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Home > Catalogue > Cambridge Handbook of Culture, Organizations, and Work
Cambridge Handbook of Culture, Organizations, and Work

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  • Page extent: 560 pages
  • Size: 247 x 174 mm
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 (ISBN-13: 9780521877428)

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Cambridge Handbook of Culture, Organizations, and Work
Cambridge University Press
9780521877428 - Cambridge Handbook of Culture, Organizations, and Work - Edited by Rabi S. Bhagat and Richard M. Steers
Index

Index

acculturation process in M&As 134

achievement motivation 309–11

active mechanisms of cultural influence 49, 60

actorhood, global cultural process 157–8, 161–3

affinal kinship 32

AG (German public stock company) 94

aggregate constructs 505–7

allocentric characteristics 183

Anglo cluster 18–19, 82, 84–5

Arabic cluster 18–19, 456–7

assertiveness cultural dimension 126, 129, 130

associative versus abstractive reasoning 184–5

attribution

fundamental attribution error 474

in trust relationships 385–90, 397, 404–5

isomorphic 474

behavior

cultural influences 52, 53, 55, 57–8, 59–60

regulation by social norms 25

behavior modification training 464

behavioral CQ (cultural intelligence) 27

beliefs

characteristics of 51

context-free 24–5

cultural influences 51, 53, 54, 56–7, 59

bias

cross-cultural research methodology 493–500

Western/US bias in leadership research 223, 231

Boeing, acquisition of McDonnell Douglas 119

Britain

See UK

bureaucracy, origin of the concept 72

business groups in Japan and Korea 27

Canadian firms, organization design and culture 84, 85

capital market perspective on cultural differences in M&As 136

centralized decision-making 108–10

centralized stakeholder models 76–8

China

Confucian principles 91–3

cultural conflict in a transition economy 38–9

guanxi 27, 33, 91–2

kinship systems 32–3

preferred managerial style 74

Chinese family firms 92–3

See Chinese gong-si

Chinese gong-si

centralized decision-making 109–10

organization design and culture 91–4

Chinese guanxi capitalism 33

cognitive anthropology research, cross-cultural conflict and negotiation 339, 350–2

cognitive CQ (cultural intelligence) 27

cognitive dissonance 49

cognitive mechanisms of cultural influence 49, 60

cognitive styles, relationship with economic activities 35–6

collaborative decision-making 108, 112–14

collective constructs 505–7

collectivism, and group behavior 53, 57

See individualism-collectivism cultural dimension

combination mode of knowledge creation and diffusion 177–8, 179, 180

communication science research, cross-cultural conflict and negotiation 337–8, 357–60

