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Home > Catalogue > Performing Qualitative Cross-Cultural Research
Performing Qualitative Cross-Cultural Research

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  • Page extent: 302 pages
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Performing Qualitative Cross-Cultural Research
Cambridge University Press
9780521898683 - Performing Qualitative Cross-Cultural Research - Edited by Pranee Liamputtong
Index

Index

Aboriginal community 77, 98, 192, 204

Aboriginal community leader 77, 98

Aboriginal grandmother 220

Aboriginal men 192, 193, 220

Aboriginal mother 63, 82, 181

Aboriginal people 49, 77, 79, 168

Aboriginal women 48, 49, 62, 77, 80, 97, 98, 141, 196

Abu Dhabi Women's Association 61

abuse 3, 8, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 42, 49, 54, 74, 75, 79, 94, 118, 183, 188, 224

academic status 131

acculturation 71, 87, 223

accuracy and interpretation of research finding 160

acquisition of cultural knowledge 87–90

action research (AR) 189, 190, 198

adopted insider 110

advisory committee for the research project 89, 90

Afganistan 168

Africa 36, 52, 95, 122, 123, 168, 191

African American 3, 9, 10, 15, 17, 19, 20, 21, 33, 34, 45, 78, 79, 94, 113, 114, 121, 122, 128, 165, 174, 201, 203, 219

African American children 94

African-Caribbean nurse 106

African-Caribbean woman 116

Afro-Caribbean male 70

age issue 128–129

AIDS education 81, 191

AIDS in rural China 50

AIDS research 9, 176

AIDS vaccine 35

AIDS victims in rural China 54

Alabama 33

Alaska, Alaskan Native 80, 188, 225, 226

alcohol 12, 55, 63, 97, 174, 181, 188, 203, 204, 215

alcoholism 2, 41, 194

alien framework 155

Allah 93

Alor Shondhaney (In Quest for Light) 231

amniocentesis 71, 72

an wei ji 48

Antananarivo, Madagascar 179

anthropology 1, 222

Aotearoa (New Zealand) 2, 3, 7, 8, 26, 27, 92, 99, 107, 137, 168, 170, 171

Appalachian women 68, 69

Arab 92, 124, 125

Arabic 50, 120

Arusha Declaration 190

Asian 9, 122, 147, 169, 172, 173

Asian American 96, 174

Asian Australian 172, 173

Asian culture 94, 168

Asian tsunami 181

Asian women 60, 83, 121, 122

association with academic institution 131–132

asylum/asylum seeker 113, 142

at-risk young Amerasian 59

Australia/Australian 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 35, 39, 40, 46, 65, 68, 81, 83, 90, 105, 137, 142, 145, 157, 159, 164, 165, 168, 169, 172, 180, 181, 191, 192, 193, 201, 203, 204, 222, 226, 231, 233

Australian artist 172

Australian Health Ethics Committee 35

Australian indigenous men 2, 192

Australian indigenous people 165, 169, 193, 233

bad blood 33

Bangla women 49

Bangladesh 35, 64, 74, 75, 88

Bangladeshi community 74, 75, 79

Bangladeshi culture 88, 125

Bangladeshi woman 74, 156

beauty salon as a site for recruitment 75

Beijing 98

Beijing Research Office 69

Belize 48, 80

Belmont Report 34


Bengali 209

beng-beng che 54

bicultural researcher 66, 71, 74, 135, 136, 137–143, 148, 152, 154, 158

intrusive impact 139

problem working with 139, 140, 141

recruiting, training and support 140, 141–143

bilingual postcard 131

bilingual/bicultural community leader and member 62

biomedical science/research 8, 17, 24, 35

Birmingham 118, 125

birth control pill 35

black Australian 169

black death in custody 2

black humour 218

black person 9, 19, 66, 70, 94, 114, 122, 128, 130, 164, 168

black scholar 113

black secondary school 191

black self-representation 19

black woman and man 9, 33, 34, 117, 121, 132, 219

bleeding of knowledge 44

Bolivia 53, 201

bottle feeding 26

Braille 73, 142

Brazil 38, 175, 217, 218

breast cancer 66, 79, 201, 202, 203, 219

British Asian women 121, 122

British colony 168

British Indian Hindu community 130

British society 130

brothel 98

caesarean operation 5, 6, 7, 82

café/cafeteria 68, 69, 105, 106

Cairo 115

California 78, 141, 213

Cambodia/Cambodian 46, 68, 76, 94, 131, 142, 157

Canada 2, 3, 7, 35, 47, 50, 62, 74, 89, 95, 119, 122, 125, 137, 139, 141, 148, 168, 169, 187, 195, 201

Cape Town 103

Caribbean 114

Caribbean Canadian immigrant 50

Caribbean-born person 3, 65, 70, 106, 116, 117

caste 127

Central America 141

ceremony of sevusevu 91

cervical cancer and screening 66, 69

chai (tea) 102

child death 212, 218

childbirth 5, 7, 82, 83, 101, 142, 150, 157, 222, 226

Chile 35

Chinese American 80, 140, 149, 155

Chinese Canadian 90

Chinese language, culture and people 48, 50, 63, 69, 80, 116, 138, 147, 149, 152, 153, 154, 174, 199, 201, 207

