139

Carlstedt, B., 139, 246

Carpenter, P. A., 22, 24, 84–85, 101, 102, 103, 119, 139, 246, 265

Carroll, J. B., xi, 22, 48, 50, 65, 139, 157, 247, 266

Carter, C. S., 302

Carullo, J. J., 119

Caryl, P. G., 48, 84, 222, 286

Case, R., 223, 285

Catrambone, R., 221

Cattell, R. B., 22, 119, 183

Caulton, D., 206

Ceci, S. J., 183, 221, 222, 285, 318

Cerella, J., 49

Chabris, C. F., 101

Chaiken, S. R., 157

Chang, J. Y., 86, 103

Charlesworth, W., 222

Chase, W. G., 84, 139, 183

Chastain, R. L., 247

Cherry, C. E., 119

Chi, M. T. H., 183, 222

Christal, R. E., 23, 85, 102, 120, 158, 159, 248, 303

Christiansen, M. H., 120, 303

Cianciolo, A. T., 157

Clark, H. H., 84, 139

Cobb, M. V., xii

Coburn, K. L., 103

Cohen, A., 206

Cohen, J. D., 101, 302

Cohn, S. J., 49

Coley, J. D., 22–24

Colom, R., 22

Conway, A. R. A., 119, 120, 139, 247

Corno, L., 247, 249

Corroyer, D., 141

Cosmides, C., 204, 205

Coull, J. T., 101

Court, J. H., 249, 267

Cowan, N., 119, 139, 247

Crawford, J. D., 86, 186, 247

Crockett, D. J., 103

Cronbach, L. J., xi, 22, 158, 247, 266, 285

Czaja, S., 304

Czerlinski, J., 205

Dail, R., 48–50

Damasio, A., 247

Daneman, M., 22, 84, 101, 119

Daniel, M. H., 22

Daniels, K., 305

Danthiir, V., 66

Das, J. P., xii

Daston, L., 205, 206

Daum, I., 84

Davidson, J., 24, 139

Davidson, N., 121, 304

Davies, S., 286

Davis, A., 24

Davis, H., 286

Dawkins, R., 205

de Haan, H. F., 85

Deary, I. J., 22, 48, 49–50, 66, 84, 139, 158, 222, 247, 286

Denney, N. W., 119

Desmond, J. E., 86, 103

Detterman, D. K., 22, 141, 183, 222, 247

DiBello, L. V., 266

Dickens, W. T., 222

Diehl, K. A., 266

Dienes, Z., 183–184, 206

Ding, Y.-S., 305

Diwadkar, V. A., 101, 102

Dixon, R. A., 302, 303

Dodrill, K. L., 86, 103

Dolph, B., 66

Donders, F. C., xi

Donohue, B. C., 101

Dorner, D., 184

Doverspike, D., 157

Duara, R., 86, 103

Duchaine, B., 205

Dugatkin, L. A., 205

Duncan, H., 101, 318

Duncan, J., 48–49, 84, 101, 119, 286, 303, 318

Duncker, K., 139, 184, 222

Earles, J. L., 304

Easton, P., 101

Eddy, W. F., 101, 102

Egan, V., 22, 222

Eichelman, W. H., 24

Ekstrom, R. B., 66

Ellis, N. R., 184

Ellmore, T. M., 303

Elshout, J. J., 247

Embretson, S. E., 247, 266, 267

Emran, A., 86, 103

Emslie, H., 48–49, 84, 101, 286, 303, 318

Engle, R. W., 23, 119, 120, 121, 247, 303

Ericsson, K. A., 120, 158

Esposito, G., 303

Estes, W. K., 247

Evans, J. S. B. T., 247

Ewert, P. H., 184

Eyesenck, M. W., 139

Eysenck, H. J., 84

Fahey, R., 183–184

Fairweather, H., 286

Farde, L., 302, 303

Feltovich, P. J., 183

Ferguson, G. A., 158

Ferrer-Caja, E., 304

Feuerstein, R., xi

Fiez, J. A., 84

Fink, A., 85

Fischer, C., 185

Fischer, G. H., 267

Fiss, W. H., 120

Fitts, P., 158

Flavell, J. H., 139

Fleishman, E. A., 158

Fletcher, J., 184

Flynn, J. R., 222

Fodor, J. A., 205, 286

Forsythe, G. B., 25, 224

Fowler, J. S., 305

Frederiksen, J. R., 158

Freer, C., 286, 303

French, A. L., xi

French, J. W., 66

Frensch, P. A., 139, 184, 187

Frensch, P. A., 186

Freudenthaler, H. H., 84–85

Friederici, A. D., 103

Friedman, N. P., 120

Frieske, D., 304

Fristoe, N., 304

Friston, K. J., 101, 304

Frost, B. J., 206, 207

Frost, N., xi, 23, 158, 248

Fry, A. F., 49, 247

Fukuyama, H., 102

Funke, J., 183, 184, 185

Furby, L., 158

Gabrieli, J. D. E., 84, 86, 102, 103

Gaines, C. L., 304

Galef, B. G. Jr., 205

Galton, F., 22, 66

Garcia, L. F., 22

Gardner, H., 22, 66, 205, 224, 286

Gardner, M. K., 159, 250

Garlick, D., 22, 84, 101, 247

Gatenby, J. C., 101

Geddes, B. W., 185

Geffen, G. M., 66

Geffen, L. B., 66

Geissler, P. W., 187

Gentner, D., 248

Gibson, G. J., 22

Gigerenzer, G., 204, 205, 206, 221–222

Ginovart, N., 302

Gittler, G., 87

Glaser, R., xii, 183, 248, 249

Glover, H., 86, 103

Goff, G. N., 24, 66

Goff, M., 156–157

Gold, R. D., 287

Goldman, S. R., 247

Goldstein, D. G., 204, 205

Goleman, D., 22

Gore, J. C., 101, 267

Gorin, J., 266

Gottfredson, L. S., 23, 139

Gould, S. J., 286

Grady, C. L., 303

Gray, J. R., 101

Green, R. E., 185

Greeno, J. G., 247

Greve, W., 185

Grigorenko, E. L., xi, 25, 187, 207, 224

Groborz, M., 139

Groen, G. J., 49

Grudnik, J. L., 23, 66, 84

Gruszka, A., 140

Gur, R. C., 305

Gustafsson, J. E., 139, 246, 247

Guthke, J., 182, 185

Hagen, E., 248

Haider, H., 185

Haier, R. J., 84, 101

Hale, S., 49–50, 247, 285–286

Halford, G. S.,

Halldin, C., 302

Halpern, D. F., 222

Hambleton, R. K., 267

Hambrick, D. Z., 120, 186, 296, 304–305

Hampson, M., 101

Hancock, H. E., 296, 305

Hansen, C., 222

Harnishfeger, K. K., 285

Hart, B., 49, 303

Hasher, L., 120, 303

Haupts, I., 186

Hayashi, N., 302

Hayes, N. A., 185

Hazlett, E., 84, 101

Hebb, D. O., 66

Hedden, T., 121, 304

Hedehus, M., 102

Hedlund, J., 25, 224

Hegarty, M., 120

Heidrich, S. M., 119

Helenius, H., 303

Hempel, W. E., Jr., 158

Henry, R. A., 158

Hermelin, B., 285

Herrnstein, R. J., 286

Hertwig, R., 206

Hertzog, C., 303

Herzog, H., 48–49, 84, 101, 318

Hesses, F. W., 185

Hick, W. E., 23, 84

Hietala, J., 303, 304

Hillner, K., 223

Hindley, C. B., 286

Hitch, G., 119

Hitzemann, R., 305

Hobson, R. P., 287

Hocking, K., 305

Hoffrage, U., 206, 207

Holyoak, K. J., 187, 221

Holzman, T. G., 248

Hormann, J. J., 185

Horn, J. L., 23, 67

Horvath, J. A., 25, 224

Horwitz, B., 101

Hossner, E. J., 206

House, B. J., 159

Howe, M. J., 185, 286

Howell, M., 121

Huarte de San Juan, J., 23

Hubbard, A. W., 206

Hug, K., 205

Hulin, C. L., 158

Hultsch, D. F., 303

Humphreys, L. G., 158

Hunt, E., xi, 23, 24, 85, 139, 140, 158, 248, 286, 287, 318

Hunter, J. E., 248

Hunter, J. E., 24, 287

Hussy, W., 185

Hutt, S. J., 286

Huttenlocher, P. R., 85

Huttunen, M., 48–50

Jackson, D., III., 249

Jager, A. O., 185

Jager, C., 185

Jagust, W. J., 302

James, M., 141

James, W., 120

Janik, A., 250

Janowsky, J. S., 302

Jansen, J., 49, 50

Jausovec, N., 85

Jenkins, L., 50

Jennings, P., 206

Jensen, A. R., xi, 23, 48, 49, 50, 85, 86, 101, 139, 158, 206, 248, 287, 303

John, E. R., 101

Johnson, E. J., 206, 207

Johnson-Laird, P. N., 222, 248, 250

Johnson, R., 286, 303

Jones, D. K., 304

Jones, S., 206

Jonides, J., 24, 86, 101

Jordanova, V., 66

Jorm, A. F., 303

Juan-Espinosa, M., 22

Just, M. A., 22, 24, 101, 102, 103, 139, 246, 265

Kaasinen, V., 303

Kail, R., 49–50

Kane, M. J., 23, 102, 119, 120, 303

Kanfer, R., 156–157, 158

Kaprio, J., 48–50

Katz, E., 184

Kaufman, J. C., 86, 207

Kaye, J. A., 302

Keating, D. P., xi

Keele, S. W., 206

Keil, F., 223

Kellaghan, T., 22

Keller, T., 101, 102

Kelly, S. W., 186

Kersting, M., 185, 187

Kessels, R. P. C., 85

Keys, B. A., 302

Khaledy, M., 48–50

King, J. W., 102

Kintsch, W., 120

Kirkby, B. S., 303

Klatzky, R. L., 223

Klauer, K. J., 120

Klein, G., 206

Klein, K., 120

Kleitman, S., 66

Kliegl, R., 303

Klingberg, T., 102

Klumb, P., 66

Kluwe, R. H., 185

Knezevic, G., 66

Knorr, E., 85

Kollock, P., 206

Kolodny, J., 48–49, 84, 101, 318

Kondo, H., 102

Kornhaber, M. L., 22, 205

Korten, A., 303

Koslowski, B., 221

Kossowska, M., 139, 140

Kotler-Cope, S., 186

Kranzler, J. H., 23, 50, 66, 84

Kray, J., 186

Kreuzig, H. W., 184

Krüger, L., 205

Kummer, H., 206

Kunimatsu, A., 302

Kupermintz, H., 247

Kutas, M., 102

Kyllonen, P. C., 23, 24, 50, 85, 102, 120, 140, 157, 158, 159, 248, 249, 303, 318