comparative law research, cross-cultural conflict and negotiation 337, 346–8

complex versus simple knowledge 177, 180

confirmatory factor analysis 501–3

conflict and negotiation cross-cultural research

cognitive anthropology perspective 339, 350–2

communication science perspective 337–8, 357–60

comparative law perspective 337, 346–8

experimental economics perspective 339, 352–5

international relations perspective 340–1, 360–4

language and disputing perspective 340, 348–50

legal anthropology perspective 336, 343–6

organizational behavior perspective 335, 342–3

primatology perspective 341, 355–7

value of interdisciplinary perspectives 334–5, 364

conformity, moderator of cultural influence 53, 54

Confucian principles 91–3

consanguineal kinship 32

conscientiousness, moderator of cultural influence 53, 55

consultative decision-making 108, 110–12

coping, definition 421

See stress at work

core cultural dimensions

hierarchy-equality 10–11

individualism-collectivism 10, 11–13

mastery-harmony 10, 13–14

monochronism-polychronism 10, 14–16

universalism-particularism 10, 16–17


core cultural dimensions (CCD) model 9–19

country clusters 17–19

directions for future research 19–21

qualitative measures 17–19

quantitative measures 17

country clusters (cultural dimensions) 17–19, 232–3

CQ (cultural intelligence) 27

cross-border acquisitions 118–41

absorption acquisition 120, 121

“best of both” merger 121

acculturation perspective 134

capital market perspective 136

complementary capabilities 136–7

cross-national comparison studies 121–4

cultural differences and post-merger outcomes (models) 132–9

cultural distance paradigm 124–6

cultural fit (culture compatibility) perspective 133

cultural influences on employees 128, 129

cultural influences on human capital 128, 129

cultural influences on organizational capital 128–30

cultural influences on social capital 130–2

drivers 118

findings of the GLOBE research program 126–32

future research directions 139–41

impact of national cultural differences 118–20

implementation challenges 118–20

influence of globalization 118

integration approaches 120–1

integration concept 120

intercultural interaction studies 124–6

national culture and post-merger integration 127–32

organizational alignment and post-merger outcome 127–32

organizational learning theories 137–9

positive aspects of cultural differences 136–7

post-acquisition performance 118

predictors of post-acquisition performance 118

preservation acquisition 120, 121

resource based view of the firm 136–7

reverse merger 121

social constructivist view 139

social identity theory 134–5

transformation merger 120–1

trust-theoretical perspective 135–6

cross-cultural leadership research

alternatives to the cultural dimensions approach 231–3

applications in human resource practices 234–8

applications in personnel selection 236

applications in reward systems 234–5

applications in work teams 235–6

challenges for researchers 219–20, 221

comparison with intra-cultural research 219

cross-cultural definition of leadership 220, 223

cultural dimensions work of Hofstede 225–31, 232

culture clusters 232–3

different meanings of leadership 219–20

different views of the leader’s role 220

expatriate staff performance 236–8

functional universals 224

GLOBE project 220–4, 226, 227–8, 229–30, 232–4

implications for leaders 234–8

indigenous perspective 231–2

individualism-collectivism dimension 226

leader characteristics 233

leadership styles 233–4

masculinity-femininity dimension 226–8

power distance 229–30

practical applications 234–8

recent research findings 220–3

research goals 223–4

research related to cultural dimensions 225–31, 232

search for cultural contingencies 225–33, 234

search for leadership universals 223–5, 233, 234

simple universals 224

uncertainty avoidance dimension 228–9

variform functional universals 225

variform universals 224

Western/US bias 223, 231

cross-cultural organizational behavior 27

cross-cultural research

future research agenda 519–24

See specific subjects

historical perspective 518–19

cross-cultural research methodology

appropriate level of theory and data 504–12

assessment of agreement within a group 507–8

bias 493–500

choice of instrument 492–3

collective and aggregate constructs 505–7

comparability of scores across cultures 492–504

construct bias 494–6, 498–9

cross-cultural applications of standard instruments 492–3

equivalence 493–4, 500–3

explaining cross-cultural differences 503–4

exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses 501–3

item bias 494, 497, 498, 500

meaning of a construct after aggregation 509–10

method bias 494, 496–7, 498–500

multilevel issues in organizational research 491–2, 504–12

relationship between different constructs across levels 511–12

unpackaging observed score differences 504

variance approach to levels research 508–9

ways to improve robustness 491–2

cultural analysis of institutions 31–2

cultural causation

evidence for 46–7

factors affecting predictability 49–50

nature of 48–50

cultural cognitions 49

cultural contingencies in leadership, search for 225–33, 234

cultural differences, positive aspects in M&As 136–7


cultural dimensions

behavior regulation by social norms 25

core cultural dimensions (CCD model) 9–19

dynamic externality 25

general beliefs that are context-free 24–5

GLOBE model 6–7, 8, 24

Hall model 4, 5, 23

Hofstede model 4, 5, 23–4

Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck model 3–4, 24

major dimensions 23–4

novel dimensions 24–5

quantitative measures 7, 17

Schwartz model 5–6, 7, 23–4

social axioms that are context-free 24–5

societal cynicism 25

societal tightness-looseness 25

Trompenaars model 4–5, 6

See specific cultural dimensions

cultural distance 29, 124–6

cultural fit (culture compatibility) models of M&A integration 133

cultural influence model

dependent variables 50–2

group-level moderators 53, 55–8

implications for practice 61–2

implications for research 61

implications for theory 60–1

individual-level moderators 52–5

mechanisms of cultural influence 60

moderator variables 52–60

situational moderators 53, 58–60

cultural influences

mechanisms 49, 60

on behavior 52, 53, 55, 57–8, 59–60