class issue 1, 83, 109, 110, 120, 121, 123, 126–128, 130, 132, 133

clock time 107

collaboration 16, 18, 22, 23, 61, 89, 195, 207

collaborative research 16–18, 46, 188

collaborative social science research model 43

collective action 186–210, 233

collective conversation 175

collective empowerment 175

collective memory 166

collective social action 228

collective testimony 163, 173–184

colonial authority 22

colonial paradigm/research 8, 22, 23, 27, 28, 98

colonialism 1, 22, 23

colonisation 10, 18, 21, 22, 27, 98, 191

coloniser 8, 27, 97

colonising discourse 21, 27

colonising gaze 27

comadres 78

comadrismo 72

communication and language issue 135–160

conceptual equivalence of comparability of meaning 154–156

communist regime in Vietnam 45, 46

communitarian culture 175

Community Advisory Committee (CAC) 89

community-based drama group 230–231

community based participatory research (CBPR) 186, 187–188, 205

community-based research project 99

community consultation/involvement 17, 205

community leader 46, 61–65, 69, 77, 98, 204, 206, 232

community partnership 42

community research associates (CAs) 139

compassion 10, 15–16, 28, 42

complete insider 119

condom 80, 98, 204

Confucian custom of filial piety 181

Connecticut 78

‘conscientization’ 188

consideration of the need of participant 104–105

consumer 7, 155

co-researcher 80, 147, 149, 189

co-sleeping/bed sharing 26

cosmetologist 75

cot death prevention campaign 26

cotton mill village 163

Council for International Organisations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS) 34


Cree village in Canada 47

crime and violence 53, 174

critical consciousness 197

cross-cultural research framework 4, 10, 14–28, 162, 191

culturally sensitive research framework 18–21

decolonising methodology 21–24

healing methodology 14–16

kaupapa Mãori research methodology 24–28, 191

relational ethics 16–18

cultural belief and practice 7, 120, 182

cultural commonality 112

cultural identity 60, 109, 130, 131

cultural ideology 71

cultural insensitivity 87, 89

cultural insider 68, 112

cultural knowledge 20, 22, 87–90, 94, 160, 193, 194

cultural meaning 135, 136, 138, 139, 145, 154, 201

cultural norm 88, 91–93, 94, 103, 113, 121, 124, 151, 179, 196, 201

cultural practice 26, 43, 92, 94, 117, 141, 194, 216, 219

cultural protocol 90

cultural representation 139

cultural resistance 19

cultural script 71–72

cultural sensitivity 86–107, 151

culturally appropriate communication 86, 88

culturally appropriate research methodology 10, 19, 96

culturally competent knowledge 87

culturally informed knowledge 21

culturally informed theory and practice 19

culturally nurturing research 19

culturally sensitive area/topic 14, 122, 139, 175, 201, 203, 225

culturally sensitive research framework 4, 16, 18–21

culture 8, 11, 13, 14, 19, 21, 22, 23, 24, 27, 28, 37, 39, 40, 44, 45, 46, 47, 52, 60, 62, 65, 66, 67, 68, 71, 80, 86, 87, 88, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 97, 100, 101, 107, 110, 112, 113, 114, 116, 118, 122, 124, 127, 128, 136, 138, 139, 140, 141, 144, 145, 146, 147, 148, 150, 153, 154, 155, 165, 168, 169, 173, 175, 195, 205, 214

culture broker 67, 68, 69

culture of silence 192

culture shock 52

Da Nang 182

dance 24, 102, 191

danger in the field 38, 53, 103

death 2, 5, 40, 49, 119, 155, 212, 213, 218

deception of the researcher 36, 41

decolonising methodology 21–24

Delhi 119, 129

depression 35, 39

developing a trusting relationship with research participant 63, 97–104

diabetic patient 152, 157

dietary requirement 142

different time frame of local culture 91

dignity of participant/people 22, 28, 42, 43, 45, 169

disabled person 61, 113, 142

discrimination/discriminatory practice 16, 28, 116, 130, 131, 142, 172

disempowered group/people 29, 173, 209, 229

disempowerment 111, 229

dispassionate outsider 119

dissemination of research finding 213, 214, 225–234

applied theatre 229–231

disseminating differently 226–233

photovoice exhibition 231–233

scrapbook of photo 225

theatrical performance 227–229

domestic abuse/violence 54, 55, 79

Dominican Republic 35

dowry dispute 32

drama 24, 191, 229, 230

drawing 49, 50, 158, 191

dreamings 169

drug/drug use 12, 54, 60, 76, 78, 174, 203

Dutch 145

East Baltimore, Maryland 201

East Timor 168

economic hardship 183

educational praxis 198

educational status 131

Egypt 50, 86, 87, 115, 120

Egyptian 115, 120

Eid 102

Eid-al-Adha [the Feast of Sacrifice] 102

emancipation 25, 26, 189, 190, 191, 227

emancipator 175, 188

emic (insider perspective) 154, 155, 206

Emirati woman 49

emotion 16, 43, 56, 126, 170, 195, 214, 218, 219

emotional insider 119

emotional support 71

emotional well-being/distress 37, 39, 51, 52, 153, 180

empathy 43, 110, 140

empowering experience

empowerment 22, 23, 25, 37, 145, 167, 175, 187, 195, 197, 199, 207, 208, 233


enabling state assessment methodology (ESAM) 12

England 81, 113, 114, 118, 129, 132, 148, 213

English language 48, 49, 60, 73, 81, 96, 113, 131, 137, 138, 139, 141, 144, 145, 146, 149, 150, 151, 153, 156, 157, 159, 180, 196, 205, 214, 215

epidural anaesthetic 7

epistemological consequence 143

epistemological crisis 133

equal relationship 18

equitable society 186

ethical and moral responsibility/perspective 31–56

ethical issue 16–18, 31–56, 99

ethical principle 31, 43

ethics committee 35, 79

ethics of care 42–43

historical perspective 33–37

informed consent 43–51

primum non nocere (first do no harm) 37–41

risk and harm of participants 4, 22, 28, 31, 32, 34, 35, 37–41, 43, 44, 48, 56, 138, 213, 234

ethical research 37, 42, 43, 99

Ethiopia 52, 53

ethnic adolescent 201

ethnic minority group 4, 8, 16, 24, 45, 81, 109, 116, 126, 167, 173, 176, 190

ethnic women 76, 101

ethnicity 10, 13, 18, 51, 106, 112, 114, 116, 117, 118, 121, 123, 125, 126, 127, 133