Laihinen, A., 304

Lakatos, I., 159

Laland, K. N., 206

Lambert, J. F., 184

Lansman, M., 139, 248

Larson, G. E., 50, 140, 246

Laughlin, J. E., 120, 247

Lautenschlager, G., 121, 304

Lawless, R. R., 265

Lawrence, A. D., 141

LeBihan, D., 100

LeDoux, J., 23

Lehikoinen, P., 304

Lehmann, A. C., 158

Leodolter, M., 87

Leodolter, U., 87

Lewis, J., xi, 23

Li, J., 224

Li, S-H., 66

Lichtenstein, P., 304

Liebrand, W. B. G., 206

Liepmann, D., 182

Liker, J., 183, 221

Lindenberger, U., 65, 66, 303

Lindley, R. H., 85

Loewenstein, D. A., 86

Logan, J., 305

Logie, R. H., 23

Lohman, D. F., 49–50, 140, 159, 247, 248, 249, 318

Longqvist, J., 48–50

Lopes da Silva, G., 86

Lopez, A., 22–24

Lorberbaum, J. P., 204

Lord, S., 65

Lottenberg, S., 84

Lowenstein, D. A., 103

Luce, R. D., 24

Luciano, M., 66

Lunneborg, C., xi, 23, 158, 248

Luo, D., 66

Luria, A. R., xi, 102

Luszcz, M. A., 65

MacDonald, M. C., 24, 120

Mackinnon, A., 303

MacLachlan, A., 84

MacLeod, C. M., 24, 140, 318

Maguire, M., 102

Marini, Z., 223

Markman, A. B., 248

Markus, H. S., 304

Marsh, B., 206

Marshalek, B., 140, 248, 249

Marsiske, M., 66

Martignon, L., 206

Martin, N., 66

Martinez, M. E., 248

Mas, F. G., 101

Mathews, N. N., 140, 318

Mathews, R. C., 186

Mattiello, J., 100

May, C. P., 303

Maybery, M., 184, 186

Mayer, R. E., 186

Mayr, U., 303

McArdle, J. J., 303

McClearn, G. E., 304

McGarry-Roberts, P. A., 102

McGeer, E. G., 103

McGeer, P. L., 103

McGeorge, P., 186

McGill, W. J., 24

McGuthry, K. E., 186, 304–305

McInnes, L., 141

McIntosh, A. R., 304

McLeod, P., 206

McMains, S., 102

McNamara, D. S., 120

McQuoid, L. M., 205

Medin, D. L., 22–24

Meehl, P. E., 266

Meinz, E. J., 296, 305

Melton, A. W., 159

Merikle, P. M., 22

Messick, D. M., 206

Mestre, J., 223

Mesulam, M.-M., 102

Militello, L., 206

Miller, E. M., 85

Miller, G. A., 120

Miller, G. F., 206

Miller, K. L., 285

Minkoff, S., 119, 139, 247

Misiak, C., 185

Mislevy, R. J., 267

Mitchell, D. R. D., 249

Mitchell, R. F., xii, 86

Miyake, A., 102, 120, 121, 140, 248

Moberg, P. J., 305

Moore, D., 287

Moran, T. P., 157

Moray, N., 121

Morgan, K., 50

Mori, H., 302

Mori, M., 86

Morishita, M., 102

Morley, M. E., 265

Morris, R. G., 304

Moseley, M. E., 102

Moses, L. J., 140

Muller, H., 186

Mumenthaler, M. S., 302

Murray, C. A., 286

Myerson, J., 50

Naglieri, J. A., xii

Nagren, K., 303, 304

Narr, K. L., 48–50

Navon, D., 140

Necka, E., 139, 140, 141

Needham, D. R., 223

Nettlebeck, T., 24, 66, 87, 285, 287

Neubauer, A. C., 48, 50, 84–85

Neuchterlein, K. H., 101

Neville, H., 103

Newell, A., 140, 157, 186, 249, 304

Newell, B., 206

Newell, F. N., 48–49, 84, 101, 318

Newman, S. D., 102

Nielsen, D., 265

Nimmo-Smith, I., 303

Nissen, M. J., 186

Noble, J., 206

Nokes, C., 187

Noll, D. C., 101

Noll, J., 23

Noon, S. L., 158

Norman, D. A., 102, 140

Novick, M. R., 121

Nuechterlein, K. H., 84

Nusbaum, A. O., 303

Nyberg, L., 304

Oberauer, K., 121, 250

O’Brien-Malone, A., 186

O’Connor, N., 285

O’Hara, R., 50

Ohtomo, K., 302

Oikonen, V., 304

Okatcha, F., 187

Okubo, T., 302

Olsson, H., 303

Onkal, D., 204

Ortmann, A., 204

Orzechowski, J., 140, 141

Osaka, M., 102

Osaka, N., 102

O’Sullivan, M., 304

Overs, D. E., 247

Owen, A. M., 101, 141

Owen, C. F., 286

Paek, J., 84, 101

Pak, R., 305

Pallier, G., 24, 66

Palmer, J., 24

Palmon, R., 249

Park, D. C., 121, 304

Parkman, J. M., 22–24, 49

Parks, R., 86, 103, 305

Paul, K., 50

Paul, S. M., 50

Payne, J. W., 207

Pearlson, G. D., 24

Pedersen, N. L., 304

Pellegrino, J. W., xii, 247, 248, 249

Pena, C. M., 159

Peterson, B. S., 101

Peterson, L. R., 223

Petrill, S. A., 66

Pfurtscheller, G., 84–85, 86

Phye, G. D., 120

Piaget, J., xii, 140

Plomin, R., 304

Poldrack, R. A., 102

Popper, K. R., 159

Porter, T., 205

Posner, M. I., xii, 24, 86

Postma, A., 85

Poutanen, V-P., 48–50

Prabhakaran, V., 86, 103

Prescott, C. A., 303

Price, C. J., 304

Price, L. A., 66

Prichep, L. S., 101

Primi, R., 140, 249

Prince, R., 187

Psoner, M. I., 158

Putz-Osterloh, W., 186

Raab, M., 206

Raaheim, K., 249

Rabbitt, P., 50, 141, 286

Raichle, M. E., 24

Rakow, T., 206

Raven, J., 186, 249, 267

Raykov,, 86

Reber, A. S., 186

Reder, L. M., 223

Reed, B. R., 302

Reed, S. K., 223

Reed, T. E., 86

Reichle, E. D., 103

Reise, S., 266

Reiser, B. J., 182

Reither, F., 184

Rettinger, D. A., 120

Revuelta, J., 265

Rhee, S. H., 304

Richardson, K., 287

Richardson, M. B., 265

Richerson, P. J., 204

Riefer, D., 222

Rieke, R., 250

Rieskamp, J., 207

Rigas, G., 140

Rinne, J. O., 303, 304

Robbins, T. W., 141

Roberts, R. D., 24, 66, 86, 249

Robins Wahlin, T.-B., 302

Röder, B., 103

Rohrer, D., 223

Rose, S.,

Rosebery, A. S., 158

Rosler, F., 103

Roussos, L., 266

Royer, F. L., xii

Rozenzwajg, P., 141

Ruiz, A., 183, 221

Rumsey, J. M., 101

Runger, D., 184

Ruotsalainen, U., 304

Rychlicka, A., 141

Rypma, B., 103

Saavedra, N. C., 223

Sahakian, B. J., 141

Sako, E., 304

Salter, W., 103

Salthouse, T. A., 50, 186, 249, 296, 304–305

Saltz, T., 102

Saltzman, D., 223

Sanchez, L., 65

Sange, G., 85

Satterlee-Cartmell, T., 121

Savelsbergh, G. J. P., 207

Schacter, D. L., 24

Schank, R. C., 141

Schell, P., 246

Scheuffgen, K., 287

Schilde, A., 185

Schmidt, F. L., 24, 248

Schmidt, I., 185

Schneider, L. M., 267

Schrausser, D. G., 85

Schretlen, D., 24

Schrock, C., 121

Schroeder, D. H., 65, 305

Schulze, R., 250

Scott, J. L., 120

Scribner, S., 223

Seeley, T. D., 207

Seitz, R. J., 48–49, 84, 101, 318

Selten, R., 205, 207

Seng, S. N., 206

Shah, P., 120, 121, 140, 248

Shallice, T., 102, 140

Shanks, D. R., 185, 206

Sheehan, K. M., 267

Shell, P., 22, 139, 265

Sheramata, W. A., 86, 103

Shibasaki, H., 102

Shiffrin, R. M., 119

Siegel, B., 84, 101

Siegenthaler, A. L., 303

Siegler, R. S., 103

Silk, J. B., 206

Simon, H. A., 140, 182, 183, 186, 207, 249, 304

Simon, T., 157

Singley, M. K.,

Sinha, S. N., 101

Skovronek, E., 249

Skudlarski, P., 101

Slater, P. C., 223

Sloman, S. A., 24

Small, B. J., 303

Smith, A. D., 121, 304

Smith, E. E., 22–24, 86, 101

Smith, G., 66, 302, 305

Smith, J. A. L., 86

Smith, P. K., 121, 304

Smith, W. R., 85

Snook, S. A., 25, 224

Snow, R. E., 103, 140, 207, 248, 249

Soderling, E., 84

Sommer, B., 50

Spearman, C., xii, 24, 103, 121, 141, 249, 287, 303

Spilsbury, G., 249

Spinath, F.,

Spry, K. M., 183

Squire, L. R., 223

Standertkjold-Nordenstam, C., 48–50

Stankov, L., 24, 65, 66, 67, 86, 249

Stanley, W. B., 186

Stanovich, K. E., 249

Staudel, T., 184

Staudinger, U. M., 221

Stelmack, R. M., 102

Stephard, R. N., 207

Stephens, D. L., 23, 120, 158

Stern, W., 287

Sternberg, R. J., xii, 24–25, 86, 103, 139, 141, 159, 186, 187, 207, 222, 223, 224, 249, 250, 267, 287