on beliefs 51, 53, 54, 56–7, 59

on perception 50–1, 53, 54, 56, 58–9

on values 51, 53, 54–5, 57, 59

cultural intelligence (CQ) 27

cultural jolts 36–8

cultural scripts for social interaction 49

cultural universals 31–4

culture

and institutional support for industries 79–81

as a causal variable 48–50

definition 47–8

evidence of relevance for managers 46–7

culture assimilators 463–4

culture clash 130–2

culture clusters (country clusters) 17–19, 232–3

culture theory jungle, problems for researchers 3, 7

DaimlerChrysler merger 119

diagnosis related groups (DRGs) 199

See patient classification systems

diffusion of cultural elements, cultural jolts 36–8

disconfirmed expectation 471–4

distributed stakeholder models 76–8

Drucker, Peter 174

dynamic externality 25

East European cluster 18–19

East/Southeast Asian cluster 18–19

eco-cultural model 34–5

ecological variables 35–6

ecology, influence on work behaviors 34–6

economic activities, relationship with cognitive styles 35–6

economic uncertainty, and cultural influence 53, 58–9

economics

See experimental economics

employee participation

future research 115

trends across cultures 107–14

employees

cultural influences on 128, 129

impact of cross-border acquisitions 128, 129

environmental resources, classification 36

environmental richness, and cultural influence 53, 59

equity theory 311

equivalence, cross-cultural research methodology 493–4, 500–3

ethnocentricity 472–3

executive compensation 316–17

expatriate staff adjustment and performance 26–7

cross-cultural research applications 236–8

expectancy/valence theory 312–13

experimental economics, cross-cultural conflict and negotiation 339, 352–5

explicit knowledge 175–9, 180

exploratory factor analysis 501–3

externalization mode of knowledge creation and diffusion 178, 180

face (Confucian principle) 91–2

family collectivism cultural dimension 127, 129, 130

Fayol, Henri 72

feminine cultures 13–14

See masculinity-femininity cultural dimension

fictive kinship 32

foreign cultures, effects of exposure to 53, 54

foreign subsidiaries

cross-border transfer of knowledge 38

diffusion of organizational practices 38

management of 29–30

France, preferred managerial style 73–4, 75

French société anonyme (SA), organization design and culture 97–100

fundamental attribution error 474

future orientation cultural dimension 126, 129, 130

gender differentiation cultural dimension 126–7, 129, 130

gender egalitarianism 455–7

General Electric (GE), knowledge management 187

German konzern, organization design and culture 94–7, 98

Germanic cluster 18–19

Germany, preferred managerial style 73–4


global community 150

global cultural processes 154–8, 159–63

actorhood 157–8, 161–3

professionalization 156–7, 160–1, 163

rationalization 154–6, 160, 163

global culture 150–8

cross-cultural studies 150–1

cultural dimensions 150–1

cultural processes 154–8

features of global culture 152–4

global identity 153–4

multi-level approach to culture 151–2

global culture and organizations

impact on global work values 159–63

model of interrelationships 163–7

multi-cultural organizations 158–9

paths for future study 167

relations between structure, culture and behavior 163–7

global identity 153–4

global leadership

ambiguity of various factors 248, 249

competencies 248–9

complexity of the context 248, 249

cultural variations 248–9

definitions 246–8

distinction from leadership in general 247–8

flux in the global context 248, 249

global context 248–9

interdependent factors 248, 249

multiplicity of factors 248, 249

sensemaking 248–9

Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness research program

See GLOBE research program

global leadership development

HRM programmatic focus 261, 262–3

particular requirements 247–8

personal responsibility focus 262–3

process models 261

research progress and challenges 260–7

selection of candidates for development programs 263–6

global leadership process models

effectiveness cycle 250–1

interrelated processes 249–50

sensemaking 251–2

global leadership research

antecedents of global leadership 259–60

approaches 245

conceptual frameworks 257–9

drivers 245

effectiveness outcomes 260

future research directions 260, 266–7

global leadership competencies 257

global mindset 252, 256–7

integrated framework of global leadership 258

multidimensional construct of global leadership 257–8

potential leadership gap 245

progress and challenges 252–67

pyramid model of global leadership 258–9

global management, cultural approach 25–8

global management research (cultural perspective)

area-specific theoretical frameworks 26–7

conflict between culture and institution 36–8

cross-cultural organizational behavior 27

cultural intelligence (CQ) 27

cultural orientation of the individual 26

culture change processes 26

expatriate adjustment and performance 26–7

indigenous theoretical constructs 27–8

influence of ecology 34–6

integration with the institutional perspective 30–9

positive intercultural dynamics 27

situations where culture matters 25–6

transition economies 38–9

global management research (institutional perspective) 28–39

conflict between culture and institution 36–8

cultural analysis of institutions 31–2

cultural jolts 36–8

diffusion of cultural elements 36–8

foreign subsidiaries 29–30

influence of ecology 34–6

influence of kinship systems 32–3

influence of religious and supernatural systems 34

institutional distance 29

integration with the cultural perspective 30–9

interplay with cultural dimensions 29–30

neglected social institutions 31–4

overlap with the cultural perspective 30–1

relationship to national differences 28–9

relevance of cognitive styles 35–6

transition economies 38–9

global work values 159–63

impact of actorhood 161–3

impact of professionalization 160–1, 163

impact of rationalization 160, 163

globalization

cultural and institutional perspective 149–50

definitions 149

global culture 150–8

realist perspective 149

world society 150

globalization studies

cross-cultural studies 150–1

cultural dimensions 150–1

multidisciplinary approach 148–9

multi-level approach to culture 151–2

variety of disciplinary perspectives 148

GLOBE research program (House)