ethnocentric view 37

ethno-cultural coping mechanism 182

ethnographer 1

ethnographic material 13

ethnography/ethnographic research 1, 193, 221, 227

etic (outsider perspective) 155

eurocentric philosophy and paradigm 1, 2

eurocentric prejudice/bias 43

Eurocentricity 177

European Australian 172

European imperialism 1

experiential knowledge/data 14, 20, 27

experimental research 3, 37

exploitation 3, 8, 18, 32, 34, 35, 37, 50, 56, 187

extended family 106, 133, 170, 181, 231

farmer 119, 199

Farsi language 157, 158

fear of being taped 95

fear of exploitation 50

feeling of alienation 120

feeling of dislocation and isolation 53

female researcher 110, 113, 117, 124, 125, 128, 142

female sex worker 48, 52, 63, 80, 81, 98, 103, 104, 179, 182, 183

feminist commitment 14, 98, 194

feminist Kartiya (white) 195

feminist knowledge/theory 195, 197, 198

feminist movement 165

feminist research/researcher 77, 98, 123, 173, 198, 223

fictitious name 40, 41

fictive kinship term 93, 124

Fiji 91

Fiji time 91

Filipina/Filipino 73, 90, 122, 131, 141

First Nation community 196

focus group method 19, 163, 173–183, 184

as collective testimony 173–175

environment of focus group 176

nature and use of focus group method 175–177

participatory activity 177–178

possibility for connecting with other 176

stimulus material 177

successful focus group discussion 176

foetal alcohol syndrome/foetal alcohol effect (FAS/FAE) 63, 82, 97–98, 181

folklore 9

food voucher 79

form of resistance 24, 25

former Soviet immigrant 79

Forum Theatre 227, 231, 239

fourth world 2

free listing method 177

French 145

Friday prayer 102

fridge magnet 76

gaining access to research participant and strategy 9, 58–84

advertisement 72–73

audio and visual advertisement 73

barrier to recruitment 9

collaboration with community leader and stakeholder 61–65

cultural script as motivation 71–72

culture broker 67

knowing the person concept 65–67

maintaining relationship 76–83

making oneself seen and known 72–73

making use of different and innovative strategy 73–76

snowball method 69–71

through bicultural research assistant 68

gambling debt 183

gatekeeper 54, 62, 64, 65, 67, 69, 84, 131, 144

gay and bisexual man 176, 201

Geisteswissenschaften 145


gender 92, 94, 110, 112, 116, 120, 121, 123–126, 133, 139, 150, 152, 176

gender role 71

gender-based violence 183

general anaesthetic 5

German 115, 145

Ghana 47, 52, 53, 121

Ghanaian 121

gift bag/voucher 79

Glasgow South Asian immigrant 150

Goa 178

gonogobeshona 209

gori 51

gossip 68, 163

Great Sandy Desert 191, 193

Greek historian Thucydides 165

grief 26, 155, 171

grocery gift certificate 7

grounded theory 201, 202

group discussion 176, 177, 179, 180, 181, 182, 196, 198, 199, 207, 208

group healing 227

group resistance narrative 173

Guatemala/Guatemalan 52, 64, 201

guinea pig 9, 35

Gujarati Hindu identity 127

Gujaratis 127

Gullah woman 113

hairdresser 182

halal 142

Hanoi 182

hard-to-reach participant/person 77

hard-to-reach woman 62, 63, 68

Hartford 78

Hawai'i 66

Hawai'ian person/community 89, 169, 224, 225

Hawai'ian woman 66

healing 10, 22, 43, 196, 221, 227, 231

healing knowledge 40

healing methodology 10, 14–16

health and behaviour of young person 89

health and social care/service 3, 7, 63, 74, 80, 83, 92, 183, 191

health behaviour 145, 177, 230

Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) survey 145

health belief and practice 94

Health Belief Model Scale 152

health care centre 105, 182, 196, 222, 233

health care/service provider/professional 6, 62, 98, 103, 150, 183, 204, 205, 209, 222, 226

health disparity 2, 17, 186, 187

health education/educator 62, 63, 193

health information 150

health issue 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 11, 14, 17, 21, 27, 36, 37, 40, 52, 54, 74, 78, 82, 90, 92, 93, 98, 101, 127, 139, 150, 176, 181, 183, 187, 188, 192, 196, 199, 203, 220, 229, 230, 233

child's health 93, 181

men's health 92, 192, 193, 220, 221

mental health 9, 143, 147, 155, 182

midlife health/menopause 195, 196

reproductive health 54, 65, 88, 94, 199, 203

sexual health 203, 204

women's health 5–7, 9, 14, 37, 59, 64, 74, 80, 82, 83, 98, 101, 127, 183

health need/service 3, 65, 176, 179, 183

health policy 181

health promotion/promoter 26, 75, 98, 179, 197

health research 33, 179, 230

health worker 59, 63, 64, 201, 233

hepatitis 52

hidden transcript 205

high risk group 36, 72, 179

high-context culture 93

hijab 125

Hindu arranged marriage 119, 129

Hindu Gujarati community 127, 130, 131

Hindu identity 127, 130, 131, 150

Hinduism 127

Hispanic American 16, 58

Hispanic church 74

Hispanic newspaper/radio 74

Hispanic supermarket 74

Hispanic woman 78

historical exploitation 56

historical record of abuse in research 3, 8, 33–37

HIV positive patient 104

HIV/AIDS 9, 36, 63, 78, 80, 98, 105, 106, 176, 178, 201, 205, 206, 215, 232

HIV/AIDS risk 174, 178

HIV/STD educational material 81

Hmong 4–7, 14, 39, 40, 64, 68, 82, 101

Hmong herbal medicine 40, 101

Hmong traditional healer 39, 40

homeless person 55, 76, 79, 200

Honduras 76

Hong Kong 201, 207

Hong Kong Government 207

Hong Kong's housing policy 208

honorarium 77, 78, 79, 80

hostility 103, 116

Houston 74, 79

hugging 102, 154

human/humanity 15, 16, 31, 35, 37, 54, 99, 109, 115, 155, 158, 162, 173, 204, 216, 217, 228