Sternberg, S., xii, 86

Stevenson, R. J., 185

Stine, M., 121

Stock, O., 103

Stough, C., 158, 247

Stout, W. F., 266

Strohschneider, S., 187

Stroop, J. R., 141

Süb, 141

Summers, P. E., 304

Suss, H., 121, 159, 185, 187, 250

Sverdlov, L., 101

Swaminathan, H., 267

Swanson, H. L., 121

Swijtink, Z., 205

Swiney, J. F., 250

Syvalahti, E., 304

Taber, T., 158

Talbert, J., 247

Tang, C., 84, 303

Tangen, K. L., 265

Taylor, M., 186

Taylor, R. L., 24

Taylor, S. F., 302

Temple, E., 102

Teuber, H.-L., 103

Therriault, D. J., 119, 139, 247

Thomas, J. C., 141

Thomas, M., 185

Thomspon, P. M., 48–50

Thorndike, E. L., xii, 159, 224

Thulborn, K. R., 101, 102

Tirre, W. C., 157, 159

Todd, P., 205, 206

Toga, A. W., 48–50

Tooby, J., 205

Toth, J. P., 305

Toulmin, S., 250

Tucker, P., 141

Tuholski, S. W., 119, 120, 247, 303

Tuokko, H., 103

Turley-Ames, K. J., 121

Turner, M. L., 121

Ullstadius, E., 139, 246

Undheim, J. O., 247

van Erp, T., 48–50

Van Horn, J. D., 303

Van Valen, L., 103

Vandenberg, S. G., 103

Varma, S., 102

Verhaeghen, P., 305

Vernon, P. A., 50, 86, 87, 103

Vickers, D., 48, 87

Vilkman, H., 303

Vitouch, O., 87

Volkow, N. D., 305

Vollmeyer, R., 187

Von Neumann, J., 50

Vos, S. H., 103

Vygotsky, L. S., xii, 141, 250

Wagner, M. E., 265

Wagner, R. K., 25, 224

Wahlin, A., 302

Wake, W. K., 22, 205

Wang, G.-J., 305

Wang, W. C., 265

Wang, Y., 207

Warr, P., 141

Warren, B. M., 158

Wearing, A., 184

Wechsler, D., 159

Wei, T. C., 303

Weiss, R. H., 183

Welsh, M. C., 121

Weston, N. J., 206

Wetzel, D., 267

Whiskin, E. E., 205

White, N., 224

Whitely, S. E., 267

Whitfield, M. M., 121

Whiting, H. T. A., 207

Wickett, J. C., 87

Widaman, K., 50, 139

Wight, D., 222

Wijnalda, E. M., 85

Wilhelm, O., 250

Wilkinson, R., 66

Williams, G. C., 207

Williams, J. E., 184

Williams, P., 101, 286, 303, 318

Williams, S. C. R., 304

Williams, W. M., 25, 224

Willis, S. L., 119

Willmes, K., 120

Wilson, C., 287

Wilson, M., 265

Wilson, R. J., 87

Wingersky, M., 267

Wittling, R. P., 221

Wittmann, W. W., 121, 141, 159, 250

Wixted, J. T., 223

Wolbrette, M., 305

Wolf, S., 206

Woltz, D. J., 140, 157, 158, 159, 248, 318

Woodard, J. L., 305

Woodcock, R. W., 103

Woodrow, H., 159

Woodworth, R. S., 224

Woodyard, E. I., xii

Wright, M. J., 66

Wu, J. C., 84, 101

Yang, X., 267

Yanng, Y., 250

Yesavage, J. A., 302

Yoshii, F., 86, 103

Yoshikawa, T., 302

Yule, W., 287

Zacks, R. T., 120, 187, 303

Zeaman, D., 159

Zec, R. F., 103

Zheng, Y., 50

Zimmerman, W. S., 250

Zoumalan, C. I., 48–50

Zsambok, C., 206

Zuckerman, M., 141

Zwahr, M., 304




Subject Index




ABC Numerical Assignment test, 231

abstract reasoning, 21, 239

   capacity for, 254, 255

   matrix tasks and, 255

   working memory and, 20, 106

Abstract Reasoning Test, 135

academics, 5, 9, 55, 173

   admissions, 246

   ECTs and, 55–56

   Raven’s Matrices and, 231

   reasoning tests and, 227

   teaching methods in, 9, 14, 219–220, 246

   Wechsler Scales and, 142

   See also success indices; specific tests

Ackerman’s three-phase theory, 147–148, 156

   automatic processes and, 149

   Fleishman-Hulin theory and, 148

ACT theory, 272

adaptive item generation, 251–265

   algorithmic generation and, 258–262

   cognitive design system approach, 252–263

   computer programs for, 257

   construct validity and, 251, 264, 265

   matrix problems and, 252–263

adaptive testing, 315

   defined, 251

   item response theory, 255–256

   See also adaptive item generation

adaptive toolbox approach, 188, 193–201, 313

   defined, 188–189

   ecological validity and, 193

age

   analytical strategies and, 133

   episodic memory and, 297

   fluid intelligence and, 297

   implicit learning and, 178, 179

   IQ and, 272

   perceptual speed and, 297

   response time and, 31

   See also cognitive aging

age-effects variable-relatedness (AR) models, 293–295

algorithms, 234, 258–262. See also heuristics

Alzheimer’s disease, 31, 63

analogical reasoning, ix, 2, 123, 124, 125, 133, 227, 232

   fractionation of, 2

   inductive tasks and, 125

   initial stages of, 133

   mapping and, 126

   nonverbal, 129

   OIP and, 129, 131

   working memory and, 130

analytical reasoning, 21, 133

apparatus-procedures, 16, 43

   instructional effects, 145–146, 177

aptitudes, defined, 244

Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (AVAB), 7, 21, 32

artificial intelligence, 127, 251–263, 265, 315

   domain specificity and, 196

   neural networks and, 96

   See also adaptive testing

assembly processes, 241

associative thinking, 229–230

attention, 93, 109, 110, 117, 132, 135, 241, 310, 314, 315

   attention-deficit disorder, 20

   automatic processes and. See automatic processes

   cocktail party problem, 19

   cognitive control and. See cognitive control

   controlling for, 72

   distracting internal representations and, 240

   domain specificity and, 107

   encoding proccesses and, 240

   fluid intelligence and, 310–311

   frontal lobes and, 83

   G-factor and, 240

   goal management and, 240

   inspection times and, 56

   knowledge and, 240

   novel tasks and, 117

   OIP and, 129, 130

   real-world contexts and, 317

   reasoning and, 240

   spatial storage and, 117

   task-switching and, 19, 135

   working memory and, 19, 107, 108, 112, 113, 115, 130, 239–240, 245, 310–311

   See also dual-task studies; executive attention

auditory abilities, 58–59, 62, 64–65

autism, 81, 282

automatic processes, 147–156, 316

   Ackerman’s theory and, 149

   associative thinking and, 229–230

   attention and, 229–230, 240

   emotions and, 230

   expertise and, 14

   mental modeling and, 230

   modularity and, 280

   priming and, 13–14

   problem solving and, 163

   processing speed and, 169, 280

   reasoning and, 230

   verbal comprehension and, 13

   See also implicit learning; skill learning

backward search strategy, 133–134

bandwidth of assessment instrument, 142

baseball tasks, 118, 210

behaviorism, 3, 5

Binet, 1, 5, 269, 270, 281

biology, vii–viii, 80–83

   bioecological approach, 208, 213–215

   physiology, 31, 72–80

   See also specific topics

BIS-factor K, 168

block design tasks, 132

bottom-up research approaches, 124–125, 307, 316

   causal direction and, 125

   cognitive flexibility and, 315

   ecological validity and, 307

   ECTs and, 306, 316–317

   monitoring and, 131

   neural efficiency and, 315

   replicability and, 307

   task complexity and, 124–125

brain anatomical structures, vii–viii

   anterior cingulate cortex, 93, 97–98

   Broca’s area, 91, 93, 96–98, 309

   corpus callosum, 96

   dorsal anterior cingulate, 93

   dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, 21, 95, 300

   frontal lobes. See frontal lobes

   lateral cerebellum, 93

   left parietal cortex, 309

   temporo-parietal region, 98–99

   thalamus, vii–viii

   Wernicke’s area, 91, 94, 96–97

   See also specific neural structures

brain size, 80–81, 89, 293

Brinley plots, 45, 46, 47, 48

Brunswik Symmetry, 142, 150

card-sorting paradigm, 57

Cattell-Horn model, 6

charting, 51–56, 58–64

chess, 143, 196, 200, 201, 209–210

choice reaction times, 2, 15–17, 18, 44–45, 52, 56–57, 69–70, 123, 150

   apparatus familiarity and, 16

   distributed non-normally, 16

   reliability of, 17

   response time, 33

   See also chronometry

chronometry, 26, 27–29, 48

   Alzheimer’s disease and, 31

   derived measures from, 38–39

   general factor g and, 36–48

   physiological states and, 31

   scale properties and, 27–29

   standardizing of, 32–34

   test-equivalency, 30

   See also specific measures

classification tasks, 4–5, 123, 227, 232, 235

cognitive aging, 62, 63, 64, 81, 298–301, 317

   age-effects variable-relatedness (AR) models, 293–295

   brain efficiency and, 63–64

   Brinley plots and. See Brinley plots

   causal direction and, 299, 300

   cortical communication efficiency, 300

   covariance approach and, 288–289

   description-to-explanation approach, 288–298

   dopamine receptors and, 300

   dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, 300

   episodic memory. See episodic memory

   evoked potentials and, 81