assertiveness cultural dimension 126, 129, 130

cultural dimensions 126–32

cross-cultural leadership research 220–4, 226, 227–8, 229–30, 232–4

cultural fit (culture compatibility) and M&A integration 133

effects of mergers on employees 128, 129

effects of mergers on human capital 128, 129

effects of mergers on organizational capital 128–30

effects of mergers on social capital 130–2

family collectivism cultural dimension 127, 129, 130

future orientation cultural dimension 126, 129, 130

gender differentiation cultural dimension 126–7, 129, 130

gender egalitarianism 455–7

humane orientation cultural dimension 127, 129, 130

impact of national culture on M&As 126–32

institutional collectivism cultural dimension 127, 129, 130

M&A integration and cultural fit (culture compatibility) 133

model of national culture 6–7, 8, 24

national culture and post-merger integration 127–32

organizational alignment and post-merger outcome 127–32

performance orientation cultural dimension 127, 129, 130

power distance cultural dimension 127, 129, 130

uncertainty avoidance cultural dimension 127, 129, 130

GmbH (German limited partnership firm) 94

goal-setting theory 312

group cohesion, and cultural influence 53, 57

group development, stages 53, 57–8

group harmony, Confucian principle 92

group homogeneity, and cultural influence 53, 56

group identification, and cultural influence 53, 56

group-level moderators of cultural influence 53, 55–8

group orientation, individualism-collectivism dimension 10, 11–13

group polarization, and cultural influence 53, 56–7

guanxi 27, 33

Confucian principle 91–2

definition 91–2

Hall model of national culture 4, 5

hé-xié (group harmony) 92

hierarchy-equality cultural dimension 10–1

Hofstede, Geert

cross-cultural leadership research 225–31, 232

model of national culture 4, 5, 23–4

House, Robert

See GLOBE research program (House)