human behaviour 135, 136, 174

human being 11, 15, 16, 24, 33, 35, 43, 51, 109


human problem/experience 8, 14, 34, 163, 166

Human Research Ethics Committees (HRECs) 34, 35

human right 37, 43, 155, 183

human science 145

Hurricane Katrina 166, 167

idle talk 163

illegal immigrant 3

illiterate participant 46, 49, 50, 191

illness 14, 93, 105, 139, 155, 157, 176, 209, 215, 230

imam 102

immersion in the culture/research field 88, 119

immigrant 3, 4

immigrant mother 216

immigrant parent 131, 141

immigrant woman 12

immigration 38, 70, 81, 106, 116, 117, 204, 232

impact of violence and victimized 228

impairment 61, 113, 142

importance of mother-in-law 88

imposition of Western framework 155

imprisonment 2

India 128, 178, 182

Indian 122, 130, 131

Indian community in Latin America 64

Indian culture 32, 127

Indian woman 32, 119, 129

indigenist 23

indigenous collectively shared knowledge 45

indigenous cultural way of undertaking research 24

indigenous epistemology/standpoint 1, 3, 15, 21, 22, 24, 195, 196

indigenous ethical and moral model 43

indigenous female health worker 201, 233

indigenous identity 22

indigenous knowledge and culture 15, 21, 24, 43, 99, 169, 187, 188, 194, 195, 196

indigenous man 55, 192–193

indigenous people/community 2, 3, 4, 8, 10, 12, 15, 18, 21, 22, 23, 27, 28, 42, 43, 44, 47, 55, 56, 59, 65, 90, 99, 110, 111, 165, 167, 168–169, 172, 175, 187, 190, 191, 192, 195, 196, 201, 203, 204, 213, 224, 225, 227, 231, 233

indigenous philosophy 195

indigenous research/researcher 22, 23, 24, 47, 114, 168, 216, 227

indigenous self-determination 22, 190, 194

indigenous storyteller 162

indigenous testimony 168

indigenous tucker (food) 233

indigenous woman/mother 15, 173, 178, 193–197, 201, 203

Indigenous-Asian 169, 172, 173

individual autonomy 43

individualistic construction/research 24, 173, 175

Indo-Canadian 71, 73, 119, 120, 223

inequality 2, 11, 192

informed consent 31, 34, 35, 36, 43–51, 56

as thorny issue 43–44, 56

collective consent 47

culturally appropriate consent 47–51

current practice 44–47

oral/verbal consent 49

signed/written consent 45, 50

voice signature consent system 50

informed decision 34, 181

injustice and hardship 164, 169, 218

innovative method 23, 191, 192

insensitive question 94

insider/outsider perspective 109–123, 133

external insider 110

external outsider 110, 111

indigenous insider 110

indigenous outsider 110, 121–123

insider perspective 111–115

insider/outsider boundary 118–121

outsider perspective 115–118

typology of cross-cultural researcher 110–111

Institutional Review Board (IRB) 35

International Ethical Guideline for Biomedical Research Involving human subject 35

interpreter/translator perspective 135, 136, 137, 138, 140, 143–151, 160

as gatekeeper 144

interpreter bias/problem 144–146

more involvement of interpreter/translator 146–149

professionally trained translator 149–151

interview transcript 219

intimate knowledge of the culture 214

Iranian underground 38

Iranian woman 157, 158

Iraqi people 167

Iraqi woman/mother 68, 76, 131, 168

Islam/Islamic society 92, 95, 118

Israel 140, 179

Italy/Italian 145

Jamaica 114

Japanese American senior citizen's center 92

Japanese people/culture 91, 92, 145

jeevan saathi 150

joker 230, 231

Jordan/Jordian 92, 93, 112, 113, 124

Jordanian researcher 112

just society 188

Kanadier Mennonite 95


kano ka kasi 132

Kapululangu 194

Kapululangu Women's Law and Culture Centre 191, 193, 194

kaupapa Mãori research methodology 24–28

Kentucky 68

key informant 69, 96, 103, 147

knowing and being known 89

knowing the cultural context 86, 88

knowing the person concept 65–67

knowledge of the culture 67, 87, 88, 110, 138, 214

Korean-American woman 116

Kowloon 207

kuvari 153

KwaZulu 191

Kyoto geisha 164

lack of trust in research 9

language barrier 46, 60, 178

Language of Light photovoice project 200

Laos/Laotian 46, 68, 142, 157

Latina 78, 155, 204, 213, 232

Latina feminist 173

Latina woman/mother 12, 62, 66, 72, 73, 74, 79, 80, 91, 119, 127, 174

Latino adolescent/youth 62, 63, 204, 205, 232

legal authority 59

legitimacy as researcher 103, 111, 117

legitimate knowledge 20, 22

liberation 227

liberation impulse 227

life story 162, 164, 166, 170

life-limiting illness 155

Lingappa 178

linguistic imperialism 146

lived experience 11, 21, 104, 151, 164, 166, 175, 180, 183, 198, 213, 216, 217, 218, 222, 228, 230

lived reality 198

living environment/situation 183, 207, 208, 209, 210

Living On the Ground method 193–195

local authority 70

local knowledge/power 186–210

local people 2, 4, 12, 16, 21, 28, 37, 52, 59, 67, 68, 89, 106, 109, 110, 115, 133, 182, 186, 187, 189, 190, 191, 192, 209

London 70, 122, 127, 128, 130, 131

London accent 127

Los Angeles 92, 228

mad scholar 115

madre (mother) 72

malaria 82, 209

Malawi 96

Manchester 128

Mandarin 98

Mãori 2, 3, 8, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 47, 169, 170, 171, 172, 191, 194, 213