   fluid intelligence and, 62

   fMRI and, 300

   general factor g, 297

   glucose and, 81

   hierarchical models and, 297

   inductive reasoning and, 298–301

   lower-order processes and, 51, 63–64

   models of, 290–298

   myelination and, 81, 300

   neural pruning hypothesis, 81–82

   perceptual speed and, 297, 298–301, 317

   principal components analysis of, 294

   process analysis approach to, 288–289

   processing speed, 62

   reaction times and, 81

   shared-influence models for, 292

   structural equation models for, 292

   vision analogy for, 289–290

   See also developmental approach

cognitive-components approach, viii–ix, 52, 273–274

cognitive control, 122, 135–137, 310, 314

   attention and, 135, 311

   conscious processes of, 135

   creativity and, 137, 311

   crystalized intelligence and, 136

   executive functions and, 135

   fluid intelligence and, 136

   higher-order cognition and, 131–137, 314

   inhibition and, 135

   intelligence levels and, 311

   interference tasks and, 136

   lower-order approaches to, 314

   matrix problems and, 136, 311

   OIP and, 131

   reaction times and, 311

   short-term memory and, 135

   verbal analogies and, 136

   See also executive control; Navon tasks; Stroop tasks

cognitive-correlates approach, viii, 52, 273–274

cognitive design system approach, 251

   adaptive item generation. See adaptive item generation

   adaptive testing. See adaptive testing

   construct validity and, 255

   data supporting, 259–260

   evaluation of, 264

   non-verbal test items, 259

   psychometric models and, 255–257

   stages of, 257–258

   theoretical foundation for, 252–254

cognitive neurosciences field, 3

cognitive psychology approach, 1, 3–4, 5

combination processes, 128, 234, 243

   deductive reasoning and, 234, 239

   fluid intelligence and, 239

comparison processes, 128, 234, 239, 243

   fluid intelligence and, 239

   inductive reasoning and, 234, 239

   series completion tasks and, 234–235

   syllogisms and, 235

componential analysis, 126, 169

computational explosion, 196

computerized task scenarios, 128, 162, 165–174, 312

   air traffic controller scenarios, 151, 152–153, 154, 312

   CHERRYTREE scenario, 170

   CITY TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM, 176

   high-tech company simulation, 128

   LOHHAUSEN town simulation, 165

   LUNAR LANDER simulation, 169

   MORO nomads simulation, 167, 169

   power station simulation, 128

   SUGAR FACTORY simulation, 175–177, 180

   TAILORSHOP simulation, 166, 168–170

   textile manufacturing simulation, 128

confidence judgments, 61, 242

conscious processes

   expertise and, 14

   higher-order cognition, 132

   IQ variation and, 179

   priming and, 13–14

   problem solving and, 163

   reasoning and, 229, 230

   sequential processes and, 45

   verbal comprehension and, 13

   See also explicit learning

construct validity, 232–233, 298–299. See also specific constructs

content dimensions, 220

content-free problems approach, 9

context, 244, 307, 317

   intelligence and, 313

   top-down approaches and, 315

   See also knowledge, learning transfer; specifc contexts

control processes, 122, 241

   cognitive strategies and, 132–135

   complexity and, 123

   components of, 132

   efficiency of, 135

   frontal lobes and, 310

   general factor g and, 132

   short-term memory and, 135

   top-down phenomena and, 131

   See also executive control; monitoring; specific processes

correspondence finding, 253

cortical activation, vii

   complexity and, 77

   EEGs and, 81

   ERDs and, 76

   mental energy and, 90

   neural efficiency and, 76

   resource-availability and, 94

   sex differences in, 78–80

   topological patterns in, 90, 94

cortical communication efficiency, 96, 300

cortical computation, operating principles for, 90

creativity, 8, 9

   artistic, 60

   cognitive control and, 311

   heuristics and, 204

   insight problems, 128

   task complexity and, 128

Cronbach program, viii, 1, 2, 5, 8, 26–48, 268–269, 276–277, 306–316, 317

crystalized intelligence (Gc), 6, 77, 228

   cognitive control and, 136

   differentiation along higher levels, 6–7

   dual-task studies and, 240

   fluid intelligence and, 1

   neural efficiency and, 77–78

   success-indices and, 7

   synchrony and, 54

cultural patterns, 195

Culture Fair Test, 46–47, 165

decision processes, 307

   card-sorting paradigm, 57

   confidence and, 61

   decision time, 16, 57, 274, 275. See also choice reaction times

   ECTs and, 57

   frontal lobes and, 83

   Hick’s paradigm and, 57

   top-down approaches and, 306

deductive reasoning, 4–5, 234, 235–236, 244, 245

   contra-factual reasoning and, 235–236

   See also syllogisms; specific processes

deficits-disabilities, 280

   specificity of, 278

   See also specific topics

dendritic arborization, 80–81, 82, 83

depression, 47–48

developmental approach, ix–x, 127, 270

   dynamic self-assembly, 94–96

   inhibition and, 276

   inspection time and, 281, 282

   intelligence and, 275–276

   IQ and, 282

   knowledge systems and, 275–276

   minimal cognitive architecture theory, 277–282

   modularity and, 280

   practice and, 280

   processing speed and, 276, 281, 282

   proximal zone and, x

   reaction time and, 281, 282

   synchrony and, 54

   See also cognitive aging

diffusion tensor imaging, 90, 96, 98, 309–310, 317

domain specificity, 174, 196, 197, 313

   artificial intelligence and, 196

   attention control and, 107

   bioecological approach and, 213–215

   computational explosion argument, 196

   defined, 195–196

   emotional intelligence and, 196

   evolution and, 178, 193, 204

   fMRI and, 203

   Gardner’s theory and, 202

   general factor g and, 196

   heuristics and, 192, 193, 195–197, 200, 202

   high-level cognition and, 104–119

   level of analysis and, 195–196

   models of, 114, 116

   modularity and. See modularity

   scissors metaphor, 193, 202

   social intelligence and, 196

   swiss army knife metaphor, 202–203

   working memory and, 104–107, 108, 119

dopamine receptors, 300

DORI computer task, 167

Down-syndrome, 81

drugs, 30, 31

dual-task paradigm, 45, 59, 136, 240

   auditory tasks and, 109

   See also sequential processes

ecological validity, 190–191, 193–195, 200, 203, 307

   adaptive toolbox and, 193

   bottom-up approaches and, 307

   explicit problem solving and, 165–166

   heuristics and, 189

   IQ measures and, 165–166, 173

   omniscience doctrine, 194

   time constraints and, 280

   top-down approaches, 315

   See also real-world contexts

Educational Testing Service, 52

eduction, vii, 125, 238. See also inference; mapping

efficiency, 314

   apparatus familiarity and, 16

   genetic potentials for, 209

   knowledge and, 208–209

   See also neural efficiency

electroencephalograms (EEGs), 53, 72, 74–76, 81, 89

   heritability and, 56

   neural efficiency and, 77–78, 309

   See also Event-Related Desynchronization

elementary cognitive tasks (ECTs), 52, 54–55, 58, 65, 68–72, 307, 312

   academic performance and, 55–56

   bottom-up research approaches, 306, 316–317

   Brinley plots and, 47

   complexity and, 123

   decision processes for, 57

   ecological validity of, 307

   ERD maps and, 74

   few in number, 316–317

   genetics and, 55

   predictive validity of, 55

   psychometric intelligence and, 71–72

   response time and, 35, 47

   sensory modalities and, 58

   taxonomy of, 52

   See also specific tasks, task types

emotions, 9, 196, 230, 243, 244, 317. See also motivation

encoding processes, vii, 128, 239, 254

   adaptive problem solving and, 243

   attention and, 240

   fluid intelligence and, 239

   G-factor and, 243

   goal management and, 240

   inductive reasoning and, 234, 239

   initial time investment and, 126

   knowledge and, 209–210, 219

   memory and, 219

   monitoring and, 219

   reasoning and, 229–230, 233, 234

   speed of, 209–210

   strategic, 243

   working memory and, 240, 243

episodic memory, 297, 298–301, 317

Event-Related Desynchronization (ERD), 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79. See also electroencephalograms