human capital

cultural influences on 128, 129

impact of cross-border acquisitions 128, 129

human resources practice, cross-cultural research applications 234–8

humane orientation cultural dimension 127, 129, 130

Hyundai Motor Company 79–80

identification with culture, and cultural influence 53, 54–5

idiocentric characteristics 183

incentive systems 314–16

independent knowledge 177, 180

indigenous theoretical constructs 27–8

individual-level moderators of cultural influence 52–5

individualism-collectivism cultural dimension 10, 11–13

cross-cultural leadership research 226

defining attributes of individualism and collectivism 477–83

organizational knowledge creation and diffusion 179–80, 181–2, 183

Indonesia, preferred managerial style 74

industrial democracy 96

ingroup-outgroup awareness, and cultural influence 53, 57

innovation and culture

changes in components and elements over time 204–8

complexity of the relationship 213

components of innovation 200–4

cultural jolts 36–7

diffusion time 209–12

directions for future research 213

elements of innovation components 202, 203

innovation as unit of analysis 199–200

levels at which innovations diffuse 208

morphological time 209–12

morphology of innovation 202, 208–12, 213

morphology of innovation research approach 197, 198

operational (micro) level diffusion 208, 209

patient classification systems (PCSs) example 198–212

reinvention concept 212–13

research approaches 197–8

social constructivist approach 212

super-structural level diffusion 208–9

technological determinist approach 212

time dimensions of the diffusion process 209–12

institutional collectivism cultural dimension 127, 129, 130

institutional distance 29

institutional environment and strategic choices 79–81

institutional logics, cultural differences 28

institutional perspective on global management research 28–39

conflict between culture and institution 36–8

cultural analysis of institutions 31–2

cultural jolts 36–8

diffusion of cultural elements 36–8

foreign subsidiaries 29–30

influence of ecology 34–6

influence of kinship systems 32–3

influence of religious and supernatural systems 34

institutional distance 29

integration with the cultural perspective 30–9

interplay with cultural dimensions 29–30

neglected social institutions 31–4

overlap with the cultural perspective 30–1

relationship to national differences 28–9

relevance of cognitive styles 35–6

transition economies 38–9

institutional support for industries, influence of culture 79–81

integration approaches in M&As 120–1


integration concept in M&As 120

Intel 81

intellectual capital 177

See organizational knowledge

intercultural sensitizers 463

intercultural training programs, evaluation of effectiveness 463–6

intercultural training research

behavior modification training 464

culture assimilators 463–4

evaluation of training programs 463–6

evolution of the field 463–6

intercultural sensitizers 463

relevance to globalization 462

reviews of the field 462–3

role of culture theory 464–5

theory building process 463–6

intercultural training theoretical framework 466–83

attribution 474

basic processes of intercultural learning 468–74

cognitive stages of expertise development 470–1

cultural-theoretical framework 477–83

defining attributes of individualism and collectivism 477–83

disconfirmed expectation 471–4

ethnocentricity 472–3

fundamental attribution error 474

future research issues 483–4

isomorphic attribution 474

learning-how-to-learn process 471–4

levels of cross-cultural competence 469–70

model of cross-cultural expertise development 468–9

self-preservation (security and survival) 474–6

socio-political-economic framework 476–7

internalization mode of knowledge creation and diffusion 178, 180

international relations research, cross-cultural conflict and negotiation 340–1, 360–4

Iran, preferred managerial style 73

Islam

influence on business practices 34

masculine society 456–7

isomorphic attribution 474

Italy, preferred managerial style 73, 74, 75

Japan, preferred managerial style 73, 74, 75

Japanese firms, strategic focus 80–1

Japanese keiretsu

consultative decision-making 110–2

organization design and culture 85–91

job satisfaction and work motivation 322–4

kinship systems, importance in management research 32–3

Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck model of national culture 3–4, 24

knowledge, organizational

See organizational knowledge

knowledge disavowal 185

Kogut and Singh index of cultural distance 124–6

language and disputing research, cross-cultural conflict and negotiation 340, 348–50

Latin American cluster 18–19

Latin European cluster 18–19

leadership behavior across cultures, GLOBE study 6–7, 24

See cross-cultural leadership research, global leadership

learning-how-to-learn process 471–4

legal anthropology research, cross-cultural conflict and negotiation 336, 343–6

Lewin, Kurt 115

lineal descent, moderator of cultural influence 53, 54

M&As (mergers and acquisitions)

See cross-border acquisitions

Malaysian bumiputra firms, organization design and culture 100–1

management style and culture 81–106

Canadian firms 84, 85

Chinese gong-si 91–4

comparison across cultures 105–6

French société anonyme (SA) 97–100

German konzern 94–7, 98

Japanese keiretsu 85–91

Malaysian bumiputra firm 100–1

Mexican grupo 101–3

Nigerian firm 103–5

UK firms 84–5

US corporation 82–5

See global management

managerial role 71–6

cultural differences in concept and practice 73–4, 76

decisional role 73, 76

definitions of management 72–3

informational role 73, 76

interpersonal role 73, 76

national differences in preferred style 73–4, 76

strategic management cycle (model) 74, 77

traditional views of management 72–3

masculinity-femininity cultural dimension

cross-cultural leadership research 226–8

masculine cultures 13–14, 454–7

well-being of children 455

women’s work and career experiences 454–7

Maslow’s hierarchy of needs 309

mastery-harmony cultural dimension 10, 13–14

mergers and acquisitions (M&As)