Mãori culture 8, 169

Mãori infant and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) 26–27, 170, 171

Mãori moral position 43

Mãori ownership of knowledge 25

Mãori SIDS Parent [MSP] 26–27, 171

marginalised person/position 2, 3, 4, 11, 15, 16, 24, 26, 27, 28, 31, 32, 42, 99, 113, 118, 163, 167, 172, 176, 177, 189, 190, 191, 197, 199, 207, 210, 212, 216, 220, 228, 229

masculine interpretation 165

masculinity 126

massage worker 182

Mayan survivor of civil war 201

medical research 8, 35

Medical Research Council of Canada's Tri-Council 35

medicine woman 40

Melbourne 64, 65, 82, 90, 101, 105, 131, 180, 201, 233

memoir 162

Memoirs of a Geisha 164

memory 164, 166

memory of injustice 164

Men's Health Group 193, 220

menopause/menopausal transition 195, 196, 197

menstruation age 41

mental distress and suffering 75

mental health 9, 143, 147, 155, 182

mentally ill 77, 155

methodology of imperialism 22

methodology of the spirit 15

Mexican 67, 157, 174, 228

Mexican American 67, 80, 87, 140, 155, 212

Mexican-origin woman 35, 71

Mexico 95, 141, 178, 213

México Lindo y Querido 212

Mi'kmaq woman 195, 196

Miami 119

Micronesian 89, 107

midlife Filipino 73

midlife health 195, 196

migrant street vendor 228

Mildura 203

Mildura Art Gallery 203, 231

minority status 129

Mirpuri 128

Misrayya 120

mistreatment 33, 169

mistrust 17, 45, 47, 50, 59


misunderstanding 7, 67, 86, 93, 125, 135, 146, 160, 195

moderator 176, 179

monetary compensation/incentive 76–80

monolingual researcher 138

moral discourse 228

moral imperative 181

moral issue 23, 31, 32, 51, 56, 82

moral obligation 3, 11, 39, 40, 224, 225, 234

moral pedagogy 43

moral person 42

moral principle 31

moral project 43

morality 42, 56

mother 7, 26, 27, 36, 52, 53, 63, 70, 72, 76, 82, 83, 181

Mothers in a New Country (MINC) project 90, 141, 150

Mozambique 199, 228

multi-coloured postcard 76

multicultural society 3, 7, 174

multivocal conversation 163

multivocality 173

music 24, 75, 177, 191

Muslim 93, 100, 102, 118, 122, 128

Muslim man 103, 113

Muslim prisoner 102, 103, 128

Muslim woman 95, 118, 125, 126

Myanmar 168

Nagapattinam district 182

nahiñ shadi-shuda 153

nail polish 80

narrative 13, 14, 20, 24, 25, 106, 157, 165, 171, 172, 173, 190, 204, 217, 220

narrator 163, 171

National Archives of Singapore 168

National Research Ethics Service 35

native language 48, 73, 136, 137, 140, 145, 158, 159

native people 1, 2, 21, 59, 99

native photographer 199

native Spanish speaker 141

natural social interaction 176

negative experience 33, 46, 51, 52, 59, 98

negative stereotype 87, 118, 129

Negev Bedouin Arab 176, 179

Nepal 121, 133

Nepalese-born Asian 122

New South Wales 164

New York 127, 175

New Zealand 2, 3, 7, 8, 26, 27, 92, 99, 107, 137, 168, 170, 171

newly-arrived female Chinese immigrant 201, 207

Nicaragua 53

Nigeria 35, 114

Nigerian born female researcher 117, 125

non-canonical approach 191

non-equivalent word 144

non-fiction 216

non-judgmental approach 98

non-verbal communication 144

nonverbal cue 93

non-Western participant 190

non-Western society 4, 21, 173

North Carolina 119, 163, 201, 204, 232

North Carolina Breast Cancer Screening Program 202

north Queensland 192

northeast Badia 92

northern Canada 74

northern Ghana 47

northern Ireland 70, 130

Nova Scotia 195, 196

novel 226

novel methodology 198

novice researcher 52

Nuremberg Code 33, 34

Ojiwi elder 99

Olielie Grajuet 115

on-site refreshment 77

oppressed group/people 34, 165, 189, 190, 192, 218

oppression 54, 111, 163, 173, 174, 192, 225

oral biography 162

oral contraceptive 35

Oral History Centre (OHC) of Singapore 168

oral tradition 49, 168, 169, 174

oral/life history research 19, 162, 163–173, 184

and indigenous people 168–169

as personal testimony 163–165

nature of oral/life history research 165–168

organ 163

organ donation 90

Orring 114

ownership of research finding 222

paediatric palliative care 140

Pakeha (non-Mãori) 2, 25

Paki slur 130

Pakistan/Pakistani 122, 125, 128, 130, 168

palliative care 140, 145

participant observation 19, 193

participative research methodology 12


participatory action research (PAR) 18, 23, 26, 186–210, 220

history and use of PAR 189–192

participatory photography 199

participatory-based approach 12, 18

passive recipient in research 18

passive victim 213

paternalistic attitude 138

patrilocal household 88

pedagogy of freedom 227

peer reviewed journal 226

Peloponnesian War 165

Penicillin 33, 34

People Awakening (PA) project 188, 225, 226

perception of time 91

performance ethnography 227

Performing Street Vendors 228

permission from community leader 64

personal narrative 10, 162

personal safety 55, 125, 202

personalismo 99

Philippine News 73

Philippines 132

photography 191, 197, 198, 199

photovoice method 197–210

and community forum 206, 232, 233

and SHOWED technique 202

photovoice exhibition 231–233

practice of photovoice method 199–201

physical and sexual intimidation

physical and spiritual care of the Zuni people

physical danger 53

physical distress and suffering

picture sorting 177

pivotal moment 167

placing issue 123–132

age issue 128–129, 133

class issue 126–128, 133

gender issue 123–126, 133

high status and association with academic institution 131–132

shared status/experience 129–131

play 216

plural voice of the participant 163

poderismo (powerism) 72

Poland 148

political action/issue 192, 214

political nature of knowledge 190

political trap 55, 56

politically disempowered people 209

politics of resistance 43

Polynesian 107

poor living condition 52, 207

poor nation 37, 55, 59, 209

poor people 3, 76, 87, 205, 206

Portuguese Canadian immigrant 50

position of women in Polish society 148

positionality of the researcher 109, 123

positivism/positivist research 8, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 16, 20, 23, 24, 26, 27, 59, 163, 184, 186, 222