evoked potentials, 72–73, 81

evolution, 175, 178, 202

   domain specificity and, 178, 193, 204

   heuristics and, 193, 202, 203

   modularity and, 280

   See also ecological validity

excitatory potentials, 41

executive attention, 115–117, 311. See also attention

executive control, 241–243, 299, 314. See also cognitive control

executive functions, 98, 127, 280, 281, 316

   cognitive control and, 135

   construct validity of, 299

   general factor g and, 98

   working memory and, 105, 115, 135, 240

   See also specific functions

expertise, 146, 162, 172–174

   affect and, 243

   automatic processes and, 14

   burglar study, 210

   complex problems and, 171–174

   herbal-learning study, 172

   heuristics and, 200

   intelligence and, 171–174

   IQ and, 171–174

   memory and, 210

   psychomotor constraints on, 146

   race-track studies, 171–174

   transfer learning and, 219–220

   See also knowledge

explicit learning, 165–174

   causal direction issues, 181, 182

   dissociability of, 180

   ecological validity and, 165–166

   feedback delay and, 177

   G-factor and, 169

   hypothesis-testing approach of, 179

   instructional effects and, 177

   intelligence and, 168–171, 181

   processing capacity and, 161, 181

   processing speed and, 169

   reliability of measures for, 167

   series completion tasks and, 178

eye movements, 108, 254, 258

face perception, 204, 280

feedback, 177, 241

Fleishman-Hulin theory, 151, 153, 154–155

   Ackerman’s three-phase theory, 148

   See also universally declining validity coefficient theory

flexibility, 241–242, 243, 310, 312, 314, 315

   See also neural flexibility-plasticity; strategy-shifting

fluid intelligence (Gf), 6, 59, 116, 178, 228, 236, 239, 240, 299

   age and, 297

   crystalized intelligence and, 1

   differentiation at higher levels of, 6–7

   executive functions and, 115–117, 299, 311

   G-factor and, 226–227

   See also frontal lobes; neural flexibility-plasticity; specific processes, memory systems