See cross-border acquisitions

merit pay systems 314–16

metacognitive CQ (cultural intelligence) 27

Mexican grupo, organization design and culture 101–3

Mintzberg, Henry 72–3

Mitsubishi Business Group 87–8

models of national culture

common themes 7–9

comparative analysis 7–9

core cultural dimensions (CCD) model 9–19

country clusters 17–19

cultural dimensions 3–7, 8

directions for future research 19–21

divergence between models 3–7, 8

GLOBE model 6–7, 8, 24

See GLOBE research program

Hall model 4, 5

Hofstede model 4, 5, 23–4

Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck model 3–4, 24

major cultural dimensions 23–4

novel cultural dimensions 24–5

qualitative measures 17–19

quantitative measures 7, 17

Schwartz model 5–6, 7, 23–4

Trompenaars model 4–5, 6

monochronism-polychronism cultural dimension 10, 14–16

morphology of innovation 202, 208–12, 213

research approach 199–200

See innovation and culture

motivation

See work motivation and culture

motivational CQ (cultural intelligence) 27

multilevel issues in organizational research 491–2, 504–12

multinational corporations (MNCs), paternalism and power distance 184

Munsterberg, Hugo 72

national culture

See models of national culture

national differences, relationship to institutional perspectives 28–9

natural disasters, impacts of threat of 36

need theories of work motivation 309–11

needs hierarchies 309

negotiation

See conflict and negotiation cross-cultural research

Netherlands, preferred managerial style 73, 74, 75

Nigeria, preferred managerial style 73

Nigerian firms, organization design and culture 103–5

Nissan 79

Nordic cluster 18–19

Novartis 119

objective culture 30–1

openness, moderator of cultural influence 53, 54

organization design, strategy-structure nexus 78–9

organization design and culture 81–106

Canadian firms 84, 85

Chinese gong-si 91–4

comparison across cultures 105–6

French société anonyme (SA) 97–100

future research 114–15

German konzern 94–7, 98

Japanese keiretsu 85–91

Malaysian bumiputra firm 100–1

Mexican grupo 101–3

Nigerian firm 103–5

UK firms 84–5

US corporation 82–5

organizational behavior research, cross-cultural conflict and negotiation 335, 342–3

organizational capital

cultural influences on 128–30

impact of cross-border acquisitions 128–30

organizational culture, strength of 53, 57

organizational decision making

centralized 108–10

collaborative 108, 112–14

consultative 108, 110–2

future research 115

trends across cultures 107–14

organizational knowledge

complex knowledge 177, 180

cross-border transfer 38

definitions 175–9

explicit knowledge 175–9, 180

independent knowledge 177, 180

intellectual capital 177

simple knowledge 177, 180

spiral of knowledge creation and diffusion 177–80, 188–9

systemic knowledge 177, 180

tacit knowledge 175–9, 180

organizational knowledge creation and diffusion

barriers 179

collectivistic cultures 179–80

combination mode 177–8, 179, 180

externalization mode 178, 180

individualistic cultures 179–80

influence of cultural variations 179–80

internalization mode 178, 180

interorganizational collaborations 179

modes of creation and diffusion 177–80

socialization mode 178–9, 180

subsidiaries located in dissimilar cultures 179–80

organizational knowledge cross-border transfer 181–5

allocentric characteristics 183

idiocentric characteristics 183

MNC paternalism 184

model 189–91

relevance of cultural variations 188–92

role of associative versus abstractive reasoning 184–5

role of individualism-collectivism 181–2, 183

role of power distance 183, 184

transfer from collectivistic cultures 182

transfer from individualistic cultures 181–2

organizational knowledge management

effects of knowledge disavowal 185

identification of best practices 187–8

importance of commitment by management 187

incompatible organizational processes 187

lack of signature skills in participants 187

lack of technical skills in participants 187

relevance of cultural variations 174–5, 188–92

role of trust 185–7

source of competitive advantage 174, 188


organizational knowledge studies, multidisciplinary approach 188

organizational learning theories, M&A integration process 137–9

organizational practices, diffusion between cultures 38

palancas (contacts and connections) 102

passive mechanisms of cultural influence 49, 60

paternalism

definition 184

in MNCs and their subsidiaries 184

patient classification systems (PCSs) (innovation example)