postmodern world 28

poverty 3, 24, 31, 55, 82, 83, 218, 227

poverty line 77

power 1, 14, 19, 29, 34, 64, 110, 118, 139, 144, 167, 168, 169, 173, 182, 183, 184, 189, 197, 198, 199, 204, 205, 206, 217, 221, 222, 224, 225

power dynamic 147

power imbalance/inequality 17, 81, 106, 126, 130, 177

power of researcher 18, 28, 31, 51, 139

power relation 20, 119, 186, 202

powerlessness 1, 3, 31

practice of omiyage tradition 91–92

pregnancy 16, 36, 94, 101, 194

pregnant woman 36, 50

premarital sexual relationship 96

prenatal blood test 71

prevention tria 8

pride in taking part in research 131

private issue/live 104, 140, 153, 233

prohibition in Islam for a woman's voice to be recorded 95

Project Realidad Latina (Latino Reality) 204, 232

prosecution and deportation 32

prostate cancer 141

prostitute in Thailand 36

psychological and emotional distress 39

psychological healing 43

psychological impact/perspective 183, 195

pu ying mai dee 215

pu ying sum son 215

public forum 197

Puerto Rican 78

Puerto Rican woman 35

Punjabi 51, 128, 150, 153

Punjabi community/society 102, 150

qi 149

qualitative inquiry/method/research 4, 10–14, 19, 23, 25, 28, 29, 60, 95, 113, 125, 133, 135, 136, 138, 140, 145, 146, 151, 158, 159, 160, 162, 163, 177, 184, 198, 213, 223, 236, 237

qualitative researcher 28, 40, 135, 136, 173, 220, 237

quality and accuracy of the writing 214

quality of life 75, 201, 205, 220


race 13, 16, 18, 70, 103, 112, 113, 121, 130, 133

racial difference 117, 125

racial discrimination 130

racial harassment 130

racial identity/similarlity 114, 121, 122, 125, 130, 190, 223

racial inferiority 33

racial purity 172

racism 13, 25, 28, 86, 116, 129, 130, 169, 172

racist attitude 34, 86, 129

racist environment 112

racist social institution 33

Ramadan period 120

rang kiat 215

rape 218, 230

rapport 7, 50, 62, 68, 80, 88, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 107, 112, 113, 126, 137, 148, 202

reciprocal research relationship 77, 81, 82

reciprocation/reciprocity 15, 16, 80–84

recording into a tape-recorder 95–97

red-light district 179

refugee 3, 4, 5, 21, 38, 39, 45, 46, 94, 102, 113, 142, 143, 168, 183

refugee community/organization 61, 73, 79, 142, 184

relational ethics 16–18

reproductive health 54, 65, 88, 94, 199, 203

research as a colonising construct 21

research experiment 33

research partner/partnership 77, 195, 204, 206, 208

research subject 33, 37

research subject as the Other 162

researcher's physical and emotional well-being 51–55

resilience 182

resistance 19, 23, 24, 25, 26, 43, 96, 135, 173, 174, 227

respect 22, 23, 28, 31, 43, 56, 59, 65, 89, 93, 99, 100, 101, 113, 126, 128, 184, 187, 209

respect for cultural norm/value and practice 91–93, 94, 95, 100

respect for the dignity and worth of human being 28

respect for the research participant 17, 18, 59, 76, 77, 99, 100

respeto 99

responsibility toward research participant 16, 37, 111, 140, 212, 213, 214, 225, 226, 234

revolutionary theatre 230

right of an individual 35, 37, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 52, 81, 138, 155, 189, 194, 208, 209, 214