four-source framework, 149–151, 155

frontal lobes, viii, 48, 310, 314

   attention and, 83

   control processes and, 310

   damaged, 282

   decision making and, 83

   executive functions and, 98, 281

   fluid intelligence and, 20, 82, 83

   general factor g, 98

   goals and, 83, 310

   IQ and, 100

   neuro-imaging studies and, 82

   psychometric tests and, 100

   Raven’s Matrices and, 83

   volume of, 20

   working memory and, 83, 310

functional connectivity, 96, 97–99, 309–310, 314

   diffusion tensor imaging. See diffusion tensor imaging

   fMRI and, 309

   myelination. See myelination

   object recognition tasks, 97

functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), 48, 88–90, 100, 309

   cognitive aging and, 300

   cortical communication efficiency and, 300

   domain specificity and, 203

   functional connectivity and, 309

   verbal functioning and, 309

Galton, Francis, 1, 5, 26, 27, 51, 57, 64

General Ability Test Battery, 152

general factor g, vii, 32, 34–48, 270, 280, 281, 283

   brain size and, 293

   causal direction issues, 125

   construct validity and, 276–277

   control and, 132

   dimensions of, 280

   fluid intelligence and, 7, 90

   monitoring processes and, 132

   multivariate perspective and, 301

   origins of, 5

   processing capacity and, 208–209

   processing speed and, 45, 274–275, 280

   reaction time and, 293

   See also specific topics

general mental ability (G), 236, 241–242, 243

   adaptive processing and, 241–243

   attentional resources and, 240

   component processes of, 238–239

   fluid intelligence and, 226–227

   problem solving and, 169

   processing speed and, 238

   radex model and, 226, 243

   reaction time and, 237

   reasoning and, 226–227

   task complexity and, 237

genetics, 21

   behavioral, 293

   ECTs and, 55

   g-factor and, 293

   heritability, 8, 56, 293

   intelligence measures and, 8, 55

   lower-order processes and, 56

   mate-choice psychology and, 199–200

   processing efficiency and, 208–209

   See also heritability

glucose metabolism rate, 73–74, 81. See also positron emission tomography

goal management, 100, 241, 253

   attention and, 240

   encoding processes and, 240

   frontal lobes and, 83, 310

   g-factor and, 100, 240

   goal neglect, 100, 109, 310

   goal setting, 273

   heuristics and, 200

   IQ and, 273

   working memory and, 240

goal transparency, 166, 167, 168–170, 312

   memory demands and, 169

   semantic context and, 167, 312

GRE tests, 236, 263–264

Halstead-Reitan Test Battery, 59

Hawking, Stephen, 52–53

Hebbian theory, 53, 54

heuristics, 188–189, 200, 204, 209, 313, 317

   building blocks of, 194

   cheater-detection mechanism, 193, 199

   creativity and, 204

   decision rules and, 194, 195, 198, 199–200

   defined, 188

   divide-conquer heuristic, 193

   domain specificity and. See domain specificity

   ecological rationality of, 189

   evolution and, 193, 202, 203

   expertise and, 200

   factor values approach and, 201–202

   fast-frugal characteristics of, 188, 194, 197

   follow-the-crowd heuristic, 197

   gaze heuristic, 191–192, 194, 195, 198, 201, 204

   goals and, 200

   high-performance of, 194, 195

   higher-order cognition and, 204

   ingroup-outgroup heuristic, 199

   less-is-more effect, 190, 195

   lower-order processes and, 204

   modularity and, 196–197

   non-social intelligence and, 199–200

   omniscience doctrine, 194

   one-reason decision making, 192, 195

   precautionary logic and, 199

   recognition heuristic, 189–190, 191, 194, 195, 198, 200, 201

   satisficing heuristic, 195

   search rules for, 194, 199–200

   social categorization heuristics, 197–199

   social contracts and, 199

   social exchange heuristics, 193

   social intelligence and, 192–193, 197

   speed requirements and, 194

   stock-picking study, 201

   stopping rules for, 194, 195, 198, 199–200

   strategies and, 200

   take-the-best heuristic, 198, 199–200, 201

   threat-psychology and, 199

   time-to-contact heuristic, 192, 204

   tit-for-tat heuristic, 192–193, 194, 195, 197, 198, 201

   tools-to-theories heuristic, 204

   traditional societies and, 195

   See also modularity

Hick’s paradigm, 38, 39, 52, 57, 68, 69–70, 123

hierarchical models, 34, 297

   radex model and, 226

   speeded tests and, 32

   See also three-layer model; specific models

higher-level cognition, ix, 122–138

   affect and, 243

   cognitive aging and, 63–64

   cognitive control and, 131–137, 314

   common-cause hypothesis and, 63–64

   components of, viii–ix, 54, 65

   consciousness and, 132

   definitions of, 122

   domain specificity and, 104–119

   heuristics and, 204

   IQ and, 273

   knowledge and, 210–211, 273

   monitoring and, 131–137

   working memory and, 104–106, 108, 117–119

   See also monitoring; control

holistic strategies, 133

Hunt, Earl, viii, 2

hypothesis-testing learning approach, 177, 179

implicit learning, 170, 175–177, 178, 179, 181

   artificial grammar-learning tasks, 178

   automatic processes and,

   causal direction issues, 180–181, 182

   defined, 179

   dissociability of, 180

   evolution and, 175, 178

   feedback delay and, 177

   intelligence and, 175, 178–181

   mechanism for, 176–177, 178, 180, 182

   Perceptual Organization factor, 178

   reliability and, 180

   saliency conditions and, 176–177

individual differences approach, 2, 270

   cognitive psychology and, 3

   intelligence and, 127

   mental chronometry and, 26–48

   problem solving and, 127–131

   processing speed approach and, 276

inductive reasoning, 4–5, 123, 226, 244, 260

   analogies, 125–126

   cognitive aging and, 298–301

   comparison processes and, 234, 239

   deductive reasoning and, 234

   encoding processes and, 234, 239

   fluid intelligence and, 238

   IQ tests and, 128

   pattern identification and, 244

   problem solving and, 128

inference, vii, ix, 239, 245

   rules of, 234

   task complexity and, 245

   working memory and, 240

   See also eduction of relations

information processing, 1–22

   cognitive psychology and, 3

   defined, 3

   efficiency of, 237–238

   flow-charts and, 123

   fluid intelligence and, 14

   high-level approach and, 273

   intelligence and, 8, 11, 12–14, 68–72

   knowledge and, 273

   limitations of, 243–244

   low-level approach and, 12–14, 273

   mathematical reasoning and, 2

   psychophysiology and, 68–83

   speed of, 27

   task complexity and, 123

   test-score variances and, 18

   verbal tests and, 2

inhibition, 19

   cognitive control and, 135

   developmental approach and, 276

   executive control and, 299

   fluid intelligence and, 299

   inspection time and, 281

   modularity and, 280, 316

   processing speed and, 276

   reaction time and, 281

   working memory and, 20, 107

inspection time, 17, 18, 19, 29, 32, 55–57, 65, 68–69, 70, 150, 274–275, 279

   attentional capacities and, 56

   development and, 281, 282

   executive functions and, 281

   fluid intelligence and, 56

   Gs-factor and, 56

   Gv-factor and, 56

   heritability measures for, 56

   inhibition and, 281

   intelligence and, 69

   IQ and, 56

   literature on, 56

   monitoring processes and, 56

   processing speed and, 281

   See also chronometry

intelligence, 5–12, 14–15, 27

   as ability to learn, 144–146, 312

   Boring’s definition, 1–3, 8, 270, 284

   causal direction and, 181

   construct validity of, 271–273, 276–277

   definitions of, 1, 88, 160, 167, 170–171, 173–174, 180, 212–213, 225

   differentiation along, 18, 30

   levels of explanation of, 284

   as metacognitive ability, 315

   neural bases of, 88–100. See also specific topics

   non-localization of, 98

   practical intelligence. See practical intelligence

   thinking and, 126

   unification of theories about. See Cronbach’s Call

   See also specific approaches to, factors of, measurements of, processes of, topics about, tasks, types of

intelligence quotient (IQ), 280. See also specific measures, processes, tasks, topics