changes at the operational level 209

changes in components and elements over time 204–8

components of PCS 202–4

diagnosis related groups (DRGs) 199

elements of PCS components 202, 203

history of development 198–9

information component 202, 203

innovation and culture example 198–212

knowledge component 202, 203

morphology of innovation 208–12

national differences in implementation 204–12

organizational arrangements 203, 204

physical artifacts component 202, 203

processes component 203–4

research on the morphology of innovation 199–200

perceived equity 311

perception

cultural influences 50–1, 53, 54, 56, 58–9

schemas (cognitive frameworks) 50–1

performance orientation cultural dimension 127, 129, 130

personal work values 306–8

personality, moderator of cultural influence 52–5

personnel selection, cross-cultural research applications 236

Peru, preferred managerial style 73

pok chow (self-managing group of workers) 101

political volatility, and cultural influence 53, 59

power distance cultural dimension

cross-cultural leadership research 229–30

GLOBE study 127, 129, 130

impact on organizational knowledge transfer 183, 184

power relationships, hierarchy-equality dimension 10–1

primatology research, cross-cultural conflict and negotiation 341, 355–7

professionalization, global cultural process 156–7, 160–1, 163

Protestantism, association with capitalism 34

quality circles 90

rank (Confucian principle) 92

rationalization, global cultural process 154–6, 160, 163

reinvention concept in innovation 212–13

religious and supernatural systems

importance in management research 34

influence on business practices 34

renqing (personal obligations) 92

research methodology

See cross-cultural research methodology

resource-based view of the firm, complementary capabilities in M&As 136–7

reward systems, cross-cultural research applications 234–5

rewards and incentives, effects on work motivation 313–17

risk preferences, and work motivation 316

See uncertainty avoidance

Schwartz model of national culture 5–6, 7, 23–4

scientific management 72

self-efficacy

moderator of cultural influence 53, 55

role in work motivation 313

September 11 attacks 34

siesta, impact on work 28

signature skills 187

simple versus complex knowledge 177, 180

Sinha, Jai 231–2

situated culture 58

situational moderators of cultural influence 53, 58–60

social adaptability, moderator of cultural influence 53, 54

social axioms that are context-free 24–5

social capital

cultural influences on 130–2

impact of cross-border acquisitions 130–2

social constructivist view

innovation 212

M&A integration 139

social identity theory, and M&A integration 134–5

social interaction, cultural scripts 49

social loafing 317–18

social mechanisms of cultural influence 49, 60

social norms, behavior regulation by 25

social reality construction within groups 53, 56

social richness, and cultural influence 53, 59

socialization mode of knowledge creation and diffusion 178–9, 180

societal cynicism 25

societal tightness-looseness dimension 25

Spain, preferred managerial style 73, 74, 75

stakeholder groups

influence of culture on 76

influence on strategy formulation 76–8

stakeholder models, centralized vs. distributed 76–8

strategic choices, influence of institutional environment 79–81

strategic management cycle (model) 74, 77

strategy-structure nexus 78–9

strategy-structure relationships, future research 114

stress at work

categories of work stress interventions 431

cultural differences in employee assistance programs (EAPs) 431–3

cultural differences in organizational interventions 431–3

definition of stress 419

developing countries 419–20

factors affecting the experience of stress 419

future research issues 433–6

impacts of globalization 418–20

job-related stress 319

negative effects of stress 419

stress-coping and culture 421–8

acculturation effects 426

cultural differences in coping 422–3

cultural dimensions which are influential 424–8

definition of coping 421

differences in employee assistance programs (EAPs) 431–3

differences in organizational interventions 431–3

ethnic differences in coping 423–4

individualism-collectivism dimension 427–8

influence of the socio-political environment 423

interdependent versus independent self-construal 425–6

Western-based assumptions 422

stress process, conceptual model of cross-cultural variations 428–31

stress research

demand-control-support model 420

framework of occupational stress (House) 420

future research issues 433–6

historical perspective on cross-cultural studies 420–1

person-environment fit theory 420

theoretical frameworks 420

uncertainty theory of occupational stress 420

‘strong’ situations, cultural influence 53, 58–9

structure, relationship to strategy 78–9

subjective culture 30–1

Sub-Sahara African cluster 18–19

Sweden, preferred managerial style 73, 74, 75

systemic knowledge 177, 180

tacit knowledge 175–9, 180

‘Tall Poppy Syndrome’ (Australia and New Zealand) 27–8, 55

Taylor, Frederick 72

teams

See virtual teams, work teams

Technik concept 97

technological determinist approach to innovation 212

technological environment, and cultural influence 53, 59

technology, diffusion of cultural elements 36–8

thermoclimate, influence on work behaviors 35–6

tightness-looseness cultural dimension 25

time orientation, monochronism-polychronism dimension 10, 14–16

Toshiba, consultative decision-making 112

training

See intercultural training

transitional economies

cultural jolts 38–9

institutional perspective 28–9

organizational management 38–9

trust trajectory 407, 408–9

Trompenaars model of national culture 4–5, 6

trust

definition 374–5

role in organizational knowledge management 185–7

trust development and culture 390–410

attributions in the trust relationship 397, 404–5

definition of cultural dimension 390

degree of identification 391–2

diagnosticity of information 396, 404