risk 17, 26, 32, 34, 36, 37, 38, 43, 44, 56, 86, 114, 177, 187, 215

risk to the researcher 52–53

risky sexual behavior 12, 62, 66

ritual 6, 7, 15, 24, 39, 40, 41, 82, 195

rok mua 215

rural Aboriginal community 192

rural black man 33

rural Bolivia 53

rural China/Chinese 50, 54, 69

rural development 190

rural Fijian life 91

rural Mozambique 199

rural North Carolina 201, 204, 232

rural setting/community 193, 203, 229

rural Victoria 203, 204, 231

Russia/Russian 145, 155

safe environment 99, 176, 200

safety and well-being of the participant 55

safety and well-being of the vulnerable researcher 51–55, 125

Salt Lake 228

San Francisco's Chinatown 174

Sanskrit origin 150

Saudi society 49

Saudi student 49

seating arrangement 91, 92

Second World War 165

secret voice 219

self-determination and development 3

self-development 209

self-emancipation 26, 190

self-esteem 200, 208, 220

self-reliance 195

self-respect 220

selling blood 69

sems gso'i sman (mind healing medicine) 48

sensitive issue 13, 58, 79, 116, 122, 140, 150, 170, 196

separation and divorce 127

September 11, 2001 terrorist attack 118

serious play of writing 216

sex 94, 96, 215

sex industry 183

sex work/worker 48, 52, 63, 80, 81, 98, 103, 104, 179, 182, 183

sexual behaviour/matter 94, 136, 180, 183

sexual exploitation 162

sexual harassment/assault 52

sexual health 65, 203, 204

sexual intercourse/relationship 94, 96

sexual interest/pleasure 94

sexual intimidation 106


sexual partner 33

sexuality 105, 139

sexually transmitted infection/disease 98

SF-36 Health Survey 151

Shalwar kameez 109

Sham Shui Po district 207

Shaman 6, 7, 39, 40

shared cultural background 120

shared ethnic identity 114, 125, 128, 129

shared experience 112, 126, 129, 130, 170, 178, 226, 233

shared identity 103, 112, 116, 124, 126

shared knowledge 45, 175, 196, 208, 224

shared ownership of research 187

shared relationship 114

shared social reality 170

shared status and experience 129–131

sharing knowledge 224–225

sharing meal 101

Shepparton 203

shieg (desinated structure) 179

Sikh Indo-Canadian research assistant 73

silenced live 167

silent voice 222

slave 33, 165

slavery 33, 174

sloppy sociology 221, 222

slum in Dhaka city 54, 59, 64, 65, 83, 88, 127

smoking behaviour 90

snowball method 69

sobrellevar 155

social acceptance 115

social action 82, 175, 228

social activity/event 61, 125, 174, 196

social agenda 32

social arrangement 125

social background 51, 87, 109, 114, 121, 126, 132, 179, 180

social barrier 61

social benefit 3

social care 3

social ceremony and custom of Fiji 91

social change 12, 82, 163, 166, 167, 168, 170, 174, 188, 189, 198, 229

social characteristic of researcher 88, 110, 111, 113

social class 83, 110, 127, 128, 152

social code 100

social cohesion 208

social collapse 182

social condition 229

social construction of gender 124

social construction of meaning 175

social context 3, 11, 12, 13, 46, 93, 125, 175, 230

social coping strategy 182

social crime 53

social data 140

social despair 218

social dialogue 227

social difficulty 11

social displacement 227

social dynamic 91

social environment 52

social error 67

social evil image 183

social exchange 102, 103

social factor 3, 19

social gathering 75, 125, 180

social group/community 14, 67, 71, 86, 87, 121

social harm 39

social healing 43

social inequality 17, 192, 201

social institution 19, 33, 63

social interaction 13, 56, 176, 179, 182

social isolation 163

social issue 3, 21, 67, 174

social justice 174, 209, 210

social knowing 228

social legacy 20

social life 11, 135, 173, 182, 184

social meaning 13

social need 10

social network/support 39, 115

social norm 121, 123

social oppression 163

social order 11, 166

social organisation of gender 125

social outing 75

social outsider 123

social pathology research 4

social pattern 198

social perspective 195

social position 128

social practice 189

social problem 166

social process 13, 135

social reality 154, 170, 198

social relationship 182, 220

social science research 1, 41, 43, 71, 82, 217

social science researcher 2, 3, 11, 151, 173, 217, 221

social security 75, 79, 81, 83

social service 74, 80, 183

social setting 1, 53, 61, 228

social situation 104

social skill 193

social stigma 183

social structure 126, 172, 182, 187, 191, 229


social trait 138

social transformation 22, 43

social truth 133

social turmoil 11

social understanding 202, 229

social unit 93

social upheaval 167

social welfare 3

social well-being 37

social work/worker 112, 124, 216

social world 11, 136, 148, 162, 214

socially constructed identity 123

socially responsible research 4

socio-cultural context/process 125, 136, 149, 173

socioeconomic context 87, 163, 176, 207, 223

sociological truth 133

sociological vanguard 13

sociological writing 221

Somali/Somali community 73, 113, 122, 125, 183, 184

Somali male researcher 125

Somalia 184

Sorani 73

Sorani-speaking Kurdish community 113

soul/soul loss 5, 6, 7, 82, 113

soul calling ceremony 6, 7, 82

South Africa 52, 53, 103, 191, 230

South African woman 170

South Asian community 51, 70, 100, 117, 118, 119, 120, 122, 131, 137, 150, 157

South Asian female teacher 112

South Asian organization 70

South Asian woman 51, 60, 70, 81, 100, 104, 106, 116, 117, 118, 120, 122, 125, 128, 131, 132, 148, 213