Intelligence Structure Test, 170

item generation, 263–264

   See also adaptive item generation

item model approach, 263

item response theory (IRT), 255–257, 259, 263, 265

   adaptive testing and, 255–256

   two parameter logistic model and, 256–257

Jensen, Arthur, 2, 15

knowledge, 4, 118, 149, 209–211, 215, 307, 310

   accessibility of, 239

   attention guided by, 240

   complexity and, 212, 228–230

   contextual effects and, 219, 310, 314, 315

   deductive reasoning and, 245

   defined, 209

   developmental constraints on, 275–276

   domain specificity and, 213–215

   encoding processes and, 209–210, 219

   expertise and. See expertise

   high-level approaches and, 273

   higher-order cognition, 210–211

   implementation of, 273

   information processing and, 273

   intelligence and, 126, 271–273, 313–314

   low-level approaches and, 273

   lower-order processes and, 209–210

   memory and, 219

   modularity and, 279

   monitoring of, 219

   organization of, 239

   problem solving and, 169, 176, 180, 212

   processing efficiency and, 208–209

   reasoning and, 209, 228–229, 230, 245

   skilled performance and, 149

   task complexity and, 245

   transfer of. See learning transfer

   working memory and, 118

Kohs block designs, 126

Lakatos model, 155

language

   acquisition model for, 280, 316

   comprehension of, 91

   lexical information, viii, 12–13

   modularity, 280

   natural, 4

   representational level thinking and, 4

   Whorfian hypothesis, 4

   See also Posner-Mitchell task; reading; verbal abilities

learning ability, 310, 312, 314

   complex problem solving and, 312

   operationalization of, 144–146

   problem solving and, 169–170, 312

   reliability of test-scores, 145

   strategies and, 151

   See also explicit learning; implicit learning; learning transfer

Learning Test Battery Reasoning, 170

learning transfer, 145–146, 177, 208–215, 221, 307

   ACT theory and, 272

   content dimensions, 220

   contextual dimensions, 216, 218, 219, 220

   expertise and, 219–220

   far transfer, 216, 220

   functional context and, 219

   G-factor and, 242

   modality matching and, 218

   near transfer, 216

   novel tasks and, 215

   physical context and, 216–218

   race-horse task and, 216

   radiation problem, 216–217

   social context and, 219

   specificity doctrine and, 272

   taxonomy for, 220

   teaching methods and, 219–220

   temporal contexts and, 218–219

   top-down approaches and, 306

letter-matching task, viii

letter series task, 259–260

Lindley-Smith coding test, 71–72

LISREL model, 152–153, 154

long-term memory, 15, 44

   encoding into, 113

   speed of retrieval and, 70–71

   working memory and, 45

low-level approaches, 308–310, 314, 317

   cognitive control and, 314

   information processing and, 273

   knowledge and, 273

lower-order processes, viii, ix, 54

   charting and, 51–56

   classifications for, 65

   cognitive aging and, 51, 63–64

   genetics and, 56

   heuristics and, 204

   IQ and, 273

   knowledge and, 209–210

   reductionism and, 51–56

   sensory modalities and. See sensory modalities

   sensory processes and. See sensory processes

   See also specific processes

Luria, Alexander, vii–viii

mapping process, 126, 238

mate-choice psychology, 199–200

math ability, 105, 259–260

   counting span, 105, 107

   geometric tasks and, 133–134, 242, 259

   information processing and, 2

   numerical analogies tests, 14

   quantitative tests, 227

   reasoning processes and, 244

   response time and, 31

   scanning speed and, 20

   working memory and, 112

matrix tasks, 227, 253–254, 258, 259, 260, 263

   abstraction capacity and, 255

   adaptive item generation and, 252–263

   Advanced Progressive Matrices, 167

   progressive matrix test, 14

   working memory and, 20, 255

   See also Raven’s Matrices

measurement scales, 27–29, 47

   Rasch scaling, 30

measurement technology, 1, 5

memory

   cognitive aging and, 62

   encoding processes and, 219

   expertise and, 210

   knowledge and, 219

   monitoring and, 219

   scanning of, 70, 71–72, 79, 150

   task complexity and, 128

   transparency and, 169

   verbal reasoning and, 311

   See also specific types

mental age, 269–270

mental energy concept, 89, 90

mental modeling processes, 169

   automatic processes and, 230

   deductive reasoning and, 235–236

   truth restriction on, 236

   See also representational level thinking

mental retardation, 6, 17, 282

   glucose use and, 81

   implicit learning and, 179

   response times and, 42

   synaptic density and, 81

mental rotation tasks, ix, 91, 93

mental speed, 32, 68. See also processing speed

metacognition. See control; executive function; monitoring

metaphorical thinking, 126

method of correlated vectors. See shared influence models

minimal cognitive architecture theory, 316

   development and, 277–282

   general factor g and, 280

   modularity and, 279–280

missionaries-cannibals task, 127

mnemonic strategies, 110, 234

modularity, 196–197, 275–276, 280, 316

   cheater-detection mechanisms, 199

   definitions of, 196

   domain specificity and, 202–203

   executive functions and, 280, 316

   general factor g and, 280

   inhibition and, 316

   IQ and, 282

   knowledge-acquisition routines, 279

   language-acquisition module, 280

   minimal cognitive architecture theory, 279–280

   practice and, 280

   precautions and, 199

   processing speed and, 280

   social contracts and, 199

   social intelligence and, 196–197

   theory of mind module, 280

   threats and, 199

   See also heuristics

monitoring, 122, 242

   bottom-up phenomena and, 131

   cognitive strategies and, 132–135

   components of, 132

   encoding and, 219

   general factor g and, 132

   higher-order cognition and, 131–137

   inspection times and, 56

   IQ and, 273

   knowledge and, 219

   memory and, 219

   organization of information processing, 131

   working memory and, 240

motivation, 72, 138, 156, 243–244, 317

multiple intelligences (Gardner theory), 9, 202, 279

multiple sclerosis, 47–48

musical skills, 8

myelination, 80–81, 83, 90, 98

   cognitive aging and, 300

   diffusion tensor imaging and, 309–310

Naglieri Test, 252

natural herbal medicines task, 172

Navon task, 136–137, 311

nerve conduction velocity, 73, 80–81

neural efficiency, 18, 72–73, 78–79, 80, 81, 83, 91–94, 125, 131, 309, 314

   bottom-up research approaches, 315

   causal direction and, 80, 315

   cognitive aging and, 63–64

   common-cause hypothesis of, 63–64

   cortical activation, 76

   crystalized intelligence and, 77–78

   EEGs and, 77–78, 309

   ERD maps and, 76

   fluid intelligence and, 77–78

   letter-matching tasks and, 76–77

   neural pruning hypothesis, 82

   PET scans, 309

   practice effects and, 314

   Sentence Verification test, 76

   sex differences and, 78–80

   Triplet Numbers test, 77

neural flexibility-plasticity, 54, 82, 94–96, 100

neural processing speed. See processing speed

neural pruning hypothesis, 81–82

neuroimaging studies, 18, 53, 314, 315

   cognitive flexibility, 317

   focused activity patterns, 314

   frontal lobes and, 82

   heritability and, 56

   See also specific technologies

neuron number, 80–81

neurosciences, 57

“New Structure of Intellect” (Carroll), 52

nomothetic span, 232–233, 236–246, 255, 257, 264

non-verbal aptitude test items, 259

nonverbal intelligence, 259

normal distribution assumption, 18, 27–28

novel tasks, 122, 148, 151, 162, 177, 241

   attention control and, 117

   reasoning and, 234

   transfer and, 215

   See also strategy-shifting; learning transfer

object recognition task, 97

olfactory abilities, 59, 60, 63, 64–65

omniscience doctrine, 194

orchestra metaphor, 83, 310, 314

organization of information processing (OIP), 129, 130, 131

pattern identification, 9, 244

Perceptual Organization factor, 178

perceptual processes, 307

perceptual properties, 254

perceptual speed, 148, 149, 152, 154, 308, 314

   age and, 297

   cognitive aging and, 156, 297, 298–301, 317

   fluid intelligence and, 297

   measures of, 149

   skill learning and. See skill learning

   task perfomance and, 151–152

personality, 9, 156, 211, 317

   openness trait, 134–135

   strategies and, 134–135

   task complexity and, 138

personnel selection, 63, 242

physical context, 4

   strategy choices and, 218

   transfer and, 216–218

   working memory and, 118

physical skills, 8

   as analogy for reasoning, 227–228

   See also expertise; skill learning

Piaget, Jean, ix–x, 127, 270, 275

pictorial strategy, 134, 135

plasticity. See neural flexibility-plasticity

Plato, on carving nature at joints, 8–9

Popperian perspective, 155

positron emission tomography (PET), 48, 73–74, 309

Posner paradigm, viii, 12–13, 38, 39, 70–71, 76–77, 78–79, 80, 150

power tests, 32, 36

practical intelligence, 9, 11–12, 215

practice effects, 145–146, 147, 280, 314

precautions, psychology of, 199

prematurely-born children, 282

priming, 13

principal components analysis, 294

problem solving, 37, 123–124, 125–131, 307, 312

   adaptive, 241–243

   automatic processes and, 163. See implicit learning system; implicit problem solving

   BIS-factor K and, 168

   causal direction and, 164–165, 168, 171, 174

   competence, definitions of, 167, 170–171, 173–174, 180

   componential analysis of, 171

   conscious processes and, 163. See explicit learning system

   control processes and, 123

   defined, 163

   ECTs and, 123

   expertise and, 171–174

   goal transparency and. See goal transparency

   implicit problem solving, 170

   individual differences approach, 127–131

   inductive reasoning and, 128

   intelligence and, 138, 160–161, 164, 165–167, 182, 312

   IQ and, 128, 171–174

   knowledge and, 228–230. See knowledge

   learning ability and, 169–170, 312

   learning potential and, 312

   literature on, 125

   matrices and, 166

   metabolic activity and, 18

   null hypothesis for, 161

   problem decomposition, 241

   processing capacity and, 312

   processual approach to, 125–127

   puzzles and, 127

   radex model and, 243

   reasoning abilities and, 312

   response time and, 37

   semantic context and, 167, 168, 312

   simple problems, 163

   specific-goal condition, 167

   strategies and, 241–242

   syllogisms and, 138

   task complexity and, 161–164

   time dimension of, 123, 124

   top-down approaches to, 306

   Tower of Hanoi. See Tower of Hanoi task

   working memory and, 106

processing speed, 51, 89, 149, 237–238, 279–280, 316

   automatic processes and, 169, 280

   behavioral measures of, 18

   bottom-up approaches, 72

   Brinley plots and, 45–48

   causal direction and, 314

   cognitive aging and, 62

   complexity and, 45

   development and, 276, 281, 282

   explicit learning and, 169

   fluid intelligence and, 20

   G-factor and, 238, 243

   general factor g, 45, 274–275, 280

   general intelligence and, 14–19

   generality of, 45–48

   heuristics and, 194

   individual differences approach and, 276

   information processing approach and, 27

   inhibition and, 276

   inspection time tasks, 281

   IQ and, 282

   long term memory and, 70–71

   mathematical ability and, 20

   modularity and, 280

   myelination and, 81, 98

   physical basis of, 15, 48

   physiological limit for, 40

   psychometric measures of, 32

   reaction time. See reaction time

   reasoning and, 231

   response time measures, 26

   retrieval speed, 70–71

   scanning speed, 20

   short-term memory and, 70

   specific processors and, 280

   synaptic connections and, 98

   task complexity and, 128

   test score variances and, 17–18

   top-down approaches, 72

   visual scanning and, 274, 275

   working memory and, 43–45, 231

   See also myelination; nerve conduction velocity

processual approach, 125–127

proprioceptive sense, 63

programming skills, 151

psychomotor abilities, 148, 149, 152

   expertise and, 146

   measures of, 149, 152–154

   skill learning and, 148, 152–154, 155, 156, 312

quantitative reasoning. See math ability

race, 39

race-horse task, 171–174, 209

radex model, 226, 236–237, 243

radiation problem, 216–217

Ramanujan, 212

range of equivalency, 30

rational decision making models, 194

Raven’s Matrices, viii, 37, 38, 65, 74, 113, 126, 165, 231, 252, 260–261, 272, 309

   academic performance, 231

   cognitive control, 136, 311

   executive functions, 241

   frontal lobes, 83

   problem solving competence, 166

   reaction time, 311

   real-life problems, 231

   strategy training, 110

   working memory and, 20

reaction time, viii, 19, 52, 56–57, 69–70, 89, 123, 124, 279, 308

   cognitive aging and, 81

   cognitive control and, 311

   cognitive speed and, 274, 275

   decision time and, 274, 275

   development and, 281, 282

   executive functions and, 281

   G-factor and, 237

   general factor g, 293

   inhibition and, 281

   intelligence levels and, 311

   IQ scores and, 314

   neural pruning hypothesis, 82

   processing speed and, 274, 275, 281

   Raven’s Matrices and, 311

   subnormal IQs and, 40

   visual scanning and, 274, 275

   See also Posner paradigm; Hicks paradigm; chronometry

reading, 107

   affect and, 243

   Broca’s area and, 97–98

   functional connectivity and, 97–98

   mnemonics and, 110

   sentence comprehension, 13, 20, 91, 94, 227, 259–260

   skilled, 143

   strategies instruction and, 111

   temporo-parietal region and, 98–99

   working memory and, 20, 105, 106

   See also verbal abilities; specific tasks

real-world contexts, 123, 162

   attention and, 317

   charting and, 62

   paper-pencil tests v., 88, 188

   Raven’s Matrices and, 231

   task purity and, 107–108, 112, 212

   working memory and, 317

   See also ecological validity

reasoning, 124, 225–233, 234, 246, 307

   analogies. See analogical reasoning

   attention and, 240

   automatic processes and, 240

   combination processes, 234

   comparison processes, 234

   complex problems and, 312

   conscious processes and, 229–230

   construct validity, 233–236

   correlational studies of, 244

   decontextualization of, 229

   deductive. See deductive reasoning

   definitions of, 232–233, 244–246

   distracting representations and, 240

   education and, 227

   emotions and, 230

   encoding processes and. See encoding processes

   executive control and, 241–243

   frontal lobes and, 82

   general mental ability and, 226–227

   inductive. See inductive reasoning

   knowledge and. See knowledge

   measures of, 227–228

   nomothetic span and, 236–246

   novel tasks and, 234

   processes of, 233–236

   processing capacity and. See BIS-factor K

   processing speed and, 231

   quantitative. See math ability

   sequential processes and, 59

   sequential reasoning, 244

   skills analogy, 227–228

   strong methods of, 229

   transfer and, 209

   use of term, 230

   weak methods of, 229

   working memory and, 230–231, 232, 240

   See also syllogisms

reductionism, 21, 29, 52, 284

   biological, 53, 56, 65

   charting v., 51–56, 62–64

   cognitive aging and, 62–64

   lower-order processes and, 51–56

   neurosciences and, 57

regression models, 195

reliability

   implicit learning and, 180

   insight problems and, 128

   learning scores and, 145

   problem-solving tasks and, 166

   reaction time tasks and, 17

   response time and, 29–30

   working memory and, 106

representational level thinking, 4

   symbol manipulation ability, 239

   See also mental modeling processes

research integration. See Cronbach’s call

response time, 26, 29–34, 37–38, 48

   age and, 31

   astronomy and, 26–27, 32

   Brinley plots and, 46

   complexity and, 36–37

   ECTs and, 35, 47

   error responses and, 37

   excitatory potentials and, 41

   general factor g and, 36

   history of, 26–27

   intelligence and, 71

   inter-trial variability of, 39–41

   math ability and, 31

   mental retardation and, 42

   movement time, 15–16

   Posner paradigm and, 38, 39

   power tests and, 36

   practice effects and, 41

   reliability and, 29–30

   repeatability and, 30

   sampling homogeneity, 71

   sensitivity of, 30–32

   skewness and, 38, 40

   Sternberg paradigm, 38

   testing standardization and, 43

   variability of, 41

   worst performance rule, 38, 41–43

   See also Hick paradigm; Brinley plots

saccade tasks, 108, 117

salience, 176–177, 180

SAT scores, 12, 113, 179

savants, 279, 282

scaling, 29

   Rasch scaling, 30

   See also specific types

Scholastic Assessment Test (SAT), 7, 21

search rules, 194–195, 198, 199–200

semantic context, 168, 170, 175, 180, 181

   goal transparency and, 167

   problem solving and, 167, 168, 312

Semantic Verification Test (SVT), 37–38

Sensory Discrimination Task, 55

sensory modalities, 58, 65, 218, 317

sensory processes, 57, 63–64, 307

   cognitive aging and, 62–64

   psychometric theories and, 64

   self-confidence and, 61

   See also perceptual processes

sentence-picture verification task, 91, 123, 124, 134

Sentence Verification test (SVT), 76

sequential processes, 45, 59, 175, 244. See also dual-task paradigm; organization of information processing