East Asian trust trajectory 406–8

general propensities to trust 401

implications for managers 409–10

intuitive/rational stance 394–6, 401–4

macro-level influences 390–406

micro-level influences 390–406

motivation (intrinsic/extrinsic) 393, 398

nature of trust 393

potential for future research 409–10

psychological stance (intuitive/rational) 394–6, 401–4

relationship accounting mechanism 397, 405–6

risk preferences 402–4

transitional economy trust trajectory 407, 408–9

trust trajectories 406–9

weighted trust expectations 398–400

trust development model 374–90

attribution formation 385–90

benevolence-based trust 382

competence-based trust 379

courtship 381

dangers of over- and under-accounting 388–9

definition of trust 374–5

effects of diagnosticity of information 386–7

extrinsically-motivated trust relationships 380

factors influencing trust judgements 383–4

factors influencing trusting behavior 384–5

incentive-based trust 380–2

influence of intuitive and emotional factors 382–3

interaction between motivation and identity 378–9

intrinsically-motivated trust relationships 381

level of identity between parties 377–8, 378–9

motivation to trust 378–9

nature of trust 377–8

outcome attribution 385–90

psychological stance of trust 382–5

relationship accounting mechanism 385–6, 388

relationships with legal contracts 380

relationships with network governance 380–1

relationships with relational contracts 381–2

socially-based trust 380–1

trust trajectory 389–90

weighted trust expectations 374–5, 377, 378–82

trust games, culture and economic behavior 354–5

trust-theoretical perspective on M&A integration 135–6

UK, preferred managerial style 73–4, 75

UK firms, organization design and culture 84–5

ultimatum games, culture and economic behavior 352–4

uncertainty, and cultural influence 53, 58–9


uncertainty avoidance

and work motivation 316

universalism-particularism cultural dimension 10, 16–17

uncertainty avoidance cultural dimension

GLOBE study 127, 129, 130

cross-cultural leadership research 228–9

universalism-particularism cultural dimension 10, 16–17

universals in leadership, search for 223–5, 233, 234

US, preferred managerial style 73, 74

US firms

centralized decision-making 108–9

organization design and culture 82–5

strategic focus 80–1

values

cultural influences 51, 53, 54–5, 57, 59

definition 51

personal work values 306–8

virtual teams

conceptualizations of virtuality 273–4

definitions 272, 273

factors which hamper innovation 274–6

future research 276–8

history of the study of teams 272

influence of culture on performance 274–6

multidimensional construct 273–4

multinational teams 272

operationalizations of virtuality 274–6

virtuality in organizational models 281–3

as dependent variable 282–3

as independent variable 281–2, 283–6

as moderator 282

future research 283

virtuality in organizations

consequences of virtuality 283–7

effects on attitudes and beliefs 284–5

effects on technology use 285–6

future research 286–7

non-significant effects 286

performance outcomes 284

team characteristics and processes 285

virtuality research designs 278–81

case studies 279

conceptual studies 279

field studies 279–80

future research 280–1

laboratory experiments 279

longitudinal designs 280

meta-analyses 278

reviews 279

Vodafone, hostile takeover bid for Mannesmann 123–4

Volkswagen AG

collaborative decision-making 113–14

stakeholders 77–8

‘weak’ situations, cultural influence 53, 58–9

Weber, Max 72

Welch, Jack 128, 187

women at work

barriers to advancement 443

childcare issues 445–6

country comparisons 444, 445–7

differences within countries 445

employment legislation 447

future research issues 457

minority women 446

occupational gender segregation 446

pay gap 446

statistics for women in senior roles 442–3

women entrepreneurs 446

women pursuing education 446

working time of couples 449

See women in management

women in management

career priority patterns across cultures 450–1

cross-cultural research 444–5, 446

factors influencing women’s career success 451–4

future research issues 457

international managers 451

managers in Hong Kong and Britain 447–8

overcoming gender role stereotypes 451–4

statistics 442–3

supporting women’s career advancement 451–4

‘think manager – think male’ attitude 448–9

working time of couples 449

women’s work experiences

effects of masculinity-femininity of the culture 454–7

effects on emotional well-being 449–50

gender egalitarianism 455–7

influence of national culture 454–7

work behavior and culture

appropriate motivational strategies 324–5

challenges for researchers 305–6

cultural drivers of work behavior (model) 319–21

future research 324–7

implications for management 324–5

personal work values 306–8

work motivation and culture 309–19

achievement motivation 309–11

appropriate motivational strategies 324–5

attitudes towards uncertainty, risk and control 316

cognitive approaches 311–13

commitment 322–3

effects of belief structures 317–19

effects of reinforcement 313

effects of rewards and incentives 313–17

effects of social or group norms 317–19

equity theory 311

executive compensation 316–17

expectancy/valence theory 312–13

fixed versus variable compensation 316

free riders 317–18

future research 324–7

goal-setting theory 312

implications for management 324–5

incentive systems 314–16

job attitudes 322–4

job-related stress 319

job satisfaction 322–4

length of the working week 318

merit pay systems 314–16

need theories 309–11

perceived equity 311

productivity and working hours 318

reward preferences 313–14

role of self-efficacy 313

social loafing 317–18

stress 391

vacations 318–19

work versus leisure time 318–19

work stress

See stress at work

work teams, cross-cultural research applications 235–6

See virtual teams

work versus leisure time 318–19

world society 150




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