South Korea 121

south Mississippi 166

Southeast Asia 101, 143

Southeast Asian woman 94, 142, 157, 226

Southern Africa Stroke Prevention Initiative (SASPI) 230

southern Arizona 67

southern tradition of research 189

Spain 119

Spanish 74, 127, 141, 145, 155, 157

Spanish rule 132

spect-actor 230, 231

spiritual perspective 195

spousal abuse 49

spy 53, 67, 127

Sri Lanka 35

stakeholder 61–65

as gatekeeper 65

staple crop cultivation ritual 41

stigmatised illness 105, 176

storyteller 162, 164, 169, 173

storytelling 164, 165, 166, 168, 169, 170, 171, 172, 178, 184, 191, 199

stranger within 122

strategy for keeping the participants and maintaining relationship 76–83

incentive/compensation 76–80

reciprocity 80–83

street children 217

street vendor 228

street-based sex worker 182

street-level prostitution 78

stroke 230, 231

study circle 175

subaltern voice 24

subjective experience 10, 11, 124, 129

subjugation 162, 174

sub-Saharan Africa 52, 95, 123

substance use 62, 66, 74, 97, 98

subtle issue/nuance 88, 144, 145, 151, 156, 157

Sudan 50, 102

Sudanese refugee 102

Sudden Infant Death Syndromes (SIDS) 26, 27, 170

Suicide 192

supernatural being 39

survey 142, 149, 150, 154

Surviving Angels-Inspirational Images Project 201

suspicion 8–10, 59, 60, 103, 117, 132

suspicion of research project 8–10, 17, 22, 59

suspicious insider 122

Sweden 157

symbol/symbolic meaning 113, 117, 130, 144, 163, 169

symbol of the researchers’ respect 76

symbolic significance of greeting 103

sympathetic foreign ethnographer 123

sympathetic outsider 127

Tamil 73, 113

Tamil Nadu 182

Tanzania 190

Te Kotahitanga 171

Teatro do Oprimido (Theatre of the Oppressed) 227

teen pregnancy 194

testament 162, 221

testimonio 171

Thai ethnic community 157

Thai immigrant woman 216

Thai language 157, 215

the colonised 2, 23

the coloniser 8, 27


the marginal 1

the mentally ill 77, 155

the oppressed 1, 12, 31, 34, 43, 165, 189, 190, 191, 192, 218, 220, 227

the Others 8, 16, 163, 222

the powerless 1

theatre 191, 227, 229, 230

Tibet 48, 50

time immemorial 168

Tjilimi 193, 195

Tourism Australia 145

traditional healer 39, 40

traditional knowledge 2

traditional Tibetan medicine (Zhi Byed 11) 50

traditional welcome 203, 231

transition towards palliative care in Europe 145

translation issue 151–160

forward translation and back-translation issue 151–154

transcription in its original language 156–158

translation method 158–159

transport cost 61

trauma 102, 194, 218

trial of anti-retroviral drug zidovudine (AZT) 36–37

triangulation 158

tribal council 47

tribal member 179

trust and rapport 97–104

tuberculosis 38, 89, 139, 209

Tunisia 50

Turkish 68, 76, 152

Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment 33–34

typology of cross-cultural researcher 110–111

Uganda 52, 53

Ugandan woman 230

ujamaa socialism 190

unaccompanied refugee youth 102

unconditional love 15

unconventional method 192

undocumented immigrant 32, 79

unequal power 20, 177

United Arab Emirates 92

United Kingdom 157

United States 2, 3, 7, 33, 36, 87, 115, 122, 141, 204, 205

unprivileged voice 167

unsaved environment 175

untreated syphilis 33, 34

urban area/locataion 62, 229

urban life 114, 209

urban planner 209

urban planning 207

urban poor 218

urban regeneration 70

urban shantytown 218

urban slum 64

urbanisation under apartheid 170

Urdu 117, 122, 128, 150

US society 228

US-led occupation 167

use of vignette 178

Utah 217

validity 11

validity of Mãori way of doing 25

Vancouver 63

verbal abuse 118

verbal consent 49

verbal equivalence 214

verbal exchange 144

verbal greeting 102

verbal language 144

verbatim quotation 219

vicarious experience 13

victimisation 125, 183, 228

Victorian Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Organisation (VACCHO) 204

Vietnam 45, 182

Vietnamese 65, 68, 73, 76, 90, 105, 113, 141, 142, 157, 172, 180

Vietnamese dong 182

Vietnamese grandparent 180, 181

Vietnamese immigrant/refugee 45, 46, 65, 180

Vietnamese language 180

Vietnamese Senior Citizens Association 180

village leader 182

village woman in China 198

violence 53, 54, 55, 78, 79, 103, 126, 174, 183, 194, 227, 228, 230

Visions and Voices: HIV in the 21st Century 205, 232

visual exercise 177

visual image 198, 207, 210

visual impairment 142

voice of indigenous person 21, 43, 169, 225

voice of indigenous researcher 23, 24

voice of informant/participant 1, 2, 10, 59, 95, 97, 111, 113, 139, 163, 164, 166, 181, 198, 206, 212, 216, 217, 218, 222, 223, 233

voice of the colonised 109

voice of the Other 11, 162, 163, 217

voice of the silenced/marginalised 1, 12, 19, 27, 29, 113, 165, 167, 168, 176, 177, 197, 212, 216, 217, 220, 228

voice of woman of color 173, 219

voice signature consent system 50

vulnerability 31, 32, 79, 162


vulnerable person 2, 3, 4, 16, 28, 31, 45, 48, 69, 76, 79, 83, 129, 190, 203, 210, 228

vulnerable researcher 51–55

wai dan gong 149

war-torn country 3

Warrnambool 203

well-being of the participant 39

West Indian 113, 114

West Indian Centre 65

West Virginia 68

West Yorkshire 51, 70, 104, 116

western academy 15, 24, 118

Western Australia 191, 193

western context/cultural norm 49, 51, 76, 93, 118, 139, 154, 155

western discourse/term 118, 145, 154, 155

western health care provider 6

western hegemony 25

western imperialism 132

western medicine 40

western paradigm 24

western research/researcher 8, 15, 24, 59, 73, 91, 125, 145, 148, 160, 179

western science 23

western social science 41

western society 3, 4, 37, 139, 154

whânau (extended family) 26, 170, 171

white Australian 172

white British person 51, 117

white discourse/narrative 20, 118, 132, 172

white government 172

white person 2, 8, 9, 10, 33, 51, 52, 114, 116, 117, 118, 126, 129, 130

white researcher 1, 34, 42, 90, 92, 109, 114, 116, 117, 118, 125, 126, 129, 130, 132, 195

whiteness 116, 117, 125, 126, 130

woman elder of Wirrinamu 193

women of color 162, 174

women with disability 48

women's Yawulyu (Law, ritual practice) 195

working children in Bangladesh 178

working-class person 121, 130, 163

World AIDS Day 232

World Medical Association's Declaration of Helsinki Agreement 34

writing cross-cultural research 212–225

experimental writing 216

ownership of research findings 222–223

poetry 218–222

presenting in another language 214–215

sharing knowledge 224–225

short story 216–218

writing differently 216–222

writing responsibly 222–224

writing and publishing in academic journal 213

written information sheet 50

Xiseveseve (Coming Together to Share) 230

Yarrabah 192

Yarrabah Men's Group 193

Yoroido 164

young indigenous person 203, 204, 231

young person 21, 59, 62, 63, 65, 89, 102, 184, 203, 204, 217, 223, 232

young Vietnamese immigrant 65

Yunnan Province 201

Zanzibar 53

Zhou dynasty 165

Zimbabwe 12

Zimbabwean entrepreneur 13




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