series completion tasks, ix, 123, 125, 227

   comparison processes and, 234–235

   explicit problem solving and, 178

sex differences, 39, 78–79, 80, 309

sex-typed tasks, 218

shared-influence models, 293

short-term memory, 44, 104–105, 113

   analytical strategies and, 133

   capacity of, 104, 130, 133, 135

   cognitive control and, 135

   control processes efficiency and, 135

   fluid intelligence and, 310–311

   higher-level cognition and, 104

   information decay in, 45

   OIP and, 129, 130

   orderly utilization of, 135

   retrieval speed from, 70

   scanning of, viii, 20, 38

   spatial span tasks and, 114–115

   Sternberg paradigm and, 38

   strategies and, 135–136

   updating of, 135

   verbal span tasks and, 114–115

   working memory and, 45, 112–113, 115, 130

skewness, 38

skill learning, 307

   ability determinants of, 142–156

   associative stage of, 143, 148

   autonomous stage of, 143, 144, 148, 156

   car-driving example, 143–144, 156

   cognitive stage of, 148

   doctrine of despair, 147

   early practice and, 147

   four-source framework for, 149

   general intelligence and, 312

   historical review, 143–144

   information processing approaches to, 149–150

   intellectual abilities and, 147, 148

   knowledge and, 149

   perceptual speed and, 148, 155, 156, 312

   practice concistency and, 144

   procedural skills, 149

   psychomotor abilities and, 148, 152–154, 155, 156, 312

   sports skills, 60, 146, 200

   stages of, 143–144, 148

   strategies for, 143, 144

   task-specific factors and, 147

   universally declining associations, 147

   working memory and, 149

social context, 4, 219

social contracts, 199

social intelligence, 8, 192–193, 196, 197

span tasks, 13

spatial ability

   visual-spatial abilities. See visual-spatial abilities

Spearman-Brown formula, 30

Spearman, Charles, vii

specificity doctrine, 271, 272

   See also domain specificity

speed. See processing speed

speed, cultural values and, 18–19

speeded tests, 32, 36, 149

statistical reasoning, 211

strategies, 122, 181, 209, 241, 308, 314

   ability profiles and, 133–135

   chunking, 181

   combination processes and, 243

   comparison processes and, 243

   control and, 132–135

   encoding processes and, 243

   flexible switching between. See strategy shifting

   heuristics. See heuristics

   intelligent people and, 133–135

   mnemonic, 110, 234

   monitoring and, 132–135

   operation span and, 111

   personality and, 134–135

   physical contexts and, 218

   problem solving abilities and, 241–242

   Raven’s Matrices and, 110

   reading comprehension and, 111

   short term memory and, 135–136

   skills acquisition and, 143, 144

   spatial ability and, 134

   training and, 110, 111

   working memory and, 110–111, 134

   See also specific strategies

strategy shifting, 134, 310, 311, 314

   G-factor and, 241–242

   problem solving and, 241–242

   spatial ability and, 241–242

Stroop task, 109, 136–137, 311

structural equation modeling, 116

structural equation systems, 168

success-indices, 7, 9

Swiss army knife metaphor, 313

syllogisms, ix, 124, 127–128, 235–236

   complexity trap and, 138

   working memory and, 239

synaptic connections

   density of, 81

   efficiency and, 80–81

   mental retardation and, 81

   myelination and, 98

   number of, 80–81, 83

   processing speed and, 98

synchrony, 53–54, 90, 310

   binding problem and, 53

   cognitive development and, 54

   crystalized intelligence and, 54

   fluid intelligence and, 54

   functional connectivity and, 96

   intelligence scores and, 54

   task complexity and, 309

tacit processes. See automatic processes

tactile-kinaesthetic abilities, 59–60, 63, 64–65

   cognitive aging and, 62

   fluid intelligence and, 59–60

   spatial-visual abilities and, 59

task performance, 74, 147–156

   asymptoticity of, 149

   bottom-up approaches and, 124–125

   cognitive abilities and, 155

   complexity criteria and, 122–125

   cortical activation and, 77

   creativity and, 128

   first-task-trial differences, 145–146

   flow-charts and, 123

   G-factor and, 237

   information processing models, 123

   instructional effects on, 145–146

   intelligence and, 45, 77, 146, 147–156, 214–215

   internal models and, 169

   knowledge and, 212, 245

   memory and, 128

   motivation and, 138

   perceptual speed and, 151–152

   personality and, 138

   practice and, 145–146, 147, 149

   predictability of, 149

   processing speed and, 45, 128

   psychometric tests and, 45

   radex model and, 226

   ratio property of, 47

   reasoning and, 245

   response time and, 36–37

   strategy instruction and, 110–111

   synchrony and, 309

   time-required and, 124

   top-down approaches, 125

   working memory and, 106

   See also complex problem solving; complexity; specific tasks

temporal context, 218–219

temporal tracking ability, 59

test theory, classical, 106

testing

   re-test consistency. See reliability

“The two displines of scientific psychology” (Cronbach), viii

Thorndike’s theory of learning, vii

threats, psychology of, 199

three-layer model, 6–7, 21, 34. See also Cattell-Horn model; hierarchical factor structure

three-trial serial recall task, 108–109

time-sharing, executive control and, 299

top-down research approaches, 125, 138, 273, 306, 307–308, 310–314, 316

   causal direction and, 125

   complex problem solving and, 306

   context-based knowledge and, 315

   control processes and, 131

   decision-making and, 306

   ecological validity and, 315

   task complexity and, 125

   transfer and, 306

top-down v bottom-up explanations

   speed-intelligence relationship and, 72

Tower of Hanoi task, 127, 162

transparency. See goal transparency

triarchic theory, 132

Triplet Numbers test, 77

Turner’s syndrome, 6

two parameter logistic model (2PL), 256–257, 261–262

universally declining validity coefficient theory, 147. See also Fleishman-Hulin theory

verbal abilities, viii, 13, 228–229

   analogical reasoning and, 136, 234, 259–260

   artifical grammar-learning tasks, 175, 178

   automatic processes and, 13

   classification tasks, 259–260

   cognitive aging and, 62

   cognitive control and, 136

   conscious processes and, 13

   functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), 309

   implicit learning and, 179

   information processing theories and, 2

   memory capacity and, 311

   memory storage and, 117

   personality and, 135

   reading. See reading

   rehearsal and, 117

   schooling and, 14

   sentence-picture task and, 134

   sex differences, 309

   short term memory and, 114–115

   span tasks for, 114–115

   strategies and, 134, 135

   working memory and, 14, 112, 113–115, 117

   See also language

vestibular system, 63

visual-spatial abilities, 6, 59, 93, 99, 227, 259, 260

   aging and, 289–290

   attention control and, 117

   cognitive aging and, 62

   cognitive speed and, 274, 275

   fluid intelligence and, 62

   folding tasks and, 259

   fractionation of, 14

   geometric tasks and. See math ability

   Gv-factor for, 6, 60

   implicit learning and, 179

   left parietal cortex, 309

   mental rotation tasks, 93

   object assembly, 259

   orientation tasks, 132

   reaction time tasks and, 274, 275

   scanning and, 274, 275

   short term memory and, 114–115

   spatial-figural tasks, 309

   spatial span, 105–106, 114–115

   spatial storage, 117

   strategies and, 134, 241–242

   tactile-kinaesthetic tasks and, 59

   Turner’s syndrome and, 6

   working memory and. See working memory

Von Neumann ratio, 41

Vygotsky, I.,

WAIS scores, 171, 178

Wason selection task, 210–211

Wechsler scales, 7, 14, 21, 35, 55, 74, 252

   academic performance and, 142

   coding subset of, 32

   differentiation along ability-levels, 30

   Digit Symbol subtest of, 32

well-formedness judgements, 178

white matter tracts. See myelination

Williams syndrome, 282

wisdom, 215

Word ID test, 98

working memory, 13, 19–20, 91, 135, 149, 231, 254, 310

   abstract reasoning and, 20, 106

   analogies and, 130

   analytical strategies and, 133

   attention and. See attention

   baseball simulation and, 118

   capacity of, 135

   combination processes and, 243

   comparison processes and, 243

   complex task environments and, 106, 118

   domain specificity and. See domain specificity

   dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and, 21

   dual-auditory messages task, 109

   encoding processes and, 240, 243

   executive functions and. See executive functions

   fluid intelligence and, 20, 44, 112, 115, 117, 231, 310

   frontal lobes and, 83, 310

   general factor g and, 44, 45

   general intelligence and, 19

   goal management and, 240

   higher-level cognition and. See higher-level cognition

   individual differences perspective on, 105–119

   inference and, 240

   inhibition and, 20, 107

   IQ and, 44

   knowledge and, 118

   long-term memory and, 45

   math ability and, 112

   matrix tasks and, 20, 255

   monitoring and, 240

   phonological loop in, 105

   problem solving and, 106

   processing speed and, 43–45, 231

   reading and, 20, 105, 106

   real-world contexts and, 317

   reasoning and, 230–231, 232, 240

   reliability and, 106

   sequential processes and, 59

   short-term memory and. See short term memory

   skilled performance and, 149

   strategies instruction and, 110–111

   structural equation modeling and, 116

   syllogisms and, 239

   symbol manipulation and, 239

   verbal abilities and. See verbal abilities

   visual-spatial abilities and, 14, 105, 112, 113–115, 117, 133–134

worst performance rule, 38, 41–43


printer iconPrinter friendly version AddThis